National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxygen weight percent

  1. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-09-21

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion.

  2. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  3. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  4. Norwich Public Utilities- Zero Percent Financing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In partnership with several local banks, Norwich Public Utilities (NPU) is offering a zero percent loan to commercial and industrial customers for eligible energy efficiency improvement projects....

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet ... Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ...

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  11. District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial Sectors by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) Decade Year-0 ...

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Hawaii - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Represented by the Price (Percent) Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct ...

  2. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal...

  3. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  4. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  5. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  6. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  7. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  8. Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of Available Fee Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of Available Fee April 27, 2016 - 12:20pm ...

  10. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  11. Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  12. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1999; Exceeds Goal | Department of Energy Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal November 3, 2005 - 12:35pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that the federal government has exceeded its goal of obtaining 2.5 percent of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by September 30, 2005. The largest energy

  13. Dismantlements of Nuclear Weapons Jump 50 Percent | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dismantlements of Nuclear Weapons Jump 50 Percent June 07, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Meeting President Bush's directive to reduce the country's nuclear arsenal, the Department of ...

  14. Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement Rate Up 146 Percent | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement Rate Up 146 Percent October 01, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The United States significantly increased its rate of dismantled nuclear weapons during ...

  15. Weighted Guidelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... being amended to reflect the numbering system change. F. Special Program Participants. ... establish the appropriate fee weight: Class A-Manufacturing plants involving ...

  16. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  17. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  18. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries Minnesota Share of Total U.S. ...

  19. PERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR OIL/GAS FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The VBA code below calculates the area percent of a first polygon layer (e.g. oilgas field outlines) that are within a second polygon layer (e.g. federal land) and writes out the ...

  20. California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries California Share of Total U.S. ...

  1. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  2. Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S3. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arizona, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5 5 5 5 5 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 183 168 117 72 106 From

  3. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  4. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Deliveries (Percent) U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas

  5. BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BNL

    BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey makes the most precise calibration yet of the universe's "standard ruler" January 8, 2014 Contact: Paul Preuss, Paul_Preuss@lbl.gov , +1 415-272-3253 BOSS-BAOv1.jpg Baryon acoustic oscillations (gray spheres), which descend from waves of increased density in the very early universe, are where galaxies have a tendency to cluster or

  6. Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos reduces water use Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014 The Lab decreased its water usage by 26 percent, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. March 16, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and

  7. Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.35 0.37 2000's 0.32 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.47 0.42 0.44 0.42 2010's 0.39 0.43 0.52 0.39 0.35 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  8. Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,056 1,055 1,057 1,043 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 2014 947 946 947 947 947 947 951 978 990 968 974 962 2015 968 954 947 959 990 1,005 1,011 965 989 996 996 997 2016 998 1,004

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2000's 0.01 0.01 0.01

  9. Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,015 1,031 1,021 1,010 997 988 994 1,001 1,026 1,034 1,054 2014 1,048 1,036 1,030 1,022 1,006 993 984 996 1,005 1,019 1,046 1,039 2015 1,047 1,037 1,030 1,023 1,000 1,010 1,034 1,028 1,024 1,033 1,035 1,041 2016 1,034 1,038

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25

  10. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.13 0.23 0.23 0.29 0.60 0.53 2000's 0.81 1.29 1.98 1.68 2.14 1.79 2.34 2.57 2.46 3.30 2010's 3.81 4.53 4.40 4.08 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  11. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.08 0.97 1.03 0.90 2000's 0.95 1.03 0.95 0.92 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.75 0.77 0.75 2010's 0.88 0.78 0.66 0.72 0.77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  12. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.44 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.71 0.57 0.57 2000's 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.67 0.47 0.36 0.32 0.29 2010's 0.37 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  13. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.90 0.88 0.87 0.92 1.01 0.86 0.91 2000's 0.80 0.87 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.84 0.86 0.78 0.80 0.78 2010's 0.87 0.80 0.74 0.77 0.79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  14. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.28 2.23 2.38 2.27 2.36 2.39 2.53 2000's 2.46 2.11 2.13 2.22 2.25 2.29 2.30 2.26 2.13 2.13 2010's 2.12 2.19 2.38 2.42 2.46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  15. New NREL Research Facility Slashes Energy Use by 66 Percent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Research Facility Slashes Energy Use by 66 Percent For more information contact: Linda Brown, 275-4097 Golden, Colo., October 3, 1996 -- Americans can look forward to lower utility bills and more comfortable buildings thanks to a new research facility dedicated today at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Christine Ervin, DOE's assistant secretary for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and U.S. Congressman Dan Schaefer (R.-Colo.) helped dedicate the

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.6 77.8 74.5 76.9 48.8 52.1 54.9 50.4 48.7 57.1 2000's 57.1 62.6 68.6 70.3 71.2 68.7 64.7 60.7 56.7 54.9 2010's 54.1 54.3 50.0 49.9 48.4 50.0

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 97.3 99.0 98.0 90.9 76.8 70.5 54.9 52.3 45.9 2000's 35.6 22.4 23.5 30.5 23.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 16.9 17.9 19.1 19.9 21.4

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 99.1 87.5 98.1 97.9 98.1 98.3 95.9 94.6 93.8 2000's 96.3 96.5 99.0 98.8 98.6 98.6 98.4 98.0 98.4 92.0 2010's 85.9 83.6 78.0 77.7 78.9 79.1

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.9 99.8 99.8 97.5 76.2 84.9 74.7 62.6 57.9 59.8 2000's 63.0 62.1 57.4 68.7 71.3 70.5 70.6 65.3 57.9 56.9 2010's 52.1 50.0 48.6 39.4 42.3 NA

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 95.9 96.4 96.6 96.6 97.0 97.4 94.8 94.8 96.0 2000's 95.6 95.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.7 94.9 88.8 90.4 91.0 2010's 90.6 89.8 89.0 89.1 87.5 NA

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 96.9 92.4 94.1 93.2 2000's 86.4 86.6 80.6 79.2 74.9 75.7 75.4 71.2 58.9 53.9 2010's 57.3 55.6 51.8 50.2 57.0 58.4

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 94.6 95.0 95.9 98.5 96.6 92.4 96.5 94.4 90.6 93.8 2000's 96.5 94.0 90.8 92.2 89.0 87.6 83.2 83.0 84.5 85.2 2010's 84.8 84.4 83.5 84.5 84.9 NA

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 78.4 77.3 75.8 77.4 74.4 68.4 70.4 63.6 56.8 56.9 2000's 60.5 63.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 48.5 42.1 40.2 41.4 NA

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.8 98.2 98.6 99.2 98.5 96.4 99.0 98.8 97.9 97.1 2000's 98.7 97.5 98.5 96.6 96.4 96.2 95.0 94.9 94.9 93.5 2010's 92.7 91.1 90.6 91.7 92.8 91.3

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.5 95.7 96.4 95.8 94.1 93.8 94.3 92.2 87.3 88.8 2000's 92.5 93.6 90.9 90.5 92.2 92.2 92.0 91.9 91.7 90.2 2010's 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.6 92.2 87.3 93.9 95.4 91.8 85.9 84.1 86.8 89.3 2000's 92.7 94.0 89.8 88.0 88.5 88.8 88.9 89.2 89.0 88.7 2010's 87.8 88.4 87.4 86.8 86.0 85.2

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 58.1 54.9 56.9 54.3 55.2 51.6 56.3 54.5 49.5 51.8 2000's 56.6 63.9 57.4 60.2 57.1 58.2 56.0 58.6 53.5 53.6 2010's 51.0 49.2 48.9 52.9 56.7 53.3

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 90.7 91.0 91.3 94.4 93.5 92.0 91.6 82.1 74.0 79.0 2000's 78.1 77.2 75.9 79.1 79.7 79.0 76.0 75.5 76.8 76.8 2010's 76.2 76.4 74.4 77.7 77.0 NA

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.1 9.2 8.5 2000's 10.8 8.3 13.4 13.4 21.6 27.9 28.4 25.9 21.4 18.3 2010's 16.7 13.7 14.7 14.2 11.9

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 33.8 26.2 36.9 2000's 27.3 26.3 20.0 45.4 38.2 36.5 34.4 29.9 20.6 21.1 2010's 19.4 20.6 17.7 18.3 22.3 26.3

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 39.6 37.6 26.3 2000's 26.9 28.8 25.9 33.7 34.4 25.2 20.0 15.0 12.2 10.1 2010's 9.6 9.7 9.6 10.6 9.9 9.0

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 48.8 30.7 24.3 2000's 18.1 13.0 12.3 12.0 10.7 10.6 14.6 15.3 17.7 20.6 2010's 12.8 10.7 9.0 7.5 9.2

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 45.5 32.1 47.8 2000's 52.2 30.5 39.2 36.9 29.1 26.4 20.8 21.2 19.1 13.6 2010's 11.6 9.7 8.8 9.2 10.2 10.9

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 14.3 13.1 11.8 2000's 11.8 9.9 7.3 6.6 6.4 7.0 5.5 5.4 5.7 4.5 2010's 3.8 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.9 86.7 86.1 2000's 86.5 82.1 87.7 78.5 77.8 77.4 71.4 47.3 47.3 47.6 2010's 46.3 45.4 45.1 45.6 43.6 42.1

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 38.3 33.1 34.7 2000's 38.5 36.2 36.0 39.9 40.5 42.4 38.9 38.2 39.9 38.2 2010's 35.7 29.7 29.4 29.7 30.0 29.6

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 23.5 20.1 24.0 2000's 34.5 38.2 27.4 20.1 17.3 15.8 20.2 17.4 12.9 8.7 2010's 8.3 7.5 7.3 6.7 6.5 NA

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.2 6.3 10.8 2000's 13.8 16.6 12.7 14.0 13.4 17.0 17.0 16.2 19.0 17.4 2010's 14.7 15.6 16.3 18.0 15.6 NA

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.1 22.0 20.2 2000's 22.1 19.5 21.4 20.2 18.8 18.1 18.3 18.5 18.3 18.1 2010's 17.4 17.8 17.6 18.8 19.6 NA

  20. Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,018 1,016 1,016 1,014 1,012 1,012 1,015 2014 1,017 1,015 1,015 1,018 1,017 1,019 1,021 1,021 1,019 1,018 1,011 1,017 2015 1,021 1,023 1,023 1,025 1,022 1,020 1,023 1,022 1,019 1,029 1,014 1,015 2016 1,019 1,015

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  1. Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,032 1,030 1,033 1,040 1,051 1,056 1,057 1,058 1,037 1,032 1,033 2014 1,030 1,036 1,038 1,041 1,051 1,050 1,048 1,048 1,050 1,055 1,042 1,051 2015 1,046 1,044 1,051 1,059 1,059 1,070 1,073 1,069 1,076 1,069 1,060 1,051 2016 1,050 1,052

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  2. Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,049 1,046 1,048 1,041 1,049 1,058 1,054 1,065 1,064 1,067 1,057 2014 1,052 1,048 1,048 1,051 1,045 1,049 1,063 1,065 1,062 1,063 1,063 1,064 2015 1,061 1,061 1,062 1,051 1,055 1,055 1,044 1,044 1,043 1,051 1,051 1,049 2016 1,055

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  3. Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,018 1,018 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,019 1,019 1,019 1,022 1,023 1,024 1,023 1,024 1,025 2015 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,024 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,023 2016 1,015 1,025

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  4. Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,017 1,016 1,017 1,017 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,023 1,023 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,025 2015 1,025 1,026 1,025 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,026 1,027 2016 1,029 1,030

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  5. Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,018 2014 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,022 1,020 1,021 1,021 1,023 1,024 2015 1,027 1,030 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 1,030 2016 1,031 1,031

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  6. Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,012 1,013 1,015 1,019 1,020 1,019 1,021 1,020 1,018 1,015 1,014 2014 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,019 1,023 1,023 1,025 1,030 1,028 1,027 1,025 1,029 2015 1,028 1,029 1,031 1,039 1,037 1,043 1,043 1,044 1,041 1,039 1,034 1,033 2016 1,030 1,033

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  7. Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,032 1,033 1,032 2014 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,040 1,039 1,043 1,047 1,044 1,046 1,044 1,045 2015 1,045 1,047 1,047 1,051 1,054 1,060 1,059 1,059 1,058 1,058 1,057 1,056 2016 1,053

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  8. Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,026 1,027 1,028 1,030 1,031 1,028 1,028 1,033 2014 1,029 1,024 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,037 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,022 1,017 1,019 2015 1,023 1,018 1,015 1,016 1,023 1,021 1,024 1,015 1,020 1,024 1,021 1,024 2016 1,027

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  9. Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,013 1,015 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,019 2014 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,021 1,028 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,031 1,034 1,037 1,038 2015 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,022 1,023 2016 1,024 1,025

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  10. Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,041 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,037 1,042 1,060 1,056 1,062 1,059 1,061 1,059 2014 1,053 1,048 1,045 1,049 1,047 1,052 1,051 1,051 1,049 1,052 1,057 1,057 2015 1,059 1,061 1,058 1,051 1,058 1,057 1,055 1,049 1,050 1,053 1,049 1,050 2016 1,061

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  11. Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,033 1,032 1,033 1,035 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,033 1,030 2014 1,035 1,032 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,028 2015 1,035 1,035 1,030 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,029 1,030 2016 1,031 1,032

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  12. Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,021 1,021 1,022 1,026 1,020 1,022 1,024 1,021 1,019 1,019 1,017 1,019 2014 1,019 1,021 1,021 1,017 1,020 1,019 1,015 1,028 1,022 1,023 1,026 1,029 2015 1,027 1,026 1,030 1,035 1,028 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,034 1,041 1,040 2016 1,040 1,038

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  13. Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,015 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,025 1,020 1,020 2014 1,019 1,014 1,019 1,026 1,030 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,035 1,033 1,035 1,034 2015 1,036 1,033 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,030 1,030 1,029 1,031 1,028 1,029 1,030 2016 1,031 1,032

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  14. Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,014 1,014 1,013 1,014 1,013 1,017 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,013 1,014 2014 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,011 1,016 1,016 1,018 1,017 1,018 1,017 1,017 2015 1,017 1,020 1,025 1,026 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,025 1,024 1,023 2016 1,024

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  15. Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,044 1,040 1,032 1,034 1,034 1,044 1,048 1,043 1,047 1,041 1,032 1,031 2014 1,034 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,032 1,030 1,038 1,036 1,040 1,031 1,026 1,030 2015 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,021 1,019 1,030 1,031 1,033 1,032 1,032 1,034 1,034 2016 1,033 1,030

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  16. Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,030 1,031 1,032 1,033 1,036 1,035 1,029 1,032 1,038 1,040 1,041 1,036 2014 1,034 1,034 1,037 1,043 1,043 1,047 1,051 1,052 1,050 1,053 1,049 1,052 2015 1,052 1,054 1,053 1,057 1,061 1,063 1,068 1,071 1,068 1,060 1,055 1,053 2016 1,054 1,054

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  17. Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,039 1,037 1,034 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,033 1,039 1,032 1,029 1,034 2014 1,033 1,033 1,032 1,034 1,032 1,033 1,033 1,035 1,033 1,036 1,036 1,037 2015 1,040 1,040 1,041 1,043 1,043 1,045 1,044 1,043 1,044 1,043 1,043 1,042 2016 1,043 1,042

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  18. New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,033 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,031 1,033 1,030 1,030 2014 1,037 1,033 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,038 1,033 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 2015 1,037 1,041 1,033 1,029 1,028 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,029 1,029 1,030 2016 1,035 1,039

