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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Pro  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pro Pro gram or Field Office: Project Title and 1. 0. No.: Locati on: u.s. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Office of Legacy Management Routine Activities at the Site AlPlot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site. LM # 52-11. Chicago, Illinois Pro posed Action or Project Descri ption : DOE proposes to conduCt routine activities as needed at Site AlPlot M. The site is in the Palos Forest Preserve in Cook County, Illinois, 20 miles southwest of Chicago. The Forest Preserve District of Cook County owns the land. DOE is responsible for the radioactive materials buried onsite. Site A is a 19-acre area that contained experimental laboratories and nuclear reactor research facilities. Plot M, which is about 1,500 feet north of Site A, is a 150-foot-by-140-foot area that was used for the sealed

2

Applications in space Space physics is the scienti c discipline which studies the physical pro-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an important role in space weather. The supersonic and super-Alfv#19;enic solar wind generates a bow shock the physical pro- cesses that are at work in our solar system and in the coupled solar- terrestrial system. Processes in the earth's magnetosphere and phe- nomena in the solar corona are important topics of research

De Sterck, Hans

3

Program on Technology Innovation: Response to the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses Review of EPRI Reports on Igneous Pro cesses at Yucca Mountain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's 2004 and 2005 technical reports (1008169 and 1011165) describe what might occur in the unlikely event of extrusive or intrusive igneous events at Yucca Mountain repository. The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) reviewed these two reports in 2007. EPRI has evaluated this review; this report discusses and clarifies several salient points that EPRI believes were misinterpreted in the CNWRA review.

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

4

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum and Other Liquids Petroleum and Other Liquids THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Figure 5.0. Petroleum Flow, 2011 (Million Barrels per Day) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 117 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogen/oxygenates/renewables/other hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (0.972), net imports (1.164) and adjustments (0.122) minus stock change (0.019) and product supplied (0.001). 3 Finished petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gases, and pentanes plus. 4 Natural gas plant liquids. 5 Field production (2.183) and renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (-.019) minus refinery and blender net inputs (0.489). 6 Petroleum products supplied. (s)=Less than 0.005.

5

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. 0. Petroleum Flow, 2011 (Million Barrels per Day) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 117 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogen/oxygenates/renewables/other hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (0.972), net imports (1.164) and adjustments (0.122) minus stock change (0.019) and product supplied (0.001). 3 Finished petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gases, and pentanes plus. 4 Natural gas plant liquids. 5 Field production (2.183) and renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (-.019) minus refinery and blender net inputs (0.489). 6 Petroleum products supplied. (s)=Less than 0.005. Notes: * Data are preliminary. * Values are derived from source data prior to rounding for

6

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Alternative Fuel Consumption 5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Alternative Fuel Consumption Vehicles in Use, 1995-2010 Vehicles in Use by Fuel Type, 2010 Fuel Consumption, 5 1995-2010 Fuel Consumption by Type, 2010 290 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Ethanol, 85 percent (E85). Includes only those E85 vehicles believed to be used as alternative-fueled vehicles, primarily fleet-operated vehicles; excludes other vehicles with E85- fueling capability. 2 Liquefied petroleum gases. 3 Compressed natural gas. 4 Liquefied natural gas. 5 Excludes oxygenates and biodiesel. (s)=Fewer than 0.5 thousand vehicles. (ss)=Less than 0.5 million gasoline-equivalent gallons. Source: Table 10.5. 247 265 280 295 322 395 425 471 534 565 592 635 696 776 826 939

7

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical compounds composed of chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alco- hols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by

8

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2)) n -OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydro- gen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar

9

AL PRO | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AL PRO AL PRO Jump to: navigation, search Name AL-PRO Place Grossheide, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip 26532 Sector Wind energy Product AL-PRO is an inndependent expert office for wind forecasts, wind potential studies, turbulence inquiries, visualizations as well as sound and shade throw forecasts Coordinates 53.592743°, 7.34313° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.592743,"lon":7.34313,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

10

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 5.23 All Sellers Sales Prices for Selected Petroleum Products, 1994-2010 (Dollars 1 per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Product 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Sales Prices to Resellers 2 Motor Gasoline ......................................... 0.602 0.630 0.715 0.703 0.530 0.645 0.966 0.888 0.832 1.001 1.288 1.675 1.973 2.186 2.587 1.773 2.169 Unleaded Regular ................................... .571 .599 .689 .677 .504 .621 .946 .868 .813 .982 1.271 1.659 1.956 2.165 2.570 1.753 2.151 Conventional 3 ...................................... .565 .583 .672 .658 .484 .596 .918 .838 .794 .950 1.241 1.639 1.930 3 2.145 3 2.564 3 1.732 3 2.133 Oxygenated 3 ........................................ .627 .662 .745 .754 .575 .690 1.016 .947 .858 1.031

11

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 10.5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Fuel Consumption, 1992-2010 Year Alternative and Replacement Fuels 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Methanol, 85 Percent (M85) 3 Methanol, Neat (M100) 4 Ethanol, 85 Percent (E85) 3,5 Ethanol, 95 Percent (E95) 3 Elec- tricity 6 Hydro- gen Other Fuels 7 Subtotal Oxygenates 2 Bio- diesel 10 Total Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 8 Ethanol in Gasohol 9 Total Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use 11 (number) 1992 NA 23,191 90 4,850 404 172 38 1,607 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1993 NA 32,714 299 10,263 414 441 27 1,690 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994 NA 41,227 484 15,484 415 605 33 2,224 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1995 172,806 50,218 603 18,319 386 1,527

12

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 All Sellers Sales Prices for Selected Petroleum Products, 2010 Motor Gasoline, Selected Grades Distillate Fuel Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, and Propane 170 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Includes oxygenated motor gasoline. 3 > 15 and <= 500 parts per million. 4 > 500 parts per million. - - = Not applicable. Note: Data are preliminary. Source: Table 5.23. 2.32 2.29 2.27 2.36 2.39 2.36 2.54 2.17 2.15 2.13 2.19 2.20 2.18 2.35 All Finished Unleaded Unleaded Unleaded Unleaded Unleaded Unleaded 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Dollars¹ per Gallon (Excluding Taxes) To Resellers To End Users Midgrade Conventional 2 Midgrade Regular Reformulated Regular Conventional

13

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Table 5.1b Petroleum Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Field Production 1 Renewable Fuels and Oxygenates 5 Processing Gain 6 Trade Stock Change 8,10 Adjust- ments 11 Petroleum Products Supplied 8 Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas Plant Liquids 4 Total Imports 7,8 Exports Net Imports 8,9 48 States 3 Alaska Total 1949 5,046 0 5,046 430 5,477 NA -2 645 327 318 -8 -38 5,763 1950 5,407 0 5,407 499 5,906 NA 2 850 305 545 -56 -51 6,458 1955 6,807 0 6,807 771 7,578 NA 34 1,248 368 880 (s) -37 8,455 1960 7,034 2 7,035 929 7,965 NA 146 1,815 202 1,613 -83 -8 9,797 1965 7,774 30 7,804 1,210 9,014 NA 220 2,468 187 2,281 -8 -10 11,512 1970 9,408 229 9,637 1,660 11,297 NA 359 3,419 259 3,161 103 -16 14,697 1975 8,183 191 8,375 1,633 10,007 NA 460 6,056 209 5,846 32 41 16,322 1976 7,958 173 8,132 1,604 9,736 NA 477

14

AgPro | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name AgPro Place Massena, New York Product Operator of biodiesel plant based on soy. References AgPro1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

15

ProEco Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ProEco Energy Place South Dakota Product US South Dakota-based company specializing ethanol refinery project development. References ProEco Energy1 LinkedIn Connections...

16

PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management...

