National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxygen pro cess

  1. Single-Column Modeling R. D. Cess Marine Sciences Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Cess Marine Sciences Research Center State University of New York Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 Cloud-climate interactions are one of the greatest uncertainties in contemporary general circulation models (GCMs) (Cess et al. 1989, 1990), and the present study has focused on one aspect of this. Specifically, combined satellite and near-surface shortwave (SW) flux measurements have been used to test the impact of clouds on the SW radiation budget of two GCMs. Concentration is initially on SW rather

  2. Genie Pro

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-15

    Genie Pro is a general purpose, interactive, adaptive tool for automatically labeling regions and finding objects in large amounts of image data. Genie Pro uses supervised learning techniques to search for spatio-spectral algorithms that are best able to match exaple labels provided by a user during a training session. After Genie Pro has discovered a useful algorithm, this algorith can then be applied to other similar types of image data, to label regions and objectsmore » similar to those provided during the training session. Genie Pro was originally developed for analyzing multispectral satellite data, but it works equally well with panchromatic (grayscale) and hyperspectral satellite data, aerial imagery, and various kinds of medical imagery. AS a rough guideline, Genie Pro can work with any imagery where the scene being imaged is all approximately at a constant distance fromt he imaging device, and so the scale of imagery is fixed. Applications for Genie Pro include: Crop and terrain type mapping, Road and river network mapping, Broad area search for vehicles and buildings, and Cancer identification in histological images.« less

  3. AL PRO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: AL-PRO Place: Grossheide, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 26532 Sector: Wind energy Product: AL-PRO is an inndependent expert office for wind forecasts, wind...

  4. Re-evaluating Network Onload vs. Offload for the Many-Core Era

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As a result, the performance and power costs of host network protocol pro- cessing ... AMD equivalent core, to network pro- cessing has thus far been an acceptable compromise. ...

  5. ProMat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  6. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline, Selected Grades Distillate Fuel Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, and Propane 170 ... See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Includes oxygenated motor gasoline. 3 > 15 and < 500 ...

  7. Word Pro - S3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil f Jet Fuel g LPG b Motor Gasoline i Residual Fuel Oil ... finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components; excludes oxygenates. ...

  8. Energy Pro USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pro USA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Energy Pro USA Place: Chesterfield, Missouri Zip: MO 63017 Product: Energy Pro funds and implements demand side energy savings programs to...

  9. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other

  10. DC Pro Software Tool Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet describes how DOE's Data Center Energy Profiler (DC Pro) Software Tool Suite and other resources can help U.S. companies identify ways to improve the efficiency of their data centers.

  11. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Table 5.1b Petroleum Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Field Production 1 Renewable Fuels and Oxygenates 5 Processing Gain 6 Trade Stock Change 8,10 Adjust- ments 11 Petroleum Products Supplied 8 Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas Plant Liquids 4 Total Imports 7,8 Exports Net Imports 8,9 48 States 3 Alaska Total 1949 5,046 0 5,046 430 5,477 NA -2 645 327 318 -8 -38 5,763 1950 5,407 0 5,407 499 5,906 NA 2 850 305 545 -56 -51 6,458 1955 6,807 0 6,807 771 7,578 NA 34 1,248

  12. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  13. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  14. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management ...

  15. Collateral Duties for Program Records Official (PRO) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Records Official (PRO) Collateral Duties for Program Records Official (PRO) GUIDANCE - Collateral Duties for PRO FINAL 141224.pdf (222.88 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  16. AgPro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: AgPro Place: Massena, New York Product: Operator of biodiesel plant based on soy. References: AgPro1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  17. Si Pro AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pro AS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Si Pro AS Place: Glomfjord, Norway Zip: 8161 Product: Silicon recycler with facility in Singapore. Coordinates: 66.807991, 13.97315...

  18. ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Huang, Katherine [Chisholm lab, MIT

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

  19. Pro Corn LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pro-Corn LLC Place: Preston, Minnesota Zip: 55965 Product: Minnesotan farmer owned bioethanol production company. Coordinates: 47.526531, -121.936019 Show Map Loading map......

  20. ProEco Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: South Dakota Product: US South Dakota-based company specializing ethanol refinery project development. References: ProEco Energy1 This article is a stub. You can...

  1. ProForm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spreadsheet ComplexityEase of Use: Simple Website: poet.lbl.govProform Cost: Free References: ProForm1 Related Tools General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK)...

  2. ProLogis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: ProLogis Place: Aurora, Colorado Zip: 80011 Sector: Services Product: Provider of distribution facilities and services. Coordinates: 39.325162, -79.54975 Show Map...

  3. Pro Ventum International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pro Ventum International Place: Forchheim, Germany Zip: 79362 Sector: Wind energy Product: German-based developer of wind power...

  4. Win pro energy group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy group Place: Berlin, Berlin, Germany Zip: 12165 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Win:pro offers location search, development, implementation,...

  5. ProLogis France IX EURL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ProLogis France IX EURL Jump to: navigation, search Name: ProLogis France IX EURL Place: Aulnay-Sous-Bois Cedex, France Zip: 93614 Product: French subsidiary of ProLogis, a...

  6. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans Citation Details In-Document Search Title: BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans The bERLinPro ...

  7. BatPRO: Battery Manufacturing Cost Estimation | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BatPRO: Battery Manufacturing Cost Estimation BatPRO models a stiff prismatic pouch-type cell battery pack with cells linked in series. BatPRO models a stiff prismatic pouch-type ...

  8. EA-155 ProMark | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-155 ProMark Order authorizing ProMark Energy, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-155 ProMark (46.89 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-196-A Minnesota Power, Sales ...

  9. Pro Sol Energia SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sol Energia SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pro Sol Energia SA Place: Algarrobo-Costa (Malaga), Spain Zip: E-29750 Sector: Solar Product: Develops and builds solar power...

  10. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system frommore » 298 K to melting.« less

  11. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system from 298 K to melting.

  12. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  13. Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma, with program HR, assumptions, marketing actuals and costs, and more, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program website. Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma (1.18 MB

  14. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  15. HyPro: Modeling the Hydrogen Transition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HyPro: Modeling the H 2 Transition Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 9 May 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Directed Technologies, Inc. 09 May 2007 2 Outline Model Overview Results Summary Cost & Methodology Assumptions Directed Technologies, Inc. 09 May 2007 3 Project Objectives Overall Create a tool robust enough to test the impact of different assumptions on the development of hydrogen infrastructure and

  16. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  17. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  18. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expertmore » users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.« less

  19. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  20. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  1. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  2. SolarPro Energy International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Granite Bay, California Zip: 95746 Sector: Solar Product: SolarPro Energy installs solar power systems using PV panels for residential and commercial properties. References:...

  3. A Variational Pro jection Operator for Mapping of Internal Variables...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A Variational Pro jection Operator for Mapping of Internal Variables. Authors: Mota, Alejandro ; Sun, WaiChing ; Ostien, Jakob ; Foulk, James W., III ; Long, Kevin...

  4. Pro Solar Solarstrom GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pro Solar Solarstrom GmbH Place: Ravensburg, Germany Zip: 88214 Sector: Solar Product: Distributor of PV modules, including Canadian...

  5. Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma, with program HR, assumptions, marketing actuals and costs, and more, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings ...

  6. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  7. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  8. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  9. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  10. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  11. ProActive DNS Blacklisting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ProActive DNS Blacklisting ProActive DNS Blacklisting Tuesday_Fair_Park_2_1330_Rackow.pdf (419.26 KB) More Documents & Publications DNS as a Covert Channel Within Protected Networks Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems Version 1.8 Slide

  12. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  13. Pro Isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-Bromo Cassette Connects H3K4me...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Pro ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pro Isomerization ... Here, we report on structure-function studies that elucidate ...

  14. Pro2 Anlagentechnik GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 47877 Product: Pro2 delivers turn-key plants for utilisation of biogas, sewage, natural gas and landfill gas in the range from 100 to 3,600 kWe. Coordinates: 51.26439,...

  15. Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excel sheet for program model, expenses, HR, and marketing, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program website. Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma (1022.61 KB

  16. Pennsylvania's Comprehensive, Statewide, Pro-Active Industrial Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency (E2) Program | Department of Energy Pennsylvania's Comprehensive, Statewide, Pro-Active Industrial Energy Efficiency (E2) Program Pennsylvania's Comprehensive, Statewide, Pro-Active Industrial Energy Efficiency (E2) Program Pennsylvania The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO; formerly the Industrial Technologies Program) has developed multiple resources and a best practices suite of tools to help industrial manufacturers reduce their energy

  17. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  18. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  19. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  20. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  1. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  4. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  5. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, Howard R.; Bevolo, Albert J.; Danielson, Gordon C.; Weber, Michael F.

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  6. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients

  8. MEMS Pro Design Kit - Parts A, B, and C

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-15

    Part A: SUMMiT V design Kit components for use with MEMS Pro from SoftMEMS Part B: SUMMiT V remote DRC and gear generator source code for use with autocad visual basic Part C: SUMMiT V DRC rules source and test cases for Calibre DRC engine

  9. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  10. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  12. VWA-0015- In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Initial Agency Decision concerns a whistleblower complaint filed by Barry Stutts, a former security officer for Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. (Am-Pro). It is undisputed that: Mr. Stutts and...

  13. Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex of Photosynthesis Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the

  14. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management (3.45 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) Human Resource Management System (HRMS) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Procurement Cycle System (PCS) PIA - Savannah

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report

  16. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  17. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  18. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  19. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EIA) Form EIA-819, "Monthly Biofuel and Oxygenate Report," is used to collect data on ethanol production capacity, as well as stocks, receipts, inputs, production, and blending of...

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  2. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  3. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  6. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction,more » viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.« less

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with

  8. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  9. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19, ...

  10. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  11. V-210: HP LaserJet Pro Printer Bug Lets Remote Users Access Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A potential security vulnerability has been identified with certain HP LaserJet Pro printers. The vulnerability could be exploited remotely to gain unauthorized access to data.

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01

    been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  13. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  14. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Lab News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties. Looking ahead The researchers want the model to handle both forging and welding because in some ways the two pro-cesses work against one another. Forging steel gives...

  16. Structure of RheniumContaining Sodium Borosilicate Glass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    not problem- atic in evaporation and drying processes but does creates trouble in high temperature molten glass pro- cessing from either liquid or dried feed. 2 Other sources of 99...

  17. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A.; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D.

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper will review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.

  18. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  19. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  20. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Oxygen-Enriched Combustion This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #3 Oxygen-Enriched Combustion (September 2005) (249.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A

  1. Oxygen permeation and coal-gas-assisted hydrogen production using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen permeation and coal-gas-assisted hydrogen production using oxygen transport membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen permeation and coal-gas-assisted ...

  2. The mechanisms of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and evolution reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries A mechanistic understanding of the oxygen reductionevolution reaction in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. ...

  3. VWA-0015- Deputy Secretary Decision- In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Barry Stutts, Complainant v. Am-Pro Protective Agency, Inc., Respondent, OHA Case No. VWA-0015 DECISION DENYING REVIEW OF INITIAL AGENCY DECISION This is a request for review by Complainant Barry...

  4. DC Pro Software Tool Suite, Data Center Fact Sheet, Industrial Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet describes how DOE's Data Center Energy Profiler (DC Pro) Software Tool Suite and other resources can help U.S. companies identify ways to improve the efficiency of their data centers.

  5. ProForce marks 65 years protecting Sandia resources, facilities, people |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) ProForce marks 65 years protecting Sandia resources, facilities, people Monday, October 26, 2015 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Current and former members of the Lab's Protective Force gathered to reflect on and recognize the contributions ProForce has made to securing Sandia National Laboratory's resources, facilities, and people. Over the past 65 years, the force has changed in size and structure but its mission has remained the same: To ensure the

  6. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses to Exposure to Diesel Soot | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses to Exposure to Diesel Soot Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses to Exposure to Diesel Soot 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute 2002_deer_seagrave.pdf (1.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Inhaled Oil Condensates Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of

  7. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  8. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Sander, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  9. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon

    1991-01-01

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

  10. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  11. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports | Department of Energy Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 adzic_bnl_kickoff.pdf (4.62 MB) More Documents & Publications Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  12. Oxygen electrocatalysis on (001)-oriented manganese perovskite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the nanoscale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen electrocatalysis on (001)-oriented manganese perovskite films: Mn valency and charge transfer at the nanoscale ...

  13. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  14. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Catalysis Working ...

  15. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Schiller Park, Illinois Zip: 60176 Product: Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References: Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

  16. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  17. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts Citation ... Publication Date: 2016-03-24 OSTI Identifier: 1245398 Report ...