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  19. New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,042 1,043 1,046 1,044 1,042 1,045 1,047 1,048 1,050 2014 1,050 1,047 1,045 1,040 1,035 1,037 1,040 1,038 1,039 1,039 1,044 1,045 2015 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,042 1,041 1,041 1,044 1,044 2016 1,044 1,043

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  20. New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,034 1,035 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,034 1,033 1,032 2014 1,032 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,032 1,033 2015 1,034 1,035 1,034 1,034 1,032 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,033 2016 1,033 1,034

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  1. North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,012 1,010 1,010 1,010 1,011 1,012 1,012 1,015 1,014 2014 1,016 1,018 1,017 1,015 1,016 1,014 1,017 1,024 1,022 1,025 1,028 1,029 2015 1,030 1,028 1,030 1,035 1,035 1,033 1,038 1,037 1,038 1,040 1,033 1,034 2016 1,034

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,082 1,093 1,096 1,091 1,068 1,131 1,140 1,077 1,013 1,099 1,112 1,089 2014 1,087 1,084 1,074 1,077 1,083 1,079 1,078 1,106 1,123 1,100 1,105 1,096 2015 1,036 1,078 1,072 1,084 1,084 1,089 1,117 1,095 1,078 1,093 1,097 1,112 2016 1,095 1,095

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  3. Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,034 1,033 1,033 1,035 1,035 1,038 1,037 1,044 1,045 1,044 1,043 1,044 2014 1,044 1,042 1,041 1,050 1,047 1,048 1,053 1,052 1,052 1,054 1,057 1,060 2015 1,065 1,062 1,062 1,073 1,072 1,068 1,069 1,068 1,071 1,071 1,077 1,077 2016 1,073 1,072

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  4. Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,040 1,037 1,038 1,039 1,041 1,043 1,044 1,042 1,042 1,044 1,043 1,042 2014 1,036 1,036 1,039 1,037 1,040 1,043 1,042 1,042 1,044 1,043 1,041 1,041 2015 1,042 1,043 1,044 1,045 1,048 1,049 1,050 1,047 1,049 1,049 1,047 1,050 2016 1,049

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  5. Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,010 1,012 1,011 1,017 1,020 1,020 1,023 1,021 1,014 1,013 1,013 2014 1,013 1,012 1,010 1,034 1,041 1,044 1,029 1,035 1,033 1,029 1,028 1,028 2015 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,035 1,039 1,042 1,039 1,039 1,038 1,036 1,035 1,036 2016 1,033 1,034

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  6. Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,047 1,046 1,047 1,047 1,047 1,048 1,051 1,048 1,049 1,049 1,054 1,053 2014 1,052 1,050 1,048 1,046 1,044 1,044 1,046 1,046 1,045 1,044 1,049 1,052 2015 1,053 1,054 1,049 1,049 1,050 1,046 1,044 1,044 1,044 1,045 1,046 1,046 2016 1,048 1,045

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  7. Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,030 1,030 1,030 1,032 1,034 1,031 1,032 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,031 1,031 2014 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,030 1,028 1,023 1,029 1,029 1,027 1,030 1,029 1,029 2015 1,029 1,029 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 2016 1,032 1,027

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  8. South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,021 1,020 1,021 1,019 1,019 1,017 1,019 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 2014 1,022 1,021 1,022 1,022 1,022 1,023 1,022 1,024 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,029 2015 1,030 1,028 1,028 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,031 1,031 1,030 1,030 2016 1,031 1,031

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  9. South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,028 1,030 1,029 1,028 1,028 1,029 1,031 1,030 1,029 1,031 1,030 1,034 2014 1,034 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,039 1,041 1,039 1,045 1,045 1,049 1,048 1,048 2015 1,048 1,048 1,047 1,051 1,054 1,059 1,062 1,060 1,056 1,053 1,053 1,058 2016 1,060 1,058

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  10. Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,012 1,016 1,019 1,018 1,021 1,023 1,028 1,028 1,025 1,024 1,022 2014 1,020 1,020 1,021 1,027 1,032 1,031 1,032 1,020 1,024 1,027 1,029 1,028 2015 1,028 1,029 1,029 1,027 1,025 1,025 1,027 1,023 1,025 1,032 1,031 1,034 2016 1,035 1,035

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  11. Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,024 1,024 1,025 1,027 1,026 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,025 2014 1,027 1,022 1,028 1,026 1,029 1,032 1,033 1,036 1,033 1,033 1,031 1,030 2015 1,026 1,028 1,029 1,034 1,036 1,036 1,036 1,035 1,036 1,036 1,033 1,030 2016 1,029 1,028

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  12. Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,050 1,049 1,047 1,048 1,048 1,046 1,041 1,044 1,043 1,045 1,044 2014 1,044 1,044 1,045 1,044 1,038 1,036 1,038 1,040 1,040 1,041 1,038 1,037 2015 1,039 1,046 1,047 1,049 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,042 1,044 1,044 1,046 2016 1,046 1,043

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  13. Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,014 1,016 1,016 1,021 1,016 1,015 1,011 1,012 1,014 1,015 1,014 2014 1,013 1,009 1,015 1,014 1,026 1,031 1,011 1,018 1,015 1,015 1,019 1,021 2015 1,026 1,035 1,027 1,024 1,021 1,021 1,022 1,019 1,020 1,030 1,027 1,027 2016 1,029 1,032

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  14. West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,071 1,071 1,070 1,083 1,088 1,099 1,099 1,119 1,082 1,097 1,086 1,079 2014 1,073 1,073 1,065 1,111 1,094 1,095 1,099 1,106 1,119 1,082 1,077 1,094 2015 1,097 1,084 1,069 1,103 1,107 1,096 1,099 1,099 1,102 1,090 1,114 1,090 2016 1,092 1,09

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  15. Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,028 1,026 1,025 1,030 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,023 1,026 1,027 1,027 1,027 2014 1,031 1,033 1,035 1,032 1,033 1,032 1,029 1,034 1,034 1,034 1,035 1,038 2015 1,042 1,044 1,040 1,039 1,038 1,040 1,036 1,040 1,034 1,045 1,043 1,044 2016 1,045 1,046

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  16. Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,043 1,040 1,041 1,042 1,043 1,045 1,040 1,040 1,041 1,038 1,035 1,030 2014 1,034 1,032 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,026 1,025 1,031 1,031 1,030 1,033 1,036 2015 1,043 1,041 1,042 1,043 1,045 1,045 1,042 1,044 1,041 1,040 1,046 1,054 2016 1,056 1,052

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  17. Table B28. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated","All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated" "All

  18. Table B29. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled","All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled" "All

  19. Table B30. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspa

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit","All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit" "All Buildings

  20. Corrosion resistance and behavioral characteristics of metals exposed to 70 percent by weight sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D.T.; Farina, G.E.

    1994-10-01

    The development of a concentrated acid hydrolysis process may necessitate the storage, handling, and processing of concentrated solution of sulfuric acid at temperatures in excess of 70{degrees}C. Due to the corrosivity of the sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures, a series of corrosion tests was conducted to determine the corrosion performance and behavior of various construction materials using immersion and electrochemical techniques. Test results showed that among the stainless steels tested, only Carpenter 20Mo-6 performed satisfactorily up to 70{degrees}C. It passivated spontaneously and corroded at a rate less than 40 {mu}m/yr (1.6 mpy). Among numerous nickel-based alloys tested, only Hastelloy B-2 had excellent corrosion resistance up to 100{degrees}C with a corrosion rate less than 50 {mu}/yr (2 mpy), although the alloy did not passivate. Zirconium alloy Zr 702 provided excellent corrosion resistance to 100{degrees}C. The alloy passivated spontaneously, but its passive range decreased, evidently with increase in temperature. Tantalum and KBI-40 provided excellent corrosion protection at all test temperatures. The materials passivated spontaneously with a wide passive range.

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.6 95.1 93.0 88.3 94.8 92.8 89.4 87.8 91.0 88.5 90.1 92.2 1990 95.8 81.1 94.4 90.4 90.2 85.6 78.0 82.6 79.1 82.3 85.6 88.3 1991 90.5 88.4 90.2 71.0 82.2 71.0 68.0 85.8 68.0 64.7 69.8 80.3 1992 86.6 65.6 75.7 79.0 63.5 74.5 60.9 64.6 79.7 79.0 76.7 81.4 1993 79.9 82.3 77.6 80.7 76.8 71.4 76.4 70.3 70.6 73.8 75.7 78.8 1994 51.3 47.2 50.6 40.5 47.4 32.2 36.4 46.5 46.0 52.2 57.8 68.2 1995 61.3 58.6 64.7 56.8 50.3

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 98.4 90.0 81.6 76.5 74.5 80.4 74.8 85.5 90.8 99.5 1990 100.0 100.0 98.7 95.9 92.3 89.9 87.5 86.9 87.2 91.3 98.3 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 97.5 92.5 85.9 79.2 76.2 77.1 77.9 85.9 93.0 96.6 1992 97.7 97.2 95.6 94.4 93.6 87.2 95.8 98.8 98.7 97.8 98.2 98.4 1993 97.2 97.7 97.2 98.1 99.4 99.3 88.3 98.4 99.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 89.2 90.7 88.4 88.8 74.2 67.8 62.4 61.1 57.4 68.8 77.9 83.4 1995 86.7 88.1 85.7 81.6

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 92.4 86.7 89.4 90.6 91.1 95.7 99.5 1992 99.6 100.0 100.0 97.4 97.6 100.0 91.4 99.5 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 96.8 88.4 90.1 92.6 95.9 97.1 1994 99.8 99.8 100.0 98.8 95.7 94.4 76.6

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.5 98.6 98.4 98.5 98.4 97.4 97.6 1992 82.3 87.7 88.7 90.6 90.5 90.1 90.6 90.2 91.1 90.6 81.4 86.4 1993 97.4 97.9 98.1 98.6 98.9 98.9 98.8 98.8 98.8 98.2 97.1 97.5 1994 97.7 98.1 98.1 98.0 98.0 97.9 98.4 97.6 98.1 97.9 97.9 97.5 1995 97.8 98.2

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.7 1991 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.9 1992 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.7 99.8 1993 98.9 98.7 98.5 97.7 96.5 97.7 96.8 89.2 97.5 96.7 96.9 97.8 1994 75.2 78.4 72.5 69.8 69.8 61.2 67.0 86.0 79.7 90.6 81.2 87.1 1995 87.9 89.4 92.0

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 97.6 96.0 95.7 95.6 94.5 94.3 93.7 93.5 93.9 94.4 95.2 95.8 1991 96.6 97.0 96.3 95.9 94.5 94.9 94.3 94.6 95.1 94.9 95.5 96.4 1992 96.9 97.3 96.4 96.6 95.2 95.4 95.5 94.8 95.6 95.6 95.9 97.4 1993 97.3 97.3 97.2 97.1 96.1 96.0 96.0 95.7 95.5 95.4 96.1 96.5 1994 97.2 97.6 97.1 96.9 96.1 96.9 97.1 95.1 94.9 94.3 96.2 96.6 1995 96.4 97.4 98.2

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.7 98.9 94.9 92.4 89.6 87.7 80.1 84.2 84.4 86.3 97.1 98.1 1990 98.6 98.3 98.0 97.0 89.1 86.3 85.3 85.0 84.7 84.0 98.7 99.1 1991 99.3 99.3 99.0 89.0 87.3 86.1 84.4 86.3 85.0 98.0 99.0 99.3 1992 99.3 99.2 99.2 93.1 88.3 85.8 84.3 86.2 89.2 99.9 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.4 95.4 95.2 99.7 89.7 96.1 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.3 94.0 92.1 91.8 90.4 88.3 88.0 94.1 99.4 1995 95.7 96.0 94.5

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.4 88.9 88.7 87.4 81.7 76.8 79.6 77.2 76.4 80.3 82.9 85.3 1990 85.9 83.6 80.9 80.0 74.0 70.2 68.5 68.3 67.2 69.6 74.9 79.2 1991 82.2 79.4 78.8 77.7 72.1 72.9 70.6 71.6 72.2 72.9 76.4 76.7 1992 77.1 79.6 76.6 75.1 71.8 73.1 68.1 67.2 69.4 74.0 74.1 79.4 1993 80.5 79.7 79.5 78.2 72.1 72.9 72.9 69.7 70.3 76.5 75.9 77.0 1994 79.0 80.2 77.5 73.9 71.6 70.8 67.1 71.4 67.9 62.7 68.7 72.1 1995 75.1 74.4 74.9 71.4 68.7

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.5 98.5 98.6 98.3 98.1 98.2 98.1 97.7 97.7 97.8 98.0 97.3 1990 98.6 98.4 98.3 98.1 92.2 97.6 97.6 97.5 97.9 97.3 98.0 98.6 1991 98.7 98.9 98.7 96.9 97.4 97.5 97.3 97.7 97.7 97.4 98.9 98.9 1992 99.1 99.1 98.9 98.6 98.5 95.8 95.5 95.8 97.0 99.7 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.1 94.6 100.0 95.3 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 97.8 98.3 97.0 95.7 95.2 95.6 96.2 99.9 1995 97.8 97.5

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 98.9 98.9 97.5 96.8 95.9 96.7 95.8 96.9 97.1 97.4 99.1 1990 98.9 98.5 98.7 97.9 95.4 95.4 95.1 95.9 95.1 95.5 96.5 97.5 1991 97.9 94.6 93.6 96.0 94.8 94.3 93.8 93.8 94.0 95.3 97.1 97.8 1992 96.6 97.1 96.8 97.2 93.7 95.8 97.3 90.4 91.6 97.3 97.5 97.4 1993 96.6 96.9 96.6 96.5 97.7 91.3 91.6 91.1 91.4 92.3 94.7 98.9 1994 96.7 98.5 97.9 93.0 90.0 89.4 87.2 87.1 89.3 88.4 91.7 94.4 1995 95.5 95.8 93.4 90.8 89.6

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.5 94.8 96.9 93.2 93.0 89.7 87.0 92.6 87.3 93.0 93.6 96.5 1990 96.2 95.9 93.2 92.1 90.9 88.9 88.3 88.4 90.1 91.7 95.7 96.5 1991 97.8 94.9 94.3 93.2 91.2 90.5 88.3 87.2 85.6 85.2 88.7 92.1 1992 92.1 89.0 88.7 85.5 83.5 80.7 78.5 80.3 81.6 83.4 86.8 92.3 1993 93.8 93.2 93.9 93.6 90.8 89.8 90.5 90.4 90.6 94.8 97.4 98.0 1994 97.6 97.6 97.6 97.4 92.1 92.1 92.4 91.7 94.4 93.8 94.1 94.7 1995 94.3 94.0 94.2 92.6 91.8

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 94.2 94.5 94.0 92.6 87.7 86.1 84.2 84.2 84.3 91.1 95.0 1990 91.6 91.5 91.9 91.9 90.3 86.5 83.1 82.4 82.6 87.5 90.1 93.3 1991 93.8 92.3 92.9 91.2 88.8 83.8 80.7 84.7 83.6 86.7 91.5 92.1 1992 92.7 92.1 91.6 90.0 85.8 82.3 83.3 84.1 85.2 90.7 93.4 95.1 1993 95.2 96.0 95.3 93.5 92.1 90.8 89.2 88.5 90.0 92.6 95.2 96.0 1994 97.1 97.6 97.4 96.6 91.8 89.9 83.5 87.1 87.8 90.8 94.4 84.4 1995 93.5 94.0 93.2 92.4 90.0