17

ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool  

SciTech Connect

Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

Huang, Katherine [Chisholm lab, MIT

19

ProForm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ProForm ProForm Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: ProForm Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: - Landfill Gas, Energy Efficiency, Solar, Wind Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: poet.lbl.gov/Proform/ Cost: Paid References: ProForm[1] Related Tools ICCT Roadmap Model General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium (MIRAGE) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS Logo: ProForm ProForm is a software tool designed to support a basic assessment of the

20

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Snugg Pro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Its fast to use, easy to learn and creates compelling reports that turn skeptical homeowners into satisfied customers. Snugg Pro makes educating the homeowner and closing the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Archelios PRO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Archelios PRO toolarcheliospro Archelios is developed since 2001 by CYTHELIA. This PV solar software was at first designed for educational purposes, to teach students notions...

22

Pro Integris | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Integris Integris Jump to: navigation, search Name Pro Integris Place Split, Croatia Sector Hydro, Solar Product Croatia-based engineering firm. The firm is involved in a JV developing small hydro and solar projects. Coordinates 43.506985°, 16.441718° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.506985,"lon":16.441718,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

23

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

25

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BinMaker Pro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

States Related Links BinMaker Pro BinMaker Pro logo. Creates summaries of U.S. hourly weather data for 239 cities. BinMaker PRO exports the resulting electronic files for use...

26

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BinMaker Pro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Country Related Links BinMaker Pro BinMaker Pro logo. Creates summaries of U.S. hourly weather data for 239 cities. BinMaker PRO exports the resulting electronic files for use...

27

Laboratory Equipment - DynaPro NanoStar Dynamic Light ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DynaPro NanoStar Dynamic Light Scattering. Description: Location: E136. The DynaPro NanoStar is a dynamic light scattering ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Power-Pro: Programmable Power Management Architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents Power-Pro architecture (Programmable Power Management Architecture), a novel processor architecture for power reduction. Power-Pro architecture has following two functionalities, (i) Supply voltage and clock frequency can be dynamically varied, (ii) Active data-path width can be dynamically adjusted to requirement of application programs. For the application programs which require less performance or less data-path width, Power-Pro architecture realize dramatic power reduction. I. Introduction With recent popularizations in portable, batterypowered devices such as digital cellular telephones and personal digital assistants, minimizing power consumption of VLSI circuits becomes more important. As the system level power reduction techniques, the choice of optimal supply voltage(V DD ) and optimal active data-path width have strong impacts. In this paper we propose novel processor architecture Power-Pro [2] which can vary VDD and active data-path width of processor ...

Tohru Ishihara; Hiroto Yasuura; Programmable Power Management

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

30

Pro Corn LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pro Corn LLC Pro Corn LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Pro-Corn LLC Place Preston, Minnesota Zip 55965 Product Minnesotan farmer owned bioethanol production company. Coordinates 47.526531°, -121.936019° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.526531,"lon":-121.936019,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

31

ProLogis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ProLogis ProLogis Jump to: navigation, search Name ProLogis Place Aurora, Colorado Zip 80011 Sector Services Product Provider of distribution facilities and services. Coordinates 39.325162°, -79.54975° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.325162,"lon":-79.54975,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

32

Win pro energy group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Win pro energy group Win pro energy group Jump to: navigation, search Name win:pro energy group Place Berlin, Berlin, Germany Zip 12165 Sector Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product Win:pro offers location search, development, implementation, operational management and financing for renewable energy projects. Traditionally focused on wind it is now active in the solar and biogas area as well. Coordinates 52.516074°, 13.376987° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":52.516074,"lon":13.376987,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

33

TheIndustriallandscape 1 ProNova  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used to have flour mills, a smith's hammer, a weapons factory and abundant salmon and eel fishing. 7, gathered together in what used to be the famous Tuppen spinning mill. ProNova is a part of Norrköping as a cotton mill and is the oldest kept industrial building in the Industrial Landscape. The centre's activity

Zhao, Yuxiao

34

SolarPro Energy International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SolarPro Energy International SolarPro Energy International Jump to: navigation, search Name SolarPro Energy International Place Granite Bay, California Zip 95746 Sector Solar Product SolarPro Energy installs solar power systems using PV panels for residential and commercial properties. References SolarPro Energy International[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. SolarPro Energy International is a company located in Granite Bay, California . References ↑ "SolarPro Energy International" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=SolarPro_Energy_International&oldid=351417" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here

35

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: COLDWIND Pro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COLDWIND Pro COLDWIND Pro Computes coldroom and freezer refrigeration loads, in either Imperial or SI units, for projects drawn directly on-screen, with any number of walls, in any number of rooms, arranged at any angles, with any mix of insulation materials, organized into any number of zones and located anywhere in the world. Automatic and correctly weighted energy profiling at 30-minute intervals for every day of the year. Dynamically links to correctly weighted refrigeration equipment selection and balancing programs. Screen Shots Keywords Refrigeration, Heat Load Calculation Validation/Testing Designed to ASHRAE and CIBSE standards. Standard curriculum teaching aid in leading colleges and universities throughout Europe and Far East. Expertise Required Totally intuitive and dynamically error trapped. Suitable for novices and

36

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: AIRWIND Pro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AIRWIND Pro AIRWIND Pro Computes building air conditioning cooling and heating loads, in either Imperial or SI units, for projects drawn directly on-screen, with any number of walls, in any number of rooms, arranged at any angle, with any mix of construction materials and fenestration, organized into any number of zones and located anywhere in the world. Automatic and correctly weighted energy profiling at 30-minute intervals for every day of the year. Dynamically links to correctly weighted air conditioning equipment selection programs. Screen Shots Keywords Air Conditioning Load Calculation Validation/Testing Designed to ASHRAE and CIBSE standards. Standard curriculum teaching aid in leading colleges and universities throughout Europe and Far East. Expertise Required

37

Definition: Pro Forma Tariff | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forma Tariff Forma Tariff Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Pro Forma Tariff Usually refers to the standard OATT and/or associated transmission rights mandated by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order No. 888.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms transmission lines, transmission line References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Pro_Forma_Tariff&oldid=480579" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

38

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BinMaker Pro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BinMaker Pro BinMaker Pro BinMaker Pro logo. Creates summaries of U.S. hourly weather data for 239 cities. BinMaker PRO exports the resulting electronic files for use in spreadsheets, or other computer analysis programs. BinMaker PRO provides the following five functions: BIN summaries by dry bulb temperature or by wet bulb temperature, humidity ration or wind speed. It creates accurate summaries by the choice of four primary variables. Mean coincident values for any of the other three variables (plus enthalpy) are also calculated when requested by user. User may also define a specific operating schedule rather than summarizing all 8760 hours of the year. Ventilation Load BIN Summaries. When a user defines a space-neutral temperature and humidity, BinMaker PRO automatically calculates the

39

Managing Pro Bono: Doing Well by Doing Better  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organization, we compiled information from the NALP Directory.Directory (ninety-six percent, n=53) has a formal pro bono policy that sets forth the organization

Cummings, Scott L; Rhode, Deborah L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Snugg Home's iAudit Pro | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Snugg Home's iAudit Pro Snugg Home's iAudit Pro Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: iAudit Pro Agency/Company /Organization: Snugg Home Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.snugghome.com Web Application Link: www.snugghome.com/contractors.html Cost: Paid iAudit Pro Screenshot References: Snugg Home[1] Logo: iAudit Pro A time-saving, accurate, whole-house, state-of-the-art modeling audit tool with the ease and functionality that busy energy efficiency professionals need. Overview Data is entered into the app throughout the walk-though energy audit, then allows the findings to be presented to the homeowner in a easy to understand comprehensive report, showing the entire work scope with drill

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: EnergyPro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by DOE-2.1E are not handled by the EnergyPro interface. Examples include cogeneration, daylighting, and off-site steam production. The user must model the basic building...

