National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxygen transport membrane

  1. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  3. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  4. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2006-05-01

    In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-07-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

  7. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  8. EFFICIENT OXYGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    EFFICIENT OXYGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANE Summary of technology Oxygen can be separated from air using a uniquely structured ceramic ion transport membrane for oxygen separation thatshowsremarkablyhighflux © Curtin University 2013 Gas diffusion in conventional membrane Gas diffusion in new membrane New membrane

  9. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  10. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  13. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  14. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  15. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  16. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  17. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN) [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  18. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  19. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  20. OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE (OTM) AIDED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Benefits to California · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under · Industrial/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally

  1. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  2. Experimental characterization of an Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) reactor for methane oxyfuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apo, Daniel Jolomi

    2012-01-01

    Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) which conduct both electrons and oxygen ions have been investigated experimentally for oxygen separation and fuel (mostly methane) conversion purposes over the last three decades. The fuel ...

  3. Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell Membranes by Steroid-Based Receptors-established that molecules which transport cations across cell membranes (cationophores) can have potent biological effects of biological activity. Indeed, chloride transporters have direct medical potential as treatments for cystic

  4. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  5. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  6. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammels, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  7. Fluid transport by active elastic membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur A. Evans; Eric Lauga

    2013-02-10

    A flexible membrane deforming its shape in time can self-propel in a viscous fluid. Alternatively, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused on situations where the deformation kinematics of the membrane were prescribed. Here we consider models where the deformation of the membrane is not prescribed, but instead the membrane is internally forced. Both the time-varying membrane shape, and the resulting fluid motion, result then from a balance between prescribed internal active stresses, internal passive resistance, and external viscous stresses. We introduce two specific models for such active internal forcing: one where a distribution of active bending moments is prescribed, and one where active inclusions exert normal stresses on the membrane by pumping fluid through it. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small forcing amplitudes, and recover our results using scaling analysis.

  8. Systems-level design of ion transport membrane oxy-combustion power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancini, Nicholas D. (Nicholas David)

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion, particularly using an integrated oxygen ion transport membrane (ITM), is a thermodynamically attractive concept that seeks to mitigate the penalties associated with CO 2 capture from power plants. ...

  9. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The...

  10. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Miller, Christopher Francis (Macungie, PA)

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  11. Effective Potential Energy Expression for Membrane Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Finkel

    2007-02-11

    All living cells transport molecules and ions across membranes, often against concentration gradients. This active transport requires continual energy expenditure and is clearly a nonequilibrium process for which standard equilibrium thermodynamics is not rigorously applicable. Here we derive a nonequilibrium effective potential that evaluates the per particle transport energy invested by the membrane. A novel method is used whereby a Hamiltonian function is constructed using particle concentrations as generalized coordinates. The associated generalized momenta are simply related to the individual particle energy from which we identify the effective potential. Examples are given and the formalism is compared with the equilibrium Gibb's free energy.

  12. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  13. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  14. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  15. Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped CeO2 nanopillars in nanocomposite films Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  16. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells....

  17. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass...

  18. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate...

  19. Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes II. Binary Friction Membrane Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes II. Binary Friction Membrane Model J. Fimrite by the need for improved and more gen- eral models to represent transport phenomena within polymer elec dynamic models required for fundamental simulation of in situ processes that are difficult to ob- serve

  20. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Holt, Jason (Berkeley, CA); Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA); Park, Hyung Gyu (Oakland, CA)

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  1. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  2. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  3. The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    a semi-permeable polymeric membrane system which shows overall cost and energy savings over conventional technology are discussed....

  4. Mixed-Conducting Oxygen Permeable Ceramic Membrane and its Application in the Production of Synthesis Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Qiying

    2010-04-28

    This study detailedly investigated the effects of the preparation parameters on the performance of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2Ox (BSCF) membranes. In addition, the dominant step of the oxygen permeation through the BSCF membrane was determined. The results...

  5. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for production of synthesis gas employing a catalytic membrane reactor wherein the membrane comprises a mixed metal oxide material.

  6. Strain effects on oxygen transport in tetragonal zirconium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks

    2013-11-01

    Temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the strain effects on oxygen interstitial and vacancy migration in tetragonal zirconium dioxide. At zero external strain, the anisotropic migration mechanisms of oxygen defects are characterized. At non-zero strains, both the crystal structure and defect migration barriers are modified by strain. Under compressive strains, the defect migration barrier increases with the increasing strain for both interstitials and vacancies. The crystal structure transforms from a tetragonal to a nearly cubic fluorite structure. Accordingly, the defect migration becomes nearly isotropic. Under dilative strains, the migration barrier first decreases then increases with increasing strain for both types of defects. The tetragonal phase transforms to a lower symmetry structure that is close to the orthorhombic phase. In turn, the defect migration becomes highly anisotropic. Under both compressive and dilative strains, interstitials respond to strain more strongly than vacancies. At small dilative strains, an oxygen interstitial has comparable diffusivity to a vacancy, suggesting that both types of defects can contribute to oxygen transport, if they are present. Although currently no previous result is available to validate oxygen interstitial diffusion behavior, the trend of strain effects on oxygen vacancy diffusion is in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies in the literature.

  7. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Waldron, William Emil (Whitehall, PA)

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-07-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, ceramic, cermet (ceramic/metal), and thin film membranes were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for H{sub 2} transport. For selected ceramic membrane compositions an optimum range for transition metal doping was identified, and it was determined that highest proton conductivity occurred for two-phase ceramic materials. Furthermore, a relationship between transition metal dopant atomic number and conductivity was observed. Ambipolar conductivities of {approx}6 x 10{sup -3} S/cm were achieved for these materials, and {approx} 1-mm thick membranes generated H{sub 2} transport rates as high as 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Cermet membranes during this quarter were found to have a maximum conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, which occurred at a metal phase contact of 36 vol.%. Homogeneous dense thin films were successfully prepared by tape casting and spin coating; however, there remains an unacceptably high difference in shrinkage rates between the film and support, which led to membrane instability. Further improvements in high pressure membrane seals also were achieved during this quarter, and a maximum pressure of 100 psig was attained. CoorsTek optimized many of the processing variables relevant to manufacturing scale production of ceramic H{sub 2} transport membranes, and SCI used their expertise to deposit a range of catalysts compositions onto ceramic membrane surfaces. Finally, MTI compiled relevant information regarding Vision 21 fossil fuel plant operation parameters, which will be used as a starting point for assessing the economics of incorporating a H{sub 2} separation unit.

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 031924 (2011) Fluid transport by active elastic membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauga, Eric

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 031924 (2011) Fluid transport by active elastic membranes Arthur A. Evans1, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small

  10. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-10-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

  11. Hydrogen Production from Methane Using Oxygen-permeable Ceramic Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraji, Sedigheh

    2010-06-08

    of clean energy for use in fuel cells [5]. For these reasons, H2 is an important industrial gas with many existing and future applications. Mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, known as synthesis gas (or syngas), are critical intermediates... in the production of both fuel-cell quality hydrogen and ultra-clean liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis), which are easier to transport and store than natural gas [6, 7]. The Fischer-Tropsch process has received significant attention in the quest to produce...

  12. Carbon dioxide remediation via oxygen-enriched combustion using dense ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); McIlvried, Howard G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method of combusting pulverized coal by mixing the pulverized coal and an oxidant gas to provide a pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture and contacting the pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture. An oxygen-containing gas is passed in contact with a dense ceramic membrane of metal oxide material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity that is gas-impervious until the oxygen concentration on one side of the membrane is not less than about 30% by volume. An oxidant gas with an oxygen concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and a CO.sub.2 concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and pulverized coal is contacted with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture to produce heat and a flue gas. One dense ceramic membrane disclosed is selected from the group consisting of materials having formulae SrCo.sub.0.8 Fe.sub.0.2 O.sub.x, SrCo.sub.0.5 FeO.sub.x and La.sub.0.2 Sr.sub.0.8 Co.sub.0.4 Fe.sub.0.6 O.sub.x.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; M.K. Ferber; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-07-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and their team members are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, new cermet compositions were tested that demonstrated similar performance to previous materials. A 0.5-mm thick membrane achieved at H{sub 2} transport rate of 0.2 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C, which corresponded to an ambipolar conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Although these results were equivalent to those for other cermet compositions, this new composition might be useful if it demonstrates improved chemical or mechanical stability. Ceramic/ceramic composite membranes also were fabricated and tested; however, some reaction did occur between the proton- and electron-conducting phases, which likely compromised conductivity. This sample only achieved a H{sub 2} transport rate of {approx} 0.006 mL/min/cm{sup 2} and an ambipolar conductivity of {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} S/cm. Chemical stability tests were continued, and candidate ceramic membranes were found to react slightly with carbon monoxide under extreme testing conditions. A cermet compositions did not show any reaction with carbon monoxide, but a thick layer of carbon formed on the membrane surface. The most significant technical accomplishment this quarter was a new high-pressure seal composition. This material maintained a pressure differential across the membrane of {approx} 280 psi at 800 C, and is still in operation.

  14. Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles D channels of Nafion fuel cell membranes at various hydration levels are compared to water in a series by its use as a proton conducting membrane in fuel cells. Nafion membranes in fuel cells allow protons

  15. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephen; Frank E. Anderson; Shandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites with hydrogen permeable alloys. The primary technical challenge in achieving the goals of this project will be to optimize membrane composition to enable practical hydrogen separation rates and chemical stability. Other key aspects of this developing technology include catalysis, ceramic processing methods, and separation unit design operating under high pressure. To achieve these technical goals, Eltron Research Inc. has organized a consortium consisting of CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Inc. (SCI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and NORAM. Hydrogen permeation rates in excess of 50 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were routinely achieved under less than optimal experimental conditions using a range of membrane compositions. Factors that limit the maximum permeation attainable were determined to be mass transport resistance of H{sub 2} to and from the membrane surface, as well as surface contamination. Mass transport resistance was partially overcome by increasing the feed and sweep gas flow rates to greater than five liters per minute. Under these experimental conditions, H2 permeation rates in excess of 350 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were attained. These results are presented in this report, in addition to progress with cermets, thin film fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

  16. Molecular Structure and Transport Dynamics in Perfluoro Sulfonyl Imide Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

    2011-05-25

    We report a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the nanostructure, transport dynamics of water and hydronium and water percolation in hydrated perfluoro sulfonyl imides (PFSI), a polymer considered for proton transport in PEM fuel cells, using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical changes are related to the changes in the membrane nanostructure. Water network percolation threshold, the level at which a consistent spanning water network starts to develop in the membrane, lies between hydration level (?) 6 and 7. The higher acidity of the sulfonyl imide acid group of PFSI compared to Nafion reported in our earlier ab initio study, translates into more free hydronium ions at low hydration levels. Nevertheless, the calculated diffusion coefficients of the H3O+ ions and H2O molecules as a function the hydration level were observed to be almost the same as that of Nafion, indicating similar conductivity and consistent with the experimental observations. This research was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  17. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

    2001-01-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for membranes of this thickness. The sintered membranes were greater than 95% dense, but the phase purity decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The quantity of dopant incorporated into the perovskite phase was roughly constant, with excess dopant forming an additional phase. Composite materials with distinct ceramic and metallic phases, and thin film perovskites (100 {micro}m) also were successfully prepared, but have not yet been tested for hydrogen transport. Finally, porous platinum was identified as a excellent catalyst for evaluation of membrane materials, however, lower cost nickel catalyst systems are being developed.

  18. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    membranes containing ionic liquid could be designed to take advantage of the interesting gas separation

  19. Investigation of Zr-doped BSCF perovskite membrane for oxygen separation in the intermediate temperature range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravkina, Olga; Klande, Tobias; Feldhoff, Armin

    2013-05-01

    The series of (Ba?.?Sr?.?)(Co?.?Fe?.?){sub 1–z}Zr{sub z}O{sub 3–?} (z=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.09) was synthesized by a sol–gel method. The materials with a zirconium content up to 3 mol% were found to be single phase. Further increase results in formation of a mixed (Ba,Sr)ZrO? by-phase, which was found along the grain boundaries and in the grains. With increasing zirconium content the oxygen permeation flux decreases considerably. The effect of the zirconium substitution on the long-term phase stability was investigated by long-term oxygen permeation experiments and X-ray diffraction. A slight stabilization of the oxygen flux of (Ba?.?Sr{sub 0.5})(Co?.?Fe?.?)?.??Zr?.??O{sub 3–?} was found after 180 h at 1023 K. However, all compositions show a decrease in permeation flux with time, but the pure BSCF membrane exhibited the strongest drop after 180 h of operation. The decomposition products of the cubic perovskite phase were found to be a hexagonal Ba{sub 0.5±x}Sr{sub 0.5±x}CoO? and a rhombohedral Ba{sub 1–x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 2–y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 5–?}. - Graphical abstract: Backscattered-electron channeling contrast image of BSCF membrane cross-section after long-term oxygen permeation at 1023 K showing different phases in different colors. Highlights: • Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O{sub 3–?} systematically doped with increasing amount of zirconium. • Cubic single-phase materials up to 3 wt% zirconium. • Mixed (Ba,Sr)ZrO? by-phase formed mainly in the grain boundaries. • Jänecke prism was proposed by XRD and EDXS data. • (Ba?.?Sr?.?)(Co?.?Fe?.?)?.??Zr?.??O{sub 3–?} showed a slight stabilization of oxygen flux as compared to pure Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O{sub 3–?}.