  18. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  19. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  1. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  2. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  3. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this

  4. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  5. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1998-01-01

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  6. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  8. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  9. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  10. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

  11. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

  12. Strain Control of Oxygen Vacancies in Epitaxial Strontium Cobaltite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strain Control of Oxygen Vacancies in Epitaxial Strontium Cobaltite Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strain Control of Oxygen Vacancies in Epitaxial Strontium ...

  13. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  14. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for ...

  15. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & ...

  16. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable...

  17. Pt3Re alloy nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for the oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pt3Re alloy nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction Citation ... on March 24, 2018 Title: Pt3Re alloy nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for the oxygen ...

  18. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction ...

  19. Facile oxygen intercalation between full layer graphene and Ru...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facile oxygen intercalation between full layer graphene and Ru(0001) under ambient ... Title: Facile oxygen intercalation between full layer graphene and Ru(0001) under ambient ...

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance

  1. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell

  2. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible

  3. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-02-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  4. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2003-04-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

  5. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  6. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

  7. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  8. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.

    1984-01-01

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  9. HyPro: A Financial Tool for Simulating Hydrogen Infrastructure Development, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian D. James, Peter O. Schmidt, Julie Perez

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI) project to study the build-out of hydrogen production facilities during the transition from gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The primary objectives of the project are to develop an enhanced understanding of hydrogen production issues during the transition period (out to 2050) and to develop recommendations for the DOE on areas of further study. These objectives are achieved by conducting economic and scenario analysis to predict how industry would provide the hydrogen production, delivery and dispensing capabilities necessary to satisfy increased hydrogen demand. The primary tool used for the analysis is a custom created MatLab simulation tool entitled HyPro (short for Hydrogen Production). This report describes the calculation methodology used in HyPro, the baseline assumptions, the results of the baseline analysis and several corollary studies. The appendices of this report included a complete listing of model assumptions (capital costs, efficiencies, feedstock prices, delivery distances, etc.) and a step-by-step manual on the specific operation of the HyPro program. This study was made possible with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Oxygen reduction reaction: A framework for success

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allendorf, Mark D.

    2016-05-06

    Oxygen reduction at the cathode of fuel cells typically requires a platinum-based material to catalyse the reaction, but lower-cost, more stable catalysts are sought. Here, an intrinsically conductive metal–organic framework based on cheaper elements is shown to be a durable, structurally well-defined catalyst for this reaction.

  11. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Coleman, Gerald Nelson; Robel, Wade James

    2008-12-16

    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  12. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a

  13. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  14. Influence of Pro-Qura-generated Plans on Postimplant Dosimetric Quality: A Review of a Multi-Institutional Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Zachariah |||; Merrick, Gregory S. ||| Grimm, Peter; Blasko, John; Sylvester, John; Butler, Wayne; Chaudry, Usman-Ul-Haq; Sitter, Michael |||

    2008-10-01

    The influence of Pro-Qura-generated plans vs. community-generated plans on postprostate brachytherapy dosimetric quality was compared. In the Pro-Qura database, 2933 postplans were evaluated from 57 institutions. A total of 1803 plans were generated by Pro-Qura and 1130 by community institutions. Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) plans outnumbered Palladium 103 ({sup 103}Pd) plans by a ratio of 3:1. Postimplant dosimetry was performed in a standardized fashion by overlapping the preimplant ultrasound and the postimplant computed tomography (CT). In this analysis, adequacy was defined as a V{sub 100} > 80% and a D{sub 90} of 90% to 140% for both isotopes along with a V{sub 150} < 60% for {sup 125}I and < 75% for {sup 103}Pd. The mean postimplant V{sub 100} and D{sub 90} were 88.6% and 101.6% vs. 89.3% and 102.3% for Pro-Qura and community plans, respectively. When analyzed in terms of the first 8 sequence groups (10 patients/sequence group) for each institution, Pro-Qura planning resulted in less postimplant variability for V{sub 100} (86.2-89.5%) and for D{sub 90} (97.4-103.2%) while community-generated plans had greater V{sub 100} (85.3-91.2%) and D{sub 90} (95.9-105.2%) ranges. In terms of sequence groups, postimplant dosimetry was deemed 'too cool' in 11% to 30% of cases and 'too hot' in 12% to 27%. On average, no clinically significant postimplant dosimetric differences were discerned between Pro-Qura and community-based planning. However, substantially greater variability was identified in the community-based plan cohort. It is possible that the Pro-Qura plan and/or the routine postimplant dosimetric evaluation may have influenced dosimetric outcomes at community-based centers.

  15. Excess Oxygen Defects in Layered Cuprates

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lightfoot, P.; Pei, S. Y.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Manthiram, A.; Tang, X. X.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1990-09-01

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the oxygen defect chemistry of two non-superconducting layered cuprates, La{sub 1. 25}Dy{sub 0.75}Cu{sub 3.75}F{sub 0.5}, having a T{sup {asterisk}}- related structure, and La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 1.15}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6.25}, having a structure related to that of the newly discovered double-layer superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The role played by oxygen defects in determining the superconducting properties of layered cuprates is discussed.

  16. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-10-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

  17. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  18. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R.; Bond, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  19. A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenz, R.W.

    1991-10-07

    An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

  20. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Radoslav Adzic Co-workers: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Stoyan Bliznakov, Yun Cai, Yu Zhang, Kurian Kuttiyiel, Kuanping Gong, YongMan Choi, Ping Liu, Hideo Naohara 1 Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 1 Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono, Japan Webinar June 19, 2012 Outline - Introduction on fuel cells, electrocatalysis, existing developments and remaining obstacles to

  1. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  2. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical

  3. Oxygen Catalysis: The Other Half of the Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.

    2008-10-01

    Artificial photosynthesis--splitting water with light--is an attractive way to make hydrogen, but what happens to the oxygen? A catalyst that aids in the efficient production of gaseous oxygen improves the viability of this approach.

  4. Impact of interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic structure in superconducting Fe 1 + y Te O x thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of interstitial oxygen...

  5. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  6. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

  7. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 13159553.pdf (405 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen

  8. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion deer09_yelvington.pdf (196.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Emission Control Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diese

  9. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  10. Chemical diffusion of oxygen in tin dioxide: Effects of dopants and oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamp, B.; Merkle, R. . E-mail: s.weiglein@fkf.mpg.de; Lauck, R.; Maier, J.

    2005-10-15

    Tin dioxide SnO{sub 2-{delta}} is a pronounced n-type electron conductor due to its oxygen deficiency. This study investigates the rate of chemical diffusion of oxygen in SnO{sub 2-{delta}} single crystals, which is a crucial step in the overall stoichiometry change of the material. The chemical diffusion coefficient D{sup {delta}} was determined from conductivity- and EPR-relaxation methods. The temperature dependence was found to be D{sup {delta}}=exp(-4+/-2)cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}exp(-(1.1+/-0.3)eV/kT). The dependence on crystal orientation, dopant content and oxygen partial pressure was below experimental error. The latter observation leads to the conclusion that the chemical diffusion coefficient is close to the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies. Along with the relaxation process resulting from the chemical diffusion of oxygen, additional processes were observed. One of these was attributed to complications in the defect chemistry of the material. The relevance of the results for the kinetics of drift processes of Taguchi sensors is discussed.

  11. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  12. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) + O{sub 3}(ν) → 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  13. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore » a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  14. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithiumoxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  15. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  16. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  17. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  18. Instabilities in a capacitively coupled oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Küllig, C. Wegner, Th. Meichsner, J.

    2015-04-15

    Periodic fluctuations in the frequency range from 0.3 to 3 kHz were experimentally investigated in capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) oxygen plasma. The Gaussian beam microwave interferometry directly provides the line integrated electron density fluctuations. A system of two Langmuir probes measured the floating potential spatially (axial, radial) and temporally resolved. Hence, the floating potential fluctuation development is mapped within the discharge volume and provides a kind of discharge breathing and no wave propagation. Finally, it was measured the optical emission pattern of atomic oxygen during the fluctuation as well as the RF phase resolved optical emission intensity at selected phase position of the fluctuation by an intensified charge-coupled device camera. The deduced excitation rate pattern reveals the RF sheath dynamics and electron heating mechanisms, which is changing between low and high electronegativity during a fluctuation cycle. A perturbation calculation was taken into account using a global model with 15 elementary collision processes in the balance equations for the charged plasma species (O{sub 2}{sup +}, e, O{sup −}, O{sub 2}{sup −}) and a harmonic perturbation. The calculated frequencies agree with the experimentally observed frequencies. Whereby, the electron attachment/detachment processes are important for the generation of this instability.

  19. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W.; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T.; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P.; Matveenko, A.N.; Schmeisser, M.; Volker, J.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R.; Schubert, S.G.; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  20. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  1. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily

  2. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  3. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable

  4. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  5. METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, J.P.

    1962-02-27

    A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

  6. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating

  7. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  8. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  9. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technique | Department of Energy Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," held March 12, 2013. Presenters were Shyam S. Kocha, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Yannick Garsany, Naval Research

  10. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  11. Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Print Monday, 11 April 2016 14:29 As information bits of 0s and 1s are stored in crosspoint tantalum oxide memristors, or resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells, nanoscale-resolution in operando x-ray transmission spectromicroscopy is used to directly observe oxygen

  12. Elusive Oxygen Isotope Captured with Groundbreaking Sensitivity | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Elusive Oxygen Isotope Captured with Groundbreaking Sensitivity Oxygen is one of the most ubiquitous elements in chemistry and materials science, yet one of the most elusive elements for spectroscopic investigation by solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSNMR). Used to determine the structure of materials and chemicals on the atomic scale, SSNMR requires nuclei that have magnetic moments. Yet, less than four of every 10,000 oxygen nuclei are 17O, the only NMR-active isotope of

  13. Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (765 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia has developed a portable, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98 percent and flow rates significantly greater than commercially

  14. Sensor Rapidly Measures the Concentration of Oxygen in Fluids - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Sensor Rapidly Measures the Concentration of Oxygen in Fluids Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTo provide rapid measurement of oxygen concentrations in fluids, ORNL researchers developed a sensor that measures oxygen in temperatures from 0 degrees Celsius up to the 200 degrees Celsius commonly found in intake manifolds. The sensor can be

  15. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  16. Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here, we develop an approach for direct mapping of oxygen vacancy concentrations based on local lattice parameter measurements by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The ...

  17. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films ... This content will become publicly available on January 25, 2017 Title: Strain control of ...

  18. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building...

  19. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: ...

  20. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Hsiao, Mark C.; Wallman, P. Henrik; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    1999-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO.sub.x reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  3. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock ...

  4. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an ...

  5. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  6. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as...

  7. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Freeland, John W.; Eres, Gyula; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Mitra, Chandrima; Meyer, Tricia L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, the ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 °C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by ≈30%, resulting inmore » a tunable oxygen deficient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.« less

  8. Oxidation State and Interfacial Effects on Oxygen Vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Vacancies in Tantalum Pentoxide. Abstract not provided. Authors: Bondi, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1184499 Report...

  9. Role of strain and conductivity in oxygen electrocatalysis on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR, OER) hinder energy conversion and storage in alkaline fuel cells and electrolyzers employing abundant ...

  10. The Electronic Structure of Oxygen Atom Vacancy and Hydroxyl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Electronic Structure of Oxygen Atom Vacancy and Hydroxyl Impurity Defects on Titanium Dioxide (110) Surface Introducing a charge into a solid such as a metal oxide ...

  11. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (196.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Emission Control Strategy for Downsized ...

  12. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  13. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  15. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  16. Effects of oxygen and catalyst on tetraphenylborate decomposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies indicate that palladium catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Oxygen inhibits the reaction at low temperature (25 C), presumably by preventing activation of the catalyst. The present study investigated oxygen's inhibiting effectiveness at higher temperature (45 C) and catalyst concentrations.

  17. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Huang, Tao

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  18. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  19. Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Romano, Anthony J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

  20. Processing and Testing of the SRF Photoinjector Cavity for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W.; Frahm, A.; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clemens, William; Kneisel, Peter; Turlington, Larry; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2014-07-01

    The BERLinPro project is a compact, c.w. SRF energy recovery linac (ERL) that is being built to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to operate the next generation of high current ERLs. The machine is designed to produce a 50 MeV 100 mA beam, with better than 1 mm-mrad emittance. The electron source for the ERL will be a SRF photoinjector equipped with a multi-alkali photocathode. In order to produce a SRF photoinjector to operate reliably at this beam current HZB has undertaken a 3 stage photoinjector development program to study the operation of SRF photoinjectors in detail. The 1.4 cell cavity being reported on here is the second stage of this development, and represents the first cavity designed by HZB for use with a high quantum efficiency multi-alkali photocathode. This paper will describe the work done to prepare the cavity for RF testing in the vertical testing dewar at Jefferson Laboratory as well as the results of these RF tests.