42

Pro-forma issued January 20091 Programme Specification HNC Building Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requirements of CIBSE (chartered institute of Building Services #12;Pro-forma issued January 20092 Engineers

St Andrews, University of

43

The response of fatty acids and pigments to variations in temperature and irradiance in the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana :  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Potential of Algae for Bioenergy Production . . . . .Iyovo, Goucheng Du. Sustainable bioenergy biopro- cessing:Potential of Algae for Bioenergy Pro- duction Alternative

Shang, Frank F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Information-Theoretic Approaches for Sensor Selection and Placement in Sensor Networks for Target Localization and Tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pro- cessing for target tracking, EURASIP JASP: Specialtarget local- ization and tracking and reviews the mutualestimation: Navigation and tracking applications, Thesis of

Hanbiao Wang; Kung Yao; Deborah Estrin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Estimating and Validating Models of Microscopic Driver Behavior with Video Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kalaitzakis, A survey of video pro- cessing techniques forVehicle detection video through image processing: thev LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Video Camera Coverage Zones I-

Skabardonis, Alex

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

SHA-3 Conference, March 2012, Side Channel Analysis of the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... tion XORes all five columns, starting with the ... pro cessing the outer keyed state, Grstl-MAC ... is restricted to measuring the power consumption of one ...

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

HITS' Monolingual and Cross-lingual Entity Linking System at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In Proceedings of the 5th Interna- tional Joint Conference on Natural Language Pro- cessing, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 813 November 2011, pages ...

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

48

parallel computing experiences with cuda - CECM - Simon Fraser ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

including machine learning,3 database pro- cessing,4 bioinformatics,5,6 financial model- .... space-filling curve-based data-reordering technique, the pair force...

49

2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4018 www.advmat.de  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and ease of pro- cessing.[1­3] While a number of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes have

Heaton, Thomas H.

50

The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors which determined the rate at which carbon dioxidefactor in the experiments designed to discover tha complex pro- cess by which carbon dioxide

Calvin, M.

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Increasing Solar Absorption for Photocatalysis with Black ...  

nanocrystals retains the benefits of crystalline TiO 2 quantum structures for photocatalytic pro-cesses, the introduction of disorder and dopant at

52

ProPower Renewable Energy Shanghai Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ProPower Renewable Energy Shanghai Ltd ProPower Renewable Energy Shanghai Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name ProPower Renewable Energy (Shanghai) Ltd Place Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip 201314 Sector Solar Product China-based solar-grade silicon manufacturer by applying self-developed UMG method. Coordinates 31.247709°, 121.472618° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.247709,"lon":121.472618,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

53

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Reverse Engineering Code with IDA Pro, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If you want to master the art and science of reverse engineering code with IDA Pro for security R&D or software debugging, this is the book for you. Highly organized and sophisticated criminal entities are constantly developing more complex, obfuscated, ... Keywords: Programming, Security

IOActive

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

ProMoVer: modular verification of temporal safety properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes ProMoVer, a tool for fully automated procedure-modular verification of Java programs equipped with method-local and global assertions that specify safety properties of sequences of method invocations. Modularity at the procedure-level ...

Siavash Soleimanifard; Dilian Gurov; Marieke Huisman

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Quantum computing: pro and con BY JOHN PRESKILL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum computing: pro and con BY JOHN PRESKILL Charles C. Lauritsen Laboratory of High Energy Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA I assess the potential of quantum computation. Broad and important applications must be found to justify construction of a quantum computer; I

Preskill, John

57

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

58

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

59

VWA-0015 - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

VWA-0015 - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. VWA-0015 - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. VWA-0015 - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. This Initial Agency Decision concerns a whistleblower complaint filed by Barry Stutts, a former security officer for Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. (Am-Pro). It is undisputed that: Mr. Stutts and a fellow security officer, Michael Wolfe, made a protected disclosure, i.e., that their supervisors did not prepare an "incident report" concerning an open top secret safe. Two weeks after the protected disclosure, Am-Pro terminated Mr. Wolfe, who had worked at the DOE for 16 years. Eight weeks after the protected disclosure, Am-Pro terminated Mr. Stutts, who had worked at the DOE for almost two years. As explained below, Am-Pro has failed to

60

Laboratory Equipment - DynaPro-LSR 99-E-15 Dynamic Light ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DynaPro-LSR 99-E-15 Dynamic Light Scattering. Description: Location: N/A. Specifications / Capabilities: Uses: Measuring ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Oxygen detection in biological systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

kinetics of flash induced oxygen evolution of algae through measuring ...... (1999) Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses.

63

Single-Column Modeling R. D. Cess Marine Sciences Research Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measured by the upward facing pyranometer at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower located approximately 25 km north of Denver. The tower is surrounded by dry-plains...

64

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

65

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

66

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

70

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Melanin as a target for melanoma chemotherapy: Pro-oxidant effect of oxygen and metals on melanoma viability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

La Jolla, CA, USA). Indium tin oxide plates were purchasedand hydrophilic indium tin oxide (ITO). While the magnitude

Farmer, Patrick J; Gidanian, S; Shahandeh, B; Di Bilio, A J; Tohidian, N; Meyskens, F L

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fuel cell oxygen electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

V-210: HP LaserJet Pro Printer Bug Lets Remote Users Access Data |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

V-210: HP LaserJet Pro Printer Bug Lets Remote Users Access Data V-210: HP LaserJet Pro Printer Bug Lets Remote Users Access Data V-210: HP LaserJet Pro Printer Bug Lets Remote Users Access Data August 3, 2013 - 2:37am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in HP Printers. A remote user can obtain potentially sensitive information. PLATFORM: HP LaserJet Pro products ABSTRACT: A potential security vulnerability has been identified with certain HP LaserJet Pro printers. The vulnerability could be exploited remotely to gain unauthorized access to data. REFERENCE LINKS: SecurityTracker Alert ID 1028869 CVE-2013-4807 Vendor URL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium DISCUSSION: The following models are affected: HP LaserJet Pro P1102w CE657A/CE658A HP LaserJet Pro P1606dn CE749A HP LaserJet Pro M1212nf MFP CE841A HP LaserJet Pro M1213nf MFP CE845A

76

Pro Solar Solarstrom GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solarstrom GmbH Solarstrom GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name Pro Solar Solarstrom GmbH Place Ravensburg, Germany Zip 88214 Sector Solar Product Distributor of PV modules, including Canadian Solar's, in Germany. Coordinates 47.782018°, 9.614622° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.782018,"lon":9.614622,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

77

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Sams Teach Yourself Paint Shop Pro 6 in 24 Hours, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:This easily accessible tutorial uses a friendly, conversational approach to teach you the basics of Paint Shop Pro 6. With its careful, step-by-step approach, Sams Teach Yourself Paint Shop Pro 6 in 24 Hours makes it easy even for ...

T. Michael Clark; Michael Clark / Kris Tufto

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

VWA-0015 - Deputy Secretary Decision - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

VWA-0015 - Deputy Secretary Decision - In the Matter of Am-Pro VWA-0015 - Deputy Secretary Decision - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. VWA-0015 - Deputy Secretary Decision - In the Matter of Am-Pro Protective Services, Inc. Barry Stutts, Complainant v. Am-Pro Protective Agency, Inc., Respondent, OHA Case No. VWA-0015 DECISION DENYING REVIEW OF INITIAL AGENCY DECISION This is a request for review by Complainant Barry Stutts, from the Initial Agency Decision by the Office of Hearings and Appeals ("OHA"), finding that reinstatement of Mr. Stutts as a security guard is a necessary and appropriate action to effect full relief for a retaliatory termination made by the previous security contractor at Forrestal and Germantown, Am-Pro Protective Agency, Inc. Based upon my review of the regulatory language,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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81

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

83

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

85

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

86

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

87

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

DC Pro Software Tool Suite, Data Center Fact Sheet, Industrial Technologies Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how DOE's Data Center Energy Profiler (DC Pro) Software Tool Suite and other resources can help U.S. companies identify ways to improve the efficiency of their data centers.