  20. Transport coefficients of D1-D5-P system and the membrane paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuya Sasai

    2012-01-12

    I discuss a correspondence between string theory and the black hole membrane paradigm in the context of the D1-D5-P system. By using the Kubo formula, I calculate transport coefficients of the effective string model induced by two kinds of minimal scalars. Then, I show that these transport coefficients exactly agree with the corresponding membrane transport coefficients of a five-dimensional near-extremal black hole with three charges.

  1. Oceanic nutrient and oxygen transports and bounds on export production during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Carl

    Oceanic nutrient and oxygen transports and bounds on export production during the World Ocean about 100 m). Because of correlations between errors, the export production becomes significant when cycling; 4863 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Sedimentation; KEYWORDS: export production, nutrient

  2. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  3. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the hydrophobic bilayer, while NH3 is not. Passage of uncharged NH3 would not result in a net change of protons across the membrane nor would it change the membrane potential, thus...

  4. Aquaporins comprise a family of water-transporting membrane proteins. All aquaporins are efficient water transporters, while

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    . Further insights, particularly with respect to the dynamics of water permeation and the filter mechanism509 Aquaporins comprise a family of water-transporting membrane proteins. All aquaporins are efficient water transporters, while sustaining strict selectivity, even against protons, thereby maintaining

  5. Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur hydrogen efficiently on a large scale.1 This process has the advantage over traditional i.e., coal gasifica

  6. Selective Ionic Transport through Tunable Subnanometer Pores in Single-Layer Graphene Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Hern, Sean C.

    We report selective ionic transport through controlled, high-density, subnanometer diameter pores in macroscopic single-layer graphene membranes. Isolated, reactive defects were first introduced into the graphene lattice ...

  7. Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers Used to Recycle Anhydrous HCl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers Used to Recycle Anhydrous HCl I is car- ried out in an electrolyzer similar to a H2-O2 polymer electrolyte membrane PEM fuel cell. The DuPont electrolyzer contains flow channels and gas diffusion backings on the anode and the cathode. The flow channels

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Richard Treglio; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

    2004-07-26

    During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates as high as 423 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was investigated by comparison to composite alloy membranes. Permeation of alloyed membranes showed a strong dependence on the alloying element. Impedance analysis was used to investigate bulk and grain boundary conductivity in cermets. Thin film cermet deposition procedures were developed, hydrogen dissociation catalysts were evaluated, and hydrogen separation unit scale-up issues were addressed.

  9. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienitz, Brian

    2010-01-01

    electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) are an attractive alternativeproton-exchange membrane in a PEFC must serve many functionsenough to operate under harsh PEFC conditions for thousands

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome (Thompson, ND); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh (Allentown, PA)

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  11. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Jim Fisher; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2005-01-28

    During this quarter work was continued on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes under a variety of conditions. Membrane permeation was tested up to 100 hours at constant pressure, temperature, and flow rates. In addition, design parameters were completed for a scale-up hydrogen separation demonstration unit. Evaluation of microstructure and effect of hydrogen exposure on BCY/Ni cermet mechanical properties was initiated. The fabrication of new cermets containing high permeability metals is reported and progress in the preparation of sulfur resistant catalysts is discussed. Finally, a report entitled ''Criteria for Incorporating Eltron's Hydrogen Separation Membranes into Vision 21 IGCC Systems and FutureGen Plants'' was completed.

  12. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2005-04-30

    During this quarter long term and high pressure hydrogen separation experiments were performed on Eltron's composite layered membranes. Membranes were tested at 400 C and a 300 psig feed stream with 40% hydrogen for up to 400 continuous hours. In addition membranes were tested up to 1000 psig as demonstration of the ability for this technology to meet DOE goals. Progress was made in the development of new hydrogen separation cermets containing high permeability metals. A sulfur tolerant catalyst deposition technique was optimized and engineering work on mechanical and process & control reports was continued.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2004-10-21

    During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

  14. Fluctuation-Driven Molecular Transport Through an Asymmetric Membrane Channel Ioan Kosztin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosztin, Ioan

    asymmetry in the presence of nonequilibrium fluctuations, fueled by the cell's metabolism as observed integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell molecules across the membrane down a free energy gradient. Active transport- ers conduct molecules along

  15. Water transport in fuel cell membranes measured by laser interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jungik, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    (cont.) The coefficients of electro-osmotic drag were found to increase with the increasing water content, which indicates that the Grotthuss mechanism of proton transfer is not active in the membranes with low water ...

  16. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangala; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2005-07-29

    During this quarter catalyst stability studies were performed on Eltron's composite layered membranes. In addition, permeation experiments were performed to determine the effect of crystallographic orientation on membrane performance. Sintering conditions were optimized for preparation of new cermets containing high permeability metals. Theoretical calculations were performed to determine potential sulfur tolerant catalysts. Finally, work was continued on mechanical and process & control documentation for a hydrogen separation unit.

  17. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard A. Mackay; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Tim R. Armstrong; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, it was demonstrated that increasing the transition metal loading in a model perovskite composition resulted in an increase in hydrogen flux. Improved flux corresponded to the emergence of additional phases in the ceramic membrane, and highest flux was achieved for a composite consisting of pseudo-cubic and rhombohedral perovskite phases. A 0.9-mm thick membrane of this material generated a hydrogen flux in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which was approximately 35 times greater than analogs with lower transition metal levels. The dopant level and crystal structure also correlated with membrane density and coefficient of thermal expansion, but did not appear to affect grain size or shape. Additionally, preliminary ceramic-metal (cermet) composite membranes demonstrated a 10-fold increase in flux relative to analogous membranes composed of only the ceramic component. The hydrogen flux for these cermet samples corresponded to a conductivity of {approx} 10{sup -3} S/cm, which was consistent with the predicted proton conductivity of the ceramic phase. Increasing the sweep gas flow rate in test reactors was found to significantly increase hydrogen flux, as well as apparent material conductivity for all samples tested. Adding humidity to the feed gas stream produced a small increase in hydrogen flux. However, the catalyst on ceramic membrane surfaces did not affect flux, which suggested that the process was membrane-diffusion limited. Representative samples and fabrication processes were evaluated on the basis of manufacturing practicality. it was determined that optimum membrane densification occurs over a very narrow temperature range for the subject ceramics. Additionally, calcination temperatures currently employed result in powders that are difficult mill and screen. These issues must be addressed to improve large-scale fabricability.

  18. Oxygen Transport Kinetics in Infiltrated SOFCs Cathode by Electrical Conductivity Relaxation Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yihong; Gerdes, Kirk; Liu, Xingbo

    2013-07-01

    Infiltration has attracted increasing attention as an effective technique to modify SOFC cathodes to improve cell electrochemical performance while maintaining material compatibility and long-term stability. However, the infiltrated material's effect on oxygen transport is still not clear and detailed knowledge of the oxygen reduction reaction in infiltrated cathodes is lacking. In this work, the technique of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) is used to evaluate oxygen exchange in two common infiltrated materials, Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-?}. The ECR technique is also used to examine the transport processes in a composite material formed with a backbone of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-?} and possessing a thin, dense surface layer composed of the representative infiltrate material. Both the surface oxygen exchange process and the oxygen exchange coefficient at infiltrate/LSCF interface are reported. ECR testing results indicate that the application of infiltrate under certain oxygen partial pressure conditions produces a measureable increase in the fitted oxygen exchange parameter. It is presently only possible to generate hypotheses to explain the observation. However the correlation between improved electrochemical performance and increased oxygen transport measured by ECR is reliably demonstrated. The simple and inexpensive ECR technique is utilized as a direct method to optimize the selection of specific infiltrate/backbone material systems for superior performance.

  19. A Complete Transport Validated Model on a Zeolite Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Permeance and Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gkanas, Evangelos I; Stubos, Athanasios K; Makridis, Sofoklis S

    2013-01-01

    The CO2 emissions from major industries cause serious global environment problems and their mitigation is urgently needed. The use of zeolite membranes is a very efficient way in order to capture CO2 from some flue gases. The dominant transport mechanism at low temperature andor high pressure is the diffusion through the membrane. This procedure can be divided in three steps: Adsorption of the molecules of the species in the surface of the membrane, then a driving force gives a path where the species follow inside the membrane and finally the species desorbed from the surface of the membrane. The current work is aimed at developing a simulation model for the CO2 transport through a zeolite membrane and estimate the diffusion phenomenon through a very thin membrane of 150 nm in a Wicke-Kallenbach cell. The cell is cylindrical in shape with diameter of 19 mm and consists of a retentate gas chamber, a permeate gas chamber which are separated by a cylindrical zeolite membrane. This apparatus have been modeled wit...

  20. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-10-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight-months of continuous operation, and permeation results as a function of operating conditions at high pressure for layered composite membranes. Additional progress with cermet and thin film membranes also is presented.

  1. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart R. Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-01-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize hydrogen permeation without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, a composite metal membrane based on an inexpensive hydrogen permeable metal achieved permeation rates in excess of 25 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary attempts to incorporate this metal into a cermet were successful, and a thick cermet membrane (0.83 mm) with 40 vol.% metal phase achieved a permeation rate of nearly 0.4 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Increasing the metal phase content and decreasing membrane thickness should significantly increase permeation, while maintaining the benefits derived from cermets. Two-phase ceramic/ceramic composite membranes had low hydrogen permeability, likely due to interdiffusion of constituents between the phases. However, these materials did demonstrate high resistance to corrosion, and might be good candidates for other composite membranes. Temperature-programmed reduction measurements indicated that model cermet materials absorbed 2.5 times as much hydrogen than the pure ceramic analogs. This characteristic, in addition to higher electron conductivity, likely explains the relatively high permeation for these cermets. Incorporation of catalysts with ceramics and cermets increased hydrogen uptake by 800 to more than 900%. Finally, new high-pressure seals were developed for cermet membranes that maintained a pressure differential of 250 psi. This result indicated that the approach for high-pressure seal development could be adapted for a range of compositions. Other items discussed in this report include mechanical testing, new proton conducting ceramics, supported thin films, and alkane to olefin conversion.

  2. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

    2004-04-26

    During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates in excess of 400 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was characterized by repeated thermal and pressure cycling. The effect of cermet grain size on permeation was determined. Finally, progress is summarized on thin film cermet fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

  3. Solvation and Ionic Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawodzinski, T.A., Jr.; Paddison, S.J.; Reagor, D.; Pratt, L.R.

    1999-06-03

    We developed a general theoretical framework to study the problem of proton solvation and transport in Nafion{reg_sign} and related materials.

  4. Simulations of Thermal and Oxygen Transport in UO2 Fuels Marius Stan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihaila, Bogdan

    Simulations of Thermal and Oxygen Transport in UO2 Fuels Marius Stan1 and Bogdan Mihaila2 1 Argonne properties of nuclear fuels and predicting the behavior of nuclear fuel elements (ceramic fuel pellets or metallic fuel rods) under normal and accident conditions are major challenges for the nuclear fuel

  5. The principal function of the cardiopulmonary system is the matching of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    The principal function of the cardiopulmonary system is the matching of oxygen and carbon dioxide (fH), systemic blood flow (Q . sys), rate of oxygen consumption (V . O) and rate of carbon dioxide transport to the metabolic requirements of different tissues. Increased oxygen demands (V . O), for example

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

    2006-01-31

    During this quarter of the no cost extension a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase was prepared for sealing and permeability testing. Several different types of seals were developed and tested. In addition membrane surface stability was characterized.

  7. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Harold A. Wright; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangala; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2005-10-31

    During this quarter composite layered membrane size was scaled-up and tested for permeation performance. Sintering conditions were optimized for a new cermet containing a high permeability metal and seals were developed to allow permeability testing. Theoretical calculations were performed to determine potential sulfur tolerant hydrogen dissociation catalysts. Finally, work was finalized on mechanical and process & control documentation for a hydrogen separation unit.

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

  9. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienitz, Brian

    2010-01-01

    1993, "The Contact Angle  between Water and the Surface of Desorption, and Transport of Water in  Polymer Electrolyte Vaporization?Exchange Model  for Water Sorption and Flux in 

  10. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  11. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighlandWorkshop-SummerHow is the DataHow the Membrane

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

    2006-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this final quarter of the no cost extension several planar membranes of a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase were prepared and permeability testing was performed.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-07-31

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

  14. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (i) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (ii) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (iii) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (iv) hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report describes resent results for long-term hydrogen permeation and chemical stability measurements, new mixed conducting cermets, progress in cermet, thin film, and thin-walled tube fabrication, hydrogen absorption measurements for selected compositions, and membrane facilitated alkane to olefin conversion.