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 66.1 48.5 50.9 50.2 58.7 44.3 34.1 58.5 55.7 73.8 58.9 51.8 2002 45.0 47.4 53.0 41.3 52.5 50.1 38.1 49.3 53.9 52.2 49.1 54.2 2003 45.5 42.0 48.4 45.5 43.4 42.2 40.0 38.9 41.2 44.0 55.4 54.2 2004 41.0 40.9 39.5 45.6 43.7 45.0 47.5 44.3 43.7 47.4 46.5 46.2 2005 51.3 45.1 46.1 48.5 45.8 42.9 43.2 42.6 48.1 48.4 49.1 44.9 2006 49.2 48.5 45.1 47.1 50.0 49.0 51.8 49.9 50.5 52.2 42.5 47.8 2007 50.6 50.0 47.4 49.5 51.1

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.2 32.5 24.3 32.8 25.6 33.3 27.5 30.2 28.5 21.2 31.3 31.1 2002 27.5 29.8 27.4 27.0 23.9 26.2 24.1 25.8 24.2 23.9 26.3 25.2 2003 32.3 39.3 37.3 34.5 31.8 37.2 34.6 32.3 32.7 28.6 27.0 35.7 2004 39.9 36.9 33.0 32.8 29.8 33.8 32.8 33.7 36.7 31.0 33.7 38.8 2005 26.7 24.2 23.6 24.4 23.7 22.1 23.2 22.8 42.3 24.8 28.8 23.7 2006 24.7 28.1 24.8 23.5 19.5 19.2 18.1 17.2 16.6 17.5 15.6 18.0 2007 18.4 19.6 17.4 15.6 13.4

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 48.0 40.7 40.0 33.7 32.1 29.6 33.1 33.6 35.5 29.3 37.7 38.4 2002 36.3 39.0 44.3 34.8 36.6 33.0 32.5 31.8 33.8 35.5 33.9 38.2 2003 36.7 41.2 40.2 37.2 35.5 33.9 38.7 40.5 42.6 44.0 42.1 46.8 2004 44.2 43.4 42.1 40.5 41.0 36.5 36.4 34.6 37.0 38.3 41.5 47.1 2005 39.9 40.5 44.7 47.3 42.5 39.5 39.5 43.3 42.8 41.5 39.7 46.7 2006 40.9 44.6 40.1 37.3 37.4 39.1 35.5 35.5 34.9 38.2 41.6 39.2 2007 38.8 44.2 40.4 35.4 37.8

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 40.1 37.3 39.3 33.9 31.2 31.0 27.1 35.1 34.9 46.1 46.5 46.1 2002 25.9 28.6 29.4 32.8 30.0 24.4 27.5 20.7 24.7 25.4 31.6 26.9 2003 26.3 26.9 25.5 19.5 18.5 15.1 13.6 15.3 17.5 18.9 18.7 22.2 2004 20.9 21.0 21.4 19.1 15.8 16.0 13.2 17.1 15.0 16.2 14.5 15.6 2005 15.1 14.4 15.2 12.9 11.7 11.7 11.0 15.0 15.5 18.8 20.6 25.3 2006 22.9 22.8 22.6 19.7 19.5 17.8 17.2 16.8 17.1 19.2 21.8 22.3 2007 23.5 22.4 23.2 18.7 16.9

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.3 26.6 26.1 18.3 12.5 11.2 12.3 12.4 10.9 15.9 19.9 23.0 2002 25.3 23.6 25.8 21.2 18.5 14.3 11.1 13.3 14.7 20.9 24.7 28.9 2003 27.0 27.3 25.9 18.8 15.3 11.7 10.7 11.7 12.2 17.7 21.3 26.2 2004 26.4 24.1 23.9 19.3 13.5 14.1 12.9 10.4 12.4 17.6 19.6 18.6 2005 21.7 20.9 20.8 15.9 13.4 11.2 12.3 13.2 13.9 16.4 21.9 25.1 2006 21.6 21.7 23.0 13.3 14.1 13.5 11.1 12.3 13.3 18.2 22.8 24.2 2007 22.3 23.7 24.1 17.8 13.6

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 68.6 69.0 65.3 63.9 55.0 45.3 39.8 39.5 40.5 49.5 58.6 71.5 1990 72.4 67.8 64.6 60.4 53.8 41.6 34.0 37.7 34.7 38.3 56.1 61.2 1991 64.6 65.8 65.4 54.5 42.1 34.1 31.0 33.9 36.5 45.2 55.6 58.0 1992 65.0 65.9 59.9 63.0 54.5 39.3 35.8 33.6 33.4 48.1 56.8 58.9 1993 60.7 61.3 61.7 60.2 47.5 33.6 30.3 30.6 33.0 46.8 54.9 60.1 1994 67.4 65.2 61.9 58.3 47.8 39.6 29.5 34.3 34.2 41.3 47.5 55.7 1995 55.5 59.5 56.1 50.6 42.2

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 8.2 7.6 6.3 8.0 7.2 5.9 9.1 9.6 9.0 8.6 10.0 9.1 2002 13.4 13.3 13.0 13.6 14.3 13.5 12.2 13.1 12.9 12.7 13.4 14.8 2003 12.0 13.2 12.0 13.5 13.7 13.7 11.8 12.8 13.4 14.1 16.3 14.3 2004 14.5 15.7 16.4 22.9 22.7 23.7 23.3 22.9 22.8 23.3 25.2 26.0 2005 26.3 25.9 27.3 27.8 28.6 28.2 27.2 28.9 29.0 28.8 28.8 29.0 2006 29.4 28.6 29.2 26.8 28.8 28.3 28.0 29.5 26.3 25.7 28.6 31.5 2007 29.7 31.7 27.3 28.8 29.9 33.6 23.9 23.8

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 36.9 37.4 48.4 27.7 23.2 18.9 14.1 10.3 18.5 18.6 29.5 21.8 2002 27.5 26.6 23.0 21.7 16.9 14.0 16.5 11.1 9.4 14.8 21.7 28.6 2003 40.7 44.0 44.6 41.6 37.9 36.3 38.9 42.3 35.8 78.7 23.9 36.9 2004 47.9 47.2 45.8 39.9 36.5 34.4 31.3 27.0 23.1 29.2 23.2 40.5 2005 40.9 43.4 42.6 37.2 32.0 29.0 26.8 22.1 22.3 26.9 33.6 40.9 2006 42.4 41.0 40.2 36.9 31.5 28.6 25.2 26.5 26.5 23.7 32.2 31.2 2007 34.8 36.0 37.0 30.2 29.7

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 43.8 39.0 34.6 41.8 30.0 28.6 27.2 30.1 21.4 17.7 27.3 30.7 2002 31.5 26.5 28.6 41.0 46.4 45.1 46.2 38.8 46.3 45.1 40.1 38.9 2003 43.9 46.9 48.3 29.8 35.3 34.9 37.5 37.1 35.9 35.9 25.0 28.2 2004 39.9 33.5 26.0 26.6 24.1 36.5 32.4 18.7 25.1 22.5 34.8 27.0 2005 20.8 31.7 23.3 19.2 22.7 20.3 20.8 16.6 38.0 49.2 24.8 30.5 2006 29.4 24.1 25.2 20.4 18.6 17.2 17.3 18.1 16.4 16.9 22.0 22.6 2007 22.2 23.1 25.1 24.0 24.1

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 17.0 16.4 11.3 10.2 7.7 5.1 7.3 7.5 8.2 8.8 7.3 8.4 2002 8.8 8.3 7.0 5.9 5.7 5.5 4.8 5.0 7.2 7.5 8.1 11.4 2003 8.5 8.5 8.8 7.3 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.5 2004 7.7 8.1 7.3 6.8 5.3 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.7 6.5 8.3 2005 8.8 8.4 8.2 7.0 6.1 5.5 5.9 7.1 5.2 5.2 6.7 8.2 2006 8.2 7.3 7.1 5.3 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.1 6.2 4.2 4.6 5.4 2007 6.7 8.5 8.3 5.9 5.6 3.7 3.3 3.2 4.1 3.1 4.5 6.6 2008 7.7 7.3 7.3 6.9 5.7 4.8 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.9

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 91.8 86.4 82.7 82.0 77.6 80.8 80.2 80.2 80.3 79.8 82.4 84.4 2002 89.9 87.6 85.4 88.3 90.4 87.4 90.5 84.4 90.3 90.3 84.3 82.9 2003 79.4 79.6 75.8 79.3 81.8 81.7 78.9 77.3 78.4 77.0 76.5 75.9 2004 76.9 75.6 77.0 79.2 79.0 78.2 78.5 79.0 78.6 78.3 77.2 76.4 2005 78.2 78.8 78.0 77.4 78.1 78.2 78.8 78.7 73.2 76.4 67.9 81.3 2006 80.1 78.6 74.0 80.2 71.2 75.3 75.9 77.2 70.6 74.8 48.6 44.6 2007 48.9 48.4 47.5 46.1 47.5

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.2 6.1 6.1 8.6 8.2 7.3 7.7 8.9 5.9 60.8 7.0 62.1 2002 12.1 12.6 11.7 15.0 12.6 12.1 14.7 13.0 16.1 10.7 13.1 10.4 2003 14.3 12.6 20.3 13.9 14.0 14.7 13.6 13.5 14.6 12.9 14.1 10.9 2004 10.7 10.5 11.4 11.5 19.8 15.0 15.7 15.3 14.3 14.8 14.7 12.8 2005 11.4 12.8 12.5 13.7 17.4 21.1 23.5 20.4 22.1 23.0 20.7 18.5 2006 16.3 14.8 17.3 18.6 16.9 20.3 15.7 16.4 19.0 16.7 16.4 16.7 2007 15.2 13.4 15.9 16.3 17.8 18.5 18.5

  7. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection Fact 720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection ...

  8. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called “Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,” and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named “Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.” This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: • Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. • Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. • Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. • Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. • Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: • Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. • Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. • Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. • Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: • Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. • The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvements in engine emissions have been obtained, but fuel economy improvements have been tougher to realize. • Development of a neural network control system progressed to the point that the system was fully functional and showing significant fuel economy gains in transient engine testing. • Development of the QuantLogic injector with the capability of both a hollow cone spray during early injection and conventional diesel injection at later injection timings was undertaken and proved to be problematic. This injector was designed to be a key component in a PCCI combustion system, but this innovative fuel injector required significantly more development effort than this program’s resources or timing would allow.

  9. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  10. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG), ten percent ... Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing Programs ...

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  12. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  13. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  14. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  15. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  16. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving the predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7 percent to 60 percent of the dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 35 to 9 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20 percent to 60 percent. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures, when flash evaporation in the evaporator occurred, 75 percent to 95 percent of the dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The results were used to find the impact of a single-stage predeaeration scheme on the power to remove noncondensable gases in an OC-OTEC plant.

  17. U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal February 12, 2014 - 11:05am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that the U.S. solar industry is more than 60 percent of the way to achieving cost-competitive utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity - only three years into the Department's decade-long SunShot Initiative. To help

  18. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EECBG PROGRAM NOTICE 11-002 EFFECTIVE DATE: July 28, 2011 SUBJECT: CLARIFICATION OF TEN PERCENT LIMATION ON USE OF FUNDS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES PURPOSE To provide guidance to...

  19. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG), ten percent limitation, administrative expenses, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  20. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 ...

  1. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of...

  2. Fact #924: May 9, 1916 Twenty Percent of New Cars in 2015 Had...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Twenty Percent of New Cars in 2015 Had Turbochargers File fotw924web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 923: May 2, 2016 Cylinder Deactivation was Used in More than a ...

  3. If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind and solar - what does it do to my GDP and Trade Balance ? Home I think that the economics of fossil fuesl are well...

  4. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 | Department of Energy Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 This report is an examination of the possible impacts, implications, and practicality of increasing the amount of electrical energy produced from combined heat and power (CHP) facilities

  5. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increases Reliability | Department of Energy Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed could

  6. NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 Analysis Shows Transmission Upgrades, Offshore Wind, and Operational Changes Needed to Incorporate 20 to 30 Percent Wind January 20, 2010 Today, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). This unprecedented two-and-a-half year technical study of future high-penetration wind scenarios was designed to analyze the economic, operational,

  7. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  8. Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 November 9, 2011 - 10:00am Addthis This is the Atlanta Better Buildings Challenge Breakout Session Panel with representatives from the City of Atlanta Office of Sustainability, Southface, the U.S. General Services Administration, and two Atlanta BBC partner organizations. | Photo courtesy of Fred Perry Photography This is the Atlanta Better

  9. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  10. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  11. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  12. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  13. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency.

  14. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  15. Simulation studies of diesel engine performance with oxygen enriched air and water emulsified fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.N.; Baker, D. ); Sekar, R.R.; Siambekos, C.T.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation code of a turbocharged, turbocompound diesel engine was modified to study the effects of using oxygen-enriched combustion air and water-emulsified diesel fuels. Oxygen levels of 21 percent to 40 percent by volume in the combustion air were studied. Water content in the fuel was varied from 0 percent to 50 percent mass. Simulation studies and a review and analysis of previous work in this area led to the following conclusions about expected engine performance and emissions: the power density of the engine is significantly increased by oxygen enrichment. Ignition delay and particulate emissions are reduced. Combustion temperatures and No{sub x} emissions are increased with oxygen enrichment but could be brought back to the base levels by introducing water in the fuel. The peak cylinder pressure which increases with the power output level might result in mechanical problems with engine components. Oxygen enrichment also provides an opportunity to use cheaper fuel such as No. 6 diesel fuel. Overall, the adverse effects of oxygen enrichment could be countered by the addition of water and it appears that an optimum combination of water content, oxygen level, and base diesel fuel quality may exist. This could yield improved performance and emissions characteristics compared to a state-of-the-art diesel engine. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  17. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  18. Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 May 12, 2008 - 11:30am Addthis DOE Report Analyzes U.S. Wind Resources, Technology Requirements, and Manufacturing, Siting and Transmission Hurdles to Increasing the Use of Clean and Sustainable Wind Power WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) today released a first-of-its kind report that examines the technical feasibility of

  19. NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent August 13, 2008 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have set a world record in solar cell efficiency with a photovoltaic device that converts 40.8 percent of the light that hits it into electricity. This is the highest confirmed efficiency of any photovoltaic device to date. The inverted metamorphic triple-junction solar cell was designed, fabricated and

  20. WPN 94-8: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides clarifying guidance previously issued under Weatherization Program Notice 93-14 on mobile home units weatherized by states which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  1. WPN 93-14: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Multifamily and Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides guidance on multifamily and mobile home units weatherized by states, which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  2. Figure 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels of Technically Recoverable Oil from the ANWR Coastal Plain of Alaska fig5.jpg (3770

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 NA

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100

  6. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  7. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.7 6.8 7.4 2000's 7.0 7.5 7.6 7.9 8.4 9.8 8.5 6.5 6.6 6.4 2010's 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 76.6 2000's 83.8 75.4 74.7 78.8 78.3 81.7 78.4 78.0 79.6 77.9 2010's 77.1 80.9 100.0 100.0

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of Available Fee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M. – EM’s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) recently issued the fiscal year 2015 fee award determination for Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP), and it shows the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operations contractor earned almost 86 percent — or about $11.7 million of more than $13.6 million — of the fee available for the performance period.