  1. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; Garcia-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; et al

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computationalmore » studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.« less

  2. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T.; Breitkopf, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  3. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  4. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  5. Enhancing perovskite electrocatalysis through strain tuning of oxygen deficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barron, Sara C.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Meyer, Tricia L.

    2016-05-27

    Oxygen vacancies in transition-metal oxides facilitate catalysis critical for energy storage and generation. However, promoting vacancies at the lower temperatures required for operation in devices such as metal–air batteries and portable fuel cells has proven elusive. Here we used thin films of perovskite-based strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) to show that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen content under conditions consistent with the oxygen evolution reaction, yielding increasingly oxygen-deficient states in an environment where the cobaltite would normally be fully oxidized. The additional oxygen vacancies created through tensile strain enhance the cobaltite’s catalytic activity toward this important reactionmore » by over an order of magnitude, equaling that of precious-metal catalysts, including IrO2. Lastly, our findings demonstrate that strain in these oxides can dictate the oxygen stoichiometry independent of ambient conditions, allowing unprecedented control over oxygen vacancies essential in catalysis near room temperature.« less

  6. Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

  7. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  8. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  9. Modelling oxygen self-diffusion in UO2 under pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cooper, Michael William D.; Grimes, R. W.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Chroneos, A.

    2015-10-22

    Access to values for oxygen self-diffusion over a range of temperatures and pressures in UO2 is important to nuclear fuel applications. Here, elastic and expansivity data are used in the framework of a thermodynamic model, the cBΩ model, to derive the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in UO2 over a range of pressures (0–10 GPa) and temperatures (300–1900 K). Furthermore, the significant reduction in oxygen self-diffusion as a function of increasing hydrostatic pressure, and the associated increase in activation energy, is identified.

  10. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  11. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  12. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  13. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  14. Role of an Oxygen Vacancy Nanostructure on the Switchable Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of an Oxygen Vacancy Nanostructure on the Switchable Photovoltaic Effect in BiFeO3 ... Moreover, a switchable photovoltaic effect and its diode effect have been demonstrated.2 ...

  15. STUDY OF USING OXYGEN-ENRICHED COMBUSTION AIR FOR LOCOMOTIVE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Evaluation o f Polymeric Membranes for Oxygen-Enrichment of Air, DOEAD- 127 10- 1, U S . ... fLom Gas Turbine Engines, Atmospheric Pollution by Aircraft Engines, AGARD CP-125, Paper ...

  16. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The...

  17. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Armstrong, M R; Zaug, J M; Grant, C D; Crowhurst, J C; Bastea, S 75...

  18. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  19. Oxygen Control of Atomic Structure and Physical Properties of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of SrRuO3 Surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen Control of Atomic Structure and Physical Properties of SrRuO3 Surfaces Authors: Tselev, ...

  20. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  1. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Miller, A. Keith; Cornelius, Christopher J.

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  2. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR ...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

  5. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  6. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Monday, 11 July 2016 00:00 Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain

  7. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf (809.59 KB) More Documents & Publications Cost

  8. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  9. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygenic Phototrophs Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Presentation by Eric Hegg, Michigan State University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. bio_h2_workshop_hegg.pdf (1.07 MB) More Documents & Publications Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop

  10. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  11. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_qu.pdf (724.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless

  12. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  13. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  14. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  15. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  16. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  17. Missing Oxygen Atoms Are Key to Robust Spintronic Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Missing Oxygen Atoms Are Key to Robust Spintronic Material Missing Oxygen Atoms Are Key to Robust Spintronic Material Print Friday, 01 April 2016 11:44 The endless pursuit of faster, more energy-efficient computers has led to the emergence of the field of spintronics, where the manipulation and detection of electron spins are utilized in electronic circuits. A particular class of materials called dilute magnetic oxides are promising candidates for spintronics applications because they exhibit

  18. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1149544 Report Number(s):

  19. Electrochemical transfer of oxygen during direct current arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.H.; Frost, R.H.; Olson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Weld metal oxygen content is important for control of weld metal microstructure and notch toughness. Low oxygen contents promote low toughness bainitic structures. Moderate oxygen levels favor a tough acicular ferrite structure, and high oxygen levels promote lower toughness grain boundary and Widmanstaetten side plate structures. The objective of this research was to examine electrochemical oxygen transfer as a function of welding process variables, polarity, and the relative importance of conduction across plasma-metal and slag-metal interfaces for: submerged arc welding (SAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. SAW and SMAW were made in DCEN and DCEP polarities on structural steel and copper substrates. GTAW were made on steel substrates in DCEN polarity. The experimental results show that both thermochemical and electrochemical reactions are important for oxygen transfer, and that there are differences in the electrochemical reactions at slag-metal and plasma-metal interfaces. Both electrochemical and thermochemical reactions are significant for direct current arc welding processes. The arc plasma acts as an electrolyte for arc welding processes and electrochemical reactions occur at the plasma-metal interface have chemical effects opposite to those at the slag metal interface. This is caused by the fact that only positive ions exist in the arc plasma in large concentrations.

  20. Constitutive NF-?B activation and tumor-growth promotion by Romo1-mediated reactive oxygen species production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Jin Sil; Lee, Sora; Yoo, Young Do

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: Romo1 expression is required for constitutive nuclear DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. Romo1 depletion suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Romo1 presents a potential therapeutic target for diseases. - Abstract: Deregulation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and related pathways contribute to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Mechanisms for constitutive NF-?B activation are not fully explained; however, the underlying defects appear to generate and maintain pro-oxidative conditions. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) correlates positively with tumor size. In the present study, we showed that Romo1 expression is required to maintain constitutive nuclear DNA-binding activity of NF-?B and transcriptional activity through constitutive I?B? phosphorylation. Overexpression of Romo1 promoted p65 nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity. We also show that Romo1 depletion suppressed anchorage-independent colony formation by HCC cells and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Based on these findings, Romo1 may be a principal regulatory factor in the maintenance of constitutive NF-?B activation in tumor cells. In the interest of anti-proliferative treatments for cancer, Romo1 may also present a productive target for drug development.

  1. Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen breathing, oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity, and persistent photovoltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurwitz, Ron; Cohen, Rotem; Shalish, Ilan

    2014-01-21

    ZnO surfaces adsorb oxygen in the dark and emit CO{sub 2} when exposed to white light, reminiscent of the lungs of living creatures. We find that this exchange of oxygen with the ambient affects the integrity of the ZnO surface. Thus, it forms a basis for several interesting surface phenomena in ZnO, such as photoconductivity, photovoltage, and gas sensing, and has a role in ZnO electrical conduction. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on ZnO nanowires, we observed a decomposition of ZnO under white light and formation of oxygen-depleted surface, which explains photoconductivity by the electron donation of oxygen vacancies. Our findings suggest that the observed decomposition of the ZnO lattice may only take place due to photon-induced reduction of ZnO by carbon containing molecules (or carbo-photonic reduction), possibly from the ambient gas, accounting in a consistent way for both the reduced demands on the energy required for decomposition and for the observed emission of lattice oxygen in the form of CO{sub 2}. The formation of oxygen-vacancy rich surface is suggested to induce surface delta doping, causing accumulation of electrons at the surface, which accounts for both the increase in conductivity and the flattening of the energy bands. Using surface photovoltage spectroscopy in ultra high vacuum, we monitored changes in the deep level spectrum. We observe a wide optical transition from a deep acceptor to the conduction band, which energy position coincides with the position of the so called green luminescence in ZnO. This green transition disappears with the formation of surface oxygen vacancies. Since the oxygen vacancies are donors, while the green transition involves surface acceptors, the results suggest that the initial emission of oxygen originates at the defect sites of the latter, thereby eliminating each other. This suggests that the green transition originates at surface Zn vacancy acceptors. Removing an oxygen atom from a Zn vacancy

  2. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrienko, Daniil A. Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  3. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leads to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.

  4. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leadsmore » to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.« less

  6. Acute Toxicity of Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients: A Risk Particularly for Carriers of the TGFB1 Pro25 variant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirmer, Markus Anton; Mergler, Caroline Patricia Nadine; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen; Gaedcke, Jochen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Jo, Peter; Beissbarth, Tim; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael; Brockmoeller, Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta1 is related to adverse events in radiochemotherapy. We investigated TGFB1 genetic variability in relation to quality of life-impairing acute organ toxicity (QAOT) of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy under clinical trial conditions. Methods and Materials: Two independent patient cohorts (n = 88 and n = 75) diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage II/III rectal cancer received neoadjuvant radiation doses of 50.4 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Toxicity was monitored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. QAOT was defined as a CTCAE grade {>=}2 for at least one case of enteritis, proctitis, cystitis, or dermatitis. Nine germline polymorphisms covering the common genetic diversity in the TGFB1 gene were genotyped. Results: In both cohorts, all patients carrying the TGFB1 Pro25 variant experienced QAOT (positive predictive value of 100%, adjusted p = 0.0006). In a multivariate logistic regression model, gender, age, body mass index, type of chemotherapy, or disease state had no significant impact on QAOT. Conclusion: The TGFB1 Pro25 variant could be a relevant marker for individual treatment stratification and carriers may benefit from adaptive clinical care or specific radiation techniques.

  7. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  8. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  9. CRADA Final Report: Ionically Conductive Membranes Oxygen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J.

    2001-10-29

    Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in a collaborative effort with Praxair Corporation developed a bench-top oxygen separation unit capable of producing ultra-high purity oxygen from air. The device is based on thin-film electrolyte technology developed at LBNL as part of a solid oxide fuel cell program. The two teams first demonstrated the concept using planar ceramic disks followed by the development of tubular ceramic structures for the bench-top unit. The highly successful CRADA met all technical milestones on time and on budget. Due to the success of this program the industrial partner and the team at LBNL submitted a grant proposal for further development of the unit to the Advanced Technology Program administered by the National Institute of Standar~s. This proposal was selected for funding, and now the two teams are developing a precommercial oxygen separation unit under a 3-year, $6 million dollar program.

  10. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  11. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  12. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining, review and forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    During the coming decade, oxygenates will continue to impact light oil processing and will steadily change the composition of the US gasoline pool. There are several major driving forces that will sustain the gradual influx of oxygen to US gasoline toward the regulatory limits: (1) the positive environmental characteristics of oxygenated compounds, (2) the high-octane quality of ethers that promote elimination of less desirable hydrocarbons and (3) the competitive need for ultra-clean gasoline to compete with alternatives. From 1995 forward, conventional gasoline will gradually shift to RFG (reformulated gasoline) containing a minimum of 2 wt% oxygen and less aromatics. As a result some processing changes, already in motion in the refining industry, will continue. For example, less severe naphtha reforming and cracking innovations to yield more feed for etherification and alkylation. While alternative fuel and vehicle technology will continue to develop, oxygenates in US gasoline will contribute the major alternative dimension to transportation fuel in the foreseeable future. With RFG, internal-combustion engine emissions will be progressively less toxic and lower in photochemical reactivity. The oxygenate mix will favor methyl ethers in spite of the recent methanol price spike. Ethyl ethers will be used on a more limited basis for specific situations where lower volatility and feedstock economics are an advantage. Downstream blending of ethanol will supplement ethers blended at the refinery in situations where economics are more favorable than refinery ethers. Long-range survival of ethanol, as a direct blending agent or feedstock for refinery ethers, depends on one or more of several factors: future crude oil costs, longevity of subsidies and/or mandates, and new production technology based on cellulose yielding ethanol economically competitive with hydrocarbons.

  13. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  14. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  15. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  16. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  17. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Sen; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A plasma needle is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  18. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  19. Electrochemical oxygen reduction catalysed by Ni3(hexaiminotriphenylene)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miner, Elise M.; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Surendranath, Yogesh; Dinca, Mircea

    2016-03-08

    Control over the architectural and electronic properties of heterogeneous catalysts poses a major obstacle in the targeted design of active and stable non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we introduce Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP=2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as an intrinsically conductive metal-organic framework which functions as a well-defined, tunable oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in alkaline solution. Ni3(HITP)2 exhibits oxygen reduction activity competitive with the most active non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts and stability during extended polarization. The square planar Ni-N4 sites are structurally reminiscent of the highly active and widely studied non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts containing M-N4 units.more » Ni3(HITP)2 and analogues thereof combine the high crystallinity of metal-organic frameworks, the physical durability and electrical conductivity of graphitic materials, and the diverse yet well-controlled synthetic accessibility of molecular species. As a result, such properties may enable the targeted synthesis and systematic optimization of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts as components of fuel cells and electrolysers for renewable energy applications.« less

  20. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routbort, Jules L.; Singh, Dileep; Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Spirig, John V.; Akbar, Sheikh

    2011-11-15

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  1. Chemistry - Oxygen Vacancies and Catalysis on Ceria Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Charles T.; Peden, Charles HF.