Not Available

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Projective Model Structure on Pro Simplicial Sheaves, and the Relative \\'Etale Homotopy Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In \\cite{Isa}, Isaksen showed that a proper model category $\\cC$, induces a model structure on the pro category $Pro(\\cC)$. In this paper we generalize Isaksen's theorem to the case when $\\cC$ possess a weaker structure, which we call a "weak fibration category". Namely, we show that if $\\mcal{C}$ is a weak fibration category, that satisfies an extra condition, there is a naturally induced model structure on $Pro(\\cC)$. We then apply our theorem to the case when $\\cC$ is the weak fibration category of simplicial sheafs on a Grothendieck site, where both weak equivalences and fibrations are local as in \\cite{Jar}. This gives a new model structure on the category of pro simplicial sheaves. Using this new model structure we give a definition of the \\'etale homotopy type of Artin and Mazur \\cite{AM}, as the result of applying a derived functor. Our definition actually gives as object in $Pro(\\cS)$ and not just in $Pro(Ho(\\cS))$ as in \\cite{AM}. Our definition also extends naturally to a relative notion of the \\'e...

Barnea, Ilan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

92

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

93

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

94

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Regional imaging with oxygen-14  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic significance of the distribution of labeled oxygen was studied in the dog by inhalation of gas mixtures labeled with oxygen-14 (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 71 seconds) maintained at a constant level of activity. Under steady-state conditions, whole-body images were developed by detection of the positron annihilation emissions with a dual head rectilinear scanner in the coincidence mode. (auth)

Russ, G.A.; Bigler, R.E.; Dahl, J.R.; Kostick, J.; McDonald, J.M.; Tilbury, R.S.; Laughlin, J.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

GROUP 4: Is biomass burning carbon-neutral? Global environment aspect. It is argued that since trees take CO2 out of the air and give off oxygen as they grow,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GROUP 4: Is biomass burning carbon-neutral? Global environment aspect. It is argued that since trees take CO2 out of the air and give off oxygen as they grow, that by burning them we are just putting in terms of CO2 in the atmosphere. Investigate the national scene, which seems very pro- biomass burning

97

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

98

EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Rapid and transient stimulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species by melatonin in normal and tumor leukocytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Melatonin is a modified tryptophan with potent biological activity, exerted by stimulation of specific plasma membrane (MT1/MT2) receptors, by lower affinity intracellular enzymatic targets (quinone reductase, calmodulin), or through its strong anti-oxidant ability. Scattered studies also report a perplexing pro-oxidant activity, showing that melatonin is able to stimulate production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that on U937 human monocytes melatonin promotes intracellular ROS in a fast (< 1 min) and transient (up to 5-6 h) way. Melatonin equally elicits its pro-radical effect on a set of normal or tumor leukocytes; intriguingly, ROS production does not lead to oxidative stress, as shown by absence of protein carbonylation, maintenance of free thiols, preservation of viability and regular proliferation rate. ROS production is independent from MT1/MT2 receptor interaction, since a) requires micromolar (as opposed to nanomolar) doses of melatonin; b) is not contrasted by the specific MT1/MT2 antagonist luzindole; c) is not mimicked by a set of MT1/MT2 high affinity melatonin analogues. Instead, chlorpromazine, the calmodulin inhibitor shown to prevent melatonin-calmodulin interaction, also prevents melatonin pro-radical effect, suggesting that the low affinity binding to calmodulin (in the micromolar range) may promote ROS production.

Radogna, Flavia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Paternoster, Laura [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istitututo di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); De Nicola, Milena; Cerella, Claudia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ammendola, Sergio [Ambiotec (Italy); Bedini, Annalida; Tarzia, Giorgio [Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica, Universita di Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ghibelli, Lina [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Using HyPro to Evaluate Competing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using HyPro to Evaluate Competing Hydrogen Pathways Using HyPro to Evaluate Competing Hydrogen Pathways Project Summary Full Title: Using HyPro to Evaluate Competing Hydrogen Pathways Project ID: 217 Principal Investigator: Brian D. James Keywords: Steam methane reforming (SMR); electrolysis; biomass; fuel cell vehicles (FCV); costs Purpose This project provides analysis of the options and trade-offs associated with establishing the required hydrogen production infrastructure to provide hydrogen to fuel cell vehicles in the 2020 timeframe and beyond. Performer Principal Investigator: Brian D. James Organization: Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) Address: 3601 Wilson Blvd., Suite 650 Arlington, VA 22201 Telephone: 703-778-7114 Email: Brian_James@directedtechnologies.com Additional Performers: Sentech, Inc.; H2Gen Innovations, Inc.; ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures; Teledyne Energy Services

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: SolarPro 2.0  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SolarPro 2.0 SolarPro 2.0 SolarPro 2.0 logo. Simulates the operation of an active solar hot water heating system, hour by hour, for one year based on Typical Meteorological Year 2 (TMY2) information available from NREL. Dozens of customizable variables are incorporated into the simulation. Keywords solar water heating, thermal processes, alternative energy, simulation Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required General knowledge of solar thermal processes. Users New Software Product. Audience Solar design engineers, solar contractors, do-it-yourselfers. Input Main inputs required: TMY2 datafile 239 U.S. locations provided on the CD-ROM, solar collector OG-100 panel ratings (database included), tank size and insulation factor, customer hot water use pattern. Output Solar fraction, hourly charts, hour-by-hour simulation end points in

102

CellMatrix De-Adhesion Dynamics Reflect Contractile Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and extracellular matrix mechanics. Biophys. J. 90(10):3762Radmacher, M. Studying the mechanics of cellular pro- cessesD. A. Hammer. The dynamics and mechanics of endothelial cell

Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Sanjay

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Web-Based Courseware Application Usability Thomas Convery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requires that all data pro- cessing short of the final rendering of the information be completed on the web. This study does not attempt to address issues with fat clients such as mainten

Bodenheimer, Bobby

104

snox.p65  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(SCR) pro- cess, SO 2 oxidation catalyst, and a unique wet-gas sulfuric acid (WSA) condenser. SNOX TM demonstrated 95 percent SO 2 and 94 percent NO x emis- sion reductions on...

105

Real-WoRld Technology TesTs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The efficiency of the cleaning pro- cess. The equipment configuration is shown in Fig. 2. Weather and field con- ditions on the days of the test varied among cold, mild, windy,...

106

Advance Mailer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2001 ... CONTENTS. Join us in 2001! .... search. Sponsored by: Extraction and Pro- cessing Division, Light Metals Division, Alu- ...... your free gift and enter our grand prize drawing! ...... long-term member of the Light Metals Divi-.

107

Promotion of efficient heat pumps for heating (ProHeatPump)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and towns have (some) district heating, and DH currently supplies 1% of heating for buildings in Norway.2 to district heating if there is a supply. According to HP industry representatives, howeverProject Promotion of efficient heat pumps for heating (ProHeatPump) EIE/06/072 / S12

108

Source Code Optimization and Pro ling of Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Model L2 Cache Memory L1 Cache Energy Model Energy Model Processor Core Model DC-DC ConverterSource Code Optimization and Pro ling of Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems Tajana Simunic in optimizing software performance and energy in embed- ded systems. Code optimizations are applied at three

Simunic, Tajana

109

The Science Teacher36 n my role as director of Columbia University's pro-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Science Teacher36 I n my role as director of Columbia University's pro- gram in Earth and Environmental Science Jour- nalism, I encounter many students who love both science and writing. This article provides practical guidance for science teachers to help such students explore careers

Kastens, Kim Anne

110

ProForm: A Tool for Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Renewable Energy and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Landfill methane gas capture projects · Cogeneration projects #12;Pre-Feasibility Analysis · ProForm aids-generation, landfill methane and energy efficiency projects · Available in English and in Spanish #12;Rationale.e., projects with greenhouse gas reduction benefits) · Lack of familiarity among small entrepreneurs

111

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

112

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

113

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Oxygen Sensitivity of Krypton and Lyman-? Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-? hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert...