  11. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  12. Weighted Running Jobs by Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weighted Running Jobs by Group Weighted Running Jobs by Group Daily Graph: Weekly Graph: Monthly Graph: Yearly Graph: 2 Year Graph: Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:54

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 79.6 82.7 80.7 80.8 80.3 80.1 81.1 64.7 80.5 70.5 2000's 81.4 82.5 80.5 81.8 82.1 80.5 80.2 79.8 80.2 78.8 2010's 79.3 78.9 76.2 76.6 78.4 77.6

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.9 63.4 54.5 49.6 55.4 2000's 59.3 60.5 60.0 59.1 55.5 51.2 56.3 76.0 74.9 85.3 2010's 87.7 88.6 94.9 94.5 94.5 98.2

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.3 91.5 90.7 91.8 95.1 96.0 95.0 94.2 90.8 89.3 2000's 89.9 87.0 80.8 81.9 80.3 74.1 71.7 70.4 64.5 59.4 2010's 55.6 51.5 40.2 43.7 45.5 42.5

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.3 96.0 95.5 95.5 94.8 94.2 93.2 92.8 94.3 97.5 2000's 97.4 95.6 95.3 95.3 94.7 95.2 95.4 95.7 95.2 94.8 2010's 94.6 93.8 92.2 94.7 94.5 NA

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 2000's 98.0 98.3 82.8 82.8 81.6 83.3 77.5 74.8 70.6 53.5 2010's 49.8 53.4 43.7 45.0 46.2 45.7

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.4 97.7 97.8 97.9 97.6 97.1 97.5 96.6 94.5 2000's 67.4 56.6 42.3 42.3 41.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 38.5 37.0 33.3 32.3 NA

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 88.4 87.5 88.1 90.5 92.0 93.5 94.1 89.1 83.6 61.0 2000's 17.1 20.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.9 87.6 85.7 86.8 85.9 86.0 86.6 86.1 86.4 85.9 2000's 86.3 86.3 85.9 85.2 85.7 85.6 85.8 84.8 86.0 83.7 2010's 82.0 80.8 77.0 77.4 76.6 74.6

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 57.6 59.0 57.7 55.3 52.8 50.4 53.9 54.3 47.4 42.8 2000's 41.9 41.1 40.9 43.1 41.2 41.5 39.7 42.2 43.3 41.3 2010's 42.3 38.1 36.8 38.4 38.5 NA

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.7 94.2 96.8 95.2 92.3 87.8 96.3 89.9 79.2 78.3 2000's 78.0 77.1 78.4 79.8 78.2 82.1 79.4 78.1 77.9 73.9 2010's 72.5 70.2 67.4 68.2 67.6 67.0

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.7 95.7 94.7 90.4 89.3 87.7 88.2 85.8 83.4 2000's 81.1 82.0 81.4 78.0 78.3 78.3 77.3 77.7 75.8 72.5 2010's 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.5 74.4 NA

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 91.6 89.2 84.4 82.6 78.4 73.6 71.7 70.3 69.5 66.7 2000's 57.3 63.1 58.9 59.1 57.3 68.5 65.4 64.8 64.9 65.7 2010's 66.0 62.6 59.8 61.4 59.3 NA

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.0 94.0 93.1 92.6 91.4 89.2 90.8 90.0 87.4 87.9 2000's 85.6 81.8 78.9 79.2 78.7 79.7 81.3 81.7 82.0 80.1 2010's 80.5 79.2 77.4 78.8 80.5 79.2

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 96.6 96.0 96.6 97.1 96.9 91.9 67.1 36.6 33.4 2000's 39.1 32.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 27.3 24.7 26.2 27.3 27.4

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 69.9 68.3 68.8 68.6 65.7 66.4 66.9 63.7 59.7 56.6 2000's 58.8 63.5 62.9 64.2 65.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 51.0 53.2 55.2 55

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.0 85.9 85.5 84.6 83.3 83.3 82.2 79.9 78.3 78.6 2000's 80.0 80.8 80.0 80.5 77.4 77.1 76.4 76.9 77.5 76.7 2010's 76.5 73.1 69.2 72.3 70.5 71.1

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.9 97.5 95.4 93.2 91.8 91.6 91.5 91.5 77.2 79.8 2000's 73.5 76.1 75.1 68.8 76.0 77.4 76.9 78.5 79.6 49.2 2010's 54.6 53.3 52.8 53.3 53.5 NA

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.9 91.8 88.2 91.0 80.2 77.1 70.0 74.2 72.5 66.6 2000's 61.1 63.7 63.7 65.4 63.5 64.5 65.1 63.9 57.5 61.3 2010's 60.6 60.6 55.8 57.3 56.4 56.1

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 90.8 88.3 92.7 82.5 76.5 74.2 71.3 70.2 60.9 2000's 54.6 73.9 78.5 67.2 67.9 68.1 68.2 67.0 67.0 65.1 2010's 65.4 64.3 61.4 60.1 58.4 57.9

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 94.8 93.9 92.4 91.6 91.6 86.3 73.3 56.2 60.5 56.0 2000's 56.9 57.5 49.1 50.7 48.1 51.6 46.9 44.2 42.1 38.3 2010's 36.1 32.6 30.8 35.2 32.0 NA

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 83.1 77.7 70.0 62.5 62.4 60.3 64.7 71.0 67.0 63.0 2000's 62.2 67.3 72.5 70.3 69.0 69.0 65.0 64.2 62.6 58.2 2010's 60.7 59.8 57.0 57.0 54.4 NA

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 83.6 80.7 77.7 77.2 79.6 76.2 77.0 64.7 53.1 57.2 2000's 40.1 45.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 74.8 70.0 68.9 72.7 79.6 80.9 88.0 88.9 83.8 88.2 2000's 89.5 90.1 91.6 94.4 92.6 92.9 93.0 93.3 93.4 92.9 2010's 92.6 92.8 91.9 92.6 93.1 NA

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.3 86.7 85.6 84.6 81.5 76.3 71.8 65.5 55.0 46.4 2000's 45.2 41.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.1 91.3 88.5 90.0 88.5 85.2 84.5 81.8 73.2 71.6 2000's 72.4 74.0 71.0 71.3 61.6 53.1 49.9 48.1 51.3 46.4 2010's 47.5 46.3 41.1 44.6 45.3 43.7

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 97.9 97.8 97.9 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.5 99.0 98.8 2000's 98.8 99.3 98.7 98.4 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 98.5 98.4 2010's 97.4 97.4 96.9 96.6 96.0 NA

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.8 80.5 59.2 53.2 2000's 53.2 58.0 65.9 72.1 73.3 74.3 73.1 66.5 66.2 68.0 2010's 61.2 56.9 55.4 54.5 52.2 53.9

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.4 81.8 82.4 83.9 89.1 86.9 82.7 83.3 84.2 81.2 2000's 83.1 84.2 83.1 82.3 82.3 83.5 82.1 81.2 83.0 82.2 2010's 80.9 81.7 81.6 81.6 81.6 81.0

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 89.8 89.3 79.7 83.8 82.4 68.6 83.5 61.4 81.0 77.3 2000's 79.0 88.4 71.8 73.7 74.6 79.5 82.0 81.9 82.5 78.3 2010's 76.4 73.4 72.4 72.8 72.6 NA

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.3 81.8 81.9 83.2 82.5 82.9 2000's 83.9 84.4 83.7 84.4 84.4 86.8 86.8 86.9 86.4 85.6 2010's 86.2 86.7 83.9 81.8 78.3 77.0

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.2 93.6 90.7 88.8 86.7 84.1 85.3 77.9 72.1 67.4 2000's 66.4 65.8 61.4 65.7 63.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 52.1 54.6 55.8 54.2

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.8 99.0 98.0 98.0 96.1 93.6 85.9 84.1 90.5 89.1 2000's 90.0 86.5 48.7 51.7 51.4 49.3 47.8 49.3 65.6 65.5 2010's 65.3 64.0 62.6 62.9 60.8 NA

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 31.0 22.4 16.6 2000's 10.6 16.1 13.4 15.6 11.7 12.2 9.0 9.8 5.8 2.1 2010's 5.3 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 NA

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.5 7.3 5.0 2000's 5.2 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.2 2010's 3.0 3.0 2.7 3.2 3.5 NA

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 26.7 25.3 23.9 2000's 20.2 19.9 19.2 15.9 16.4 17.1 17.0 17.2 16.1 17.6 2010's 18.2 18.2 20.0 18.9 20.0 NA

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.0 2.5 2.7 2000's 2.7 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 2010's 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.8 2.4

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 11.5 9.3 9.1 2000's 9.0 9.9 9.3 9.9 9.0 9.5 8.7 9.5 9.4 7.7 2010's 7.4 6.3 6.0 6.8 6.4 5.7

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.0 9.3 5.8 2000's 10.3 7.7 8.6 9.0 8.3 7.9 7.2 7.4 6.7 7.0 2010's 5.6 3.5 1.9 2.0 2.1 1.9

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.2 9.9 10.1 2000's 10.4 9.3 10.8 7.9 6.9 6.3 7.3 5.9 7.8 6.7 2010's 7.0 9.5 9.7 9.3 8.3 NA

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 19.2 17.8 17.5 2000's 19.0 18.7 17.7 18.8 16.9 16.9 15.8 16.6 17.5 18.1 2010's 17.9 17.6 17.8 18.3 17.2 16.0

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.4 7.0 6.5 2000's 6.1 8.5 8.0 10.0 8.2 8.2 6.7 7.8 6.3 5.3 2010's 5.3 5.5 5.1 6.8 7.3 NA

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.5 10.8 11.1 2000's 10.2 11.3 10.2 10.9 10.7 10.1 10.2 12.6 12.5 11.8 2010's 8.8 9.3 7.4 7.4 7.6 NA

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 21.5 18.2 18.5 2000's 16.8 16.5 16.0 14.8 13.8 14.2 13.2 12.8 13.9 13.2 2010's 13.1 13.4 12.5 13.9 14.0 12.3

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.1 1.5 1.7 2000's 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 2010's 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.4 NA

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.0 12.7 14.2 2000's 15.4 18.0 15.7 16.5 16.5 16.3 11.6 9.7 10.2 8.9 2010's 8.2 7.6 6.8 7.8 7.4 7.1

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.3 15.5 22.5 2000's 18.1 33.3 34.3 19.1 16.5 17.2 16.8 17.1 17.8 17.3 2010's 18.4 17.8 15.5 15.7 15.5 NA

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 49.3 49.5 47.9 2000's 23.5 21.6 20.8 19.5 16.4 19.9 19.5 20.6 11.0 9.0 2010's 8.4 8.2 6.5 6.1 6.6 NA

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.5 9.8 16.4 2000's 16.5 10.1 15.6 12.3 11.2 8.4 11.6 10.6 10.0 11.9 2010's 12.4 10.2 7.9 8.0 7.5 6.4

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.7 8.3 14.3 2000's 11.3 10.8 11.0 10.6 10.7 14.7 11.7 12.3 11.4 11.7 2010's 10.6 7.9 6.8 6.3 6.1 NA

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18.5 14.6 14.9 2000's 13.9 9.8 9.2 45.9 51.1 27.5 42.3 48.1 46.2 34.8 2010's 29.7 37.4 34.7 37.9 34.7 39.6

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.7 4.3 4.1 2000's 5.3 6.5 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 2010's 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.2 2.0 NA

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.7 3.6 3.9 2000's 4.2 4.2 3.3 2.4 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.5 2010's 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.3 14.3 13.6 2000's 17.7 21.5 14.4 17.5 24.9 33.2 26.6 21.8 20.1 18.9 2010's 17.1 17.1 16.7 16.9 17.2 16.6

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.4 7.4 6.5 2000's 34.0 27.3 27.3 18.9 15.7 15.3 13.6 11.6 11.7 9.2 2010's 6.5 6.0 6.3 9.0 8.1 5.3

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 24.1 35.6 37.0 2000's 41.9 42.1 19.4 25.5 28.2 30.2 33.6 17.8 16.9 14.4 2010's 10.4 4.7 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.1

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.2 14.1 23.7 2000's 29.6 35.0 43.0 43.9 48.8 54.6 55.4 54.7 50.4 47.2 2010's 48.6 39.0 39.4 41.7 40.3 40

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.9 8.6 9.5 2000's 10.0 10.4 13.6 13.6 19.8 19.5 20.1 14.1 12.7 12.2 2010's 12.1 12.7 11.0 11.1 10.5 8.6

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 13.0 12.8 12.1 2000's 17.6 17.3 15.3 17.3 16.0 17.1 13.9 14.1 17.3 15.8 2010's 15.3 13.6 10.9 10.3 11.1 NA

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.5 2.0 2.9 2000's 2.6 2.5 2.9 1.8 2.1 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.1 2010's 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.3 NA

  12. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  13. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray ...

  14. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  15. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  16. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  18. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  19. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  20. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phase membranes have been evaluated for structural properties. An increasing crack growth resistance was observed for the membranes heat-treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} with increasing crack length. The combined effect of thermal and elastic mismatch stresses on the crack path was studied and the fracture behavior of the dual phase composite at the test conditions was analyzed. Ceramic/metal (C/M) seals are needed to form a leak-tight interface between the OTM and a nickel-base super alloy. It was concluded that Ni-based brazing alloys provided the best option in terms of brazing temperature and final operating conditions after analyzing several possible brazing systems. A mechanical testing procedure has been developed. This model was tested with model ceramic/metal systems but it is expected to be useful for testing concentric perovskite/metal seals.

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2002 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2003 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2004 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2005 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2006 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2007 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2008 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93.1 90.8 89.1 1990's 86.6 85.1 83.2 83.9 79.3 76.7 77.6 70.8 67.0 66.1 2000's 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 2010's 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.9

  5. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  7. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  8. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

  9. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  10. Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex of Photosynthesis Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.2 96.1 96.3 96.1 96.4 96.0 96.7 94.9 1991 96.5 97.0 97.5 98.1 97.8 97.8 97.9 97.8 98.2 97.8 96.8 96.8 1992 96.8 97.2 97.4 98.2 98.3 98.2 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.2 97.4 97.0 1993 97.2 97.2 97.2 98.3 98.4 98.4 98.3 98.3 98.3 98.2 97.3 97.0 1994 97.3 97.6 97.8 98.3 97.6 98.3 98.2 98.4 98.5 97.9 97.8 97.0 1995 96.7 97.3 97.5

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.0 98.9 98.7 98.3 96.2 94.7 94.2 93.4 93.5 94.7 99.0 99.7 1990 99.6 99.3 96.6 94.4 94.3 93.2 89.3 86.4 87.1 86.2 91.7 96.5 1991 98.1 96.5 95.8 91.8 92.3 89.1 89.5 80.6 89.2 90.0 93.2 97.0 1992 96.9 95.7 92.1 87.7 94.1 91.3 88.6 80.7 80.7 86.4 94.8 96.9 1993 93.6 94.0 93.7 91.2 88.5 86.4 87.1 79.8 84.6 90.0 92.4 93.8 1994 94.9 96.2 96.3 89.8 87.4 85.1 81.4 82.2 83.6 88.0 89.6 92.1 1995 93.7 92.4 91.3 87.4 84.5

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 81.7 84.8 84.0 83.9 80.6 74.8 69.2 64.9 71.4 70.9 74.8 81.6 1990 83.9 82.5 78.4 76.0 75.4 69.7 54.3 53.3 57.4 58.4 69.8 75.8 1991 79.4 79.9 74.9 71.7 70.6 59.0 49.6 47.6 49.6 48.7 67.6 70.1 1992 71.7 73.7 72.0 71.6 73.6 63.8 61.6 58.8 57.2 56.8 67.3 68.9 1993 77.1 73.8 77.4 76.8 73.3 62.6 58.1 54.0 53.5 56.0 74.2 78.9 1994 82.6 86.8 83.1 82.1 78.4 69.7 66.2 63.2 61.8 64.0 82.2 76.9 1995 84.3 85.9 84.3 83.2 80.0