  15. Temperature-Dependent Simulations of Dry Gas Transport in the Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Membrane Fuel Cells M. J. Kermani1 J. M. Stockie2 mkermani@unb.ca stockie@unb.ca 1 Post Doctoral Fellow the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically. The di usion to achieve this goal is via proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells, which in principle combine oxygen

  16. Bioenergetics and mechanical actuation analysis with membrane transport experiments for use in biomimetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Bioenergetics and mechanical actuation analysis with membrane transport experiments for use considers the mechanics and bioenergetics of a prototype nastic structure system consisting of an array by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. After reviewing the biochemistry and bioenergetics of the active

  17. Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes I. Modeling Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    and optimization of fuel cells in a design and development environment. Kreuer et al.19 recently presented of ongoing efforts to develop more comprehensive compu- tational fuel cell model14-18 that allow analysis of the fundamental transport mechanisms. In the context of multidimensional fuel cell modeling, practical

  18. Oxygen reduction and transportation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li YH, Gemmen R, Liu XB

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, various models have been developed for describing the reaction mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) especially for the cathode electrode. However, many fundamental issues regarding the transport of oxygen and electrode kinetics have not been fully understood. This review tried to summarize the present status of the SOFC cathode modeling efforts, and associated experimental approaches on this topic. In addition, unsolved problems and possible future research directions for SOFC cathode kinetics had been discussed

  19. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  20. Nanoscale study of reactive transport in catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with precious and non-precious catalysts using lattice Boltzmann method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Holby, Edward F; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution porous structures of catalyst layer (CL) with multicomponent in proton exchange membrane fuel cells are reconstructed using a reconstruction method called quartet structure generation set. Characterization analyses of nanoscale structures are implemented including pore size distribution, specific area and phase connectivity. Pore-scale simulation methods based on the lattice Boltzmann method are developed and used to predict the macroscopic transport properties including effective diffusivity and proton conductivity. Nonuniform distributions of ionomer in CL generates more tortuous pathway for reactant transport and greatly reduces the effective diffusivity. Tortuosity of CL is much higher than conventional Bruggeman equation adopted. Knudsen diffusion plays a significant role in oxygen diffusion and significantly reduces the effective diffusivity. Reactive transport inside the CL is also investigated. Although the reactive surface area of non-precious metal catalyst (NPMC) CL is much higher t...

  1. Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim Volkov

    2012-12-18

    Modelling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterisation of ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and estimates concerning the number of molecules of each transporter per a cell allow predicting the corresponding ion flows. Comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided and importance of cell volume to surface ratio is stressed. Role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in aspect of required increase in spatial and temporary resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions.

  2. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-06

    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  3. Transport coefficients, membrane couplings and universality at extremality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel F. Paulos

    2009-11-20

    We present an efficient method for computing the zero frequency limit of transport coefficients in strongly coupled field theories described holographically by higher derivative gravity theories. Hydrodynamic parameters such as shear viscosity and conductivity can be obtained by computing residues of poles of the off-shell lagrangian density. We clarify in which sense these coefficients can be thought of as effective couplings at the horizon, and present analytic, Wald-like formulae for the shear viscosity and conductivity in a large class of general higher derivative lagrangians. We show how to apply our methods to systems at zero temperature but finite chemical potential. Our results imply that such theories satisfy $\\eta/s=1/4\\pi$ universally in the Einstein-Maxwell sector. Likewise, the zero frequency limit of the real part of the conductivity for such systems is shown to be universally zero, and we conjecture that higher derivative corrections in this sector do not modify this result to all orders in perturbation theory.

  4. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  5. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MURAD, SOHAIL; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  6. Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conducting Ceramic Membranes for Oxygen-Assisted CO2 Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slade, David

    2010-03-29

    Incorporating a SrFeCo0.5Ox (SFC) membrane into a CO2 reforming reactor doubles methane conversion with a powder Pt/ZrO2 catalyst. The deactivation of both Pt/ZrO2 and a Pt/CeZrO2 catalyst is also retarded substantially. Catalyst performance...

  7. Numerical investigation of interfacial transport resistance due to water droplets in proton exchange membrane fuel cell air channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    (GDL) interface is needed in modelling the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC representative case of a PEMFC air flow channel. The results show that the droplets significantly increase Sh of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an active area of research. The O2 transport loss becomes

  8. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.

  9. Mechanism of Proton Transport in Proton Exchange Membranes: Insights from Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory A. Voth

    2010-11-30

    The solvation and transport of hydrated protons in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) such as NafionTM will be described using a novel multi-state reactive molecular dynamics (MD) approach, combined with large scale MD simulation to help probe various PEM morphological models. The multi-state MD methodology allows for the treatment of explicit (Grotthuss) proton shuttling and charge defect delocalization which, in turn, can strongly influence the properties of the hydrated protons in various aqueous and complex environments. A significant extension of the methodology to treat highly acidic (low pH) environments such as the hydrophilic domains of a PEM will be presented. Recent results for proton solvation and transport in NafionTM will be described which reveal the significant role of Grotthuss shuttling and charge defect delocalization on the excess proton solvation structures and transport properties. The role of PEM hydration level and morphology on these properties will also be described.

  10. Ideal Desalination through Graphyne-4 Membrane: Nanopores for Quantized Water Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chongqin Zhu; Hui Li; Xiao Cheng Zeng; Sheng Meng

    2013-06-30

    Graphyne-4 sheet exhibits promising potential for nanoscale desalination to achieve both high water permeability and salt rejection rate. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations on pore-size effects suggest that graphyne-4, with 4 acetylene bonds between two adjacent phenyl rings, has the best performance with 100% salt rejection and an unprecedented water permeability, to our knowledge, of ~13L/cm2/day/MPa, about 10 times higher than the state-of-the-art nanoporous graphene reported previously (Nano Lett.s 2012, 12, 3602-3608). In addition, the membrane entails very low energy consumption for producing 1m3 of fresh water, i.e., 3.6e-3 kWh/m3, three orders of magnitude less than the prevailing commercial membranes based on reverse osmosis. Water flow rate across the graphyne-4 sheet exhibits intriguing nonlinear dependence on the pore size owing to the quantized nature of water flow at the nanoscale. Such novel transport behavior has important implications to the design of highly effective and efficient desalination membranes.

  11. Transport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: implications for modeling emissions of carbon dioxide and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    andaresignificantsourcesofgreenhousegases,including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The traditional approachTransport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: implications for modeling emissions of carbon of CH4 is 24 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over a 100-year time scale (Ramaswamy et al

  12. Ion Sorption, Diffusion and Transport in Polymer Membranes J. Kamcev, N. Yan, E.S. Jang, M. Galizia, D. R. Paul, and B. D. Freeman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    fellows performing fundamental research in gas and liquid separations using polymer membranes and barrier separation membrane materials, such as new materials for water/ion separation, hydrogen separation, naturalIon Sorption, Diffusion and Transport in Polymer Membranes J. Kamcev, N. Yan, E.S. Jang, M. Galizia

  13. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005.

  14. Effective Transport Properties Accounting for Electrochemical Reactions of Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pharoah, Jon; Choi, Hae-Won; Chueh, Chih-Che; Harvey, David

    2011-07-01

    There has been a rapidly growing interest in three-dimensional micro-structural reconstruction of fuel cell electrodes so as to derive more accurate descriptors of the pertinent geometric and effective transport properties. Due to the limited accessibility of experiments based reconstruction techniques, such as dual-beam focused ion beam-scanning electro microscopy or micro X-Ray computed tomography, within sample micro-structures of the catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a particle based numerical model is used in this study to reconstruct sample microstructure of the catalyst layers in PEMFCs. Then the reconstructed sample structure is converted into the computational grid using body-fitted/cut-cell based unstructured meshing technique. Finally, finite volume methods (FVM) are applied to calculate effective properties on computational sample domains.

  15. Developments in ITM oxygen technology for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, V.E.E.; Richards, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), an Air Products-led team (with Ceramatec, Eltron Research, McDermott Technology, NREC, Texaco, the Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Pennsylvania) is developing a new technology for air separation - Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen - based on the use of mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that have both electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity when operated at high temperature, typically 800 to 900 C. Under the influence of an oxygen partial-pressure driving force, the ITM Oxygen process achieves a high-purity, high-flux separation of oxygen from a compressed-air stream. By integrating the energy-rich, oxygen-depleted, non-permeate stream with a gas turbine system, the ITM Oxygen process becomes a co-producer of high-purity oxygen, power, and steam. Under a recent CRADA entitled ``Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) for Oxygen-Blown IGCC Systems and Indirect Coal Liquefaction,'' Air Products and DOE completed an initial quantification of the benefits of an ITM Oxygen-integrated IGCC facility. Compared to the cryogenic oxygen base case, the ITM Oxygen technology can potentially: reduce total installed costs by 7%; improve thermal efficiency for the integrated IGCC system by about 3%, leading to further decreases in carbon dioxide and sulfur emissions; and reduce the cost of generated electric power by more than 6%. The ITM Oxygen development project will proceed in three phases. Phase 1, which commenced under a DOE Cooperative Agreement in October 1998, is a 3-year effort focusing on construction of a technology development unit (TDU) for process concept validation tests at a capacity of 0.1 ton-per-day (TPD) oxygen. To accomplish this objective, the Air Products team will address relevant technical challenges in ITM Oxygen materials, engineering, membrane module development, and performance testing. During Phase 1 the team will also verify the economic prospects for integrating ITM Oxygen technology with IGCC and other advanced power generation systems. After at least one intermediate scaleup, Phase 2 and 3 activities will culminate with scaleup to a 25- to 50-TPD pre-commercial demonstration unit, fully integrated with a gas turbine. Meeting these challenges of developing cost-effective fabrication techniques for ITM Oxygen devices, and successfully integrating them with commercially available gas turbine engines, is key to bringing ITM Oxygen technology to the marketplace.

  16. Transport and Removal Mechanisms of Trace Organic Pollutants by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    solutions up to seawater salinity, Desalination, 184 (2005)Composite Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Membrane, Desalination,

  17. Transport and Removal Mechanisms of Trace Organic Pollutants by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    treatment technologies are needed. Membrane processes are now the primary separation technology used in wastewater

  18. Self-Assembly and Mass Transport in Membranes for Artificial Photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modestino, Miguel Antonio

    2013-01-01

    for artificial photosynthesis systems ..6Artificial Photosynthesis up process of artificial photosynthesis membranes and open

  19. Insight from molecular modelling: does the polymer side chain length matter for transport properties of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-28

    We present a detailed analysis of the nanostructure of short side chain (SSC) perfluorosulfonic acid membrane and its effect on H{sub 2}O network percolation, H{sub 3}O{sup +} and H{sub 2}O diffusion, and mean residence times of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and H{sub 2}O near SO{sub 3}{sup -} groups based on molecular dynamics simulations. We studied a range of hydration levels ({lambda}) at temperatures of 300 and 360 K, and compare the results to our previous findings in the benchmark Nafion membrane at 300 K. The water channel diameter is about 20% larger in Nafion, while the extent of SO3- clustering is more in SSC membrane. The calculated channel diameter is in excellent agreement with the recently proposed cylindrical water channel model of these membranes. The H{sub 2}O network percolation occurs at comparable hydration levels, and the diffusion coefficients of H{sub 2}O and H{sub 3}O{sup +} are similar in SSC and Nafion membranes. Raising the temperature of the SSC membrane from 300 to 360 K provides a much bigger increase in proton vehicular diffusion coefficient (by a factor of about 4) than changing the side chain length. H3O+ ions are found to exchange more frequently with SO{sub 3}{sup -} partners at the higher temperature. Our key findings are that (a) the hydrophobic-hydrophilic separation in the two membranes is surprisingly similar; (b) at all hydration levels studied, the longer side chain of Nafion is bent and is effectively equivalent to a short side chain in terms of extension into the water domain; and (c) proton transport along the centre of the channel is improbable and vehicular proton transport occurs between SO{sub 3}{sup -} groups. The simulations are validated by good agreement with corresponding experimental values for the simulated membrane density and diffusion coefficients of H{sub 2}O.

  20. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  1. Structural features and enhanced high-temperature oxygen ion transport in SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, Alexey A.; Shalaeva, Elizaveta V.; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Kuchin, Vasily V.; Patrakeev, Mikhail V.; Leonidov, Ilya A.; Kozhevnikov, Victor L.

    2013-01-15

    Structural features, oxygen non-stoichiometry and transport properties are studied in the oxide series SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data evidence formation of the inhomogeneous materials at x=0.3 and 0.4, which include phase constituents with a cubic perovskite and a double perovskite structure types. The composition, the amount and the typical grain size of the phase inhomogeneities are shown to depend both on doping and oxygen content. The increased oxygen-ion conductivity is observed in oxygen depleted materials, which is explained by the increase in the amount of cubic perovskite-like phase and development of interfacial pathways favorable for enhanced oxygen ion transport. - Graphical abstract: The structural studies, oxygen content and conductivity measurements suggest that oxygen depletion from the double perovskite phase constituent of SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} for x>0.2 is accompanied by formation of pathways for fast ion transport. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The double perovskite type regions are shown to exist in SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen depletion is accompanied with phase separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase separation favors formation of pathways for enhanced oxygen ion transport.

  2. Computer Simulation of Defects and Oxygen Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Gale, Julian D.

    2006-06-15

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations to examine defect energetics and oxygen diffusion in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Oxygen vacancies prefer to be second nearest neighbors to yttrium dopants. The oxygen diffusion coefficient shows a peak at 8 mole % yttria consistent with experimental findings. The activation energy for oxygen diffusion varies from 0.6 to 1.0 eV depending on the yttria content. The Y-Vo-Y complex with a binding energy of -0.85 eV may play an important role in any conductivity degradation of YSZ.

  3. Smart membranes for nitrate removal, water purification, and selective ion transportation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, William D. (Pleasanton, CA); Schaldach, Charlene M. (Pleasanton, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-12-15

    A computer designed nanoengineered membrane for separation of dissolved species. One embodiment provides an apparatus for treatment of a fluid that includes ions comprising a microengineered porous membrane, a system for producing an electrical charge across the membrane, and a series of nanopores extending through the membrane. The nanopores have a pore size such that when the fluid contacts the membrane, the nanopores will be in a condition of double layer overlap and allow passage only of ions opposite to the electrical charge across the membrane.