    2005-07-29

    Chemistry occurring at the surface of metal oxides is critical in a variety of industrial applications including catalysis and photocatalysis, optical display technology, solar energy devices and corrosion prevention. Defects have long been recognized to be the most reactive sites on the surfaces of many oxide materials. The most common types of defects present on the surfaces of metal oxides are oxygen vacancies and step edges. The nature of surface oxygen vacancies, and their number, distribution and diffusion across the surface of oxides, are thus issues of major scientific importance. One of the most interesting oxides in this respect is CeO2, since oxygen vacancies play the key role in giving this material it's industrially important ''oxygen-storage capacity''. This capacity makes modern automotive exhaust treatment catalysts containing CeO2 much more effective than their predecessors without CeO2. Ceria is also well known as a support which enhances the performance of transition metal catalysts, relative to other oxide supports, in a variety of other reactions including water-gas shift, steam reforming of oxygenates and PROX 1-7, all of which hold promise for enabling a hydrogen economy 1. Related to ceria's facile redox capacity (ability to rapidly form and eliminate oxygen vacancy defects) is the poorly understood observation that some less reducible oxides, such as zirconia (ZrO2), are used as additives that actually enhance this ''oxygen storage'' property of CeO2. In this issue, Esch and coworkers in Trieste, Italy report an exciting study that for the first time clearly elucidates the structure, distribution and formation of oxygen vacancies on a cerium oxide surface 8. They have elegantly combined beautiful, atomic-resolution imaging using scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) on a ceria surface with state-of-the-art quantum mechanical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) to raise our understanding of CeO2 surfaces to a much higher level

  2. Subtask 3.12 - Oxygen-Fired CFBC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Hajicek; Mark Musich; Ann Henderson

    2007-02-28

    Traditionally, air is used as the source of oxygen for firing a combustion system. A fully oxygen-fired circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system would result in the production of a flue gas stream consisting of mostly carbon dioxide and water. The concentrated carbon dioxide stream would be available for sequestering or other purposes. Temperatures in an oxygen-blown CFBC system would be controlled by a combination of flue gas recycle, solids recirculation, and by appropriately sizing and locating the amount of heat-transfer surface required. Flue gas recycle provides the additional gas required for adequate fluidization and circulation of solids replacing the nitrogen that would be present in an air-blown system. The amount of flue gas recycle will determine how much of the remaining heat from the coal combustion will have to be removed. If the amount of flue gas recycle required by increasing solids recirculation and oxygen staging is limited, introducing the pure oxygen at multiple locations in the combustor to result in a more even temperature profile should result in a more compact system, thus reducing initial capital costs for construction. The overall efficiency of the process should be greater than that of an air-blown system since less fuel is required for the creation of the same amount of energy. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is in a unique position to advance this technology. It has a world-class CFBC pilot plant, has experience with firing a wide range of fuels in our air-fired CFBC pilot plant, has prior experience with oxygen-firing a slagging furnace system in a pulverized coal-fired mode with a bituminous coal, and has all of the components required for oxygen-firing right next to the CFBC pilot plant already in place. An engineering study was performed to identify methods, an overall appropriate configuration, and an operating strategy for a fully oxygen-fired CFBC pilot plant by: (1) developing a plan to optimize

  3. Evaluation of the effect of organic pro-degradant concentration in polypropylene exposed to the natural ageing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montagna, L. S. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Catto, A. L. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Rossini, K. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Forte, M. M. C. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Santana, R. M. C. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com

    2014-05-15

    The production and consumption of plastics in the last decade has recorded a remarkable increase in the scientific and industrial interest in environmentally degradable polymer (EDPs). Polymers wastes are deposited improperly, such as dumps, landfills, rivers and seas, causing a serious problem by the accumulation in the environment. The abiotic processes, like the photodegradation, are the most efficient occurring in the open environmental, where the polymers undergo degradation from the action of sunlight that result from direct exposure to solar radiation, however depend of the type of chemical ageing, which is the principal component of climatic ageing. The subject of this work is to study the influence of concentration of organic pro-degradant (1, 2 and 3 % w/w) in the polypropylene (PP) exposed in natural ageing. PP samples with and without the additive were processed in plates square form, obtained by thermal compression molding (TCM) using a press at 200C under 2 tons for 5 min, and then were exposed at natural ageing during 120 days. The presence of organic additive influenced on PP degradability, this fact was assessed by changes in the thermal and morphology properties of the samples after 120 days of natural ageing. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) results of the morphological surface of the modified PP samples showed greater degradation photochemical oxidative when compared to neat PP, due to increase of rugosity and formation of microvoids. PP samples with different pro-degradant concentration under natural ageing presented a degree of crystallinity, obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) increases in comparing the neat PP.

  4. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  5. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  6. Observing Oxygen Atoms Move during Information Storage in Tantalum Oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Memristors | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Observing Oxygen Atoms Move during Information Storage in Tantalum Oxide Memristors Saturday, April 30, 2016 Memristor technology, or resistive random access memory (RRAM), is a frontrunner for next generation computer memory, owing to the promise of long endurance, low power, nanoscale device size and fast operation.1 Memristor devices are typically made of a transition metal oxide sandwiched between two metallic electrodes, and

  7. Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N

    2009-11-30

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)

  8. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-Crystal Surface (437 KB) <p> Results of a density functional theory calculation of atomic positions of platinum on an oxide surface, showing good agreement with experimental results.</p> Results of a density

  9. Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production Ceramic Membranes Developed at Argonne May Bring Fuel-Cell Cars Closer to Reality Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In the long term, hydrogen is expected to be the fuel of choice for both the

  10. Atomically Precise Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Atomically Precise Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction Thursday, March 31, 2016 Traditional heterogeneous catalysts contain a range of particles sizes, crystallographic faces, and surface structures. This heterogeneity makes catalysts design a challenge because the active sites responsible for catalytic activity are simply not known. An emerging class of "atomically-precise" nanocatalysts can help alleviate this problem because they form

  11. Residual Oxygen on Nb Heated to 500 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, R.; King, F.K.; Padamsee, H.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2005-06-10

    The superconducting accelerating cavities for the International Linear Collider will be constructed of high-residual resistivity ratio (RRR) niobium sheet. Excessive oxygen within the skin depth (several microns) will reduce the RRR and increase resistive losses. We measure the thickness of this oxide layer, following bakeout simulation, to be about 0.5 nm thick. The results suggest that this layer will very slowly disappear from the top five nm at 500 C.

  12. Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryElectrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on

  13. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum Prev Next Title: Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in ...

  14. Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and CO Oxidation and Kinetic ... Title: Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and CO Oxidation and ...

  15. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER The objective of the system ...

  16. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine ...

  17. Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.; Longman, D.E.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO{sub x} due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO{sub x} emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

  18. Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Longman, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO[sub x] due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO[sub x] emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

  19. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, amore » few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.« less

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Srikanth

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  1. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  2. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.; Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 -cm/cm.sup.2 -sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  4. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  5. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-07-13

    The oxygen ion conductivity, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism, of yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes used in solid oxide fuel cells is restricted due to trapping limitations. In this work, a high concentration of oxygen vacancies has been deliberately introduced into nanocrystalline stabilizer-free zirconia through ion-irradiation. Oxygen vacancies with different charge states can be produced by varying irradiation temperatures. Due to the reduced trapping sites and high oxygen vacancy concentration, this work suggests that the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved.

  6. Oxygen transport in off-stoichiometric uranium dioxide mediated by defect clustering dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Jianguo Bai, Xian-Ming; El-Azab, Anter; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-07

    Oxygen transport is central to many properties of oxides such as stoichiometric changes, phase transformation, and ionic conductivity. In this paper, we report a mechanism for oxygen transport in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) in which the kinetics is mediated by defect clustering dynamics. In particular, the kinetic Monte Carlo method has been used to investigate the kinetics of oxygen transport in UO{sub 2} under the condition of creation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies and interstitials as well as oxygen interstitial clustering, with variable off-stoichiometry and temperature conditions. It is found that in hypo-stoichiometric UO{sub 2?x}, oxygen transport is well described by the vacancy diffusion mechanism while in hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2+x}, oxygen interstitial cluster diffusion contributes significantly to oxygen transport kinetics, particularly at high temperatures and high off-stoichiometry levels. It is also found that di-interstitial clusters and single interstitials play dominant roles in oxygen diffusion while other larger clusters have negligible contributions. However, the formation, coalescence, and dissociation of these larger clusters indirectly affects the overall oxygen diffusion due to their interactions with mono and di-interstitials, thus providing an explanation of the experimental observation of saturation or even drop of oxygen diffusivity at high off-stoichiometry.

  7. Oxygen transport in off-stoichiometric uranium dioxide mediated by defect clustering dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Jianguo; Bai, Xian -Ming; El-Azab, Anter; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-05

    In this study, oxygen transport is central to many properties of oxides such as stoichiometric changes, phase transformation and ionic conductivity. In this paper, we report a mechanism for oxygen transport in uranium dioxide (UO2) in which the kinetics is mediated by defect clustering dynamics. In particular, the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been used to investigate the kinetics of oxygen transport in UO2 under the condition of creation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies and interstitials as well as oxygen interstitial clustering, with variable offstoichiometry and temperature conditions. It is found that in hypo-stoichiometric UO2-x, oxygen transport is wellmore » described by the vacancy diffusion mechanism while in hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x, oxygen interstitial cluster diffusion contributes significantly to oxygen transport kinetics, particularly at high temperatures and high off-stoichiometry levels. It is also found that diinterstitial clusters and single interstitials play dominant roles in oxygen diffusion while other larger clusters have negligible contributions. However, the formation, coalescence and dissociation of these larger clusters indirectly affects the overall oxygen diffusion due to their interactions with mono and di-interstitials, thus providing a explanation of the experimental observation of saturation or even drop of oxygen diffusivity at high off-stoichiometry.« less

  8. Oxygen transport in off-stoichiometric uranium dioxide mediated by defect clustering dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Jianguo; Bai, Xian -Ming; El-Azab, Anter; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-05

    In this study, oxygen transport is central to many properties of oxides such as stoichiometric changes, phase transformation and ionic conductivity. In this paper, we report a mechanism for oxygen transport in uranium dioxide (UO2) in which the kinetics is mediated by defect clustering dynamics. In particular, the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been used to investigate the kinetics of oxygen transport in UO2 under the condition of creation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies and interstitials as well as oxygen interstitial clustering, with variable offstoichiometry and temperature conditions. It is found that in hypo-stoichiometric UO2-x, oxygen transport is well described by the vacancy diffusion mechanism while in hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x, oxygen interstitial cluster diffusion contributes significantly to oxygen transport kinetics, particularly at high temperatures and high off-stoichiometry levels. It is also found that diinterstitial clusters and single interstitials play dominant roles in oxygen diffusion while other larger clusters have negligible contributions. However, the formation, coalescence and dissociation of these larger clusters indirectly affects the overall oxygen diffusion due to their interactions with mono and di-interstitials, thus providing a explanation of the experimental observation of saturation or even drop of oxygen diffusivity at high off-stoichiometry.

  9. Oxygen vacancy ordering within anion-deficient Ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, S.; Norberg, S.T.; Ahmed, I.; Eriksson, S.G.; Marrocchelli, D.; Madden, P.A.

    2009-10-15

    The structural properties of anion deficient ceria, CeO{sub 2-{delta}}, have been studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, p(O{sub 2}), over the range 0>=log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2})>=-18.9 at 1273(2) K using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data collected on decreasing p(O{sub 2}) showed increases in the cubic lattice parameter, a, the oxygen nonstoichiometry, delta, and the isotropic thermal vibration parameters, u{sub Ce} and u{sub O}, starting at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-11. The increases are continuous, but show a distinct kink at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-14.5. Analysis of the total scattering (Bragg plus diffuse components) using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling indicates that the O{sup 2-} vacancies preferentially align as pairs in the <111> cubic directions as the degree of nonstoichiometry increases. This behaviour is discussed with reference to the chemical crystallography of the CeO{sub 2}-Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} system at ambient temperature and, in particular, to the nature of the long-range ordering of O{sup 2-} vacancies within the crystal structure of Ce{sub 7}O{sub 12}. - Graphical abstract: Partial radial distribution function for oxygen vacancies within CeO{sub 1.710} at 1273 K (solid line) showing the increased tendency for local ordering in <111> directions compared to a random distribution (dashed line).

  10. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  11. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  12. Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kay, D. Alan R.; Wilson, William G.

    1989-12-05

    A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

  13. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-10-06

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr/sub x/OV/sub y/ where x = 0.7 to 2.0 and y = 0.18 to 0.33 is described. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from - 196/sup 0/C to 450/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO/sub 2/.

  14. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  15. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  16. Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.