Arjan van Dijk; Wim Kohsiek; Henk A. R. de Bruin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Innovative oxygen separation membrane prototype  

SciTech Connect

Improvements are still needed to gas separation processes to gain industry acceptance of coal gasification systems. The Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology, being developed by the US Department of Energy and its partners, offers an opportunity to lower overall plant cost and improve efficiency compared to cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption methods. The technology is based on a novel class of perovskite ceramic oxides which can selectively separate oxygen ions from a stream of air at high temperature and pressure. Those ions are transported across the ITM leaving non-permeate air which can be integrated with a fuel-fired gas system, enabling co-production of power and steam along with the concentrated, high-purity oxygen. The project is at the second phase, to scale up the ITM Oxygen ceramic devices to demonstrate the technology at the 1-5 tpd capability in the Subscale Engineering Prototype. A third phase to demonstrate commercial viability extends to the end of the decade. 2 figs.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen plant to provide oxygen for industrial combustion applications. PSA oxygen plants utilize a molecular sieve material to separate air into an oxygen rich product stream and a nitrogen rich exhaust stream. These plants typically produce 90-95% purity oxygen and are located in close proximity to the point of use. In contrast, high purity (99.999%) oxygen is produced by the distillation of liquid air at a remote plant and is usually transported to the point of use either as a cryogenic liquid in a tank trailer or as a high pressure gas via pipeline. In this study, experiments were performed to the test PSA system used in conjunction with an A'' burner and comparisons were made with the results of the previous study which utilized high purity liquid oxygen. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Delano, M.A. (Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA)); Kwan, Y. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

HyPro: A Financial Tool for Simulating Hydrogen Infrastructure Development, Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes a multi-year Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI) project to study the build-out of hydrogen production facilities during the transition from gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The primary objectives of the project are to develop an enhanced understanding of hydrogen production issues during the transition period (out to 2050) and to develop recommendations for the DOE on areas of further study. These objectives are achieved by conducting economic and scenario analysis to predict how industry would provide the hydrogen production, delivery and dispensing capabilities necessary to satisfy increased hydrogen demand. The primary tool used for the analysis is a custom created MatLab simulation tool entitled HyPro (short for Hydrogen Production). This report describes the calculation methodology used in HyPro, the baseline assumptions, the results of the baseline analysis and several corollary studies. The appendices of this report included a complete listing of model assumptions (capital costs, efficiencies, feedstock prices, delivery distances, etc.) and a step-by-step manual on the specific operation of the HyPro program. This study was made possible with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

Brian D. James, Peter O. Schmidt, Julie Perez

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corporation Place Schiller Park, Illinois Zip 60176 Product Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

120

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber  

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook ... is a colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas ... oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that ...

122

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum ...  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts ...

123

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

124

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Oxygen Control in PWR Makeup Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three fixed-bed processes can accelerate hydrazine-oxygen reactions in PWR makeup water and reduce oxygen levels to below 5 ppb. In this comparative-test project, activated carbon based systems offered the best combination of low cost, effectiveness, and commercial availability. A second process, employing palladium-coated anion resin, is also commercially available.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

126

Influence of Pro-Qura-generated Plans on Postimplant Dosimetric Quality: A Review of a Multi-Institutional Database  

SciTech Connect

The influence of Pro-Qura-generated plans vs. community-generated plans on postprostate brachytherapy dosimetric quality was compared. In the Pro-Qura database, 2933 postplans were evaluated from 57 institutions. A total of 1803 plans were generated by Pro-Qura and 1130 by community institutions. Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) plans outnumbered Palladium 103 ({sup 103}Pd) plans by a ratio of 3:1. Postimplant dosimetry was performed in a standardized fashion by overlapping the preimplant ultrasound and the postimplant computed tomography (CT). In this analysis, adequacy was defined as a V{sub 100} > 80% and a D{sub 90} of 90% to 140% for both isotopes along with a V{sub 150} < 60% for {sup 125}I and < 75% for {sup 103}Pd. The mean postimplant V{sub 100} and D{sub 90} were 88.6% and 101.6% vs. 89.3% and 102.3% for Pro-Qura and community plans, respectively. When analyzed in terms of the first 8 sequence groups (10 patients/sequence group) for each institution, Pro-Qura planning resulted in less postimplant variability for V{sub 100} (86.2-89.5%) and for D{sub 90} (97.4-103.2%) while community-generated plans had greater V{sub 100} (85.3-91.2%) and D{sub 90} (95.9-105.2%) ranges. In terms of sequence groups, postimplant dosimetry was deemed 'too cool' in 11% to 30% of cases and 'too hot' in 12% to 27%. On average, no clinically significant postimplant dosimetric differences were discerned between Pro-Qura and community-based planning. However, substantially greater variability was identified in the community-based plan cohort. It is possible that the Pro-Qura plan and/or the routine postimplant dosimetric evaluation may have influenced dosimetric outcomes at community-based centers.

Allen, Zachariah [Wheeling Hospital, Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States)]|[Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]|[Seattle Prostate Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Pro-Qura, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Wheeling Hospital, Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States)]|[Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]|[Seattle Prostate Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Pro-Qura, Seattle, WA (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Grimm, Peter; Blasko, John; Sylvester, John; Butler, Wayne; Chaudry, Usman-Ul-Haq; Sitter, Michael [Wheeling Hospital, Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States)]|[Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]|[Seattle Prostate Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Pro-Qura, Seattle, WA (United States)

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

131

Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been documented that cannabidiol (CBD) induced apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells, including lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias. In contrast, a differential sensitivity between normal lymphocytes and monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis has been reported. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on human peripheral monocytes that were either freshly isolated or precultured for 72 h. CBD markedly enhanced apoptosis of freshly isolated monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas precultured monocytes were insensitive. By comparison, both cells were sensitive to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. CBD significantly diminished the cellular thiols and glutathione in freshly isolated monocytes. The apoptosis induced by CBD was abrogated in the presence of N-acetyl-{sub L}-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. In addition, precultured monocytes contained a significantly greater level of glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) compared to the freshly isolated cells. The HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin partially but significantly restored the sensitivity of precultured monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect of CBD between precultured and freshly isolated monocytes, which was closely associated with the cellular level of glutathione and the antioxidative capability of the cells.

Wu, Hsin-Ying; Chang, An-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Fu-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ya [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Der-Zen [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jan, Tong-Rong, E-mail: tonyjan@ntu.edu.t [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

Dees, D.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process, provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

136

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

138

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

THE PATH OF OXYGEN IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment is described in which an attempt is made to follow the path of oxygen in photosynthesis by the use of O{sup 18} as a tracer.

Dorough, G.D.; Calvin, M.

1950-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

143

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble...

144

Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

145

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A word from the Rector The Facult Polytechnique de Mons was founded in 1837,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(patented), pro- duction of speech from text, new signal pro- cessing models of speech, voice conversion and optimisation of bioprocess for the production of biofuels (bioethanol with bac- terial stocks or of genetically, the production of energy, its conversion and transport are cru- cial issues. Therefore, our research seeks

Glineur, François

148

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

149

Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

Cotton, I.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Direct Observation of Oxygen Superstructures in Manganites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of superstructures associated with the oxygen 2p states in two prototypical manganites using x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K edge. In the stripe order system Bi{sub 0.31}Ca{sub 0.69}MnO{sub 3}, hole-doped O states are orbitally ordered, at the same propagation vector as the Mn orbital ordering, but no oxygen charge stripes are found at this periodicity. In La{sub 7/8}Sr{sub 1/8}MnO{sub 3}, we observe a 2p charge ordering described by alternating hole-poor and hole-rich MnO planes that is consistent with some of the recent predictions.