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 87.1 83.9 47.7 48.9 40.4 44.6 82.7 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 75.5 80.2 97.3 91.1 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 92.8 93.1 92.8 92.1 92.5 91.6 90.2 89.4 90.0 89.6 91.1 92.0 1990 90.7 90.1 90.2 88.0 78.4 83.0 81.9 82.4 82.0 77.7 82.0 86.3 1991 84.8 83.0 80.5 83.4 79.5 74.9 74.3 74.3 74.5 76.7 83.4 85.2 1992 87.0 83.3 85.6 83.1 80.7 73.5 72.3 74.6 78.0 76.5 81.8 84.7 1993 86.5 83.9 84.4 81.2 76.4 73.3 74.9 72.9 75.8 78.7 90.0 91.2 1994 92.9 92.3 92.6 88.4 84.7 74.7 72.7 82.0 79.0 83.4 88.4 92.1 1995 92.1 90.8 89.7 87.2 82.8

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 83.8 85.2 82.9 82.4 77.7 77.9 76.4

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.6 99.7 99.7 1990 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.5 99.5 99.7 99.7 1991 99.9 99.9 99.4 98.9 99.0 98.2 97.4 98.3 97.2 98.4 98.6 98.5 1992 98.6 98.1 97.8 98.4 97.9 97.2 96.5 97.1 97.4 97.2 98.2 98.3 1993 98.8 98.2 98.4 98.1 98.2 96.9 97.1 96.5 95.0 97.1 97.2 99.0 1994 98.1 96.0 96.9 97.3 95.2 91.7 93.4 92.1 93.5 95.6 96.1 96.8 1995 88.4 98.2 93.6 92.4 89.2

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 29.3 31.1 27.6 21.9 21.2 19.6 18.6 15.6 18.5 16.8 15.6 21.1 2002 23.5 22.2 23.5 21.5 18.7 18.3 17.4 16.9 18.0 18.5 22.1 26.0 2003 21.1 23.1 26.0 26.8 23.9 18.0 15.3 17.3 13.3 14.9 13.0 18.4 2004 19.5 22.5 18.1 16.6 15.0 13.7 11.6 15.1 13.6 13.6 15.4 18.5 2005 22.4 22.7 21.9 17.6 15.7 15.4 17.7 20.4 16.9 19.4 20.1 25.4 2006 23.6 22.4 21.6 19.0 17.0 16.3 18.5 19.1 15.6 16.6 19.9 21.8 2007 21.5 23.6 20.8 23.0 17.1

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 23.5 23.2 22.0 21.0 19.5 19.2 20.2 19.6 19.8 20.3 20.2 20.7 2002 20.3 20.5 20.2 26.3 23.9 25.5 24.0 22.5 22.5 21.7 21.8 23.1 2003 21.4 22.1 21.3 20.9 20.3 19.1 24.7 22.9 22.9 23.3 22.7 23.5 2004 23.1 23.6 22.8 23.3 23.4 25.0 24.9 24.0 22.8 22.6 23.5 24.5 2005 24.8 24.3 24.6 23.9 24.2 23.7 24.5 24.6 23.2 23.2 23.4 23.7 2006 23.7 23.7 23.8 23.5 23.8 23.3 23.6 23.7 22.0 22.9 23.0 23.4 2007 22.7 23.0 22.4 22.3 23.2

  4. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  5. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  6. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EIA) Form EIA-819, "Monthly Biofuel and Oxygenate Report," is used to collect data on ethanol production capacity, as well as stocks, receipts, inputs, production, and blending of...

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 84.0 82.5 89.4 90.6 83.8 86.2 55.5 83.6 78.9 84.4 78.4 85.7 1990 86.9 82.1 80.0 76.8 74.9 79.8 76.8 73.3 76.5 78.0 69.7 81.4 1991 82.2 87.0 87.9 83.2 84.0 85.4 85.7 81.3 75.8 74.4 75.5 81.7 1992 83.7 86.8 84.0 83.2 79.0 77.6 75.3 74.7 74.4 73.2 74.2 80.6 1993 84.1 85.3 85.8 84.0 79.8 76.8 75.9 74.0 74.4 71.3 74.7 79.3 1994 86.1 87.7 84.1 83.1 78.0 76.5 74.8 71.8 64.7 70.0 73.6 76.7 1995 82.5 85.7 85.8 81.4 77.5 75.7

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.3 95.6 95.9 94.3 91.3 91.5 87.2 86.2 88.2 87.5 90.7 93.4 1990 95.8 94.8 93.7 93.2 90.7 88.8 88.4 86.9 87.4 86.8 90.6 91.5 1991 93.8 94.7 96.1 91.0 87.7 85.1 84.8 85.5 85.9 86.5 90.5 92.3 1992 93.0 94.7 91.3 92.7 88.4 87.0 85.9 85.4 86.4 87.6 88.7 90.8 1993 92.5 93.0 92.8 91.8 87.6 84.2 85.9 84.7 85.7 87.8 92.7 98.7 1994 93.9 95.9 95.4 94.8 91.2 91.7 94.2 94.3 96.6 95.3 96.4 97.4 1995 97.2 98.0 96.3 95.1 93.3 93.1

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 98.3 97.8 97.3 97.3 95.0 91.8 95.8 95.6 96.9 97.2 1990 98.1 98.0 97.9 97.6 97.3 97.4 94.7 94.5 95.5 94.6 97.0 97.0 1991 96.8 97.1 96.1 96.2 96.9 97.2 93.7 93.9 93.6 92.3 94.7 96.3 1992 96.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.1 96.0 94.2 93.3 93.6 91.2 93.7 96.2 1993 96.6 96.4 96.5 95.8 95.2 95.5 93.0 93.1 95.2 90.6 94.1 95.9 1994 95.9 96.1 95.7 94.9 95.3 94.3 91.2 91.7 93.1 91.5 93.2 95.5 1995 95.9 96.0 95.1 94.3 95.1 95.5

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.6 93.6 89.7 88.2 85.3 81.7 80.7 80.2 83.0 86.4 89.4 96.8 1990 96.5 90.3 88.7 86.9 82.0 80.9 80.1 82.5 78.9 84.3 87.9 94.1 1991 92.1 90.7 88.8 84.7 81.6 79.7 79.6 80.3 78.8 82.8 90.7 92.5 1992 90.8 90.6 89.3 88.2 85.0 82.7 79.7 83.3 83.4 84.6 87.9 92.9 1993 91.5 92.9 94.6 90.9 86.5 83.0 85.4 84.9 85.6 86.0 91.2 93.0 1994 97.0 94.9 92.4 90.3 89.3 86.8 87.9 89.0 86.1 88.6 91.6 92.6 1995 96.1 97.1 93.3 90.7 89.7 88.4

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 88.9 90.2 90.6 89.0 82.8 85.9 86.8 83.0 84.1 79.3 84.6 87.4 1990 91.5 90.4 89.7 87.7 85.8 88.1 86.1 85.2 85.0 79.3 86.3 86.4 1991 91.0 91.7 88.5 87.4 87.4 86.8 84.7 84.0 82.9 73.6 85.1 87.5 1992 89.4 89.0 87.1 85.2 83.1 80.2 81.0 82.4 80.2 77.9 82.2 88.3 1993 89.4 89.9 91.0 87.9 87.4 82.3 82.8 81.3 79.2 77.7 81.5 87.8 1994 87.8 88.6 88.1 85.9 83.2 82.7 84.2 80.1 80.6 79.4 84.1 87.6 1995 89.7 89.1 86.5 85.5 86.0 85.3

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 71.8 73.5 69.8 69.6 67.5 59.7 50.2 47.4 62.4 64.5 68.9 74.5 1990 65.6 65.7 60.2 55.3 52.9 40.6 40.7 41.8 44.5 54.6 52.2 63.6 1991 66.1 62.7 61.0 56.7 49.1 45.4 39.4 43.5 55.0 54.8 60.4 60.3 1992 63.0 58.2 59.5 57.5 53.0 43.4 44.4 49.2 47.0 55.5 60.5 59.9 1993 61.0 58.4 58.3 56.3 51.5 43.4 42.9 38.3 50.0 50.2 53.7 56.0 1994 59.1 59.9 58.0 49.9 46.5 37.8 36.1 36.3 39.7 47.5 49.9 52.0 1995 54.8 53.2 52.9 49.3 40.2 42.9

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 93.9 94.3 92.6 92.6 97.2 96.7 96.8 89.1 91.9 97.7 98.9 1990 99.2 98.5 93.4 90.1 92.1 90.6 92.2 89.7 88.4 91.8 98.4 98.6 1991 94.2 93.3 93.2 93.2 92.6 89.2 89.9 89.6 92.6 98.5 97.9 95.4 1992 93.6 92.4 98.6 99.1 99.7 99.9 92.8 99.6 91.9 99.8 99.9 98.0 1993 94.5 94.1 99.6 99.5 100.0 91.9 90.4 91.1 92.9 90.7 92.2 96.1 1994 94.1 97.5 93.7 91.5 88.4 85.6 84.6 85.9 84.3 86.7 91.3 91.4 1995 89.7 89.9 89.5 87.0 83.4 76.1

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.4 98.4 98.5 98.0 97.0 96.3 95.4 95.0 95.2 96.6 97.6 98.3 1990 98.5 98.2 98.1 97.8 97.3 96.3 95.3 95.6 92.3 95.5 97.5 97.7 1991 98.4 98.4 98.2 97.3 96.7 95.7 94.9 91.5 96.0 96.3 98.5 98.0 1992 97.6 97.4 96.5 96.2 94.3 93.2 91.3 90.6 88.7 91.0 96.1 96.7 1993 96.6 96.6 95.8 96.4 92.9 90.8 90.2 88.3 88.9 92.8 95.2 93.2 1994 92.9 94.3 91.2 90.5 87.9 84.1 81.3 80.0 80.5 86.0 90.4 91.0 1995 91.7 92.0 91.1 88.8 86.1 81.9

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.8 94.4 94.1 94.6 92.9 89.2 93.7 94.7 91.8 88.9 88.2 92.9 1990 92.7 90.8 90.6 92.6 91.6 93.1 94.3 94.0 93.3 87.0 88.0 89.4 1991 92.5 91.6 87.9 91.2 88.5 87.1 91.3 89.7 86.9 82.0 87.7 85.3 1992 82.9 83.8 83.9 86.8 88.8 86.8 88.4 88.9 86.9 81.1 78.0 82.7 1993 84.3 83.1 86.1 84.4 85.3 83.0 84.4 86.3 81.3 72.2 75.5 79.9 1994 82.2 85.6 82.3 75.3 69.9 70.4 70.9 71.5 71.9 77.1 83.9 79.5 1995 87.8 73.6 83.2 69.5 62.9 64.8

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.1 96.6 96.4 94.9 91.0 89.2 89.5 88.2 89.8 90.7 94.4 97.0 1990 97.2 96.9 96.3 94.8 91.6 91.6 89.5 89.5 89.1 93.3 95.0 96.2 1991 97.1 95.7 94.7 89.8 86.4 85.5 87.5 88.0 91.1 91.5 95.7 95.5 1992 95.4 94.2 93.6 91.9 87.9 86.9 86.7 87.4 87.9 93.0 94.6 94.9 1993 91.6 91.6 95.3 93.5 92.4 93.5 89.9 81.6 88.1 88.5 94.5 95.4 1994 93.6 95.9 94.6 92.1 88.2 85.4 83.0 83.5 83.4 87.6 87.9 89.9 1995 90.8 91.2 89.9 86.3 87.4 80.6

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.1 96.6 97.1 96.7 95.9 95.1 94.3 94.7 94.1 94.2 94.6 96.8 1990 97.6 97.1 96.0 95.7 94.3 94.5 93.6 93.1 92.6 93.3 94.7 95.6 1991 97.3 97.5 97.1 96.6 95.9 94.8 94.5 94.7 94.1 95.8 96.5 97.4 1992 97.2 97.2 96.3 95.6 94.1 92.8 93.1 92.7 94.1 95.0 97.0 97.4 1993 97.3 97.4 96.5 96.3 94.6 96.2 95.0 93.4 93.4 95.4 97.1 98.1 1994 98.1 98.3 98.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 95.2 94.1 95.2 96.2 96.5 97.8 1995 97.9 98.5 97.8 96.7 95.9 96.2

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 75.8 74.5 76.0 71.7 64.9 47.6 51.7 50.8 57.5 64.4 69.5 73.5 1990 73.1 74.0 74.5 72.3 67.4 58.1 49.6 51.5 52.2 62.1 70.1 74.6 1991 73.0 72.2 72.4 67.3 62.1 51.2 44.3 41.2 47.5 60.1 87.2 70.0 1992 73.7 74.5 71.4 70.5 66.6 55.5 48.5 51.6 49.9 61.1 68.6 73.1 1993 74.5 72.3 72.6 68.0 63.7 51.6 50.5 54.4 50.9 63.1 68.1 73.1 1994 73.7 71.6 70.8 66.3 60.1 45.7 41.7 42.3 45.4 55.4 63.4 69.8 1995 72.5 72.2 71.2 68.0 61.5 45.8

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.4 93.9 94.4 93.2 90.7 85.8 86.1 90.5 86.9 88.8 90.3 92.3 1990 93.7 90.7 89.2 88.2 82.5 77.4 70.9 70.8 72.6 74.8 83.8 85.9 1991 90.8 91.1 89.1 82.1 79.0 75.4 71.1 72.2 75.1 75.6 85.9 88.5 1992 89.7 90.1 89.1 88.1 82.7 80.6 71.9 75.8 74.5 76.1 81.0 87.2 1993 87.5 89.2 89.8 88.1 78.0 74.7 72.2 69.2 74.3 73.4 82.3 85.9 1994 88.8 87.2 87.6 85.1 79.0 75.0 70.2 70.0 68.2 70.2 77.0 82.0 1995 87.0 88.9 87.2 83.3 80.9 75.0

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.9 98.8 98.6 97.4 96.8 96.4 96.3 96.3 97.5 97.9 98.1 1990 97.9 97.8 97.6 98.6 96.9 98.4 96.3 95.8 93.3 96.9 97.6 99.6 1991 98.5 98.1 98.0 97.7 97.8 96.9 95.8 95.8 95.8 96.3 96.5 97.2 1992 97.1 98.0 96.7 96.5 96.6 94.9 95.4 96.8 90.6 92.0 92.8 94.6 1993 95.4 94.0 94.9 93.9 94.9 91.1 91.2 91.2 87.5 88.8 91.5 93.5 1994 92.7 93.0 92.7 91.8 91.9 89.6 88.7 87.8 87.5 89.0 91.2 93.1 1995 93.0 92.5 92.5 91.9 92.0 90.1

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.8 96.5 97.1 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.7 98.8 98.1 98.5 1990 95.6 95.3 94.1 93.2 92.3 89.6 96.9 94.2 93.0 90.2 89.9 93.5 1991 93.6 93.3 91.8 87.9 85.4 88.2 96.4 95.2 85.8 86.1 90.5 91.4 1992 91.7 91.6 89.9 90.9 88.7 81.7 85.6 83.6 80.5 84.5 87.1 90.9 1993 94.1 94.7 94.5 93.4 89.5 88.4 88.1 87.8 82.9 85.2 84.8 92.0 1994 88.2 88.9 85.8 82.3 79.2 72.9 75.9 77.8 65.1 62.2 73.5 80.7 1995 81.4 80.6 79.2 79.8 76.0 71.8