    1996-07-01

    Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in IXCs: A compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liljegren, L.M.; Terrones, G.T.; Melethil, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    This paper contains four reports and two internal letters that address the estimation of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in ion exchange columns that treat the water of the K-East and K-West Basins at Hanford. The concern is the flammability of this mixture of gases and planning for safe transport during decommissioning. A transient will occur when the hydrogen filter is temporarily blocked by a sandbag. Analyses are provided for steady-state, transients, and for both wet and dry resins.

  18. Electrode Interface Dictates Oxygen Evolution from Lithium Peroxide in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li-O2 Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 16, 2014, Research Highlights Electrode Interface Dictates Oxygen Evolution from Lithium Peroxide in Li-O2 Batteries Isolation of the charge reaction from the discharge in Li-O2 cells by utilizing electrodes prefilled with commercial lithium peroxide provides a unique method to understand interfacial properties. OER is very facile on TiC, which lacks a significant oxide film and occurs at a much lower overpotential relative

  19. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  20. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology

  1. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  2. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sindorf, John F.

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  3. Oxygen transport properties estimation by DSMC-CT simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2014-12-09

    Coupling DSMC simulations with classical trajectories calculations is emerging as a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational rarefied gas dynamics. The considerable increase of computational effort outlined in the early application of the method (Koura,1997) can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, GPU acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time (Ferrigni,2012; Norman et al.,2013) of DSMC-CT simulations. The aim of the present work is to study rarefied Oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions through an accurate potential energy surface, obtained by molecular beams scattering (Aquilanti, et al.,1999). The accuracy of the method is assessed by calculating molecular Oxygen shear viscosity and heat conductivity following three different DSMC-CT simulation methods. In the first one, transport properties are obtained from DSMC-CT simulations of spontaneous fluctuation of an equilibrium state (Bruno et al, Phys. Fluids, 23, 093104, 2011). In the second method, the collision trajectory calculation is incorporated in a Monte Carlo integration procedure to evaluate the Taxman’s expressions for the transport properties of polyatomic gases (Taxman,1959). In the third, non-equilibrium zero and one-dimensional rarefied gas dynamic simulations are adopted and the transport properties are computed from the non-equilibrium fluxes of momentum and energy. The three methods provide close values of the transport properties, their estimated statistical error not exceeding 3%. The experimental values are slightly underestimated, the percentage deviation being, again, few percent.

  4. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  5. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01

    Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for

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    Data presented in the Monthly Energy Review and in other U.S. Energy Information Administration publications are expressed predominately in units that historically have been used in the United States, such as British thermal units, barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The metric conversion factors presented in Table B1 can be used to calculate the metric-unit equivalents of values expressed in U.S. Customary units. For example, 500 short tons are the equivalent of 453.6 metric tons (500 short

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    5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Alternative Fuel Consumption Vehicles in Use, 1995-2010 Vehicles in Use by Fuel Type, 2010 Fuel Consumption, 5 1995-2010 Fuel Consumption by Type, 2010 290 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Ethanol, 85 percent (E85). Includes only those E85 vehicles believed to be used as alternative-fueled vehicles, primarily fleet-operated vehicles; excludes other vehicles with E85- fueling capability. 2 Liquefied

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    6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade Total Shipments, 1974-2009 Trade, 1978-2009 Price of Total Shipments, 1986-2009 Number of U.S. Manufacturers by Type of Collector, 1974-2009 Average Annual Shipments per Manufacturer, 1974-2009 292 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit

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    3 Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted) Year Low-Temperature Collectors 1 Medium-Temperature Collectors 2 High-Temperature Collectors 3 Total Shipments Trade Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Quantity Shipped Price 4

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    7 Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments by Market Sector, End-Use, and Type, 2009 End Use Market Sector Type of Collector End Use by Type of Collector 294 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Combined space and water heating. 2 Space heating, combined heating, and space cooling. 3 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 degrees Fahrenheit. 4 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees

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    5 Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6 2001 Total .... 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 .......... 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8

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    8 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments, Trade, and Prices Number of U.S. Companies Reporting Shipments, 1982-2010 Total Shipments, 1982-2010 Trade, Modules Only, 1996-2010 Prices, 1989-2010 296 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Note: Shipments are for domestic and export shipments, and may include imports that subsequently were shipped to domestic or foreign customers. Source:

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    7 Table 10.8 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, Trade, and Prices, 1982-2010 Year U.S. Companies Reporting Shipments Shipments Trade Prices 1 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Total 2 Imports Exports Cells Modules Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Number Peak Kilowatts 3 Dollars 4 per Peak Watt 3 1982 19 NA NA NA NA 6,897 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 18 NA NA NA NA

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    9 U.S. Shipments of Photovoltaic Modules Only by Sector and End Use, 2010 By End Use By Sector 298 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 See "Electric Power Grid" in Glossary. 2 Photovoltaic modules that are connected to the electric power grid, and whose output is fed directly into the grid. 3 Photovoltaic modules that are connected to the electric power grid, and whose output is consumed mainly onsite. 4 Photovoltaic modules that are not connected to

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    9 Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11 1989 1,439 R 6,057 3,993 785 551 12 ( ) 12 1,251 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 R 8,062 2,817 826 432 12 ( ) 12 469 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 R 5,715 3,947

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    Methane Emissions Total, 1980-2009 By Source, 2009 Energy Sources by Type 1980-2009 Agricultural Sources by Major Type, 1980-2009 310 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Chemical production, and iron and steel production. 2 Natural gas production, processing, and distribution. 3 Petroleum production, refining, and distribution. 4 Consumption of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and wood for heat or electricity. 5 Emissions from passenger cars, trucks, buses,

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    1 Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81

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    4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions Total, 1980-2009 By Source, 2009 Energy Sources by Type, 1980-2009 Agricultural Sources by Major Type, 1980-2009 312 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Adipic acid production (primarily for the manufacture of nylon fibers and plastics) and nitric acid production (primarily for fertilizers). 2 Emissions from passenger cars and trucks; air, rail, and marine transportation; and farm and construction equipment. 3 Consumption of coal,

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    3 Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614

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    5 Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output Emissions by Type of Generating Unit, 2010 Emissions by Sector, 1989-2010 314 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 5.0 (s) 0.2 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Million Metric Tons of Gas Sulfur Dioxide ¹ For carbon dioxide: municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources; tire-derived fuel, and geothermal. For sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides: blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other

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    6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment By Fuel and Equipment Type, 2010 Total Units by Equipment Type, 1985-2010² Coal Units by Equipment Type, Petroleum and Natural Gas Units 1985-2010² by Equipment Type, 1985-2010² 318 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Coal Units Petroleum and Natural Gas Units Particulate Collectors Thousand Megawatts 329 165 185 26 75 1 Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue

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    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption Total¹ 1949-2011 Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1949-2011 By Major Source, 1949-2011 By Biomass¹ Source, 2011 302 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 ¹ Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption are excluded from total emissions. See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. 2 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be

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    3 Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9

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    6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66

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    7 Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110

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    8 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1955 324 63 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 424 (s) NA (s) 1960 396 95 2 NA 42 43 NA NA 535 (s) NA (s) 1965 546

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Introduction This year, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has examined different ways to represent energy consumption in the Annual Energy Review (AER). This examination centered on two methods for representing related aspects of energy consumption and losses. The first is an alternative method for deriving the energy content of noncombustible renewable resources, which has been implemented in AER 2010 (Table 1.3). The second is a new representation of delivered total energy and

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    F1. Conversion Efficiencies of Noncombustible Renewable Energy Sources (Percent) 1 Efficiencies may vary significantly for each technology based on site-specific technology and environmental factors. Factors shown represent engineering estimates for typical equipment under specific operational conditions. Sources: Geothermal: Estimated by EIA on the basis of an informal survey of relevant plants. Conventional Hydroelectric: Based on published estimates for the efficiency of large-scale

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Includes Adjustment for Fossil Fuel Equivalence. See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. 2 Includes electricity sales to each sector in addition to Primary Energy consumed in the sector. 3 Small amounts of coal consumed for transportation are reported as industrial sector consumption. Includes net imports of s upplemental liquids and coal coke. 4 Calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. 26,784

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State-Level Energy Consumption Estimates and Estimated Consumption per Capita, 2010 Consumption Consumption per Capita 14 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 TX CA FL LA IL OH PA NY GA IN MI NC VA NJ TN WA KY AL MO MN WI SC OK CO IA MD AZ MA MS KS AR OR NE UT CT WV NM NV AK WY ID ND ME MT SD NH HI DE RI DC VT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 0 2 4 6 8 10

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 By Agency By Source 28 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Includes small amount of renewable energy; see Table 1.13, footnote 8. 2 Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. 3 Chilled water, renewable energy, and other fuels reported as used in facilities. 4 Distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil. 5 Includes ethanol blended into motor gasoline. 6

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and American Indian Lands Total, Fiscal Years¹ 2003-2011 Federal and American Indian Lands Fossil Fuels Sales as Share of Total U.S. Fossil Fuels Production, Fiscal Years¹ 2003-2011 By Source, Fiscal Years¹ 2003-2011 Federal and American Indian Lands Fossil Fuels Sales as Share of Total U.S. Fossil Fuels Production, By Source, Fiscal Year¹ 2011 30 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 ¹ The U.S. Government's fiscal

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels Total, 1980-2011 As Share of Total Energy Consumption, 1980-2011 By Fuel, 2011 By Petroleum Product, 2011 32 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Liquefied petroleum gases and pentanes plus are aggregated to avoid disclosure of proprie- tary information. 2 Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, waxes, and miscellaneous products. (s)=Less than 0.05 quadrillion Btu. Note: See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 1.15 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels, Selected Years, 1980-2011 Year Petroleum Products Natural Gas 4 Coal Total Percent of Total Energy Consumption Asphalt and Road Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1 Lubricants Petro- chemical Feedstocks 2 Petroleum Coke Special Naphthas Other 3 Total Physical Units 5 1980 145 230 58 253 R 14 37 58 R 795 639 2.4 - - - - 1985 156 R 278 53 144 R 16 30 41 R 719 500 1.1 - - - - 1990 176 R 373 60 199 20 20 39 R 887 R 567 .6 - - - - 1991 162 R 426 53 203 17 17

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 By Energy Source By North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 6 46 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Liquefied petroleum gases. 2 Natural gas liquids. 3 See "Breeze" in Glossary. 4 Includes all other types of energy that respondents indicated were consumed or allocated. 5 Energy sources produced onsite from the use of other energy sources but sold or trans- ferred to another

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    47 Table 2.2 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 (Trillion Btu ) NAICS 1 Code Manufacturing Group Coal Coal Coke and Breeze 2 Natural Gas Distillate Fuel Oil LPG 3 and NGL 4 Residual Fuel Oil Net Electricity 5 Other 6 Shipments of Energy Sources 7 Total 8 311 Food ................................................................................. 147 1 638 16 3 26 251 105 (s) 1,186 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products ..................................... 20 0 41 1 1 3 30 11 -0

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household Energy Consumption Household Energy Consumpton by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009¹ Household Energy Consumption by Source, 2009 Energy Consumption per Household, Selected Years, 1978-2009¹ Energy Consumption per Household, by Census Region, 2009 50 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 For years not shown, there are no data available. 2 Liquefied petroleum gases. Notes: * Data include natural gas, electricity, distillate fuel oil, kerosene,

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 2.4 Household 1 Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted) Census Region 2 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 United States Total (does not include wood) ...... 10.56 9.74 9.32 9.29 8.58 9.04 9.13 9.22 10.01 10.25 9.86 10.55 10.18 Natural Gas ........................................................ 5.58 5.31 4.97 5.27 4.74 4.98 4.83 4.86 5.27 5.28 4.84 4.79 4.69 Electricity 3

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 2.5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space Heating Air Conditioning Water Heating Appliances, 2 Electronics, and Lighting Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 LPG 5 Total Consumption (quadrillion Btu) 1978 4.26 0.40 2.05 0.23 6.94 0.31 1.04 0.29 0.14 0.06 1.53 0.28 1.46 0.03 1.77 1980 3.41 .27 1.30 .23 5.21 .36 1.15 .30 .22

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 2.6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009 Appliance Year Change 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 1980 to 2009 Total Households (millions) .......... 77 78 82 83 84 86 91 94 97 101 107 111 114 32 Percent of Households Space Heating - Main Fuel 1 Natural Gas .................................... 55 55 55 56 57 55 55 55 53 52 55 52 50 -5 Electricity 2 ...................................... 16 17 18 17 16 17 20

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Type of Heating in Occupied Housing Units, 1950 and 2009 By Fuel Type By Fuel Type, Share of Total 56 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Sum of components do not equal total due to independent rounding. 2 Liquefied petroleum gases. 3 Includes coal coke. 4 Kerosene, solar, and other. (s)=Less than 0.5. Source: Table 2.7. 57 38 8 6 2 (s) 1 11 (s) 9 1 4 14 2 Natural Gas Electricity Distillate Fuel Oil LPG² Wood Coal³ Other and None 0 20 40 60 Million Occupied

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Table 2.7 Type of Heating in Occupied Housing Units, Selected Years, 1950-2009 Year Coal 1 Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Natural Gas Electricity Wood Solar Other 2 None 3 Total Million Occupied Housing Units 1950 14.48 9.46 4 ( ) 0.98 11.12 0.28 4.17 NA 0.77 1.57 42.83 1960 6.46 17.16 4 ( ) 2.69 22.85 .93 2.24 NA .22 .48 53.02 1970 1.82 16.47 4 ( ) 3.81 35.01 4.88 .79 NA .27 .40 63.45 1973 .80 17.24 4 ( ) 4.42 38.46 7.21 .60 NA .15 .45 69.34 1975 .57 16.30 4 ( ) 4.15

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source By Survey Year, 1979-2003 By Census Region, 2003 60 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Electricity only; excludes electrical system energy losses. 2 Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and kerosene. (s)=Less than 0.05 quadrillion Btu. Q=Data withheld because either the relative standard error was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled. Note: See Appendix C for map of Census regions.