  4. Self-Assembly and Mass Transport in Membranes for Artificial Photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modestino, Miguel Antonio

    2013-01-01

    M. A. ; Pivovar, B. S. Fuel Cells 2005, 5, (2), 213-229.exchange membrane for fuel cells. University of California,exchange membrane for fuel cells. University of California,

  5. Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    ] show that a gas turbine combined cycle power plant installed with the oxy-fuel process will reduce for the power plant is pure oxygen mixed with power plant exhaust [2]. Thus, the final exhaust is essentially cycle [4] the oxygen separation process, however, would be an addition to an existing power plant

  6. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires are Outer Membrane and Periplasmic Extensions of the Extracellular Electron Transport Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirbadian, S.; Barchinger, S. E.; Leung, K. M.; Byun, H. S.; Jangir, Y.; Bouhenni, Rachida; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, J. H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-08-20

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella neidensis MR-1. Using live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis, we report that S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures, as previously thought. These bacterial nanowires were also associated with outer membrane vesicles and vesicle chains, structures ubiquitous in gram-negative bacteria. Redoxfunctionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  7. ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion through yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes. All parameters for Reax and cluster systems. We validated the use of ReaxFF for fuel cell applications by using it in molecular

  8. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-05

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  9. Spatially resolved in situ measurements of the transport of organic molecules in a polycrystalline nanoporous membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    of photoacoustic signal generation from a heterogeneous membrane, allows extraction of concentration profiles and converted into a thermoacoustic signal originating from a cumulative region of the sample down to a certain

  10. The effect of adjacent layers like biofilms on mass transport through nanofiltration membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    , which is always present on the membrane surface in crossflow filtration processes, as well as a feed to high tangential flow velocities in crossflow filtrations, the size of this biofilm is limited to values

  11. Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2009-05-15

    Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which...

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  13. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  16. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  18. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  19. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  1. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-10-14

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power.

  2. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system���¢��������the Super Boiler���¢��������for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today���¢��������s typical firetube boilers.

  3. Research within this interdisciplinary field of material science is one of the main activities of the Inorganic Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    -term stability of the Figure 1: Operating principle of a solid oxide fuel cell. Figure 2: Operating principle relates to a number of important technological applications, such as oxygen transport membranes, oxygen storage materials, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's, Figure 1), solid acid fuel cells (SAFC's) and high

  4. Modelling of morphology and proton transport in PFSA membranes James A. Elliotta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    mechanisms and the need to examine the chemical and physical processes at several distinct time and length with which to guide the process of designing novel membrane materials for fuel cell applications synthesized by the Dow Chemical Company,6­8 but more recently by Solvay- Solexis9­11 as Hyflons ) continue

  5. Microstructure orientation and nanoporous gas transport in semicrystalline block copolymer membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    27 August 1999; accepted 30 August 1999 Abstract Gas permeability coefficients were obtained for CO2 properties has resulted in a variety of applications for high throughput membrane materials and low and He gases at room temperature in a semicrystalline ethylene/ethylene­propylene/ ethylene (E

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Proton-Conducting Oxides as Hydrogen Transport Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    conductors are being developed for oxygen purification and for coupling with steam reforming reactions out reactions with unfavorable thermodynamics. H2 removal during catalytic methane pyrolysis [4] and during steam reforming [5] has been recently suggested in order to increase achievable CH4 conversions

  7. Oxygen exchange and transport in thin zirconia films on Si,,100... B. W. Busch, W. H. Schulte, E. Garfunkel, and T. Gustafsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Oxygen exchange and transport in thin zirconia films on Si,,100... B. W. Busch, W. H. Schulte, E 31 August 2000 The composition and atomic depth distributions of ultrathin zirconia films ( 30 Å diffusion of O in monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia, the diffusivity of O in SiO2

  8. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter...

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  10. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  12. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  13. Structures and Transport Properties of Hydrated Water-Soluble Dendrimer-Grafted Polymer Membranes for Application to Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for application to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Using full-atomistic molecular dynamics materials for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC).1-6 This has led to a number of new materials or above). Recently, we proposed a strategy for improving the perfor- mance of PEMFC by utilizing

  14. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 20 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 MAY 1998 Spontaneous Onset of Coherence and Energy Storage by Membrane Transporters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derényi, Imre

    of Coherence and Energy Storage by Membrane Transporters in an RLC Electric Circuit Imre Derényi and R. Dean equilibrium the energy flow can be reversed, i.e., power can flow from the downhill transport process that oscillating or fluctuating electric fields can drive thermodynami- cally uphill transport of ions catalyzed

  15. Computational and experimental study of nanoporous membranes for water desalination and decontamination.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickner, Michael A. (Penn State University, University Park, PA); Chinn, Douglas Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Long, Kevin R. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Kent, Michael Stuart (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Debusschere, Bert J.; Zendejas, Frank J.; Tran, Huu M.; Najm, Habib N.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Fundamentals of ion transport in nanopores were studied through a joint experimental and computational effort. The study evaluated both nanoporous polymer membranes and track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. The track-etched membranes provide a geometrically well characterized platform, while the polymer membranes are more closely related to ion exchange systems currently deployed in RO and ED applications. The experimental effort explored transport properties of the different membrane materials. Poly(aniline) membranes showed that flux could be controlled by templating with molecules of defined size. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes were modified using oxygen plasma treatments, UV-ozone exposure, and UV-ozone with thermal grafting, providing an avenue to functionalized membranes, increased wettability, and improved surface characteristic lifetimes. The modeling effort resulted in a novel multiphysics multiscale simulation model for field-driven transport in nanopores. This model was applied to a parametric study of the effects of pore charge and field strength on ion transport and charge exclusion in a nanopore representative of a track-etched polycarbonate membrane. The goal of this research was to uncover the factors that control the flux of ions through a nanoporous material and to develop tools and capabilities for further studies. Continuation studies will build toward more specific applications, such as polymers with attached sulfonate groups, and complex modeling methods and geometries.

  16. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

    2007-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

  17. Effect of doping, microstructure, and CO{sub 2} on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}-based oxygen-transporting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klande, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.klande@pci.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Efimov, Konstantin [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Cusenza, Salvatore; Becker, Klaus-Dieter [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 10, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Feldhoff, Armin [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Alkaline earth-free La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} based materials were synthesized by a sol-gel method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques as well as oxygen permeation experiments. Effects of doping the nickel position with a variety of cations (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ta, and Zr) were investigated with regards to oxygen flux and microstructure. Doping was always found to diminish the oxygen flux as compared to the reference composition. However, larger grains, which were achieved by longer annealing times at 1723 K have a minor negative impact on oxygen permeation flux in case of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} system. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that the iron-doped system exhibits a secondary phase, which was identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as a higher Ruddlesden-Popper phase. In-situ XRD in an atmosphere containing 50 vol% CO{sub 2} and long-term oxygen permeation experiments using pure CO{sub 2} as the sweep gas revealed a high tolerance of the materials towards CO{sub 2}. - Graphical Abstract: The vibrational polished La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} membrane revealed formation of secondary phases, which were confirmed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} systematically doped with different valent cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large grains have a negative impact on oxygen-permeation performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2}-stability proved by in-situ XRD in 50 vol% CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constant long-term permeation in presence of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moessbauer and TEM reveal multiple phases in La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} system.

  18. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  19. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  20. Pulsed laser-induced oxygen deficiency at TiO{sub 2} surface: Anomalous structure and electrical transport properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Tomohiko; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Toshiya

    2009-09-15

    We have studied pulsed laser-induced oxygen deficiencies at rutile TiO{sub 2} surfaces. The crystal surface was successfully reduced by excimer laser irradiation, and an oxygen-deficient TiO{sub 2-{delta}} layer with 160 nm thickness was formed by means of ArF laser irradiation at 140 mJ/cm{sup 2} for 2000 pulses. The TiO{sub 2-{delta}} layer fundamentally maintained a rutile structure, though this structure was distorted by many stacking faults caused by the large oxygen deficiency. The electrical resistivity of the obtained TiO{sub 2-{delta}} layer exhibited unconventional metallic behavior with hysteresis. A metal-insulator transition occurred at 42 K, and the electrical resistivity exceeded 10{sup 4} OMEGA cm below 42 K. This metal-insulator transition could be caused by bipolaronic ordering derived from Ti-Ti pairings that formed along the stacking faults. The constant magnetization behavior observed below 42 K is consistent with the bipolaronic scenario that has been observed previously for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These peculiar electrical properties are strongly linked to the oxygen-deficient crystal structure, which contains many stacking faults formed by instantaneous heating during excimer laser irradiation. - Graphical abstract: A pulsed laser-irradiated TiO{sub 2-{delta}} substrate showed an unconventional metallic phase, with hysteresis over a wide range of temperatures and a metal-insulator transition at 42 K.

  1. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  2. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  3. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  4. Development of experimental methods to measure osmosis-driven water flux and molecular transport across nanoporous graphene membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Doojoon

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, an atomically thin planar lattice of sp2 bonded carbon atoms with high strength and impermeability, has drawn attention as a promising next generation high flux separation membrane. Molecular dynamics simulations ...

  5. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Mieville, Rodney L. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  6. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side reactions and prolong membrane life. With the Argonne approach, oxygen does not contact the ethane/ethylene stream, so oxidation products are not formed. Consequently, higher selectivity to ethylene and fewer by-products can be achieved. Some benefits are: (1) Simplifies overall product purification and processing schemes; (2) Results in greater energy efficiency; (3) Completely eliminates greenhouse gases from the reactor section; and (4) Lowers the cost of the 'back end' purification train, which accounts for about 70% of the capital cost of a conventional ethylene production unit.

  8. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  9. Understanding the Relationship between Osmotic Membrane Structure and Separation Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Mavis C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Review of Transport through Osmotic Membranes. , J. Membr.and solution chemistry on osmotic structure and performance.relationship between osmotic membrane structure, chemistry,

  10. Carrier-mediated transport of actinide ions using supported liquid membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panja, S.; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Pu{sup 3+} under varying reducing conditions was investigated from a feed containing 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} into a receiver phase containing 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} using TODGA (N,N,N',N' - tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) as the carrier ligand. A mixture of 0.2 M hydroxyl ammonium nitrate and 0.2 M hydrazinium nitrate (used in the feed as the reducing agent) has been found to be effective for quantitative (>99%) transport of the trivalent Pu in about 3 h. Transport of trivalent plutonium in 3 h (>99%) was higher as compared to that of the tetravalent plutonium (94%), though their D values followed an opposite trend. The permeability coefficient (P) of Pu{sup 3+} was (4.63 {+-} 0.26) x 10{sup -3} cm/s as compared to (2.10 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} cm/s for Pu{sup 4+} and (3.67 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3} cm/s Am{sup 3+}. P values of trivalent actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+}, and Cm{sup 3+} are compared with their distribution data. (authors)

  11. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  12. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  13. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to increase CO conversion and produce more hydrogen than a standard water gas shift reactor would. Substantial improvements in substrate and membrane performance were achieved in another DOE project (DE-FC26-07NT43054). These improved membranes were used for testing in a water gas shift environment in this program. The amount of net H2 generated (defined as the difference of hydrogen produced and fed) was greater than would be produced at equilibrium using conventional water gas shift reactors up to 75 psig because of the shift in equilibrium caused by continuous hydrogen removal. However, methanation happened at higher pressures, 100 and 125 psig, and resulted in less net H2 generated than would be expected by equilibrium conversion alone. An effort to avoid methanation by testing in more oxidizing conditions (by increasing CO2/CO ratio in a feed gas) was successful and net H2 generated was higher (40-60%) than a conventional reactor at equilibrium at all pressures tested (up to 125 psig). A model was developed to predict reactor performance in both cases with and without methanation. The required membrane area depends on conditions, but the required membrane area is about 10 ft2 to produce about 2000 scfh of hydrogen. The maximum amount of hydrogen that can be produced in a membrane reactor decreased significantly due to methanation from about 2600 scfh to about 2400 scfh. Therefore, it is critical to eliminate methanation to fully benefit from the use of a membrane in the reaction. Other modeling work showed that operating a membrane reactor at higher temperature provides an opportunity to make the reactor smaller and potentially provides a significant capital cost savings compared to a shift reactor/PSA combination.

  14. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign InTransportation

  15. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  16. The research cluster Membranes for Energy and Sustainable Processes (or in full Membrane Materials Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    transport through polymer membranes to identify structure-properties relations and on the application and optimization of the transport of ions through these membranes. Figure 4: Coal fired power plant (Borssele and permeation) through polymer membranes to identify structure-properties relations and on the application

  17. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  18. Correlation between the electronic and atomic structure, transport properties, and oxygen vacancies on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio-Zuazo, J. Onandia, L.; Castro, G. R.

    2014-01-13

    We present a study of the role of oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure and transport properties on a 20?nm thick La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} film grown by the pulsed laser deposition method on a SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate. The results show that oxygen vacancies induce an atomic structure modification characterized by the movement of the La/Ca cations to the perovskite regular position, by the reduction of the MnO{sub 6} basal plane rotation, and by a cooperative tilting of the octahedra along the out-of-plane direction. The out-of-plane lattice parameter increases due to the reduction of the Mn valence upon oxygen vacancies creation. As a consequence, a shift of the Metal-to-Insulator transition to lower temperatures is found to occur. We discuss the influence of the competitive phenomena of manganese valence and Mn-O-Mn bond distortion on the transport properties of manganite thin films.