Grenier, S.; Tonnerre, J. M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Thomas, K. J.; Hill, J. P. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Staub, U.; Bodenthin, Y.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Sherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Scagnoli, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, S-W.; Kim, B. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

151

Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrolytic cell produces a mixture of highly ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases by a method combining electrolysis and radiolysis of an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte, which may be 25 percent of potassium hydroxide, is introduced into the cell and is simultaneously subjected to an electrolyting current and intense irradiation by electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 10/sup -10/ meters.

Horvath, S.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

NatioNal aNd Global Forecasts West VirGiNia ProFiles aNd Forecasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· NatioNal aNd Global Forecasts · West VirGiNia ProFiles aNd Forecasts · eNerGy · Healt;#12;Copyright ©2012 by WVU Research Corporation Unless otherwise noted, data used for this forecast is from IHS Population 2 GlOBAl OUTlOOk 3 Current Trends 3 Forecast 6 UNITED STATES OUTlOOk 9 Global and United States

Mohaghegh, Shahab

154

Probing Oxygen Activation Sites in Two Flavoprotein Oxidases Using Chloride as an Oxygen Surrogate  

SciTech Connect

A single basic residue above the si-face of the flavin ring is the site of oxygen activation in glucose oxidase (GOX) (His516) and monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) (Lys265). Crystal structures of both flavoenzymes exhibit a small pocket at the oxygen activation site that might provide a preorganized binding site for superoxide anion, an obligatory intermediate in the two-electron reduction of oxygen. Chloride binds at these polar oxygen activation sites, as judged by solution and structural studies. First, chloride forms spectrally detectable complexes with GOX and MSOX. The protonated form of His516 is required for tight binding of chloride to oxidized GOX and for rapid reaction of reduced GOX with oxygen. Formation of a binary MSOX-chloride complex requires Lys265 and is not observed with Lys265Met. Binding of chloride to MSOX does not affect the binding of a sarcosine analogue (MTA, methylthioactetate) above the re-face of the flavin ring. Definitive evidence is provided by crystal structures determined for a binary MSOX-chloride complex and a ternary MSOX-chloride-MTA complex. Chloride binds in the small pocket at a position otherwise occupied by a water molecule and forms hydrogen bonds to four ligands that are arranged in approximate tetrahedral geometry: Lys265:NZ, Arg49:NH1, and two water molecules, one of which is hydrogen bonded to FAD:N5. The results show that chloride (i) acts as an oxygen surrogate, (ii) is an effective probe of polar oxygen activation sites, and (iii) provides a valuable complementary tool to the xenon gas method that is used to map nonpolar oxygen-binding cavities.

Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Chen, Zhi-wei; Bruckner, Robert C.; Mathews, F. Scott; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman (Drexel-MED); (St. Louis-MED); (WU-MED)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction on a gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt was investigated to determine the influence of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature on electrode kinetics and oxygen solubility by using cyclic Voltammetry and impedance analysis techniques. During this quarter, the impedance data were analyzed by a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) Parameter estimation program to determine the kinetic and the mass transfer related parameters such as charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance, solution resistance, and Warburg coefficient. The estimated parameters were used to obtain the C0{sub 2} reaction orders and apparent activation energies for the exchange current density and the mass transfer parameter (D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*).

Dave, B.B.; Srinivasan, S.; White, R.E.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Application of Oxygen Eddy Correlation in Aquatic Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The eddy correlation technique is rapidly becoming an established method for resolving dissolved oxygen fluxes in natural aquatic systems. This direct and noninvasive determination of oxygen fluxes close to the sediment by simultaneously ...

Claudia Lorrai; Daniel F. McGinnis; Peter Berg; Andreas Brand; Alfred West

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Molecular oxygen in the rho Ophiuchi cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen, O2 has been expected historically to be an abundant component of the chemical species in molecular clouds and, as such, an important coolant of the dense interstellar medium. However, a number of attempts from both ground and from space have failed to detect O2 emission. The work described here uses heterodyne spectroscopy from space to search for molecular oxygen in the interstellar medium. The Odin satellite carries a 1.1 m sub-millimeter dish and a dedicated 119 GHz receiver for the ground state line of O2. Starting in 2002, the star forming molecular cloud core rho Oph A was observed with Odin for 34 days during several observing runs. We detect a spectral line at v(LSR) = 3.5 km/s with dv(FWHM) = 1.5 km/s, parameters which are also common to other species associated with rho Ohp A. This feature is identified as the O2 (N_J = 1_1 - 1_0) transition at 118 750.343 MHz. The abundance of molecular oxygen, relative to H2,, is 5E-8 averaged over the Odin beam. This abundance is consistently lower than previously reported upper limits.

B. Larsson; R. Liseau; L. Pagani; P. Bergman; P. Bernath; N. Biver; J. H. Black; R. S. Booth; V. Buat; J. Crovisier; C. L. Curry; M. Dahlgren; P. J. Encrenaz; E. Falgarone; P. A. Feldman; M. Fich; H. G. Flore'n; M. Fredrixon; U. Frisk; G. F. Gahm; M. Gerin; M. Hagstroem; J. Harju; T. Hasegawa; Aa. Hjalmarson; C. Horellou; L. E. B. Johansson; K. Justtanont; A. Klotz; E. Kyroelae; S. Kwok; A. Lecacheux; T. Liljestroem; E. J. Llewellyn; S. Lundin; G. Me'gie; G. F. Mitchell; D. Murtagh; L. H. Nordh; L. -Aa. Nyman; M. Olberg; A. O. H. Olofsson; G. Olofsson; H. Olofsson; G. Persson; R. Plume; H. Rickman; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rydbeck; Aa. Sandqvist; F. v. Sche'ele; G. Serra; S. Torchinsky; N. F. Tothill; K. Volk; T. Wiklind; C. D. Wilson; A. Winnberg; G. Witt

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Probing brain oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. This technique allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Only in the NIR light region of 650-1000 nm, the overall absorption is sufficiently low, and the NIR light can be detected across a thick layer of tissues, among them the skin, the scull and the brain. In this region, there are many absorbing light chromophores, but only three are important as far as the oxygenation is concerned. They are the hemoglobin (HbO2), the deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and cytochrome oxidase (CtOx). In the last 20 years there was an enormous growth in the instrumentation and applications of NIRS. . The devices that were used in our experiments were : Somanetics's INVOS Brain Oximeter (IBO) and Toomim's HEG spectrophotometer. The performances of both devices were compared including their merits and draw...

Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ... Electronic Materials Science Challenges in Renewable Energy.

164

Windows NT Workstation Performance Evaluation Based on Pro/E 2000i BENCHMARK  

SciTech Connect

A performance evaluation of several computers was necessary, so an evaluation program, or benchmark, was run on each computer to determine maximum possible performance. The program was used to test the Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) ability of each computer by monitoring the speed with which several functions were executed. The main objective of the benchmarking program was to record assembly loading times and image regeneration times and then compile a composite score that could be compared with the same tests on other computers. The three computers that were tested were the Compaq AP550, the SGI 230, and the Hewlett-PackardP750C. The Compaq and SGI computers each had a Pentium III 733mhz processor, while the Hewlett-Packard had a Pentium III 750mhz processor. The size and speed of Random Access Memory (RAM) in each computer varied, as did the type of graphics card. Each computer that was tested was using Windows NT 4.0 and Pro/ENGINEER{trademark} 2000i CAD benchmark software provided by Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC). The benchmarking program came with its own assembly, automatically loaded and ran tests on the assembly, then compiled the time each test took to complete. Due to the automation of the tests, any sort of user error affecting test scores was virtually eliminated. After all the tests were completed, scores were then compiled and compared. The Silicon Graphics 230 was by far the overall winner with a composite score of 8.57. The Compaq AP550 was next with a score of 5.19, while the Hewlett-Packard P750C performed dismally, achieving a score of 3.34. Several factors, including motherboard chipset, graphics card, and the size and speed of RAM, were involved in the differing scores of the three machines. Surprisingly the Hewlett-Packard, which had the fastest processor, came back with the lowest score. The above factors most likely contributed to the poor performance of the Hewlett-Packard. Based on the results of the benchmark test, the SGI 230 appears to be the best CAD software solution. The Hewlett-Packard most likely performed poorly due to the fact that it was only running a 100mhz Front Side Bus (FSB), while the SGI machine was running at a 133mhz. The Compaq was using a new type of RAM called RDRAM. While this RAM was at first perceived to be a great performer, various benchmarks, including this one, have found that the computers using RDRAM really only achieve average performance.