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 96.9 95.0 94.2 94.3 92.7 91.7 91.2 96.2 97.2 98.8 1990 99.1 99.4 97.7 97.0 96.4 96.7 95.7 95.0 95.1 96.8 98.4 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 94.3 92.2 90.6 87.2 84.0 85.2 79.5 84.3 82.2 89.0 1992 90.6 89.5 88.3 87.2 83.7 84.0 84.8 81.4 82.7 88.9 88.5 95.4 1993 97.0 96.0 94.3 91.0 92.5 90.6 89.7 86.7 89.6 89.7 90.9 93.5 1994 93.8 89.3 86.1 81.3 80.1 79.6 76.4 74.5 76.4 73.9 76.7 81.4 1995 81.5 83.2 77.4 78.9 77.1 76.5

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 90.4 90.1 89.3 85.0 85.4 81.3 78.6 78.2 73.6 74.8 82.4 89.7 1990 90.5 92.3 85.6 85.3 78.9 77.8 80.2 80.1 76.5 75.8 80.7 81.5 1991 86.2 85.4 84.4 81.0 75.8 72.8 76.8 75.1 73.1 75.0 79.5 81.1 1992 81.0 78.9 79.5 77.3 72.4 70.9 72.9 69.3 69.3 76.0 82.6 81.5 1993 81.4 81.5 82.3 77.8 71.3 66.2 69.1 72.1 72.8 74.1 77.9 77.2 1994 83.7 83.4 83.3 77.7 73.4 73.2 74.7 73.4 75.1 76.4 78.0 81.9 1995 80.8 82.8 79.3 76.3 71.7 66.5

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.4 88.1 87.1 86.0 81.2 74.4 75.5 75.0 78.9 85.1 87.8 90.3 1990 89.9 89.2 89.9 86.4 82.4 78.5 77.0 75.6 77.7 83.0 87.9 91.4 1991 91.6 90.0 87.2 83.6 78.6 74.7 75.5 73.7 75.6 82.6 87.8 89.8 1992 89.1 88.0 88.4 85.7 78.9 73.9 72.0 73.5 73.1 84.2 85.7 88.5 1993 89.4 87.0 86.9 83.8 76.1 73.9 74.6 69.4 72.6 82.8 84.5 86.3 1994 87.4 86.5 84.9 78.4 75.9 70.5 66.7 67.5 66.5 75.1 78.7 81.5 1995 81.0 80.0 78.6 76.8 67.8 61.4

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.7 90.2 91.7 87.9 89.1 86.6 86.7 85.0 86.8 86.5 89.1 91.2 1990 94.8 93.2 92.0 93.2 92.6 90.6 89.1 89.5 88.5 87.8 89.9 90.6 1991 94.6 95.1 92.9 91.4 90.3 88.7 87.1 85.6 86.8 81.2 87.6 90.6 1992 91.6 92.3 87.7 90.9 85.4 84.1 80.2 85.7 84.3 85.3 86.9 88.1 1993 91.8 92.0 91.7 90.9 89.1 83.1 80.5 82.2 83.4 83.1 91.5 91.9 1994 90.7 93.8 93.1 89.6 88.0 81.3 74.6 73.8 76.1 78.1 85.0 91.2 1995 90.7 89.8 89.7 85.3 84.9 79.3

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 99.2 98.7 98.3 97.6 97.6 97.0 97.2 97.4 96.7 97.3 98.0 1990 98.2 98.6 98.4 97.4 97.4 97.5 96.6 96.6 96.9 95.6 96.5 98.1 1991 98.7 98.3 97.8 97.7 97.5 98.0 97.3 97.2 97.2 95.9 97.6 98.0 1992 98.6 98.4 97.4 97.7 97.7 97.8 97.9 96.7 97.8 94.6 97.4 98.4 1993 98.6 99.0 98.5 98.0 97.6 97.8 97.6 97.5 97.3 93.6 96.5 98.2 1994 98.5 98.6 98.3 97.4 97.6 97.7 98.1 97.7 97.9 97.0 97.8 98.6 1995 98.5 98.5 98.2 98.2 97.9 97.8

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.2 92.4 93.7 92.5 90.6 89.6 93.3 91.2 83.1 87.3 87.9 93.2 1990 91.1 90.1 83.9 90.5 90.3 92.3 90.3 90.7 89.1 87.4 88.0 91.5 1991 92.1 91.3 91.8 92.1 87.7 91.4 91.1 90.4 87.3 80.7 84.8 87.6 1992 86.9 85.6 83.4 83.6 79.5 77.8 77.0 75.9 71.9 72.4 75.3 78.6 1993 85.5 86.7 85.6 85.2 80.1 81.0 82.7 85.1 80.7 81.1 84.2 84.0 1994 82.1 81.6 84.0 83.6 73.8 81.6 88.8 82.6 83.3 75.1 78.9 89.0 1995 72.8 71.3 73.6 70.2 55.0 72.7

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.4 98.1 97.1 96.4 96.4 93.9 94.1 95.4 93.3 96.4 97.9 1990 97.2 95.9 90.6 86.6 94.2 93.9 94.1 91.9 92.0 92.9 92.5 93.7 1991 95.9 96.9 95.2 93.6 91.8 90.8 91.3 89.5 90.2 92.6 90.9 93.5 1992 94.6 93.3 93.7 91.7 88.9 88.4 86.9 85.9 83.8 89.9 86.6 90.3 1993 90.2 91.8 89.8 87.6 90.1 87.6 85.4 77.2 85.9 79.8 88.8 93.2 1994 95.2 97.2 92.5 82.7 85.1 76.7 82.4 72.9 72.9 76.1 79.4 86.1 1995 90.8 90.0 88.7 77.6 76.2 74.7

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 26.4 25.4 21.7 22.1 19.5 21.1 21.0 21.8 21.4 20.8 22.1 21.9 2002 24.1 22.3 22.5 20.1 18.3 19.6 20.7 21.4 20.0 21.4 24.2 23.5 2003 22.3 22.2 23.9 21.3 20.5 20.8 21.8 18.1 19.7 19.6 21.6 22.3 2004 22.6 23.2 21.9 19.9 20.2 20.8 19.1 19.9 19.1 19.7 20.2 21.8 2005 22.9 23.8 21.3 23.1 23.1 22.6 24.8 22.8 26.3 23.5 23.2 26.2 2006 22.8 23.1 22.4 24.1 23.9 22.2 22.5 23.0 23.4 24.5 24.6 25.6 2007 24.1 24.8 24.4 23.9 24.8 23.9

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 10.8 29.0 19.8 13.0 14.8 20.4 15.1 11.6 14.2 11.7 14.9 16.3 2002 18.4 19.6 20.4 17.5 21.7 15.6 11.9 9.9 8.0 8.6 10.6 10.3 2003 11.8 16.2 16.3 23.7 21.2 13.2 16.1 11.2 12.5 21.3 14.0 15.5 2004 10.7 11.4 12.2 12.8 9.4 14.4 11.1 12.1 11.5 12.2 10.9 12.8 2005 9.4 13.1 14.7 14.0 10.2 13.3 12.8 10.9 13.5 11.5 12.4 12.5 2006 10.7 9.8 9.6 11.0 8.9 6.2 7.6 7.5 8.5 9.3 8.3 10.7 2007 9.7 14.7 14.4 12.2 8.5 9.2 8.1 8.2 9.2 7.1 8.8

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 6.1 4.5 3.5 4.7 5.9 3.6 1.9 2.9 2.5 2.5 3.3 4.0 2002 4.1 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.5 4.2 3.2 3.5 3.9 3.4 3.8 4.4 2003 4.2 5.9 4.4 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.3 2.6 3.7 3.2 4.4 3.3 2004 4.6 3.8 4.2 3.3 3.3 3.7 2.9 3.2 4.4 3.3 4.1 3.6 2005 2.7 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.6 2006 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.3 2.4 5.3 2.9 3.0 2.4 4.2 3.1 2007 2.6 3.1 3.5 2.3 2.9 4.0 2.8 2.6 3.6 2.5 3.7 3.6 2008 2.9 3.3 3.4 2.5 2.9 2.4 2.8 2.5 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.3

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.1 24.7 21.2 18.5 19.8 19.2 17.1 18.0 16.4 17.5 19.5 19.7 2002 20.2 20.6 21.4 19.5 18.0 19.2 17.7 17.9 18.5 18.2 19.4 19.5 2003 16.7 19.1 17.2 16.0 16.8 14.4 12.6 13.4 14.2 15.3 16.5 18.0 2004 18.2 17.2 17.4 15.5 14.9 15.8 15.9 15.1 15.6 13.9 14.0 22.4 2005 19.9 18.4 15.9 17.9 13.7 14.6 12.9 15.6 19.7 18.7 19.4 18.3 2006 18.3 25.0 17.2 12.5 12.7 16.7 15.2 16.2 15.7 18.0 17.8 17.0 2007 17.2 19.3 17.9 18.7 16.7 16.6

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.3 3.2 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.8 2.3 2002 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.5 0.9 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.4 1.6 1.3 2.3 2003 2.2 2.5 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.6 2.0 2.2 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.1 2004 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.5 2.5 3.2 2005 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.4 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.7 2.4 3.0 2006 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 2.0 2.3 2.6 2007 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.4 2008 2.2 2.3 2.4 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.1

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.3 14.6 11.7 8.9 7.1 6.7 5.8 6.1 7.5 8.7 10.3 12.1 2002 11.2 11.2 11.1 10.3 7.6 7.2 3.9 5.4 6.6 9.4 10.7 12.6 2003 13.4 13.4 12.9 9.2 7.9 6.9 5.7 7.6 5.3 9.1 10.5 10.6 2004 13.5 12.0 9.7 8.1 5.8 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.0 8.3 10.4 11.5 2005 12.9 11.8 10.7 8.2 6.0 4.7 6.3 6.0 6.8 10.6 11.6 12.5 2006 12.3 11.9 11.1 8.8 7.4 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.6 8.5 7.7 9.6 2007 11.5 12.7 12.8 10.6 10.3 7.8 6.0 5.4 6.4 7.5 7.7 10.4 2008 11.7 12.9 12.9

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.1 14.0 7.1 7.1 4.2 3.7 5.2 1.0 5.5 8.3 6.6 10.2 2002 8.4 8.1 10.1 6.4 5.3 6.2 5.3 5.9 6.6 12.5 12.6 12.4 2003 14.2 12.9 8.9 7.2 7.0 5.9 6.2 5.7 9.3 6.2 11.3 9.3 2004 9.2 8.9 8.9 6.9 6.4 6.2 6.9 6.5 7.3 7.9 10.4 11.6 2005 9.8 7.7 9.6 5.8 6.3 5.5 5.5 6.7 8.2 8.2 10.6 8.9 2006 8.2 9.3 7.4 4.3 7.0 5.0 6.4 5.9 6.3 8.2 8.3 8.4 2007 9.3 9.4 5.8 7.6 6.1 5.5 6.0 5.0 6.9 6.8 9.5 9.1 2008 8.4 7.5 7.0 6.7 5.5 4.5 4.7 4.7 5.3

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.9 7.8 9.4 18.1 21.2 16.4 7.7 7.9 4.4 2002 5.0 5.1 6.6 13.0 12.4 16.1 22.4 18.5 11.6 5.7 4.3 4.3 2003 2.4 3.4 3.2 8.2 11.0 6.9 14.8 21.1 9.1 5.3 5.0 3.1 2004 2.7 2.8 4.6 10.3 9.4 14.0 13.4 11.0 9.2 2.6 2.4 2.3 2005 1.7 1.4 1.4 3.2 6.6 8.2 16.3 19.2 9.0 3.8 2.5 1.7 2006 1.7 2.0 3.2 5.7 9.4 12.9 16.2 16.9 9.4 3.6 2.1 2.1 2007 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.4 4.9 9.8 16.2 17.3 9.6 4.0 2.8 1.7 2008 1.6 1.5 2.7 7.5 10.4 13.4

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.3 21.8 18.9 13.8 17.8 15.8 17.4 17.4 17.3 19.6 16.5 16.9 2002 16.8 18.2 18.9 17.2 15.5 16.5 18.0 19.1 16.3 18.0 18.8 18.4 2003 20.6 20.1 18.7 19.5 19.2 20.3 16.6 16.0 18.1 18.2 18.1 18.4 2004 18.8 18.3 16.3 16.0 14.6 16.6 16.2 15.2 15.5 15.6 17.5 20.3 2005 16.5 17.5 17.3 16.0 15.8 15.2 16.1 14.9 17.4 17.9 17.2 19.7 2006 15.6 16.9 17.6 14.8 14.9 14.2 16.0 15.7 14.6 15.7 15.5 17.6 2007 16.6 18.1 17.0 17.7 16.1 17.5

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.4 11.4 9.7 7.2 6.7 4.5 9.7 6.3 6.3 7.0 6.6 10.3 2002 10.3 11.3 13.0 5.3 5.8 6.0 4.5 5.8 4.3 6.9 7.1 11.9 2003 10.5 13.2 11.4 9.1 7.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 7.1 12.1 11.9 12.9 2004 11.2 10.7 8.8 9.1 6.4 4.7 5.0 5.6 7.2 7.2 9.4 10.9 2005 11.3 11.5 11.3 9.8 5.5 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.2 6.2 9.4 10.7 2006 8.7 10.4 8.9 6.1 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.9 6.5 5.8 7.7 9.2 2007 13.1 13.7 11.0 9.9 6.1 3.7 4.5 3.8 6.9 3.5 8.4 10.4 2008 9.5 10.4 7.5 6.6 4.7 3.1

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 18.6 17.2 15.3 13.3 9.0 5.7 5.4 5.8 6.0 7.3 9.9 12.0 2002 14.4 13.3 14.0 11.4 8.1 5.7 4.3 5.2 3.9 6.5 10.9 17.6 2003 15.4 14.6 15.1 11.9 8.7 5.9 6.1 3.8 6.7 6.9 9.6 14.4 2004 14.6 15.9 18.0 11.4 7.4 5.7 5.0 4.9 5.0 6.1 9.2 13.3 2005 14.3 17.0 15.8 10.7 8.1 5.3 4.0 3.8 4.6 7.2 9.8 13.8 2006 15.4 16.4 13.5 10.8 7.3 5.1 3.8 4.5 5.2 7.0 10.6 13.6 2007 14.8 17.3 16.9 13.5 11.5 8.4 6.3 6.0 6.2 7.4 11.4 16.6 2008 16.4 17.4

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.6 17.3 19.1 14.4 11.1 10.2 9.5 8.1 9.5 10.2 12.4 32.9 2002 21.7 26.8 26.8 15.8 10.2 9.8 9.3 9.8 10.9 9.0 14.0 18.7 2003 18.8 21.0 19.0 13.6 12.1 12.4 12.5 8.8 10.3 11.1 13.1 16.8 2004 17.4 20.0 16.1 14.7 11.4 10.1 9.6 9.7 10.5 11.0 12.6 15.4 2005 20.1 18.4 16.4 13.9 11.9 9.6 10.1 9.4 10.5 11.2 13.0 17.9 2006 17.2 17.0 14.8 13.7 10.5 10.2 9.9 9.6 10.2 10.8 13.2 16.7 2007 15.4 18.5 16.7 12.3 10.6 10.1 9.7 8.4 8.7 10.3

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.3 1.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.9 3.0 2002 3.0 2.9 3.6 2.3 2.0 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.1 2.1 3.4 2003 2.9 2.8 3.3 2.1 1.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 1.2 1.6 2004 1.8 2.4 1.9 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.8 2.4 2005 3.1 2.9 2.2 2.3 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.3 2006 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6 1.0 2007 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 2008 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.9