  19. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  20. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTING POLYPEPTIDE MEDIATED TRANSPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Yi Miao

    2010-04-12

    The organic anion transporting polypeptides (human: OATP; other: Oatp) form a mammalian transporter superfamily that mediates the transport of structurally unrelated compounds across the cell membrane. Members in this superfamily participate...

  1. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  2. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  3. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  4. ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water Objective This project provides measurement solutions that probe the surface and internal structure of polymer membranes used in water purification, and correlate that structure to the transport of water and other species through the membrane. Our methods are focused

  5. Modification of Gold Catalysis withModification of Gold Catalysis with Aluminum Phosphate for OxygenAluminum Phosphate for Oxygen--Reduction ReactionReduction Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    (PEMFC + DMFC) General MotorsPanasonic Power Source * PEMFC: proton exchange membrane fuel cell DMFC) H+ Oxygen or Air Ecat Hydrogen (PEMFC) (DMFC) Carbon Dioxide Water CatalystsCatalysts Membrane

  6. Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korzeniewski, Carol

    2014-01-20

    The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

  7. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  8. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  9. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  10. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  11. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bruce M. (Bend, OR)

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  12. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. A unified model of electroporation and molecular transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Kyle Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Biological membranes form transient, conductive pores in response to elevated transmembrane voltage, a phenomenon termed electroporation. These pores facilitate electrical and molecular transport across cell membranes that ...

  14. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  15. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  16. Membrane Based intensification of ammonia removal from wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almutairi, Azel

    2011-12-31

    , exchanging zone, moving through a packed bed [109]. A+ is equivalent for the sodium form and B+ for ammonium ion. 78 Figure 2.8: Breakthrough curves [5]. 79 Figure 2.9: Basic methods of cell immobilization [122]. 84 Figure 2.10: Ion exchange process....30: Deoxygenation of 2.5 L tap water by 2.5 mg sodium sulfite. 180 Figure 4.31: Silicon tube membrane oxygenation at different pressures. 181 Figure 4.32: Porous membrane oxygenation at P = 1.0 psi. 182 Figure 4.33: Porous membrane oxygenation at P = 4.0 psi...

  17. Isabella Inzoli Coupled transports of heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    about the transport of gas and heat across a membrane and to shed light on the coupling effects between.g. for catalytic cracking and for separation processes. The dynamic behaviour of the molecules entering a membrane transport of gas and heat into and across a silicalite membrane. These simulations allow to follow the time

  18. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  19. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  20. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  1. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  2. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  3. Axionic Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Aurilia; E. Spallucci

    1992-04-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramond gauge potential $\\b(x)$ and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the $\\b$-field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the H-J theory of electromagnetic strings.

  4. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  5. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  6. Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

  7. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2013-11-26

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  8. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  9. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.

    1995-08-03

    This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

  10. Isothermal Ice-Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dursch, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are investigated usinglow emissions. In a PEMFC, reduction of oxygen to waterexperimental studies of PEMFC cold- start primarily focus on

  11. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  12. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  13. Control of differential strain during heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2007-12-25

    Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side and a permeate side, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the oxidant feed side and the permeate side by varying either or both of the oxygen partial pressure and the total gas pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane while changing the temperature of the membrane from a first temperature to a second temperature.

  14. The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

    2013-01-01

    Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

  15. Quantifying the Diffusion of a Fluid through Membranes by Remote Detection MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Hilty, Christian; Garcia, Sandra; Harel, Elad; Pines, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    membrane diffusion and transport in intact systems of technological importance, such as fuel cells and gas separationgas separation (3), or metabolism (4). Present methods for the characterization of diffusion across membranes

  16. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  17. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  18. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  19. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  20. Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Wenchao

    Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

  1. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  2. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  3. Composite sensor membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Satyanarayana, Srinath (Berkeley, CA); Yue, Min (Albany, CA)

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  4. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  5. Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation selectivity of ~30. The gas transport and separation properties of CMS membrane are membrane thickness thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H8 separation has not been well

  6. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J Douglas

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  7. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  8. Online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes of a human body

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)] [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-07-31

    We have developed a method for online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes (MMs) of a human body (transport scattering coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor, haemoglobin concentration, degrees of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries with blood) from measurements of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection. The method is based on regression relationships between linearly independent components of the measured light signals and the unknown parameters of MMs, obtained by simulation of the radiation transfer in the MM under conditions of its general variability. We have proposed and justified the calibration-free fibre-optic method for determining the concentration of haemoglobin in MMs by measuring the light signals diffusely reflected by the tissue in four spectral regions at two different distances from the illumination spot. We have selected the optimal wavelengths of optical probing for the implementation of the method. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  9. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  10. An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotubegraphene complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    such as platinum or its alloys are routinely used in fuel cells because of their high activity. Carbon alloys) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells1, and designing catalysts with both optimal activity and stability for ORR in acidic solutions all remain

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  12. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-07-13

    The oxygen ion conductivity, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism, of yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes used in solid oxide fuel cells is restricted due to trapping limitations. In this work, a high concentration of oxygen vacancies has been deliberately introduced into nanocrystalline stabilizer-free zirconia through ion-irradiation. Oxygen vacancies with different charge states can be produced by varying irradiation temperatures. Due to the reduced trapping sites and high oxygen vacancy concentration, this work suggests that the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved.

  13. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

  14. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1989-04-25

    There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

  15. Catalytic membrane reactors for chemicals upgrading and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F. [Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting catalytic membrane reactors are being developed for promoting a number of spontaneous chemical reactions either leading to synthesis of value added products or decomposition of environmental contaminants. The dense non-porous ceramic materials behave as short-circuited electrochemical devices whereby ions (oxygen anions or protons) and electrons become simultaneously mediated for one reaction surface to another. The rationale behind membrane materials selection and specific applications will be discussed.

  16. Record activity and stability of dealloyed bimetallic catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Binghong

    We demonstrate the unprecedented proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance durability of a family of dealloyed Pt–Ni nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), exceeding scientific and ...

  17. Role of Water States on Water Uptake and Proton Transport in Nafion using Molecular Simulations and Bimodal Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Gi Suk

    2013-01-01

    of novel sulfonated polyimides from 2,2’-bis(4-aminophenoxy)structure of sul- fonated polyimide membranes on transport

  18. Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network Shaping ofStaff HighlightCentralv0,

  19. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologiesAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

  20. Indirect determination of zeta potential at high ionic strength: Specific application to semipermeable polymeric membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reserved. 1. Introduction Membranes are rapidly becoming the leading separation method in a broad range and gas industry [6,12,29,30]. The fouling propensity of RO, NF, and FO membranes and mass transport to semipermeable polymeric membranes Bryan D. Coday a , Thomas Luxbacher b , Amy E. Childress c , Nohemi Almaraz

  1. Operation of mixed conducting metal oxide membrane systems under transient conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2008-12-23

    Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side, an oxidant feed surface, a permeate side, and a permeate surface, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the permeate surface and the oxidant feed surface at a value below a selected maximum value by varying the oxygen partial pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane.

  2. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  3. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

  6. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  7. Membrane Separations Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    been dominated by light gas separations and water purification. During this pioneering period, equipment containing the membrane suIfaces has been developed to a point where failures are minimal and the membranes themselves are sufficiently rugged... of separation technology, especially in the area of gas recovery and purification. The field has grown quite large and the literature is voluminous. There is now a North American Membrane Society and there has been for some years the Journal of Membrane...

  8. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  9. Exploring transport and phase behavior in nanoporous carbon materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimizu, Steven (Steven Franklin Esau)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding transport and phase behavior in nanopores has a substantial impact on applications involving membrane fabrication, single-molecule detection, oil reservoir modeling, and drug delivery. While transport and ...

  10. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Srikanth

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  12. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  14. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  15. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) ›PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  16. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

  17. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  18. A calcium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report preliminary work performed in their laboratory on a high-temperature electrochemically reversible calcium-oxygen cell. Following an analogous strategy to that recently discussed for the lithium-oxygen secondary system, this calcium-oxygen cell utilizes stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes to achieve effective separation between half-cell reactions.

  19. Recent developments in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2008-07-23

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) that operate at temperatures above 120 °C are needed to avoid catalyst poisoning, speed up electrochemical reactions, simplify the design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. This review summarizes developments in PEMs over the last five years. In order to design new membranes for elevated temperature operation, one must understand the chemistry, morphology and dynamics of protons and small molecules in existing membranes. The integration of experiments with modeling and simulation can shed light on the hierarchical structure of the membrane and dynamical processes associated with molecular transport. Based on such a fundamental understanding, membranes can be modified by controlling the polymer chemistry and architecture or adding inorganic fillers that can retain water under low relative humidity conditions. In addition, the development of anhydrous membranes based on phosphoric acid doped polymers, ionic liquid-infused polymer gels and solid acids can enable fuel cell operation above 150 °C. Considerable work remains to be done to identify proton transport mechanisms in novel membranes and evaluate membrane durability under real world operating conditions.

  20. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Page - Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Chicago 24 July 2012 Modules & Vessels Membranes System Design: Pretreatment & Controls Three Critical Areas So Much Work Performance ...

  1. Anion exchange membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  2. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  3. Sustainable Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    THOUGHT PIECE Sustainable Transport by Melvin M. Webberwant to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it todraconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in

  4. Deciphering the Mechanism of E. coli tat Protein Transport: Kinetic Substeps and Cargo Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitaker, Neal William 1982-

    2012-12-03

    The Escherichia coli twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports fully folded and assembled proteins across the inner membrane into the periplasmic space. The E. coli Tat machinery minimally consists of three integral membrane proteins: TatA...

  5. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  6. Membrane Applications at Ceramatec

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications at Ceramatec Solid Electrolyte Ion Conductors CO 2 to Syngas GTL Advanced Batteries oxygen Fluorine Hydrogen Alkali metals Specialty Chemicals Waste Remediation...

  7. Mixed conducting membranes for syngas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Butt, Darryl (Gainesville, FL); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrick Elias (Neckarsulm, DE); Cutler, Raymond Ashton (Bountiful, UT)

    2002-01-01

    This invention presents a new class of multicomponent metallic oxides which are particularly suited toward use in fabricating components used in processes for producing syngas. The non-stoichiometric, A-site rich compositions of the present invention are represented by the formula (Ln.sub.x Ca.sub.1-x).sub.y FeO.sub.3-.delta. wherein Ln is La or a mixture of lanthanides comprising La, and wherein 1.0>x>0.5, 1.1.gtoreq.y>1.0 and .delta. is a number which renders the composition of matter charge neutral. Solid-state membranes formed from these compositions provide a favorable balance of oxygen permeance and resistance to degradation when employed in processes for producing syngas. This invention also presents a process for making syngas which utilizes such membranes.

  8. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  9. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Sheng, Guangyao (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  10. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  11. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  12. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  13. Multicomponent ballistic transport in narrow single wall carbon nanotubes: Analytic model and molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    online 27 January 2011) The transport of gas mixtures through molecular-sieve membranes such as narrow The transport of gas mixtures through molecular-sieve membranes and catalysts has been a subject of intensive inMulticomponent ballistic transport in narrow single wall carbon nanotubes: Analytic model

  14. MembraneScienceandTechnologyatUTwente MembraneNewsTwente

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    for water treatment, e.g. water purification, desalination, membrane bioreactors and waste water treatment purification - Drinking water prod. - Membrane bioreactors - Waste water treatment - Desalination Energy - Gas

  15. Membrane projection lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  16. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  17. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  18. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.; Friesen, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    Novel semipermeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  19. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  20. Modeling of durability of polyelectrolyte membrane of O2/H2 fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atrazhev, Vadim V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss critical aspects of the mechanisms and features of polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) degradation in low-temperature H2/O2 fuel cell. In this paper, we focused on chemical mechanism of OH radical generation and their distribution in operational fuel cell. According to the current concept, free radicals are generated from hydrogen and oxygen crossover gases at the surface of Pt particles that precipitated in the membrane. We explicitly calculate Pt precipitation rate and electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane that controls it. Based on radical generation rate and Pt distribution we calculate degradation rate of the membrane taking advantage of simple kinetics equations.

  1. Composition variation and underdamped mechanics near membrane proteins and coats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Alex Rautu; George Rowlands; Matthew S. Turner

    2015-02-14

    We study the effect of membrane proteins on the shape, composition and thermodynamic stability of the surrounding membrane. When the coupling between membrane composition and curvature is strong enough the nearby composition and shape both undergo a transition from over-damped to under-damped spatial variation, well before the membrane becomes unstable in the bulk. This transition is associated with a change in the sign of the thermodynamic energy and hence has the unusual features that it can favour the early stages of coat assembly necessary for vesiculation (budding), while suppressing the activity of mechanosensitive membrane channels and transporters. Our results also suggest an approach to obtain physical parameters that are otherwise difficult to measure.

  2. Original article Flat ceramic membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with tubular ceramic membranes André GRANGEON, Philippe LESCOCHE* TAMI Industries, ZA les Laurons, 26110 Nyons membranes. The orig- inal intellectual concept is protected by two international patents. Strategically

  3. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Across Membranes Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette...