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 2.9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source, Selected Years, 1979-2003 (Trillion Btu) Energy Source and Year Square Footage Category Principal Building Activity Census Region 1 All Buildings 1,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 100,000 Over 100,000 Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office All Other Northeast Midwest South West Major Sources 2 1979 ................ 1,255 2,202 1,508 511 3 ( ) 336 469 278 894 861 1,616 1,217 1,826 1,395 526 4,965

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditure Indicators, Selected Years, 1979-2003 Buildings by Energy Source Used Consumption Consumption per Square Foot Square Footage per Building by Expenditures Expenditures Per Square Foot Energy Source Used 62 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Electricity only; excludes electrical system energy losses. 2 Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and kerosene. 3 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 2.10 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditure Indicators, Selected Years, 1979-2003 Energy Source and Year Building Characteristics Energy Consumption Energy Expenditures Number of Buildings Total Square Feet Square Feet per Building Total Per Building Per Square Foot Per Employee Total Per Building Per Square Foot Per Million Btu Thousands Millions Thousands Trillion Btu Million Btu Thousand Btu Million Btu Million Dollars 1 Thousand Dollars 1 Dollars 1 Dollars 1 Major

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End Use, 2003 By End Use By Principal Building Activity 64 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1,340 481 436 381 167 156 88 69 24 418 Lighting Cooling Ventilation Refrigeration Space Computers Water Office Cooking Other¹ 0 500 1,000 1,500 Trillion Btu Heating Heating Equipment and Storage Assembly 733 719 371 248 244 235 217 208 167 149 267 Mercantile Office Education Health Care Warehouse Lodging Food Service Food

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 2.11 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End Use, 2003 (Trillion Btu) End Use Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office Equipment Computers Other 1 Total All Buildings .................................... 167 481 436 88 1,340 24 381 69 156 418 3,559 Principal Building Activity Education ...................................... 15 74 83 11 113 2 16 4 32 21 371 Food Sales ................................... 6 12 7 Q 46 2 119 2 2 10 208

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Table 3.5 Consumer Expenditure Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Million Dollars 1 ) Year Primary Energy 2 Electric Power Sector 11,12 Retail Electricity 13 Total Energy 10,14 Coal Coal Coke Net Imports 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass 9 Total 10 Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel 5 LPG 6 Motor Gasoline 7 Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total 1970 4,630 -75 10,891 6,253 1,441 2,395 31,596 2,046 4,172 47,904 44 438 63,872 -4,357 23,345 82,860 1971 4,902 -40 12,065 6,890 1,582 2,483

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Table 3.6 Consumer Expenditure Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Million Dollars 1 ) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Natural Gas 2 Petroleum Retail Electricity 3 Total 4 Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Retail Electricity 3 Total 6,7 Coal Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Biomass 8 Retail Electricity 3 Total 7,9 Petroleum 5 Total 7,10 1970 5,272 4,186 10,352 20,112 1,844 1,440 7,319 10,678 2,082 2,625 6,069 366 5,624 16,691 35,327 35,379 1971 5,702 4,367 11,589 21,934

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value of Fossil Fuel Imports Total, 1949-2011 By Fuel, 1949-2011 By Fuel, 2011 80 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price defla- tors in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 3 Natural gas, coal, and coal coke. Source: Table 3.7. Crude Oil 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 100 200 300 400 500 Billion Real (2005)

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 3.7 Value of Fossil Fuel Imports, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil 1 Petroleum Products 2 Total Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 1949 (s) 0.02 (s) 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.30 2.10 0.14 0.95 0.45 3.09 1950 (s) .02 .01 .04 .00 .00 .37 2.52 .21 R 1.46 .59 4.04 1955 (s) .02 (s) .01 (s) .01 .65 R 3.94 .44 2.66 1.10 6.64 1960 (s) .01 (s) .01 .03 .15 .90 4.81 .73 3.93 1.66 R 8.91

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value of Fossil Fuel Exports Total, 1949-2011 By Fuel, 1949-2011 By Fuel, 2011 82 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 104 16 7 2 Petroleum Coal Natural Gas Crude Oil 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Billion Nominal Dollars² 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price defla- tors in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 3 Natural gas, crude oil, and coal coke. Source:

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 3.8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil Petroleum Products 1 Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 0.30 2.05 0.01 0.06 (s) 0.01 0.10 0.68 0.46 R 3.18 0.87 R 5.98 1950 .27 1.84 .01 .04 (s) .02 .10 .70 .39 2.69 .78 R 5.29 1955 .48 2.92 .01 .05 .01 .04 .04 .23 .60 3.61 1.14 R 6.85 1960 .35 1.90 .01 .04 (s) .02 .01 .04 .47 2.51 .84 4.51

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, 1949-2011 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports by Fuel 84 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price deflators in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Includes small amounts of coal coke. Note: Negative net imports indicate that the value of exports is greater than the value of imports. Source: Table

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 3.9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil Petroleum Products 1 Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 -0.29 R -2.03 (s) -0.03 (s) -0.01 0.21 1.42 -0.32 -2.24 -0.42 -2.89 1950 -.27 -1.82 (s) -.01 (s) -.02 .27 1.82 -.18 -1.23 -.18 -1.26 1955 -.48 R -2.90 -.01 -.04 -.01 -.03 .62 3.71 -.16 -.95 -.04 -.22 1960 -.35 -1.89 -.01 -.03 .02 .13

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel Production Prices Prices, 1949-2011 Fossil Fuel Composite Price,² Change From Previous Year, 1950-2011 68 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Fossil Fuel Composite Natural Gas Coal 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price deflators in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Based on real prices in chained (2005) dollars. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. Source: Table 3.1. 1950

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    69 Table 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3 Fossil Fuel Composite 4 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Percent Change 7 1949 0.21 1.45 0.05 0.37 0.44 3.02 0.26 1.81 - - 1950 .21 1.41 .06 .43 .43 R 2.95 .26 1.74 -3.6 1955 .19 1.12 .09 .54 .48 2.88 .27 R 1.63 -3.6 1960 .19 1.04 .13 .68 .50 2.67 .28 1.52 -2.3 1965 .18 .92 .15 .73 .49 R 2.47 .28 1.39 -1.5 1970 .27 1.09 .15 .63

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value of Fossil Fuel Production, Imports, and Exports Overview, 1949-2011 Production by Fuel, 1949-2011 Overview, 2011 70 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Production 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price defla- tors in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Sources: Tables 3.2, 3.7, and 3.8. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 3.2 Value of Fossil Fuel Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3,4 Total Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 1949 2.52 R 17.37 0.33 2.24 4.68 R 32.27 7.52 R 51.88 1950 2.91 R 19.84 .44 3.00 4.95 R 33.80 8.30 R 56.64 1955 2.30 R 13.87 .94 5.67 6.88 R 41.45 10.12 R 60.99 1960 2.10 R 11.27 1.79 9.61 7.42 R 39.84 11.30 R 60.72 1965 2.40 R 12.03 2.57 R 12.87 8.15 R 40.86 13.11 R 65.76 1970 3.88 R 15.96 3.73

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Primary Energy 2 Electric Power Sector 11,12 Retail Electricity 13 Total Energy 9,10,14 Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass 8 Total 9,10 Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel 4 LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total 1970 0.38 0.59 1.16 0.73 1.43 2.85 0.42 1.38 1.71 0.18 1.29 1.08 0.32 4.98 1.65 1971 .42 .63 1.22 .77 1.46 2.90 .58 1.45 1.78 .18 1.31 1.15 .38 5.30 1.76 1972

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 2010 By Sector Residential Sector by Major Source Commercial Sector by Major Source Industrial Sector by Major Source 74 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 22.40 21.00 20.90 12.04 Residential Transportation Commercial Industrial 0 5 10 15 20 25 Dollars¹ per Million Btu 33.81 23.46 11.13 Retail Petroleum Natural 0 10 20 30 40 Dollars¹ per Million Btu Gas Electricity 19.89 17.58 6.25 3.96 2.74 Retail Petroleum

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 3.4 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Natural Gas 2 Petroleum Retail Electricity 3 Total 4 Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Retail Electricity 3 Total 6,7 Coal Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Biomass 8 Retail Electricity 3 Total 7,9 Petroleum 5 Total 7,10 1970 1.06 1.54 6.51 2.10 0.75 R 0.90 6.09 1.97 0.45 0.38 0.98 1.59 2.99 0.84 2.31 2.31 1971 1.12 1.59 6.80 2.24 .80 1.02 6.44 2.15 .50

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells Total Wells Drilled, 1949-2010 Total Wells Drilled by Type, 1949-2010 Successful Wells, 1949-2010 Wells Drilled, 2010 Footage Drilled, 2010 Average Depth, 2010 96 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Data are for exploratory and development wells combined. Sources: Tables 4.5-4.7. Total¹ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 25 50 75 100 Thousand Wells 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory Wells, 1949-2010 Exploratory Wells Drilled by Well Type Exploratory Footage Drilled by Well Type Exploratory Wells Average Depth, All Wells Exploratory Wells Average Depth by Well Type 98 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Note: These graphs depict exploratory wells only; see Figure 4.5 for all wells and Figure 4.7 for development wells only. Source: Table 4.6. Dry Holes 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 3 6 9 12 15

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Table 4.6 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory Wells, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Wells Drilled Successful Wells Footage Drilled 1 Average Footage Drilled Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Number Percent Thousand Feet Feet per Well 1949 1,406 424 7,228 9,058 20.2 5,950 2,409 26,439 34,798 4,232 5,682 3,658 3,842 1950 1,583 431 8,292 10,306 19.5 6,862 2,356 30,957 40,175 4,335 5,466 3,733 3,898

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Development Wells, 1949-2010 Development Wells Drilled by Well Type Development Footage Drilled by Well Type Development Wells Average Depth, All Wells Development Wells Average Depth by Well Type 100 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Note: These graphs depict development wells only; see Figure 4.5 for all wells and Figure 4.6 for exploratory wells only. Source: Table 4.7. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 Thousand

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Technically Recoverable Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Estimates, 2009 Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Total Technically Dry Natural Gas, Total Technically Recoverable Resources Recoverable Resources Crude Oil and Lease Condensate by Type Dry Natural Gas by Type 88 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 58% 25% 18% 48 States¹ Onshore 48 States¹ Offshore Alaska 20% 13% 13% 54% 48 States¹ Onshore 48 States¹ Offshore Gas Alaska Tight Gas, Shale Gas, and Coalbed

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Crude Oil Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, Indexed 90 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Notes: * Data are at end of year. * Crude oil includes lease condensate. Source: Table 4.2. Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Crude Oil Cumulative Production Natural Gas (Dry) Proved Reserves Crude Oil Proved Reserves 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 4.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 2 Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 3 Billion Barrels Trillion Cubic Feet 1977 118.1 31.8 514.4 207.4 1978 121.3 31.4 533.6 208.0 1979 124.4 31.2 553.2 201.0 1980 127.5 31.3 572.6 199.0 1981 130.7 31.0 591.8 201.7 1982 133.8 29.5 609.6 201.5 1983 137.0 29.3 625.7 200.2 1984 140.2 30.0 643.2 197.5 1985 143.5

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves Total, 1949-2010 By Type, 2010 By Type, 1949-2010 92 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 COE=crude oil equivalent. ² To the extent that lease condensate is measured or estimated it is included in "Natural Gas Liquids"; otherwise, lease condensate is included in "Crude Oil." Notes: * Data are at end of year. * API=American Petroleum Institute. AGA=American Gas Association.