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.7 29.6 30.3 21.0 19.7 16.7 8.3 12.9 13.3 18.6 12.0 18.7 2002 22.6 19.5 29.3 17.6 15.0 24.0 7.4 8.4 8.8 16.4 18.9 19.6 2003 20.3 22.7 24.9 19.3 17.1 24.1 8.7 9.7 10.9 15.7 17.7 19.4 2004 19.7 21.4 24.7 19.0 18.3 14.2 9.2 10.6 16.5 18.8 16.0 16.6 2005 24.4 20.0 24.6 18.5 19.0 18.2 10.0 8.6 12.9 15.1 14.2 18.3 2006 13.8 15.1 17.1 13.3 13.0 9.8 8.3 7.7 10.5 11.5 10.2 12.4 2007 12.1 13.0 14.5 11.6 9.7 8.9 7.1 6.4 6.9 9.8

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 32.2 25.0 16.8 19.7 13.2 12.9 38.9 31.5 31.7 41.7 48.4 68.2 2002 58.3 44.3 59.1 37.8 44.2 40.0 17.5 18.2 19.5 21.2 23.0 28.8 2003 25.6 28.9 20.3 22.8 14.8 13.2 13.6 11.9 12.5 15.8 23.9 21.7 2004 21.4 23.6 14.9 15.1 12.4 11.3 10.7 11.5 13.4 15.9 20.9 22.6 2005 24.3 25.3 17.8 18.4 14.8 14.1 9.6 12.3 13.6 15.9 18.3 19.5 2006 20.9 21.8 22.3 14.7 14.8 11.9 11.7 10.6 11.5 16.9 16.6 23.7 2007 22.1 26.8 17.9 16.6 14.8 11.6

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 13.3 14.8 13.4 11.3 10.4 10.0 9.2 10.2 4.2 4.8 15.5 9.7 2002 12.2 12.1 11.1 11.1 11.9 10.9 9.4 10.4 13.5 7.7 9.4 11.2 2003 11.5 11.6 12.1 10.9 10.9 12.3 10.5 12.0 8.0 5.8 10.5 10.1 2004 12.4 13.5 11.5 13.0 11.1 11.5 9.3 8.7 8.0 7.6 8.7 9.8 2005 17.0 16.9 17.4 14.3 10.2 11.1 15.9 16.5 14.3 11.9 12.4 14.8 2006 14.8 14.0 11.5 9.6 7.6 11.4 11.0 9.9 9.6 10.8 13.6 13.7 2007 13.5 18.5 12.7 13.3 10.1 7.8 10.2 9.0 11.0 9.7 11.2

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.2 13.8 16.8 8.2 5.8 5.5 1.1 4.7 8.0 12.1 13.4 17.9 2002 9.8 10.6 12.6 10.1 7.4 4.8 5.1 5.2 6.7 11.6 14.4 13.2 2003 35.1 44.0 60.0 30.9 17.9 17.7 25.0 32.3 22.3 25.2 44.1 87.2 2004 54.7 46.4 57.3 56.1 36.3 16.0 13.5 58.7 63.2 58.6 55.3 53.4 2005 25.1 17.0 17.7 14.7 9.6 4.4 10.3 15.1 51.6 58.4 45.9 23.2 2006 26.1 18.4 28.8 53.1 58.6 61.2 13.1 13.9 43.4 56.3 52.6 19.1 2007 26.6 28.8 24.7 58.5 61.4 46.9 11.0 38.6

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 13.1 9.8 10.4 6.2 3.9 3.4 1.5 4.8 1.2 2.9 5.6 6.4 2002 5.4 6.2 5.4 4.8 1.9 1.7 1.6 2.1 2.5 2.3 4.9 6.7 2003 6.3 7.0 5.4 4.0 1.8 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.6 2004 5.1 5.7 4.0 3.8 2.1 2.3 1.7 2.3 2.2 2.7 3.4 4.5 2005 5.7 6.6 4.5 2.6 2.0 1.6 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.6 3.3 4.8 2006 4.6 4.7 4.0 2.7 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2 3.0 3.5 2007 3.9 4.8 3.5 2.6 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.4 1.5 1.2 2.2 3.7 2008 3.9 4.2 3.5 2.5 1.1 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.6 2.7 4.1

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 9.5 7.8 6.3 4.6 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.0 3.3 3.3 2002 5.2 6.1 5.0 3.4 2.4 2.0 1.5 2.7 2.7 1.4 2.9 3.8 2003 3.2 4.0 5.9 2.4 1.4 2.8 2.3 1.3 0.4 1.3 1.4 2.3 2004 2.5 3.0 2.6 1.1 1.1 0.7 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.1 2.2 2005 2.6 2.4 1.8 5.3 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.1 2.0 2006 2.0 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.2 2007 1.7 1.9 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.1 2008 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.8

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.2 17.0 18.7 20.3 20.5 20.7 23.5 26.8 24.2 21.1 20.6 21.4 2002 18.9 20.8 20.3 19.3 12.6 11.1 10.1 8.9 10.8 11.5 12.6 12.8 2003 13.8 14.3 13.8 12.7 16.1 16.2 15.5 15.6 19.2 21.1 24.5 25.4 2004 25.1 24.3 24.2 23.3 21.8 22.9 22.6 22.1 23.8 23.5 31.1 33.4 2005 34.3 34.3 32.7 31.0 30.2 30.1 31.4 32.1 33.6 35.0 34.8 38.2 2006 36.0 36.3 35.1 26.5 25.4 24.3 23.2 21.2 21.6 20.5 21.5 24.0 2007 23.6 24.3 22.9 21.8 20.8 21.8

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 41.4 29.5 26.1 37.6 29.0 29.3 26.0 26.2 22.4 26.8 29.3 13.6 2002 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 2003 15.7 18.9 21.5 19.6 26.7 11.7 16.8 18.8 18.6 22.1 18.5 22.3 2004 13.9 16.7 14.5 16.8 21.1 11.7 16.7 15.3 16.0 19.4 10.5 23.0 2005 17.8 14.7 15.9 11.0 16.3 16.5 12.9 13.8 16.3 13.2 16.5 19.7 2006 18.6 18.7 16.4 15.0 12.5 13.3 8.8 10.5 11.4 12.8 10.5 15.7 2007 13.0 19.0 15.1 12.7 10.1 14.3

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 51.1 54.8 52.4 50.8 35.1 32.7 28.6 26.5 24.1 33.3 45.5 44.5 2002 16.4 18.6 13.2 18.4 14.1 10.7 9.5 9.0 19.5 27.6 30.6 34.9 2003 26.3 24.4 27.3 26.0 23.9 22.4 24.7 23.3 25.3 24.8 26.8 29.1 2004 29.0 28.5 30.0 24.4 26.1 28.2 22.6 27.6 24.8 27.2 33.3 31.0 2005 28.5 28.0 33.6 26.7 31.6 26.1 28.9 31.7 27.8 30.4 33.3 35.8 2006 38.6 36.4 37.5 31.3 39.2 30.3 27.6 30.1 27.8 31.5 33.7 35.4 2007 33.8 31.8 31.3 15.2 16.2 12.1

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 35.8 35.7 33.7 34.2 32.9 34.2 36.5 34.8 37.5 36.0 35.1 34.5 2002 30.8 32.1 30.6 50.7 45.4 50.5 49.5 46.5 46.3 43.4 43.8 44.8 2003 40.1 39.5 39.1 39.5 39.8 36.1 50.7 46.2 49.0 47.8 47.2 48.2 2004 48.4 49.3 46.7 49.4 49.0 51.9 51.3 49.9 47.4 46.0 46.6 48.9 2005 58.7 57.0 56.9 55.8 55.8 54.9 56.8 55.0 52.5 49.7 51.1 49.5 2006 52.1 52.1 54.8 55.6 55.3 54.7 58.1 57.4 54.1 57.9 56.5 55.6 2007 52.7 51.6 52.4 53.0 54.2 56.0

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.9 9.2 10.7 10.1 9.5 9.5 10.1 11.5 9.4 9.2 11.0 13.8 2002 14.0 13.8 12.6 15.8 13.0 13.4 12.1 13.6 13.5 12.8 15.0 13.7 2003 14.5 14.6 13.1 14.9 14.1 13.2 11.8 12.7 13.8 13.9 13.2 13.1 2004 13.8 15.2 13.3 14.6 12.7 12.7 18.4 46.5 26.9 24.3 23.4 23.8 2005 18.4 18.6 18.4 17.7 18.6 21.3 20.0 21.2 21.3 21.5 18.3 19.9 2006 22.3 23.2 22.5 24.0 24.0 24.7 24.2 13.9 13.4 15.3 15.8 16.0 2007 14.4 13.6 14.4 14.6 13.3 12.7 14.5

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 95.2 80.1 79.2 79.2 69.2 67.8 65.6 67.7 70.7 73.3 76.0 79.0 2002 77.7 78.3 78.6 78.2 72.6 66.8 66.7 65.1 66.8 72.6 76.2 85.5 2003 87.3 100.0 100.0 75.7 74.2 72.4 75.0 67.7 70.4 73.2 77.4 80.1 2004 79.9 84.7 80.7 82.2 78.6 73.8 70.0 68.3 69.2 76.4 82.1 83.7 2005 83.6 86.4 82.6 78.0 74.4 71.5 72.1 83.9 94.3 82.4 75.7 96.4 2006 93.0 87.6 82.4 77.2 73.3 72.9 71.7 69.7 71.5 76.3 75.1 79.5 2007 83.0 84.1 81.8 76.2 72.2 71.7

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.4 24.1 20.8 18.6 13.3 23.5 10.9 12.9 15.0 24.1 11.2 15.4 2002 16.8 19.7 18.3 14.0 14.1 10.8 10.7 11.0 13.2 16.0 19.3 22.9 2003 25.6 22.5 16.5 23.9 12.9 9.1 13.4 19.6 12.6 17.7 17.9 17.0 2004 21.5 18.8 18.7 16.8 14.9 11.2 15.6 14.5 8.9 15.1 16.1 21.1 2005 18.3 21.6 18.1 19.3 15.7 16.6 9.5 11.6 16.0 18.7 21.5 20.0 2006 21.6 17.0 16.0 13.2 13.8 10.4 9.5 8.0 12.7 14.5 16.0 15.7 2007 17.0 20.0 17.1 17.2 15.4 9.5 10.3

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.8 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.2 1.8 2002 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.6 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.1 2.5 2003 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 2.2 2.0 2004 2.0 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.7 1.7 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.4 2005 2.8 5.0 5.8 4.5 4.1 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.8 4.2 4.4 2006 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.3 2.7 2.2 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 3.7 2007 4.3 4.1 3.4 3.7 2.8 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.3 3.3 2008 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.9 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.7 2.5 3.0 3.6 3.9

  16. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Haverhill, MA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  18. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  19. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  1. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  5. Sandia Energy - More Energy with Less Weight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Energy with Less Weight Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy More Energy with Less Weight Previous Next More Energy with Less Weight The following is from an article...

  6. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  8. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19,...

  9. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from the testing, there would be a significant increase in the CR. Specifically, the CR for an agitated 1-wt% pure oxalic acid solution at 45 or 75 C was about 4 to 10 times greater than those for a 1-wt% solution with sludge. For 8-wt% at 50 C, the effect was even larger. The lower CRs suggest that the cathodic reactions were altered by the sludge. For both the 1-wt% and 8-wt% solution, increasing the temperature did not result in an increased CR. Although the CR for a 1-wt% acid with sludge was considered to be non-temperature dependent, a stagnant solution with sludge resulted in a CR that was greater at 45 C than at 75 C, suggesting that the oxalate film formed at a higher temperature was better in mitigating corrosion. For both a 1 and an 8-wt% solution, agitation typically resulted in a higher CR. Overall, the testing showed that the general CR to the SRS carbon steel tanks from 1-wt% oxalic acid solution will remain bounded by those from an 8-wt% oxalic acid solution.

  10. Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.; Gamberg, L.; Mirazita, M.; Musch, B.; Prokudin, A.; Rossi, P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Montemore » Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.« less

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  12. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  13. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  14. Process for selection of Oxygen-tolerant algal mutants that produce H.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; Seibert, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising: (a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase; (b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature; (c) treating the cells from step (b) with metronidazole, sodium azide, and added oxygen to controlled concentrations in the presence of white light. (d) washing off metronidazole and sodium azide to obtain final cell suspension; (e) plating said final cell suspension on a minimal medium and incubating in light at a temperature sufficient to enable colonies to appear; (f) counting the number of colonies to determine the percent of mutant survivors; and (g) testing survivors to identify oxygen-tolerant H.sub.2 -producing mutants.

  15. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  16. Fact #621: May 3, 2010 Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The gross weight of a vehicle (GVW) is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the weight of the maximum payload that the vehicle was designed to carry. In cars and small light trucks, the difference...

  17. Sandia Inverter Performance Test Protocol Efficiency Weighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverter Performance Test Protocol Efficiency Weighting Alternatives Jeff Newmiller , ... Abstract-The Sandia Inverter Performance Test Protocol defined two possible ...

  18. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  19. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  20. The mechanisms of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and evolution reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries A mechanistic understanding of the oxygen reductionevolution reaction in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. ...

  1. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{sub 2} capture on an existing air-fired CFB plant. ALSTOM received a contract award from the DOE to conduct a project entitled 'Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control', under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42205 that is the subject of this topical report.

  2. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a final dense tissue segmentation that is used to compute breast PD%. Our method is validated on a group of 81 women for whom bilateral, mediolateral oblique, raw and processed screening digital mammograms were available, and agreement is assessed with both continuous and categorical density estimates made by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Results: Strong association between algorithm-estimated and radiologist-provided breast PD% was detected for both raw (r= 0.82, p < 0.001) and processed (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) digital mammograms on a per-breast basis. Stronger agreement was found when overall breast density was assessed on a per-woman basis for both raw (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) and processed (0.89, p < 0.001) mammograms. Strong agreement between categorical density estimates was also seen (weighted Cohen's {kappa}{>=} 0.79). Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the PD% estimates (p > 0.1) due to either presentation of the image (raw vs processed) or method of PD% assessment (radiologist vs algorithm). Conclusions: The proposed fully automated algorithm was successful in estimating breast percent density from both raw and processed digital mammographic images. Accurate assessment of a woman's breast density is critical in order for the estimate to be incorporated into risk assessment models. These results show promise for the clinical application of the algorithm in quantifying breast density in a repeatable manner, both at time of imaging as well as in retrospective studies.

  3. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  4. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  5. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  6. Task-based weights for photon counting spectral x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornefalk, Hans

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a framework for taking the spatial frequency composition of an imaging task into account when determining optimal bin weight factors for photon counting energy sensitive x-ray systems. A second purpose of the investigation is to evaluate the possible improvement compared to using pixel based weights. Methods: The Fourier based approach of imaging performance and detectability index d' is applied to pulse height discriminating photon counting systems. The dependency of d' on the bin weight factors is made explicit, taking into account both differences in signal and noise transfer characteristics across bins and the spatial frequency dependency of interbin correlations from reabsorbed scatter. Using a simplified model of a specific silicon detector, d' values for a high and a low frequency imaging task are determined for optimal weights and compared to pixel based weights. Results: The method successfully identifies bins where a large point spread function degrades detection of high spatial frequency targets. The method is also successful in determining how to downweigh highly correlated bins. Quantitative predictions for the simplified silicon detector model indicate that improvements in the detectability index when applying task-based weights instead of pixel based weights are small for high frequency targets, but could be in excess of 10% for low frequency tasks where scatter-induced correlation otherwise degrade detectability. Conclusions: The proposed method makes the spatial frequency dependency of complex correlation structures between bins and their effect on the system detective quantum efficiency easier to analyze and allows optimizing bin weights for given imaging tasks. A potential increase in detectability of double digit percents in silicon detector systems operated at typical CT energies (100 kVp) merits further evaluation on a real system. The method is noted to be of higher relevance for silicon detectors than for cadmium (zink) telluride detectors.