  4. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  5. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  6. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  7. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  8. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  9. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  10. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  11. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  12. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  13. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  14. Salinity tolerance in plants: attempts to manipulate ion transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim Volkov

    2014-11-06

    Ion transport is the major determining factor of salinity tolerance in plants. A simple scheme of a plant cell with ion fluxes provides basic understanding of ion transport and the corresponding changes of ion concentrations under salinity. The review describes in detail basic principles of ion transport for a plant cell, introduces set of transporters essential for sodium and potassium uptake and efflux, analyses driving forces of ion transport and compares ion fluxes measured by several techniques. Study of differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes offers knowledge for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion transport. Several attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance are described. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to potential candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. The potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters is discussed and questioned. An alternative approach from synthetic biology is to modify the existing membrane transport proteins or create new ones with desired properties for transforming agricultural crops. The approach had not been widely used earlier and leads also to theoretical and pure scientific aspects of protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis.

  15. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can improve power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment with its attendant higher combustion temperatures, reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to three times at 26% oxygen content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of oxygen enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  16. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  17. Structural design of a lunar lander spacecraft for the Texas space grant regolith oxygen production experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccus, Ronald Kregg

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is the determination of a structural design for the lunar lander spacecraft currently being developed by the Texas Space Grant Consortium to transport a regolith oxygen production experiment to the surface of the moon...

  18. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  19. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  20. Gas Separation Using Membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial membrane-based gas separator systems based upon high-flux, asymmetric polysulfone hollow fibers were first introduced in 1977 by Monsanto. These systems were packaged in compact modules containing large amounts of permeation surface area...

  1. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  2. Orbifolding the Membrane Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seiji Terashima; Futoshi Yagi

    2008-12-08

    We study a simple class of orbifolds of the N=6 Chern-Simons Matter theory proposed by Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena. They are considered as a world volume theory of membranes probing C^4/ (Z_k x Z_n) and include a new membrane theory with N=4 supersymmetries. We find that the moduli spaces of them are consistent with the fact that they probe C^4/ (Z_k x Z_n).

  3. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  4. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  5. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  6. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo (Hengelo, NL); Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor (Reinbek, DE); Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  7. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  8. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  9. Simulation of Polarization Curves for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 at a Rotating Ring Disk Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel cell PEMFC can cause the failure of the membrane.1-3 Peroxide can be generated in the oxygen reduction reaction ORR , which occurs in the cathode of a PEMFC. Because it is difficult to observe

  10. High temperature CO2 perm-selective membranes offer potential for uses in various processes for CO2 separation. Recently, efforts are reported on fabrication of dense ceramic-carbonate dual-phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    separation. Recently, efforts are reported on fabrication of dense ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes on transport mechanism demonstrates that gas transport for ceramic- carbonate dual-phase membrane is rate and Characterization of Thin Ceramic-Carbonate Dual-Phase Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation Bo Lu Advisor: Jerry

  11. Direct numerical simulation of electroconvective instability and hysteretic current-voltage response of a permselective membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Van Sang

    We present a systematic, multiscale, fully detailed numerical modeling for dynamics of fluid flow and ion transport covering Ohmic, limiting, and overlimiting current regimes in conductance of ion-selective membrane. By ...

  12. Reconstructing phonon mean-free-path contributions to thermal conductivity using nanoscale membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuffe, John

    Knowledge of the mean-free-path distribution of heat-carrying phonons is key to understanding phonon-mediated thermal transport. We demonstrate that thermal conductivity measurements of thin membranes spanning a wide ...

  13. Influence of Ibuprofen on Phospholipid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaksch, Sebastian; Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Mattauch, Stefan; Holderer, Olaf; Ivanova, Oxana; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Hertrich, Samira; Nickel, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Basic understanding of biological membranes is of paramount importance as these membranes comprise the very building blocks of life itself. Cells depend in their function on a range of properties of the membrane, which are important for the stability and function of the cell, information and nutrient transport, waste disposal and finally the admission of drugs into the cell and also the deflection of bacteria and viruses. We have investigated the influence of ibuprofen on the structure and dynamics of L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (SoyPC) membranes by means of grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS), neutron reflectometry and grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy (GINSES). From the results of these experiments we were able to determine that ibuprofen induces a two-step structuring behavior in the SoyPC films, where the structure evolves from the purely lamellar phase for pure SoyPC over a superposition of two hexagonal phases to a purely hexago- nal phase at high concentrations. Add...

  14. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Ambrosini, Andrea (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  15. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  16. Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, June 25--September 24, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Y.H.

    1997-11-02

    A new reactor module was constructed as a porous membrane reactor or radial flow reactor for the study of methane oxidative coupling. A Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared by the slurry mixing method and its catalytic activity was evaluated in a porous alumina membrane reactor. Experimental results showed that the Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst calcined at 900 C was not stable during methane oxidative coupling. After 1,050 C calcination the catalyst became stable, however its activity was not as good as the one prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. The dense membrane tube obtained from Eltron Research Inc. was tested in a membrane reactor for the catalytic oxidative coupling of methane. The Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method was packed inside the membrane tube. The initial oxygen flux was 0.02 cc/cm{sup 2}-min. It increased to 0.34 cc/cm{sup 2}-min after reaction and remained unchanged during a period of 31 days on stream. In a temperature range of 688 C to 977 C, the increase in oxygen flux with temperature obeyed the Arrhenius law. The C{sub 2} yield was about 10% at a methane conversion of 20%. The yield of the membrane reactor with Eltron membrane tube was higher than that with the Argonne membrane tube.

  17. Think positively : the structural basis of cation-binding and coupling of the multidrug and toxic-compound Extrusion (MATE) transporter family

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    plant homolog Nt- JAT1 transporting secondary metaboliteSecondary transport as an efficient membrane transport mechanism for plant secondary metabolites.of secondary metabolites. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8, 301-

  18. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  19. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  20. Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University Cleveland, Ohio #12;2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0oC ·Transport processesMembranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Thermal Conductivity in Nanoporous Si Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Monte Carlo Simulations of Thermal Conductivity in Nanoporous Si Membranes Stefanie Wolf1 transport in Si nanomeshes. Phonons are treated semiclassically as particles of specific energy and velocity, ii) the roughness amplitude of the pore surfaces on the thermal conductivity of the nanomeshes. We

  2. Transport Reactor Development Unit Modification to Provide a Syngas Slipstream at Elevated Conditions to Enable Separation of 100 LB/D of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Separation Membranes Year - 6 Activity 1.15 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlasner, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Gasification of coal when associated with carbon dioxide capture and sequestration has the potential to provide low-cost as well as low-carbon hydrogen for electric power, fuels or chemicals production. The key element to the success of this concept is inexpensive, effective separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide in synthesis gas. Many studies indicate that membrane technology is one of the most, if not the most, economical means of accomplishing separation; however, the advancement of hydrogen separation membrane technology is hampered by the absence of experience or demonstration that the technology is effective economically and environmentally at larger scales. While encouraging performance has been observed at bench scale (less than 12 lb/d hydrogen), it would be imprudent to pursue a largescale demonstration without testing at least one intermediate scale, such as 100 lb/d hydrogen. Among its many gasifiers, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is home to the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU), a unit capable of firing 200—500 lb/hr of coal to produce 400 scfm of synthesis gas containing more than 200 lb/d of hydrogen. The TRDU and associated downstream processing equipment has demonstrated the capability of producing a syngas over a wide range of temperatures and contaminant levels — some of which approximate conditions of commercial-scale gasifiers. Until this activity, however, the maximum pressure of the TRDU’ s product syngas was 120 psig, well below the 400+ psig pressures of existing large gasifiers. This activity installed a high-temperature compressor capable of accepting the range of TRDU products up to 450°F and compressing them to 500 psig, a pressure comparable to some large scale gasifiers. Thus, with heating or cooling downstream of the TRDU compressor, the unit is now able to present a near-raw to clean gasifier synthesis gas containing more than 100 lb/d of hydrogen at up to 500 psig over a wide range of temperatures to hydrogen separation membranes or other equipment for development and demonstration.

  3. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  4. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  5. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  6. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  7. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  8. Membrane fluctuations around inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian D. Santangelo; Oded Farago

    2004-01-15

    The free energy of inserting a protein into a membrane is determined by considering the variation in the spectrum of thermal fluctuations in response to the presence of a rigid inclusion. Both numerically and through a simple analytical approximation, we find that the primary effect of fluctuations is to reduce the effective surface tension, hampering the insertion at low surface tension. Our results, which should also be relevant for membrane pores, suggest (in contrast to classical nucleation theory) that a finite surface tension is necessary to facilitate the opening of a pore.

  9. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

    1993-12-14

    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  10. Membranes Improve Insulation Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullock, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    °F Temp. Under One White Membrane 74°F 74°F 73°F 88°F Temp. Inside Box 77°F 78°F 85" F 94" F test and the reason is speculated to be the same as test number 1. Legend: 1 Outside Air Temperature 2 One Clear 2 Mil. Membrane 3 One... suspended in their normal place. These data are plotted on Figure 8. In all cases, the function was a straight line and all points plotted on the line (A-E). Function (F) on Figure 8 is the calculated heat loss through the simulator walls and bottom...

  11. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  12. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  13. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  14. CONCEPTUAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS OF OXYGEN DIFFUSION, SULPHIDE OXIDATION AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE WITHIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    CONCEPTUAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS OF OXYGEN DIFFUSION, SULPHIDE OXIDATION AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE The generation and transport of acid mine drainage (AMD) through discretely fractured porous media is simulated. RÉSUMÉ La génération et le transport des produits issus du drainage minier acide (DMA) dans un milieu

  15. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes.

  16. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  17. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  18. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  19. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  20. Investigating transport through sub-nanometer zeolites pores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humplik, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), which accounts for over 40% of the current worldwide desalination capacity, is limited by the solution-diffusion mode of water transport through a tortuous polymeric active layer. ...

  1. Facilitated Transport of Small Carbohydrates through Plasticized Cellulose Triacetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Facilitated Transport of Small Carbohydrates through Plasticized Cellulose Triacetate Membranes.7,8 This report describes plasticized cellulose triacetate mem- branes that incorporate a large involved plasticized films that are homogeneous mixtures of cellulose triacetate (CTA), plasticizer (e

  2. Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC

  3. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 044908 (2011) Multicomponent ballistic transport in narrow single wall carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    2011-01-01

    online 27 January 2011) The transport of gas mixtures through molecular-sieve membranes such as narrow The transport of gas mixtures through molecular-sieve membranes and catalysts has been a subject of intensive in single wall carbon nanotubes: Analytic model and molecular dynamics simulations T. Mutat,1 J. Adler,1,a

  4. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, Stephen (Middletown, DE); Grot, Walther (Chadds Ford, PA)

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  5. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Pellegrino, J.J.

    1994-05-16

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

  6. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  7. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CATIONS; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; HOST; LIPIDS; MEMBRANE PROTEINS; MEMBRANES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; PEPTIDES; RANGE; SHAPE; SIZE Word Cloud More...

  8. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  9. Non-Tracial Free Transport and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Brent Andrew

    2015-01-01

    tracial transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the transport element . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Free Transport . . . . . . . . . . . .

  10. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  11. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Ruscic, Katarina J. (Chicago, IL); Sears, Devin N. (Spruce Grove, CA); Smith, Luis J. (Natick, MA); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  12. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  13. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  14. Membranes on an Orbifold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Lambert; David Tong

    2008-04-15

    We harvest clues to aid with the interpretation of the recently discovered N=8 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory with SO(4) gauge symmetry. The theory is argued to describe two membranes moving in the orbifold R8/Z2. At level k=1 and k=2, the classical moduli space M coincides with the infra-red moduli space of SO(4) and SO(5) super Yang-Mills theory respectively. For higher Chern-Simons level, the moduli space is a quotient of M. At a generic point in the moduli space, the massive spectrum is proportional to the area of the triangle formed by the two membranes and the orbifold fixed point.

  15. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563AbuseConnectJournal(Conference)Detectors (Journal Article)

  16. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563AbuseConnectJournal(Conference)Detectors (Journal

  17. Pearling instability of membrane tubes driven by curved proteins and actin polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urška Jeler?i?; Nir S. Gov

    2014-09-26

    Membrane deformation inside living cells is crucial for the proper shaping of various intracellular organelles and is necessary during the fission/fusion processes that allow membrane recycling and transport (e.g. endocytosis). Proteins that induce membrane curvature play a key role in such processes, mostly by adsorbing to the membrane and forming a scaffold that deforms the membrane according to the curvature of the proteins. In this paper we explore the possibility of membrane tube destabilisation through a pearling mechanism enabled by the combined effects of the adsorbed curved proteins and the actin polymerization they may recruit. The pearling instability can furthermore serve as the initiation for fission of the tube into vesicles. We find that adsorbed proteins are more likely to stabilise the tubes, while the actin polymerization can provide the additional constrictive force needed for the robust instability. We discuss the relevance of the theoretical results to in-vivo and in-vitro experiments.