DAVIS,SEAN M.

2000-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

165

E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the mineral and water respectively. Oxygen isotopic ratios are The Geologic Time Scale 2012. DOI: 10.1016/B978E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios for global correlation. Relying on previous compilations and new data, this chapter presents oxygen isotope

Grossman, Ethan L.

166

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations, Papers, and Publications Presentations, Papers, and Publications ITM Oxygen Development for Advanced Oxygen Supply (Oct 2011) Ted Foster, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. presented at the Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA Oct 9-12, 2011. ASU/IGCC Integration Strategies (Oct 2009), David McCarthy, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Taking the Next Step (Oct 2009), VanEric Stein, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Scaling Up a Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Technology (Oct 2006) Philip Armstrong, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2006 Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington, D.C. ITM Oxygen: The New Oxygen Supply for the New IGCC Market (Oct 2005)

168

(Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts)  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

[Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

Bomelburg, H.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Acute Toxicity of Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients: A Risk Particularly for Carriers of the TGFB1 Pro25 variant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta1 is related to adverse events in radiochemotherapy. We investigated TGFB1 genetic variability in relation to quality of life-impairing acute organ toxicity (QAOT) of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy under clinical trial conditions. Methods and Materials: Two independent patient cohorts (n = 88 and n = 75) diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage II/III rectal cancer received neoadjuvant radiation doses of 50.4 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Toxicity was monitored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. QAOT was defined as a CTCAE grade {>=}2 for at least one case of enteritis, proctitis, cystitis, or dermatitis. Nine germline polymorphisms covering the common genetic diversity in the TGFB1 gene were genotyped. Results: In both cohorts, all patients carrying the TGFB1 Pro25 variant experienced QAOT (positive predictive value of 100%, adjusted p = 0.0006). In a multivariate logistic regression model, gender, age, body mass index, type of chemotherapy, or disease state had no significant impact on QAOT. Conclusion: The TGFB1 Pro25 variant could be a relevant marker for individual treatment stratification and carriers may benefit from adaptive clinical care or specific radiation techniques.

Schirmer, Markus Anton; Mergler, Caroline Patricia Nadine [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Gaedcke, Jochen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Jo, Peter [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Beissbarth, Tim [Department of Medical Statistics, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Hess, Clemens Friedrich [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Brockmoeller, Juergen [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Wolff, Hendrik Andreas, E-mail: hendrik.wolff@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

P2Pro(RSM) : a computerized management tool for implementing DOE's authorized release process for radioactive scrap metals.  

SciTech Connect

Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal and several million cubic meters of concrete are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real properties that warrant consideration for release from regulatory control for reuse or recycle, as permitted and practiced under current DOE policy. The provisions for implementing this policy are contained in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Non-Real Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE Field Offices for interim use and implementation. This manual describes a computer management tool, P2Pro(RSM), that implements the first 5 steps of the 10-step process stipulated by the Handbook. P2Pro(RSM) combines an easy-to-use Windows interface with a comprehensive database to facilitate the development of authorized release limits for non-real property.

Arnish, J.; Chen, S. Y.; Kamboj, S.; Nieves, L.

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

180

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

182

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

183

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

184

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

185

METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

McBride, J.P.

1962-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

186

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

187

Modeling the Oxygen - Hydrazine Reaction in PWR Secondary Feedwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proper control of oxygen in primary water reactor (PWR) secondary feedwater, using hydrazine, has been an enduring issue. The requirements on the oxygen concentration are partly opposing. Fully deoxygenated conditions in the steam generators are essential to minimize corrosion. On the other hand, some oxygen in the feedwater counteracts corrosion of carbon steel surfaces and the transport of corrosion products to the steam generators. Optimization is, therefore, essential. This work applies the frame...

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

188

Dense ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with partial oxidation of methane to syngas is that of the oxygen plant. In this paper, the authors offer a technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required and if the driving potential of transport is sufficient, the partial oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen anions, not oxygen molecules. In principle, the dense ceramic materials can be shaped into a hollow-tube reactor, with air passed over the outside of the membrane and methane through the inside. The membrane is permeable to oxygen at high temperatures, but not to nitrogen or any other gas. Long tubes of La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) membrane were fabricated by plastic extrusion, and thermal stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be acceptable for a reactor material. Fracture of certain SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. However, tubes made with a particular stoichiometry (SFC-2) provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. Some of the reactor tubes have operated for up to {approx} 1,000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Sweeney, S.M.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Pei, S.; Kobylinski, T.P. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oxygen isotope compositions of cores and cuttings from Long Valley exploration wells show that the Bishop Tuff has been an important reservoir for both fossil and active...

192

Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Sr3YCo4O10+d and the Ultrafast Redox...

193

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and Arlon J. Hunt Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 343-347 Keywords aerogel, air pressure, oxygen concentration, oxygen molecules, photoluminescence Abstract Photoluminescent silica aerogel acts as the active element of an optical sensor for molecular oxygen. The luminescent aerogel is prepared by the action of energized reducing gases on a standard silica aerogel. Intensity of aerogel photoluminescence decreases as the collision frequency between oxygen molecules and the luminescent carriers in the aerogel matrix increases. This behavior is a characteristic of many photoluminescent materials and arises from a transfer of energy from the aerogel to surrounding oxygen molecules. A sensor for oxygen concentration or air pressure can therefore be simply constructed utilizing an ultraviolet source for excitation and a suitable detector for the emitted visible signal. Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the aerogel sensing element are 1.55×10-2 Torr-1 for hydrophilic aerogel and 2.4×10-3 Torr-1 for hydrophobic aerogel.

194

Development of Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National...

195

Calorimetric Investigation of the LithiumManganeseOxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Calorimetric Investigation of the LithiumManganeseOxygen Cathode Material System for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Damian M. Cupid,...

196

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

198

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

199

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under...

200

First-Principles Study of the Oxygen Evolution Reaction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this talk, we present our study of the mechanisms of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under...

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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201

Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers. Author(s), Elizabeth Hoffman, T. Eric Skidmore, Donald L Fisher, William L...

202

Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of oxygenated hydrocarbons as additives to diesel fuels on ignition, NOx emissions and soot production has been examined using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. N-heptane was used as a representative diesel fuel, and methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether and dimethoxymethane were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced NOx levels and reduced the production of soot precursors. When the overall oxygen content in the fuel reached approximately 25% by mass, production of soot precursors fell effectively to zero, in agreement with experimental studies. The kinetic factors responsible for these observations are discussed.

Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Fisher, E; Glaude, P A; Marinov, N M; Westbrook, C K

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

ORNL-grown oxygen 'sponge' presents path to better catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presents path to better catalysts, energy materials This schematic depicts a new ORNL-developed material that can easily absorb or shed oxygen atoms. This schematic depicts...

204

Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance of Ionic and Electronic Carriers. Author(s), Rotraut Merkle, Lei Wang,

205

NETL: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Looping Combustion Project No.: DE-FE0001808 NETL has partnered with Western Kentucky University to develop a series of advanced oxygen carriers for coal-fueled...