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 4.3 Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Crude Oil 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Natural Gas Liquids 1 Total Billion Barrels Trillion Cubic Feet 2 Billion Barrels COE 3 Billion Barrels Billion Barrels COE 3 Billion Barrels COE 3 American Petroleum Institute and American Gas Association Data 1949 24.6 179.4 32.0 3.7 3.1 59.7 1950 25.3 184.6 32.9 4.3 3.5 61.7 1955 30.0 222.5 39.7 5.4 4.4 74.1 1960 31.6 262.3 46.8 6.8 5.4 83.8 1965 31.4 286.5

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, Selected Years, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels per Day Percent 1960 NA 8 ( ) 9 ( ) 84 910 1,232 86

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Refinery Capacity and Utilization, 1949-2011 Number of Operable Refineries Utilization Capacity 136 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 ¹ Operable refineries capacity on January 1. Source: Table 5.9. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 100 200 300 400 Total Units 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 0 5 10 15 20 Million Barrels per Day Capacity¹ Unused Capacity Gross Input to Distillation Units

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Total, 1949-2011 By Product, 2011 By Selected Product, 1949-2011 138 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Source: Table 5.10. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Thousand Barrels per Day 909 618 295 208 152 Ethane Propane Pentanes Isobutane Normal 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 Thousand Barrels per Day Plus Butane Isobutane Normal Butane Propane 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales, 1984-2010 Total by Fuel Distillate Fuel Oil by Selected End Use Residual Fuel Oil by Major End Use Kerosene by Major End Use 154 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Source: Table 5.15. On-Highway Diesel Commercial Railroad 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1 2 3 4 5 Million Barrels per Day Residential Distillate Fuel Oil 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Million Barrels per Day Kerosene Residual Fuel Oil Vessel

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 5.15 Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales, Selected Years, 1984-2010 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Distillate Fuel Oil Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power 1 Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Diesel Military Off-Highway Diesel Other Total 1984 534 360 166 55 208 42 192 115 1,093 46 114 46 2,971 1985 504 291 159 45 202 34 182 111 1,127 43 99 11 2,809 1990 475 260 169 49 222 50 203 135 1,393 46 118 (s) 3,120 1991 442 246 151 48 206 39 188 133 1,336 53 107 (s) 2,949

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 1977-2011 End-of-Year Stocks in SPR Crude Oil Imports for SPR¹ SPR as Share of Domestic Stocks SPR Stocks as Days of Petroleum Net Imports² 158 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Imported by SPR and imported by others for SPR. 2 Derived by dividing end-of-year SPR stocks by annual average daily net imports of all petroleum. Note: SPR=Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Source: Table 5.17. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 200 400 600

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Table 5.17 Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 1977-2011 (Million Barrels, Except as Noted) Year Foreign Crude Oil Receipts Domestic Crude Oil Receipts Withdrawals End-of-Year Stocks Days of Petroleum Net Imports 4 Imported by SPR Imported by Others 1,2 Purchases Exchanges 2 Sales Exchanges Quantity Percent of Crude Oil 3 Stocks Percent of Total Petroleum Stocks 1977 7.54 0.00 5 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.46 2.1 0.6 1 1978 58.80 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 66.86 17.8 5.2 8 1979 24.43 .00 (s) .00 .00 .00 91.19

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices U.S. Average Prices, 1949-2011 Alaska North Slope, California, and Texas 1977-2011 160 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price defla- tors in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 3 Alaska North Slope. Source: Table 5.18. Real¹ Nominal² 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 5.18 Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Barrel) Year Alaska North Slope California Texas U.S. Average Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 1949 - - - - NA NA NA NA 2.54 R 17.52 1950 - - - - NA NA NA NA 2.51 R 17.13 1955 - - - - NA NA NA NA 2.77 R 16.69 1960 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.88 R 15.47 1965 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.86 R 14.35 1970 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.18 R 13.07 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA 7.67 R 22.83 1976 NA NA NA NA

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 5.20 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Billion Dollars 1 ) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries Total 5 Kuwait Nigeria Saudi Arabia Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Colombia Mexico Norway United Kingdom Total Non-OPEC 4 1973 1.7 W 1.5 0.9 0.8 5.2 1.9 W - 0.0 0.0 2.4 7.6 1974 4.4 W 3.3 1.9 1.3 11.6 3.3 .0 W - .0 4.1 15.6 1975 5.2 W 3.5 3.2 1.8 14.9 2.8 .0 .3 .1 - 4.1 19.0 1976 8.7 W 5.1 5.8 1.0 22.2 1.8 - .4 .2 W 3.6 25.8

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 Summary Composite Costs Domestic Costs Imported Costs 166 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price defla- tors in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. Source: Table 5.21. 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Nominal Dollars¹ per Barrel

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Table 5.21 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 (Dollars per Barrel) Year Domestic Imported Composite Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 1968 E 3.21 R 14.57 2.90 R 13.16 3.17 R 14.39 1969 E 3.37 R 14.58 2.80 R 12.11 3.29 R 14.23 1970 E 3.46 R 14.22 2.96 R 12.16 3.40 R 13.97 1971 E 3.68 R 14.40 3.17 R 12.41 3.60 R 14.09 1972 E 3.67 R 13.77 3.22 R 12.08 3.58 R 13.43 1973 E 4.17 R 14.82 4.08 R 14.50 4.15 R 14.75 1974 7.18 R 23.40 12.52 R 40.80 9.07 R 29.55 1975 8.39 R

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Refiner Sales Prices for Selected Petroleum Products, 1995-2011 To Resellers To End Users 168 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Source: Table 5.22. Residual Fuel Oil 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Dollars¹ per Gallon, Excluding Taxes Motor Gasoline Residual Fuel Oil Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Propane 1996 1998 2000 2002

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 5.1a Petroleum and Other Liquids Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year Production 1 Production as Share of Estimated Consumption Net Imports 2 Net Imports as Share of Estimated Consumption Balancing Item 3 Estimated Consumption 4 Thousand Barrels per Day Percent Thousand Barrels per Day Percent Thousand Barrels per Day 1949 5,475 95.0 318 5.5 -30 5,763 1950 5,908 91.5 545 8.4 5 6,458 1955 7,611 90.0 880 10.4 -37 8,455

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, 1954-2011 Crude Oil Production by Location Number of Producing Wells Crude Oil Production, 48 States¹ and Alaska Crude Oil Well Average Productivity 122 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. Note: Crude oil includes lease condensate. Source: Table 5.2. 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 200 400 600 800 Thousand Wells 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Natural Gas Well Productivity, 1960-2011 Gross Withdrawals by Location Number of Producing Wells Gross Withdrawals by State and Federal Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Well Average Productivity 184 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Trillion Cubic Feet (Cumulative) 1 Through 1996, includes gross withdrawals in Federal offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico;

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 6.4 Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Natural Gas Well Productivity, Selected Years, 1960-2011 Year Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals From Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Coalbed, and Shale Gas Wells Natural Gas Well Productivity Texas 1 Louisiana 1 Oklahoma Other States 1 Federal Gulf of Mexico 2 Total Onshore Offshore Total Gross With- drawals From Natural Gas Wells 3 Producing Wells 4 Average Productivity Federal State Total Billion Cubic Feet Billion Cubic Feet Billion Cubic Feet Thousands

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Natural Gas Production Gross Withdrawals and Dry Gas Production, 1949-2011 Production Flow, 2011 (Trillion Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals by Well Type, 2011 180 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Dry Gas Production 1 Volume reduction resulting from the removal of natural gas plant liquids, which are trans- ferred to petroleum supply. 2 Includes natural gas gross withdrawals from coalbed wells and shale gas wells. Source: Table 6.2. Gross Withdrawals 1950 1960

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 0.2 0.0 1.9 (s) 7.6 2.0 (s) (s) 0.7 0.0 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 12.5 2001 .3 (s) 2.6 (s) 11.2 3.3 .1 (s) .9 (s) .5 .2 .0 .1 (s) .8 .4 .1 19.8 2002 .8 .0 2.1 (s) 9.2 3.3 .1 (s) 1.0 .0 .1 .1 .0 (s) (s) .2 .1 (s) 16.9 2003 .3 .1 2.1 .0 15.5

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Exports by Country of Destination Total and Europe, 1960-2011 By Selected Country, 2011 By Selected Country, 1960-2011 206 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Source: Table 7.5. 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 25 50 75 100 125 Million Short Tons lands 10.8 8.7 6.9 6.9 6.8 5.6 4.8 Nether- Brazil United Japan Canada Italy Germany 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Million Short Tons Kingdom Total Europe 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    07 Table 7.5 Coal Exports by Country of Destination, Selected Years, 1960-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Canada Brazil Europe Japan Other 3 Total Belgium 1 Denmark France Germany 2 Italy Nether- lands Spain Turkey United Kingdom Other 3 Total 1960 12.8 1.1 1.1 0.1 0.8 4.6 4.9 2.8 0.3 NA - 2.4 17.1 5.6 1.3 38.0 1965 16.3 1.2 2.2 (s) 2.1 4.7 9.0 3.4 1.4 NA (s) 2.3 25.1 7.5 .9 51.0 1966 16.5 1.7 1.8 (s) 1.6 4.9 7.8 3.2 1.2 NA (s) 2.5 23.1 7.8 1.0 50.1 1967 15.8 1.7 1.4 - 2.1 4.7 5.9 2.2 1.0 NA -

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Coal Mining Productivity Total, 1949-2011 By Mining Method, 2011 By Location, 2011 By Mining Method, 1 1949-2011 By Region and Mining Method, 2011 210 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Mississippi 1 For 1979 forward, includes all coal; prior to 1979, excludes anthracite. Note: Beginning in 2001, surface mining includes a small amount of refuse recovery. Source: Table 7.7. 2.68 15.98 East of the West of the 0 5 10 15 20 Short Tons per Employee Hour 1950 1960

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Table 7.7 Coal Mining Productivity, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour 1 ) Year Mining Method Location Total 2 Underground Surface 2 East of the Mississippi West of the Mississippi Underground Surface 2 Total 2 Underground Surface 2 Total 2 1949 3 0.68 3 1.92 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.72 1950 3 .72 3 1.96 NA NA NA NA NA NA .76 1955 3 1.04 3 2.65 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.14 1960 3 1.33 3 2.91 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.52 1965 3 1.75 3 4.10 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.09 1970 3 1.72 3 4.53 NA NA NA

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Coke Overview Production and Consumption, 1949-2011 Overview, 2011 Trade 212 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Source: Table 7.8. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 20 40 60 80 Million Short Tons Consumption Production 15.4 1.4 1.0 15.8 Production Imports Exports Consumption 0 5 10 15 20 Million Short Tons 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 2 4 6 8 Million Short Tons Imports Exports

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Coal Prices Total, 1949-2011 By Type, 1949-2011 By Type, 2011 214 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 20 40 60 80 Real (2005) Dollars¹ per Short Ton 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 30 60 90 120 Real (2005) Dollars¹ per Short Ton 70.99 57.64 19.38 15.80 36.91 Anthracite Bituminous Lignite Subbituminous Total 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Nominal Dollars² per Short Ton Bituminous Coal Anthracite

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 7.9 Coal Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 4 4.90 4,R 33.80 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 2.37 R 16.35 8.90 R 61.38 5.24 R 36.14 1950 4 4.86 4,R 33.16 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 2.41 R 16.44 9.34 R 63.73 5.19 R 35.41 1955 4 4.51 4,R 27.17 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 2.38 R 14.34 8.00 R 48.19 4.69 R 28.25 1960 4 4.71 4,R 25.31 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 2.29 R 12.30 8.01 R

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 7.2 Coal Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437.9 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 42.7 358.9 121.7 444.2 36.4 480.6 1950 516.3 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 44.1 421.0 139.4 524.4 36.0 560.4 1955 464.6 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 26.2 358.0 132.9 464.2 26.6 490.8 1960 415.5 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 18.8 292.6 141.7 413.0 21.3 434.3 1965 512.1 2 ( ) 2 ( )

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 Total (All Sectors) by Source, 2011 By Sector, 1989-2011 By Sector, 2011 228 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources,

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    29 Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323 96 462 93 973 546 30 577 39 1,589 1990 363 127 538 141 1,168 651 36 687 40 1,896 1991 352 112 547 148 1,159 623 37 660 44 1,863 1992 367 117 592 160 1,236 658 40 698 42 1,976 1993 373 129 604 142 1,248 668 45 713

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.3b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 13 8 67 2 90 19 5 24 1 114 1990 21 9 80 4 114 18 6 25 (s) 138 1991 21 6 82 4 113 17 9 26 1 140 1992 28 6 102 5 140 17 8 25 2 167 1993 30 8 107 3 147 16 8 24

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8 1989 14 4 10 (s) 27 (s) 10 10 - 38 1990 15 5 16 (s) 36 (s) 10 11 - 46 1995 17 3 29 - 48 (s) 15 15 (s) 63 1996 20 3 33 R - 55 1 17 18 - 73 1997 22 4 40 (s) 66 1 19 20 - 86 1998 20 5

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Consumption for Electricity Generation By Major Category, 1949-2011 By Major Fuel, 2011 By Major Source, 1949-2011 By Sector, 1989-2011 232 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Conventional hydroelectric power. 2 Geothermal, other gases, electricity net imports, solar thermal and photovoltaic energy, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation by Sector, 2011 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Wood and Waste U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 237 7.3 0.6 0.0 Electric Power Industrial² Commercial² 0 2 4 6 8 Trillion Cubic Feet -CHP¹ (ss) 1 Combined-heat-and-power plants. ² Combined-heat-and-power and electricity-only plants. (s)=Less than 0.5 million short tons. (ss)=Less than 0.05 trillion cubic feet. (sss)=Less than 0.5 million barrels.