  18. Synthesis of an un-supported, high-flow ZSM-22 zeolite membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-10

    Novel methods for synthesizing wholly un-supported, high-flow catalytic membranes consisting of 100% crystalline ZSM-22 crystals with no binder phase, having sufficient porosity to allow high Weight Hourly Space Velocities of feedstock to pass through without generating back pressure. The ZSM-22 membranes perform favorably to existing bulk ZSM-22 catalysts (e.g., via 1-butene conversion and selectivity). The method of membrane synthesis, based on Vapor Phase Transport, allows free-standing, binder-less membranes to be fabricated in varied geometries and sizes so that membranes can be tailor-made for particular geometries applications. The ZSM-22 precursor gel may be consolidated into a semi-cohesive body prior to vapor phase crystallization, for example, by uniaxial pressing. These crystalline membranes may be modified by ion exchange, pore ion exchange, framework exchange, synthesis modification techniques to incorporate other elements into the framework, such as K, H, Mg, Zn, V, Ga, and Pt.

  19. Strong blue emission from anodic alumina membranes with ordered nanopore array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haydn H.

    Strong blue emission from anodic alumina membranes with ordered nanopore array G. S. Huang, X. L by anodization in oxalic acid showed a strong PL peak in the blue. Due to an obvious asymmetry, the PL peak can that the two blue PL bands originate from optical transitions in two kinds of different oxygen-deficient defect

  20. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  1. Control of the transient behaviour of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    , Michigan, USA Abstract: The transient behaviour of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system by a vehicle powered by the fuel cell system. The PEMFC system analysed consists of air and fuel supply the transient behaviour of the PEMFC system with respect to maintaining the necessary level of the oxygen

  2. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. C. Dominguez Herrera; M. R. Perez de Taoro; C. Casares; J. L. Rasilla; R. Rebolo; C. Allende Prieto

    1997-10-07

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  3. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 ?m to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could improve IGCC process efficiency but the cost of the membrane reactor with membranes having current CO2 permeance is high. Further research should be directed towards improving the performance of the membranes and developing cost-effective, scalable methods for fabrication of dual-phase membranes and membrane reactors.

  4. The effect of a surfactant monolayer on oxygen transfer across an air/water interface during mixed convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saylor, John R.

    ,4,8,5,2,13], natural convec- tion [14­16], rain [17,18,7], and chemical reactions within water [19­22], to name justThe effect of a surfactant monolayer on oxygen transfer across an air/water interface during mixed monolayer on the transport of oxygen across an air/water interface during mixed convection conditions

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  6. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo,...

  7. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  8. Among the major applications of pervaporation membrane processes, organic separation from organic/water mixtures is becoming increasingly important. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Among the major applications of pervaporation membrane processes, organic separation from organic referred to as "silicone rubber", exhibiting excellent film-forming ability, thermal stability, chemical for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy #12;

  9. Implications of Permeation through Intrinsic Defects in Graphene on the Design of Defect-Tolerant Membranes for Gas Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chengzhen

    Gas transport through intrinsic defects and tears is a critical yet poorly understood phenomenon in graphene membranes for gas separation. We report that independent stacking of graphene layers on a porous support exponentially ...

  10. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  11. Alkaline Membrane Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartmentJune 2, 2015AlignedRPTnnnn Membrane-Based

  12. Microalgae Cultivation using Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiley, Patrick Edward

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae cultivation using offshore membrane enclosuresbiofouling on the proposed offshore membrane enclosures forMicroalgae cultivation using offshore membrane enclosures

  13. A Membrane Process for Industrial Water Treatment: From Bench to Pilot Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric S. Peterson; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; Jessica Trudeau

    2005-01-01

    A rotary membrane filtration system was used to separate die lubricant from a manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by factors of 20 to 25, carbon oxygen demand by 1.5 to 2, and total organic carbon by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand remained constant. The rotary membranes were not fouled as badly as static membranes, and the rotary membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the static membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary ultrafilter can concentrate the die lubricant, remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lubricant suitable for in-plant recycling. The recycling system operated for 6 weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that when recycled die lubricant was used, the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. Rotary ultrafiltration presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  14. Plastidic Pi transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irigoyen Aranda, Sonia Cristina

    2012-10-19

    and reverse genetics to demonstrate functional specialization for the PHT4 family members with a focus on PHT4;1 and PHT4;2. The PHT4;1 Pi transporter is localized to chloroplast thylakoid membranes and it is expressed in a circadian manner. Plants that lack a...

  15. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. These membranes will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2010.

  16. Water Transport in Hydrophilic Channels of Nafion (DMR 0819860)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    (RH) that open up the ion channels for optimal proton transport. Nafion, a polymer used for fuel cells Benziger, Princeton University Sr Fuel cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy by transporting protons through ion conducting channels in polymer membranes. Improving proton conduction will make fuel

  17. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  18. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

  19. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  20. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  1. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  2. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  3. Identifying Calcium Channels and Porters in Plant Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, Heven

    1998-04-01

    The overall objectives of the proposal submitted in 6/90 was to understand how Ca was transported across plant membranes, and how these transport pathways were regulated. Ca participates in many cellular processes, including the transduction of hormonal and environmental signals, secretion, and protein folding. These processes depend on the coordination of passive Ca fluxes via channels and active Ca pumps; however these transport pathways are poorly understood in plants. We had, therefore, proposed to identify and characterize Ca transport proteins, such as the inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca channels and Ca pumps. We have had difficulties characterizing and cloning the IP3-sensitive Ca channel, but have made considerable progress on the biochemical characterization, and partial purification of a 120 kD Ca-pumping ATPase. We have begun to determine the structure of Ca pumps by molecular cloning and have already obtained a partial cDNA with features characteristic of Ca pumps.

  4. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong (Duke)

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  5. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  6. Prediction of the Dependence of the Fuel Cell Oxygen Reduction Reactions on Operating Voltage from DFT Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Prediction of the Dependence of the Fuel Cell Oxygen Reduction Reactions on Operating Voltage from reduction reaction (ORR) in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, we developed a sys- tematic way to handle on the operating electrochemical potential for the Pt-catalyzed fuel cell. This method is used to estimate

  7. A survey of integral ?-helical membrane proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    opti- mum eukaryotic integral membrane proteins forLarge-scale identi?cation of yeast integral membrane protein009-9069-8 A survey of integral a-helical membrane proteins

  8. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos (San Jose, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane and process for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5.times.10.sup.-6 cm.sup.3 (STP)/cm.sup.2 .multidot.s.multidot.cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment.

  9. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane and process are disclosed for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5{times}10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{center_dot}cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment. 4 figs.

  10. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 oC and 600 oC) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  11. Folding and Function of Proteorhodopsins in Photoenergy Transducing Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spudich, John L

    2012-08-10

    The overall research objectives are to develop proteorhodopsin (PR) proteins as a model system for {alpha}?-helical membrane protein insertion and folding, and to advance understanding of the diversity and mechanisms of PRs, a large family of photoenergy transducers (~4000 identified) abundant in the world’s oceans. Specific aims are: (1) To develop a highefficiency genetic selection procedure for light-driven proton-pumping in E. coli cells. Such a procedure would provide a positive selection method for proper folding and function of PRs in the E. coli membrane. (2) Characterize flash-induced absorption changes and photocurrents in PR variants in organisms from various environments, and their expression level and function when expressed in E. coli. Subaims are to: (a) elucidate the relationship of the transport mechanism to mechanisms of other microbial rhodopsins, some of which like PRs function as ion transporters and some of which use light energy to activate signaling pathways (sensory rhodopsins); and (b) identify important residues and chemical events in light-driven proton transport by PRs. In addition to their importance to the energy of the biosphere PRs have attracted interest for their potential for use in making photoenergy-transducing membranes for bioengineering applications.

  12. PROTON-CONDUCTING DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. S. Lin; Scott Cheng; Vineet Gupta

    2003-12-01

    Dense perovskite-type structured ceramic membranes, SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm), of different thickness, were prepared by the dry-press method. Membrane thickness was varied from 3 mm to 150 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation flux was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the dense films, indicating that the bulk diffusion rather than the surface reaction played a dominant role in the H{sub 2} transport through these dense membranes within the studied thickness range. Hydrogen permeation flux increases with increasing upstream hydrogen partial pressure and decreasing downstream hydrogen partial pressure. The activation energy for hydrogen permeation through the SCTm membrane is about 116 kJ/mol in 600-700 C and 16 kJ/mol in 750-950 C. This indicates a change in the electrical and protonic conduction mechanism at around 700 C. Pd-Cu thin films were synthesized with elemental palladium and copper targets by the sequential R.F. sputter deposition on porous substrates. Pd-Cu alloy films could be formed after proper annealing. The deposited Pd-Cu films were gas-tight. This result demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an ultrathin SCTm film by the sequential sputter deposition of Sr, Ce and Tm metals followed by proper annealing and oxidation. Such ultrathin SCTm membranes will offer sufficiently high hydrogen permeance for practical applications.

  13. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  14. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  15. Methane coupling by membrane reactor. First quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yi Hua

    1997-05-01

    The Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was studied by running the methane coupling reactions at different methane to oxygen ratios, temperatures and dilution gas flow rates. For methane to oxygen ratios less than 3, the C{sub 2} yield was almost the same; and C{sub 2} yield began to decrease as the methane to oxygen ratio was further increased. The optimal temperature observed was around 800{degrees}C, where the C{sub 2} yield reached a maximum value. Increasing the dilution gas (helium) flow rate resulted in higher C{sub 2} selectivity; however, after a certain dilution gas flow rate the C{sub 2} yield began to decrease due to a decrease in methane conversion as a result of the reduced contact time. The stability study of the catalyst showed that, after five successive run cycles, the C{sub 2} yield obtained decreased from 24% to 19% at 780 {degrees}C, and methane, oxygen and helium flow rates of 12.2, 4.1, and 44. 3 mm/min, respectively. XRD analysis showed that, after the reaction, the XRD peaks of the cristabolite and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} phases in the catalyst became smaller than those in the fresh catalyst, and that at least one new, unidentified phase was observed. Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was used as the methane oxidative coupling catalyst in a porous membrane reactor and its performance was compared with a packed reactor operated at similar conditions. Although the membrane reactor showed lower methane conversion at the same reaction conditions, it gave higher C{sub 2} selectivity and C{sub 2} yield at similar methane conversions.

  16. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doorway for Letting Ammonia into Cells Like any factory, a biological cell takes in raw materials and energy and expels waste products. What goes in and out passes through the cell...

  17. Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    films were cast in PTFE molds from 5% (w/v) solutions of polymer in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP a given film) was achieved by placing the PTFE molds on a level casting plate in a gravity oven (VWR removed from the PTFE molds and soaked in de-ionized (DI) water (18.2 M cm) to extract any residual

  18. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Bee, M. , Quasielastic Neutron Scattering: Principles andBee, M. , Quasielastic Neutron Scattering: Principles andand Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering ii 5.1. Introduction

  19. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-behavior of mixtures of poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (thermal properties of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-

  20. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energythe Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy

  1. Membrane transporters in the relict plastid of malaria parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, Geoff

    . The parasite plastid synthesizes fatty acids, heme, iron sulfur clusters and isoprenoid precursors are fuelled in the absence of photosynthetic capture of energy and carbon was not clear. Here, we describe fatty acids, isoprene subunits, heme and iron sulfur clusters, which might be exported from

  2. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|SensitiveAprilPhotonStructure of DNA-BoundFinanceStructures for

  3. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructure and Receptorsurvivor 8 StructureStructures

  4. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructure and Receptorsurvivor 8

  5. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructure and Receptorsurvivor 8Structures for Three

  6. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructure and Receptorsurvivor 8Structures for

  7. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at 1 Table ofDepartment of EnergyOperationsAndrewAndy-

  8. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and PionExperiments (Journallithium(Journal Article)Article) |

  9. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.Food Drive HolidayHoursa Wind Turbine Works HowHow

  10. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighlandWorkshop-SummerHow is the Data QualityHowHow

  11. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighlandWorkshop-SummerHow is the Data

  12. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighlandWorkshop-SummerHow is the DataHow the

  13. Surface Segregation in a PdCu Alloy Hydrogen Separation Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.B.; Matranga, C.S.; Gellman, A.J.

    2007-06-01

    Separation of hydrogen from mixed gas streams is an important step for hydrogen generation technologies, including hydrocarbon reforming and coal/biomass gasification. Dense palladium-based membranes have received significant attention for this application because of palladium’s ability to dissociatively adsorb molecular hydrogen at its surface for subsequent transport of hydrogen atoms through its bulk. Alloying palladium with minor components, like copper, has been shown to improve both the membrane’s structural characteristics and resistance to poisoning of its catalytic surface [1]. Surface segregation—a composition difference between the bulk material and its surface—is common in alloys and can affect important surface processes. Rational design of alloy membranes requires that surface segregation be understood, and possibly controlled. In this work, we examine surface segregation in a polycrystalline Pd70Cu30 hydrogen separation membrane as a function of thermal treatment and adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.

  14. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    while reducing fuel losses. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, DE, with the acquisition of rights to certain DuPont polymer membrane...

  15. Fullerene-Nafion Composite Recast Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Fullerene-Nafion Composite Recast Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  16. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the...

  17. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling. cmssbircasestudy2010.pdf More Documents &...

  18. Hydrogen Bond Shaping of Membrane Protein Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Bowie JU (2011) Membrane protein folding: how important areRadford SE (2000) Protein folding mechanisms: new methodset al. (2003) Membrane protein folding: beyond the two stage

  19. Membrane and MEA Accelerated Stress Test Protocols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on fuel cell membrane and MEA stress test protocols was given by T. Benjamin at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  20. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  1. New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  2. Apparatus for tensioning a heliostat membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sallis, Daniel V. (P.O. Box 554, Littleton, CO 80120)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for pneumatically or hydraulically tensioning a membrane, which stretched membrane can support a reflective surface for use as a heliostat in a solar energy collection system.