  7. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

  8. Guidance for growth factors, projections, and control strategies for the 15 percent rate-of-progress plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 182(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (Act) requires all ozone nonattainment areas classified as moderate and above to submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision by November 15, 1993, which describes, in part, how the areas will achieve an actual volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions reduction of at least 15 percent during the first 6 years after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). In addition, the SIP revision must describe how any growth in emissions from 1990 through 1996 will be fully offset. It is important to note that section 182(b)(1) also requires the SIP for moderate areas to provide for reductions in VOC and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as necessary to attain the national primary ambient air quality standard for ozone by November 15, 1996. The guidance document focuses on the procedures for developing 1996 projected emissions inventories and control measures which moderate and above ozone nonattainment areas must include in their rate-of-progress plans. The document provides technical guidance to support the policy presented in the 'General Preamble: Implementation of Title I of the CAAA of 1990' (57 FR 13498).

  9. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  11. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Sander, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  12. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  13. Validation of MCNP with X6.XS cross-section set on the SUN Sparc Station 1+ computer for nominally 5 weight percent {sup 235}U enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, K.D.

    1994-09-01

    The national Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project has conducted extensive nuclear criticality safety analyses both in the design of Uranium Demonstration System (UDS) equipment and in AVLIS plant design/plant deployment activities. Currently, the design limit of an AVLIS plant calls for uranium product enriched in {sup 235}U to 5 wt %. Since an objective of an AVLIS plant is to deliver its product in a form readily usable by customers, uranium enriched in {sup 235}U will appear in a variety of forms, including metallic; as oxides, e.g., UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}; as fluorides, e.g., UF{sub 6}, UF{sub 4}, UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}; as nitrates or nitrides, e.g., UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}; and perhaps as uranium salts mixed with hydrocarbons such as oil. A wide range of neutron moderation levels, ranging from zero to optimal, and beyond can also be anticipated in an AVLIS plant, because of decontamination and cleaning activities and other wet chemistry processes that may be required.

  14. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  15. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Radoslav Adzic Co-workers: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Stoyan Bliznakov, Yun Cai, Yu Zhang, ...

  16. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Schiller Park, Illinois Zip: 60176 Product: Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References: Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

  17. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  18. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

  19. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  1. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  2. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  3. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  4. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  5. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  6. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1998-01-01

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  7. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  8. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  9. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion; Industrial Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the combustion air or vacuum pressure swing adsorption units to remove some of the ... the cost of oxygen or of the vacuum pressure swing adsorption unit in the calculations. ...

  10. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  11. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-03-27 OSTI Identifier: 1126640 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28233 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 247th ACS National

  12. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of

  13. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  14. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)." PDF icon BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Contiguous Platinum

  15. LightWeight KerneL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catamount n-Way LightWeight KerneL 1 R&D 100 Entry Catamount n-Way LightWeight KerneL 2 R&D 100 Entry Submitting organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1319 USA Ron Brightwell Phone: (505) 844-2099 Fax: (505) 845-7442 rbbrigh@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate representation of this product. _____________________________ Ron Brightwell Joint entry

  16. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

  17. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

  18. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  19. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & ...

  20. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction ...

  1. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  2. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for ...

  3. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with ...

  4. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  5. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel ...

  6. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable...

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

  8. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell

  9. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  10. The Light-Weight Group Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-07-02

    The Light-Weight Group (LWGRP) bibrary provides data structures and collective routines to define and operate on groups of MPI processes. Groups can be created and freed efficiently in O(log N) time space requiring less overhead that constructing full MPI communicators. This facilitates faster development of applications and libraries that need to rapidly create, use, and destroy process groups.

  11. Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Weight Effects on Particle ...

  12. Process for selection of oxygen-tolerant algal mutants that produce H{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Seibert, M.

    1999-02-16

    A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing algal mutant cells comprises: (a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase; (b) inducing algal cells grown photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas and (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature; (c) treating the cells from step (b) with metronidazole, sodium azide, and added oxygen to controlled concentrations in the presence of white light; (d) washing off metronidazole and sodium azide to obtain final cell suspension; (e) plating said final cell suspension on a minimal medium and incubating in light at a temperature sufficient to enable colonies to appear; (f) counting the number of colonies to determine the percent of mutant survivors; and (g) testing survivors to identify oxygen-tolerant H{sub 2}-producing mutants. 5 figs.

  13. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-02-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  14. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  15. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  16. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  17. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

  18. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  19. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.

    1984-01-01

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  20. Method for fabricating light weight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Lewis, Jr., John

    1989-01-01

    Ultralight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites of densities in the range of about 0.04 to 0.10 grams per cubic centimeter are fabricated by forming an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous fibers which include carbonized fibers and 0-50 weight percent fugitive fibers and a particulate thermosetting resin precursor. The slurry is brought into contact with a perforated mandrel and the water is drained from the slurry through the perforations at a controlled flow rate of about 0.03 to 0.30 liters per minutes per square inch of mandrel surface. The deposited billet of fibers and resin precursor is heated to cure the resin precursor to bind the fibers together, removed from the mandrel, and then the resin and fugitive fibers, if any, are carbonized.

  1. Method for fabricating light weight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1987-06-17

    The invention is directed to the fabrication of ultralight carbon- bonded carbon fiber composites of densities in the range of about 0. 04 to 0.10 grams per cubic centimeter. The composites are fabricated by forming an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous fibers which include carbonized fibers and 0-50 weight percent fugitive fibers and a particulate thermosetting resin precursor. The slurry is brought into contact with a perforated mandrel and the water is drained from the slurry through the perforations at a controlled flow rate of about 0. 03 to 0.30 liters per minutes per square inch of a mandrel surface. The deposited billet of fibers and resin precursor is heated to cure the resin precursor to bind the fibers together, removed from the mandrel, and then the resin and fugitive fibers, if any, are carbonized.

  2. CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE AND OXYGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, J.B.; Bresee, J.C.; Ferris, L.M.

    1961-11-21

    A process for preparing UF/sub 6/ by reacting UF/sub 4/ and oxygen is described. The UF/sub 4/ and oxygen are continuously introduced into a fluidized bed of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ at a temperature of 600 to 900 deg C. The concentration of UF/sub 4/ in the bed is maintained below 25 weight per cent in order to avoid sintering and intermediate compound formation. By-product U0/sub 2/F/sub 2/ is continuously removed from the top of the bed recycled. In an alternative embodiment heat is supplied to the reaction bed by burning carbon monoxide in the bed. The product UF/sub 6/ is filtered to remove entrained particles and is recovered in cold traps and chemical traps. (AEC)

  3. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Coleman, Gerald Nelson; Robel, Wade James

    2008-12-16

    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  4. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  5. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) + O{sub 3}(?) ? 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  6. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  7. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  8. spaceheat_percent2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 1.7 Q 2.3 2.6 1.3 Q 29.9 Steam or Hot-Water System ...... 7.4 8.7 12.5 12.9 1.3 Q ... 7.5 18.6 9.3 14.4 Q Q 16.3 Steam or Hot-Water System ...... 4.1 7.8 5.5 8.7 Q Q 18.1 ...

  9. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  10. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R.; Bond, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  11. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-10-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

  12. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  13. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

  14. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  15. Impact of interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic structure in superconducting Fe 1 + y Te O x thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of interstitial oxygen...

  16. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping ...

  17. Oxygen Catalysis: The Other Half of the Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.

    2008-10-01

    Artificial photosynthesis--splitting water with light--is an attractive way to make hydrogen, but what happens to the oxygen? A catalyst that aids in the efficient production of gaseous oxygen improves the viability of this approach.

  18. Light weight high-stiffness stage platen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved light weight, stiff stage platen for photolithography is provided. The high stiffness of the stage platen is exemplified by a relatively high first resonant vibrational mode as determined, for instance, by finite element modal analysis. The stage platen can be employed to support a chuck that is designed to secure a mask or wafer. The stage platen includes a frame that has interior walls that define an interior region and that has exterior walls wherein the outer surfaces of at least two adjacent walls are reflective mirror surfaces; and a matrix of ribs within the interior region that is connected to the interior walls wherein the stage platen exhibits a first vibrational mode at a frequency of greater than about 1000 Hz.

  19. Significance-weighted feature extraction from hyper-dimensional data and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimura, S.; Kiyasu, S.

    1996-11-01

    Extracting significant features is essential for processing and transmission of vast volume of hyper-dimensional data. Conventional ways of extracting features are not always satisfactory for this kind of data in terms of optimality and computation time. Here we present a successive feature extraction method designed for significance-weighted supervised classification. After all the data are orthogonalized and reduced by principal component analysis, a set of appropriate features for prescribed purpose is extracted as linear combinations of the reduced components. We applied this method to 411 dimensional hyperspectral data obtained by a ground-based imaging spectrometer. The data were obtained from tree leaves of five categories, soil, stone and concrete. Features were successively extracted, and they were found to yield more than several percents higher accuracy for the classification of prescribed classes than a conventional method. We applied the results of feature extraction for evaluating the performance of current sensors and for designing the spectral bands of new sensors. Bands of new sensors were designed by allocating them to the highly weighted wavelength in extracted features. The designed bands were revealed to be more appropriate for the specific purpose than the current sensors. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 13159553.pdf (405 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen

  1. Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on local lattice parameter measurements by scanning transmission electron microscopy. ... Subject: Oxygen Stoichimetry; Vacancy Ordering; Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy ...

  2. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

  3. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

  4. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark

    2009-07-07

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  5. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore » a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  6. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithiumoxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  7. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  8. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Small Oxygenates over HZSM-5 and its Deactivation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Flake, Matthew D.; Zhang, He; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-28

    HZSM-5 catalyst deactivation was studied using aqueous feed mixtures containing ethanol, ethanol+ acetic acid, ethanol+ethyl acetate, or ethanol+acetaldehyde in a fixed bed reactor at 360°C and 300psig. Compared to ethanol alone experiment, addition of other oxygenates reduced catalyst life in the order of: ethyl acetateweight aromatic compounds which deactivate the catalyst through a pore-blocking mechanism. Acetic acid deactivates the catalyst through an active site poisoning mechanism or strong adsorption of acetate intermediates on the active sites (hydroxyl groups). Ethanol deactivates the catalyst primarily through its pore-blocking mechanism, but the rate of ethanol deactivation is orders of magnitude slower than that of acetaldehyde. Ethyl acetate hydrolyzes to form acetic acid and ethanol which deactivate the catalyst through its respective mechanisms. In addition, each functional group of oxygenates requires different active sites/catalysts and different operating conditions due to competitive adsorptions on active sites for their conversion to the desired products. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-treat the mixture of oxygenates to produce a feed stream containing the same or similar functional group compounds before converting the feed stream to hydrocarbon compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst.

  9. Light-weight radioisotope heater impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Rinehart, G.H.; Herrera, A.

    1998-12-31

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  10. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  11. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  14. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  15. 2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1995-06-13

    Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals. 6 figs.

  16. 2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Romero, Louis A.

    1995-01-01

    Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals.

  17. Low molecular weight thermostable .beta.-D-glucosidase from acidotherm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visual Patent Search Success Stories News Events Find More Like This Return to Search Low molecular weight thermostable .beta.-D-glucosidase from acidothermus cellulolyticus...

  18. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","22016","1151985" ,"Release Date:","4292016" ,"Next Release Date:","5312016" ,"Excel File ...

  19. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  20. METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, J.P.

    1962-02-27

    A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

  1. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  2. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 24, 2017 Title: Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory

  3. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  4. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrode Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," originally held on March 12, 2013. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of

  5. Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Print Monday, 11 April 2016 14:29 As information bits of 0s and 1s are stored in crosspoint tantalum oxide memristors, or resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells, nanoscale-resolution in operando x-ray transmission spectromicroscopy is used to directly observe oxygen

  6. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts can dissolve. When used...

  7. Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate...

  8. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen ...

  9. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Date: Tuesday, March 12, 2013 Innovation for Our Energy Future Shyam S. Kocha: NREL Yannick ...

  10. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  11. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Freeland, John W.; Eres, Gyula; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Mitra, Chandrima; Meyer, Tricia L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, the ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 °C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by ≈30%, resulting inmore » a tunable oxygen deficient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.« less

  12. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as...

  13. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock ...

  14. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an ...

  15. The Electronic Structure of Oxygen Atom Vacancy and Hydroxyl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Electronic Structure of Oxygen Atom Vacancy and Hydroxyl Impurity Defects on Titanium Dioxide (110) Surface Introducing a charge into a solid such as a metal oxide ...

  16. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  17. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  18. Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    theory plus Hubbard U investigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in HfOsub 2: A density functional theory ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  1. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Hsiao, Mark C.; Wallman, P. Henrik; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    1999-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO.sub.x reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts.

  2. Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building...

  3. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building...

  4. Kinetics of oxygen surface exchange on epitaxial Ruddlesden-Popper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kinetics of oxygen surface exchange on epitaxial Ruddlesden-Popper phases and correlations to first-principles descriptors Citation Details In-Document Search This content will ...

  5. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  6. Oxidation State and Interfacial Effects on Oxygen Vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Vacancies in Tantalum Pentoxide. Abstract not provided. Authors: Bondi, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1184499 Report...

  7. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  8. Radioactive Elements in the Standard Atomic Weights Table.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden,N.E.

    2007-08-04

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (or longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular element has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of 'these constants' for use in various chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was the most stable, i.e., the one with the longest known half-life. In their 1973 Report, the Commission noted that the users of the main Table of Atomic Weights were dissatisfied with the omission of values for some elements in that Table and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for the radioactive elements into the main Table. In their 1983 Report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, from which an atomic weight value could be calculated to five or more figure accuracy, without prior knowledge of the sample involved. These elements were again listed in the Atomic Weights Table with no further information, i.e., with no mass number or atomic weight value.

  9. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Huang, Tao

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  10. Effects of oxygen and catalyst on tetraphenylborate decomposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies indicate that palladium catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Oxygen inhibits the reaction at low temperature (25 C), presumably by preventing activation of the catalyst. The present study investigated oxygen's inhibiting effectiveness at higher temperature (45 C) and catalyst concentrations.

  11. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  12. Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Romano, Anthony J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

  13. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  14. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; Garcia-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; et al

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computationalmore » studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.« less

  15. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T.; Breitkopf, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  16. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  17. Fact #807: December 9, 2013 Light Vehicle Weights Leveling Off

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The effect of the oil crisis in the mid-1970s and subsequent rise of smaller import vehicles is evident in the graph below, showing a dramatic fall in average vehicle weight from model years 1975...

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy-weighted industrial...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-weighted industrial production indices December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information ...

  19. Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

  20. Molecular Weight Distributions of Irradiated Siloxane-Based Elastomers: A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complementary Study by Statistical Modeling and Multiple Quantum Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Molecular Weight Distributions of Irradiated Siloxane-Based Elastomers: A Complementary Study by Statistical Modeling and Multiple Quantum Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Weight Distributions of Irradiated Siloxane-Based Elastomers: A Complementary Study by Statistical Modeling and Multiple Quantum Nuclear Magnetic