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.5c Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Breakout of Table 8.5b) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet Trillion Btu

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants by Sector, 1989-2011 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Wood and Waste 242 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Sources: Tables 8.6b and 8.6c. Electric Power Industrial 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0 200 400 600 800 Billion Cubic Feet Industrial Commercial Commercial 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0 5 10 15 20 Million Short Tons Electric Power

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Trillion Btu Trillion Btu 1989 16,510 1,410 16,357

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    45 Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Trillion Btu Trillion Btu

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Net Summer Capacity, Total (All Sectors) Total, 1949-2011 By Major Category, 2011 By Source, 2011 256 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Total 1 Conventional and pumped storage. 2 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, and miscellaneous technologies. Source: Table 8.11a. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Net Summer Capacity by Sector Total (All Sectors) and Sectors, 1989-2011 Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, 1989-2011 Commercial Sector, 2011 Industrial Sector, 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 257 1 Conventional hydroelectric power, solar/PV, wood, wind, blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels, batteries, chemicals, hydro- gen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, and miscellaneous

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    59 Table 8.11b Electric Net Summer Capacity: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Subset of Table 8.11a; Million Kilowatts) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage Renewable Energy Other 9 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 5 Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 8 Wind Total Wood 6 Waste 7 1949 NA NA NA NA 44.9 0.0 5 ( ) 18.5 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 18.5 NA 63.4 1950 NA NA NA NA 50.0 .0 5 ( ) 19.2 (s) 10 (

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period U.S.¹ Summer Peak Load,² All Interconnections, 1986-2011 Summer Capacity Margin, 1996-2011 U.S.¹ Summer Peak Load² by NERC³ Regional Assessment Area, 2011 262 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. 2 See "Noncoincident Peak Load" in Glossary. 3 See "North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)" in Glossary. Notes: *

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period U.S.¹ Winter Peak Load,² All Interconnections, 1986-2011 Winter Capacity Margin, 1996-2011 U.S.¹ Winter Peak Load² by NERC³ Regional Assessment Area, 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 263 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Gigawatts 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Percent 48 47 5 79 131 154 41 52 107 FRCC NPCC

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs Actual Peakload Reductions Total, 1989-2010 Actual Peakload Reductions, 2010 Energy Savings, 1989-2010 Electric Utility Costs,¹ 1989-2010 266 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Program costs consist of all costs associated with providing the various Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs or measures. The costs of DSM programs fall into these major categories: customer rebates/incentives,

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Table 8.13 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs, 1989-2010 Year Actual Peakload Reductions 1 Energy Savings Electric Utility Costs 4 Energy Efficiency 2 Load Management 3 Total Megawatts Million Kilowatthours Thousand Dollars 5 1989 NA NA 12,463 14,672 872,935 1990 NA NA 13,704 20,458 1,177,457 1991 NA NA 15,619 24,848 1,803,773 1992 7,890 9,314 17,204 35,563 2,348,094 1993 10,368 12,701 23,069 45,294 2,743,533 1994 11,662 13,340 25,001 52,483 2,715,657 1995 13,212 16,347 29,561

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b Electricity Net Generation by Sector By Sector, 2011 Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, 1989-2011 Industrial and Commercial Sectors, 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 223 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Generating Units Operable Units, 1 1957-2011 Nuclear Net Summer Capacity Change, 1950-2011 Status of All Nuclear Generating Units, 2011 Permanent Shutdowns by Year, 1955-2011 270 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Units holding full-power operating licenses, or equivalent permission to operate, at the end of the year. Note: Data are at end of year. Sources: Tables 9.1 and 8.11a. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 -4 0 4 8

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71 Table 9.1 Nuclear Generating Units, 1955-2011 Year Original Licensing Regulations (10 CFR Part 50) 1 Current Licensing Regulations (10 CFR Part 52) 1 Permanent Shutdowns Operable Units 7 Construction Permits Issued 2,3 Low-Power Operating Licenses Issued 3,4 Full-Power Operating Licenses Issued 3,5 Early Site Permits Issued 3 Combined License Applications Received 6 Combined Licenses Issued 3 1955 1 0 0 - - - - - - 0 0 1956 3 0 0 - - - - - - 0 0 1957 1 1 1 - - - - - - 0 1 1958 0 0 0 - - - - -

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Overview Production and Trade, 1949-2011 Production and Trade, 2011 Inventories, End of Year 1981-2011 Average Prices, 1981-2011 274 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Purchased Imports Purchased Imports Domestic Purchases 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Note: See "Uranium Oxide" in Glossary. Source: Table 9.3. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 25 50 75 Million Pounds Uranium Oxide Export

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Asphalt. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956. Aviation Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel as adopted by the Bureau of Mines from the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review August 2016 157 Table 10.5 Solar Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Distributed a Solar Energy b Utility-Scale c Solar ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 U.S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review August 2016 Table 10.6 Solar Electricity Net Generation (Million Kilowatthours) Distributed a Solar Generation b ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Compared With Other Resources, 1949-2015 150 U.S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review August 2016 Solar a Hydroelectric Power b Wind a Renewable Energy a See ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 U.S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review July 2016 Table 10.2a ... Residential Sector Commercial Sector a Geo- thermal b Solar PV c Biomass Total Hydro- ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Biomass Total Renew- able Energy d Hydro- electric Power e Geo- thermal f Solar g Wind h Biomass Total Renew- able Energy Bio- fuels b Total c Wood i Waste j Bio- fuels k Total ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Photovoltaic Solar Resources U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 109 Notes: * Annual average solar resource data are shown for a tiltlatitude ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Concentrating Solar Resources 108 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Notes: * Annual average direct normal solar resource data are shown. * kWhm ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    degree-days are deviations above the mean daily temperature of 65 F. For example, a weather station recording a mean daily temperature of 78 F would report 13 cooling...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: * 1985-1996-U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-767, "Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report." * 1997-2005-EIA, Electric Power Annual 2008 ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49 Table 2.3 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by End Use, 2006 End-Use Category Net Electricity 1 Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil ...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Review 2011 Table 8.4b Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Source: ... See Note 3, "Electricity Imports and Exports," at end of section. 11 Through 1988, ...

  18. Word Pro - S12

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    From Energy Consumption by Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide) Total a by End-Use Sector, b 1973-2015 ... Petroleum Natural Gas Retail Electricity b Industrial ...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Table 8.4c Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Source: Commercial and ... Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. * Totals may not equal sum of ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19 Table 7.4c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal ... See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. * ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table 2.2 Residential Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumption a Electricity ... See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. d Includes ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 4.3 Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Billion Cubic Feet) End-Use Sectors Electric Power Sector f,g ... combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures Household Energy Consumption by End Use, Selected ... Natural Gas 2.95 Electricity 0.28 Fuel 0.75 LPG 0.32 20 29 32 34 39 42 49 56 64 72 ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 8.4a Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Source: Total (All Sectors), ... See Note 3, "Electricity Imports and Exports," at end of section. 11 Through 1988, data ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 Table 7.3c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Commercial and ... See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. * ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 6.2 Coal Consumption by Sector (Thousand Short Tons) End-Use Sectors Electric Power Sector e,f Total ... a small number of commercial electricity-only plants, such as those at ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1949-2015 (Quadrillion Btu) ... plants and a small number of electricity-only plants. b Liquefied petroleum ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    primary consumption by the electric power sector (see Table 2.6) and the total energy content of electricity retail ... from power plants to end-use consum- ers (also called ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumption a Electricity Retail Sales e Electrical System ... 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. Data are for natural gas ...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table 11.5b Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal ... Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 8. * See "Useful Thermal ...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Table 7.4a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: ... See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. * Totals ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Table 7.3a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of ... See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section. * Data ...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table 11.5c Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal ... Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 8. * See "Useful Thermal ...

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    29 Table 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu) End-Use Sectors Electric Power Sector c,d ... (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. b Industrial ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption in the United States, Selected Years, 1635-1945 (Quadrillion Btu) Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Electricity ... Coverage of Statistics for 1635-1945," at end of section. ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: ... Coal Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Electricity e Total f ... sector are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Expenditures Indicators Estimates Energy Consumption, 1949-2011 Energy Expenditures, 1970-2010 Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of Gross Domestic...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day) Year Belgium 1 Brazil Canada France Italy Japan Mexico Nether- lands South Korea Spain United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Other Total 1960 3 4 34 4 6 62 18 6 ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kingdom 569 295 249 160 75 58 49 39 34 30 16 15 Mexico Canada Netherlands Brazil Japan Spain France Italy United Belgium U.S. Virgin South 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Thousand ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... of America, The Oil Producing Industry in Your State. * 1995 forward-Gulf Publishing Co., World Oil, February issues. Average Productivity: Calculated as total ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... refinery and blender net inputs. See Table 3.2. h Includes Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports. See Table 3.3b. i Net imports equal imports minus exports. j A negative value ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Value (Year of Record) 2010- 2011 Heating Season 30-Year Monthly Normal Record Low Monthly Value (Year of Record) 260 (1981) (1985) 1 Based on calculations of data from...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    High Monthly Value (Year of Record) 2011 Cooling Season 30-Year Monthly Normal Record Low Monthly Value (Year of Record) 83 (1963) 118 (1967) 27 (1976) 268 (1950) 147 (1991) 228...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of carbon that is not fully recaptured in subsequent use of the land for agriculture. ... category "agriculture, forestry, and other land use," usually based on estimates of net ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Non-OPEC OPEC Persian Gulf 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 Billion Dollars Nations 72.5 47.1 40.6 32.6 31.7 14.5 7.4 2.3 1.6 Canada Saudi Arabia Mexico Nigeria Venezuela Colombia ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Note: OPECOrganization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Source: Table 5.7. OPEC Non-OPEC Saudi Arabia Canada and Mexico 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil d NGPL e Other Liquids f Total Distillate Fuel Oil g Jet Fuel h LPG c Motor ... Beginning in 1981, also includes aviation and motor gasoline blending components (net). ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lubricants Motor Gasoline b Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel ... (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. b Finished motor gasoline. ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Finished Motor Gasoline b Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene- Type Jet Fuel Kerosene No. ... See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jet Fuel c Kero- sene LPG a Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline e Petro- leum Coke Residual Fuel ... jet fuel is included in "Other."). d Includes propylene. e Finished motor gasoline. ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Crude Oil a Petroleum Products Total Crude Oil a Natural Gas Plant Liquids Motor Gasoline b Total Products Motor Gasoline c Total Products 1950 ...... 5.800 ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices (Dollars a per Gallon, Including Taxes) Platt's Bureau of Labor Statistics Data U.S. Energy Information Administration Data Motor ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Finished Motor Gasoline b Finished Aviation Gasoline ... See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel d LPG b Motor Gasoline f Residual Fuel Oil Other ... jet fuel. (Through 1955, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Motor Gasoline." ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 1.8 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbase a Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbase b Heavy-Duty Trucks c All Motor ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Prices to Resellers 2 Motor Gasoline ...... 0.602 ... Sales Prices to End Users 2 Motor Gasoline ...... .729 ...

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.076 2.490 2.758 3.342 2.480 2.874 3.739 Motor Gasoline ...... 2.231 2.682 2.849 3.273 2.442 3.028 3.803 Motor Gasoline ......

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrels per Day) Overview, 1949-2015 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Field ... Crude Oil b J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 3 6 9 12 15 2014 2015 2016 12.4 5.2 19.7 12.7 4.7 ...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crude Oil Prices, 1949-2015 Composite Refiner Acquisition Cost, Monthly Refiner Prices to ... Dollars a per Gallon (Excluding Taxes) Diesel Fuel Jet Fuel Oil Fuel Oil (Consumer Grade) ...

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    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Includes less than 0.1 quadrillion Btu of coal coke net exports. 5 Conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solarPV, wind, and biomass. 6 Electricity-only and ...