  3. Neuron, Vol. 19, 12711283, December, 1997, Copyright 1997 by Cell Press Vesicular Transport Regulates Monoamine Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulzer, David

    -University of California plasm, requiring transport into the vesicle, and severalSan Francisco, California 94143 distinctNeuron, Vol. 19, 1271­1283, December, 1997, Copyright ©1997 by Cell Press Vesicular Transport, cocaine and antidepressants act by inhibiting plasma membrane transport, thereby in- creasing the synaptic

  4. Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Molaison, Jennifer Lynn (Marietta, GA); Schick, Louis Andrew ,(Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY)

    2008-07-08

    A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.

  5. Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

  6. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  7. Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    , respectively. 147 A membrane (defined below) can be used to separate gas-phase mixtures and liquid-phase mixtures. This paper deals almost exclusively with the latter - a catagory of separation that includes dissolved and suspended solids in liquids... valuable. I ESL-IE-85-05-27 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 The membrane may be a gas [56 L a liquid [57,15], or a solid [11-23]. Solid polymeric membranes,and to a lesser extent...

  8. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  9. Transportation Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boreo, Andrea; Li, Wei; Wunnenbuger, Douglas; Giusti, Cecilia; Cooper, John T.; Masterson, Jaimie

    2015-01-01

    Mobility throughout a community ensures freedom of movement and enhances quality of life. Traffic congestion, pollution, urban sprawl, social exclusion, safety and health can decrease mobility and should be a part of a sustainable transportation...

  10. electrifyingthefuture transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    programme of electrification and the potential introduction of diesel hybrids. The Department for Transport vehicles Wind turbine systems Industrial equipment The lab has full ethernet capability which will enable

  11. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M. (Shrewsbury, MA); Kovar, Robert F. (Wrentham, MA); Osenar, Paul (Watertown, MA); Landrau, Nelson (Marlborough, MA); Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  12. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, M. B.

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently ...

  13. Nanocomposite Membranes for Complex Separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeu, Seung Uk

    2010-10-12

    to provide defectless mesoporous membranes. As mesoporous silica is iteratively synthesized in the ceramic macropores, the coating method and the surfactant removal step significantly affected permeance and selectivity. It was also shown that support layers...

  14. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  15. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  16. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  17. Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

  18. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01

    of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated...

  19. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  20. Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soma, Takako

    1996-01-01

    chemistry. The oxidation reactions of metal thiolates by hydrogen peroxide, molecular oxygen, dioxiranes, and peracids have been reviewed. The compounds resulting from oxidation and oxygenation of nickel thiolate complexes have been isolated, separated...

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  2. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  3. Polyetheretherketone Membranes for Elevated Temperature PEMFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Polyetheretherketone Membranes for Elevated Temperature PEMFCs Balasubramanian Lakshmanan exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs . For example, the current from a MEA made from PEEK membrane at 0.6 V, 2003. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs running on hy- drogen are an integral part

  4. A NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyowon

    to oxygen scavenging [5]. High CO2 levels (10- 80 %) are desirable for foods such as meat and poultryA NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Abstract A new system for CO2 measurement (0-100%) by based on a paired emitter-detector diode

  5. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  6. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  7. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra (University of California, Davis, CA); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. (University of California, Davis, CA); Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} into O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O{sub 2} from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}B{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM), and doped La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition step.

  8. Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    oxide fuel cells are of technological interest as they offer high efficiency for energy conversion to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologyOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights

  9. Hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in IXCs: A compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liljegren, L.M.; Terrones, G.T.; Melethil, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    This paper contains four reports and two internal letters that address the estimation of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in ion exchange columns that treat the water of the K-East and K-West Basins at Hanford. The concern is the flammability of this mixture of gases and planning for safe transport during decommissioning. A transient will occur when the hydrogen filter is temporarily blocked by a sandbag. Analyses are provided for steady-state, transients, and for both wet and dry resins.

  10. Investigating the adsorption and transport of water in MFI zeolite pores for water desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humplik, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of reverse osmosis membranes is limited by the diffusive transport of water across a non-porous polyamide active layer. Alternatively, fabricating a microporous active layer capable of rejecting salt ions ...

  11. NOVEL NANOCOMPOSITE MEMBRANE STRUCTURES FOR H2 SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benny D. Freeman

    2005-03-31

    This report explores possible methods of improving CO{sub 2} selectivity in polymer based membranes. The first method investigated using basic nanoparticles to enhance the solubility of acid gases in nanocomposite membranes, thus enhancing the overall acid gas/light gas selectivity (e.g., CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, etc.). The influence of nanoparticle surface chemistry on nanocomposite morphology and transport properties will be determined experimentally in a series of poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne). Additional factors (e.g., chemical reaction of the particles with the polymers) have been considered, as necessary, during the course of the investigation. The second method investigated using polar polymers such as crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(ether-b-amide) to improve CO{sub 2} sorption and thereby increase CO{sub 2} permeability and CO{sub 2}/light gas selectivity. For both types of materials, CO{sub 2} and light gas permeabilities have been characterized. The overall objective was to improve the understanding of materials design strategies to improve acid gas transport properties of membranes.

  12. Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging M. M. Daino and thermal profile in the through-plane direction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) gas membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is widely studied due to its impact on performance.1­4 A variety of imaging

  13. Investigating cotranslational integration of a multi-spanning membrane protein into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jongsma, Candice Gene

    2009-05-15

    Most membrane proteins in eukaryotic cells are co-translationally integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane at aqueous pores termed translocons. During multi-spanning membrane protein (MSMP) integration, the nascent polypeptide...

  14. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the puritymore »requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.« less

  15. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Lu, Y.; Emerson, J. E.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2010-04-16

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. HTMs will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2009.

  16. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-17

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. HTMs will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes progress that was made during Fy 2008 on the development of HTM materials.

  17. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  18. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  19. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 20082008707Oxygenate

  20. Molecular motors and membrane trac in Dictyostelium Shuo Ma, Petra Fey, Rex L. Chisholm *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Review Molecular motors and membrane tra¤c in Dictyostelium Shuo Ma, Petra Fey, Rex L. Chisholm on the cytoskeleton and their associated molecular motors. The myosin family of motors, especially the unconventional the early steps of phagocytosis. Members of the kinesin and dynein motor families, which mediate transport

  1. Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular and Ionic Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular of ca. 3.5 Å. Molecular transport can be modulated by axially ligating pore- blocking moieties of studies of photophysical and photochemical processes, including solar-cell-related processes. In many

  2. Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications Aboubakr to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cells cores to be integrated in original compact stability; Transport properties. 1. Introduction Micro fuel cells have received considerable attention over

  3. Analysis of membrane proteins in metagenomics: Networks of correlated environmental features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impacts, such as pollution and climate change. We show that there is widespread variation in membrane and that the occurrence of iron transporters is connected to the amount of shipping, pollution, and iron-containing dust of spectral tuning of the light-driven proton pump proteorhodopsin reveals a relationship between a single

  4. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  5. Nonequilibrium Patterns of Cholesterol-Rich Chemical Heterogenieties within Single Fluid Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    * Department of Applied Science, UniVersity of California, DaVis, California 95616, and Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 Recei pathways, cell adhesion and migration, synaptic transmission, cytoskeletol organization, membrane transport

  6. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS) hybrid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    for direct methanol fuel cell applications Young-Wook Chang1*, Erdong Wang1y , Geumsig Shin1 , Jung-Eun Han1 exchange membranes in direct methanel fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Fourier transform infrared (FT, fuel cell technologies produce no pollutants, are compact in size, can be easily transported, require

  7. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR); McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1998-01-01

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  8. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.K.; McCray, S.B.; Friesen, D.T.

    1998-03-10

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  9. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolshov, L.

    2010-01-01

    models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologicSemenov. 2008b. Nonclassical transport processes in geologicand L. Matveev. 2008. Transport regimes and concentration

  10. Intelligent Transport Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deakin, Elizabeth; Frick, Karen Trapenberg; Skabardonis, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    in Sustainable Urban Transport: City Interview Synthesis (of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies, forthcoming.I NTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS LINKING TECHNOLOGY AND

  11. Sustainability and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Gilbert is a Toronto-based transport and energy consultantof the forthcoming book Transport Revolutions: Making theand substantial transition to transport systems based on

  12. Sandia Energy - Transportation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Safety Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Risk and Safety Assessment Transportation Safety Transportation SafetyTara...

  13. Low-Cost, Robust Ceramic Membranes for Gas Separation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ceramic membranes offer great potential for industrial gas separation. Without a ceramic membrane, gases must be cooled before separation. Unfortunately, even though ceramic membranes can improve...

  14. Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic Phase, a Nanoporous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic Phase, a Nanoporous Membrane Mimetic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic...

  15. Vertebrate Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function, and Insights from Biophysical Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Vertebrate Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function, and Insights from Biophysical Approaches DANIEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 B. Membrane proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 III. Interactions of proteins with membranes

  16. Spectroscopic studies of tryptophan and membrane- associated peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlamadinger, Diana Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamics of membrane protein folding measured byThermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding: Lessons from theKim, Thermodynamics of membrane protein folding measured by

  17. Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

    2010-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

  18. Continuous production of polymethylpentene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperson, B.J.; Burnett, L.J.; Helm, V.D.

    1983-11-15

    Gas separation membranes may be prepared in a continuous manner by passing a porous support which may, if so desired, be backed by a fabric through a solution of polymethylpentene dissolved in an organic solvent such as hexane. The support member is passed through the solution while one side thereof is in contact with a roller, thereby permitting only one side of the support member to be coated with the polymer. After continuously withdrawing the support member from the bath, the solvent is allowed to evaporate and the resulting membrane is recovered.

  19. LDRD final report on nano-scale engineering of smart membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Assink, R.A. [and others

    1997-09-01

    A new approach to the fabrication of porous, amorphous inorganic membranes using organic pore templates was investigated. The pore templates were a new family of hybrid organic-inorganic monomers. As background for membrane work, the monomers were polymerized by sol-gel techniques to make crosslinked polymers. Molecular modeling was used to create computer simulations of the materials and provide insight into their composites, were then converted into porous silicas using low temperature oxygen plasma techniques. A select few of the monomers were copolymerized with silica monomers to form non-porous thin films on mesoporous substrates. The films were converted into porous silica thin films with thermal oxidations and the resulting membranes were tested for gas selectivities and flux.

  20. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  1. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  2. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  3. Energy Conservation Possibilities Using Gas Separating Membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knieriem, H.; Henis, J. M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of gases using semi permeable membranes is a viable unit operation. A novel composite membrane combined with hollow fiber spinning technology enable Monsanto Co. to offer PRISM (TM); Separators to the industrial market. The separator...

  4. Hybrid Membranes for Light Gas Separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ting

    2012-07-16

    Membrane separations provide a potentially attractive technology over conventional processes due to their advantages, such as low capital cost and energy consumption. The goal of this thesis is to design hybrid membranes that facilitate specific gas...

  5. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  6. Engineering supported membranes for cell biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Cheng-han; Groves, Jay T.

    2010-01-01

    membranes in structural biology. J Struct Biol 168:1–2 50.supported membranes for cell biology Cheng-han Yu • Jay T.range problems in cell biology. Because lateral mobility of

  7. Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    flow and vibrating membranes Lack membranes for hard-to-treat waters (e.g., mining, fracking, tailing ponds, waters with high solvents or salts, or with a wide temperature range)...

  8. Energy Recovery Ventilator Membrane Efficiency Testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, Jennifer Anne

    2013-05-07

    A test setup was designed and built to test energy recovery ventilator membranes. The purpose of this test setup was to measure the heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates through energy recover ventilator membranes and find their effectiveness...

  9. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS #12;SUSTAINABLE;6 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS #12;1 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS

  10. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  11. Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    that enhances current polymer-based membranes with a nano-structured material that allows additional control mgmt process for experiments Robust analysis of data from lab experiments, manufacturing trials and field results Provide general assistance and expertise to manufacturing team members on building

  12. Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Sharon Robinson (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  13. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  14. Challenges in Bio-Inspired Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jun Lin (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  15. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  16. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  17. Nafion-sepiolite composite membranes for improved Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell performance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nafion®-sepiolite composite membranes for improved Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell performance, characterized and integrated in Membrane-Electrodes Assembly to be tested in fuel cell operating conditions, mobile or stationary), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel

  18. Membrane protein folding on the example of outer membrane protein A of Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H.

    Membrane protein folding on the example of outer membrane protein A of Escherichia coli J. H and mechanisms by which membrane proteins insert and fold into a biomem- brane have mostly been studiedA that involves at least three struc- turally distinct folding intermediates. Key words. Membrane protein folding

  19. Rapid Impedance Measurement of Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membrane Biosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Rapid Impedance Measurement of Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membrane Biosensors Xiaoyi Mu, Daniel Rairigh of millisecond membrane protein activity in biosensor arrays. I. INTRODUCTION Because of the critical role membrane proteins play in biological function, biosensors utilizing membrane proteins have become

  20. slipstream-membrane-process | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing of a Membrane CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Project No.: DE-FE0005795 MTRs high-permeance membranes MTRs high-permeance membranes Membrane...