206

Agile machining and inspection thrust area team-on-machine probing / compatibility assessment of Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) pro/CMM DMIS with Zeiss DMISEngine.  

SciTech Connect

The charter goal of the Agile Machining and Inspection Thrust Area Team is to identify technical requirements, within the nuclear weapons complex (NWC), for Agile Machining and Inspection capabilities. During FY 2008, the team identified Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) Pro/CMM as a software tool for use in off-line programming of probing routines--used for measurement--for machining and turning centers. The probing routine would be used for in-process verification of part geometry. The same Pro/CMM program used on the machine tool could also be employed for program validation / part verification using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Funding was provided to determine the compatibility of the Pro/CMM probing program with CMM software (Zeiss DMISEngine).

Wade, James Rokwel; Tomlinson, Kurt; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon substrate and their catalytic function takes place in acid medium. This harsh environment causes an undesired reaction, which is the dissolution of the metal atoms into the acid medium; thus affecting the catalyst life. This dissertation aims to investigate the dissolution mechanism of fuel cell cathode catalysts at the atomic level starting from the oxygen reaction intermediates on the cathode catalyst surface and propose guidelines to improve cathode catalysts durability based on our proposed mechanism. Density functional theory is employed to study various possible scenarios with the goals of understanding the mechanism of the metal atom dissolution process and establishing some guidelines that permit a rational design of catalysts with better stability against dissolution. A thermodynamic analysis of potential metal dissolution reactions in acid medium is presented first, using density functional theory calculations to explore the relative stabilities of transition metals in relation to that of Pt. The study is performed by comparing the change in reaction Gibbs free energies for different metals in a given dissolution reaction. Then, a series of density functional theory studies, tending to investigate the adsorbed atomic oxygen absorption process from cathode catalyst surface into its subsurface, includes: 1) the oxygen adsorption on various catalyst surfaces and oxygen absorption in subsurface sites to figure out the minimum energy pathway and energy barrier of on-surface oxygen migration and absorption into subsurface; 2) the oxygen coverage, the other oxygen reduction reaction intermediates, and water effects on the oxygen absorption process according to reaction pathways, energy barriers, and thermodynamic analysis; 3) the oxygen absorption process on several Pt-based alloys with various compositions and components to find out the best alloy to inhibit atomic oxygen absorption including both kinetic and thermodynamic analyses, and the effects of such alloyed species on the inhibition process.

Gu, Zhihui

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

PitPro 1.1 User's Manual; Pit-tag to SURPH Data Translation Utility, Technical Manual 2003.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual describes the use of Program PitPro to convert PIT-tag data files in PTAGIS (PIT Tag Information System, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission) to input files ready for survival analysis in Program SURPH 2.1. This utility converts the various PIT-tag detections at the multitude of detector coils within a juvenile bypass or at adult counting windows and ladders into capture histories. The capture histories indicate whether a tagged fish was detected, not detected, or detected and censored at the major hydroprojects in the Columbia Basin. A major update to this program is the inclusion of adult upstream detection histories. Adult detection histories include not only whether the fish was detected or not but also the year of detection for proper adult survival estimation. The SURPH program is a valuable tool for estimating survival and detection probabilities of fish migrating in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Using special input data files, SURPH computes reach-to-reach statistics for any release group passing a system of detection sites. However, PIT-tag data, as available from PTAGIS, comes in a form that is not ready for use as SURPH input. SURPH requires a capture history for each fish. A capture history consists of a series of fields, one for each detection site, that has a code for whether the fish was detected and returned to the river, detected and removed, or not detected. The data, as received from PTAGIS, has one line for each detection with information such as fish identification (id), detection date and time, number of coil hits and detector coil ids, etc. Because an individual fish may be detected at several coils within a detection site as well as at several detection sites, each fish is often represented by multiple lines in the PTAGIS data file. For the PTAGIS data to be usable by SURPH, it must be preprocessed. The data must be condensed down to one line per fish with the relevant detection information from the PTAGIS file represented compactly on each line. In addition, the PTAGIS coil information must be passed through a series of logic algorithms to determine whether or not a fish was returned to the river after detection. Program PitPro was developed to allow the user to properly preprocess the PTAGIS data files for input to program SURPH through a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This utility takes PTAGIS data files as input and creates a SURPH data file as well as other output including travel time records, detection date records, and a data error file. PitPro allows a user to download PTAGIS files and easily process the data for use with SURPH. Program PitPro is based on the command line utility CaptHist.

Westhagen, Peter; Skalski, John

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Mechanisms Involved in the Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Melatonin in Cancer Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: It is well established that melatonin exerts antitumoral effects in many cancer types, mostly decreasing cell proliferation at low concentrations. On the other hand, induction of apoptosis by melatonin has been described in the last few years in some particular cancer types. The cytotoxic effect occurs after its administration at high concentrations, and the molecular pathways involved have been only partially determined. Moreover, a synergistic effect has been found in several cancer types when it is administered in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In the present review, we will summarize published work on the pro-apoptotic effect of melatonin in cancer cells and the reported mechanisms involved in such action. We will also construct a hypothesis on how different cell signaling pathways may relate each other on account for such effect.

Carmen Rodriguez; Vanesa Martn; Federico Herrera; Guillermo Garca-santos; Jezabel Rodriguez-blanco; Sara Casado-zapico; Ana Mara Snchez-snchez; Santos Surez; Noelia Puente-moncada; Mara Jos Antua; Isaac Antoln

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

211

Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

Isaacs, Hugh S. (Shoreham, NY); Romano, Anthony J. (Kings Park, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Effect of Feedwater Oxygen Control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests in an operating BWR show that routine injection of oxygen into the feedwater to control radiation buildup is not warranted under normal operating conditions. However, since oxygen injection reduces the nickel release rate, it might be considered on a plant-by-plant basis for BWRs experiencing high nickel corrosion levels.

1985-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an update of EPRI's 1990 report, "Assessment and Guide for Meeting Dissolved Oxygen Water Quality Standards for Hydroelectric Plant Discharges" (GS-7001). The report provides an updated review of technologies and techniques for enhancing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in reservoirs and releases from hydroelectric projects and state-of-the-art methods, equipment, and techniques for monitoring DO.

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Photolithographic patterning of polymer-encapsulated optical oxygen sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we show a novel fabrication process capable of yielding arbitrarily-shaped optical oxygen sensor patterns at micron resolution. The wafer-level process uses a thin-film sacrificial metal layer as intermediate mask, protecting the sensor ... Keywords: Optical oxygen sensor, Photolithography, PtOEPK/PS, Sensor patterning

Volker Nock; Maan Alkaisi; Richard J. Blaikie

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

217

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plants cooling towers described by histograms. Keywords Symbolic Data, Regularized Generalized Canonical as the one describing power plants cooling towers that will illustrate our present study, a fusion pro- cess 4 illustrates the usefulness of symbolic GCCA on a 4-block dataset for studying power plants cooling

Emilion, Richard

218

Wei-Ting So () 985402001@cc.ncu.edu.tw  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pro- cessing Advances in Wireless Communica- tions, pp. 565-569, July 2008. [8] U. Toseef, M. A. Khan. Islam and A. Z. Kou- zani, "Peak to Average Power Ratio Analysis for LTE Systems," IEEE 2nd. on Wire- less Communication, Vol. 8, pp.2161-2165, May 2009. [6] M. Wang, Z. Zhong and Q. Liu, "Resource

Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

219

Arithmetic Aspects of Atomic Structures Charles L. Fefferman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atoms. The problems encountered in this pro­ cess were numerous, and the quest for an understanding. It is responsible for the relevance of number theoretic terms in the atomic energy series, but goes beyond what one­ opments which have the common target of understanding atomic densities in rigorous terms. Among

Seco, Luis A.

220

u.s. Trade in Tuna for Canning, 1987 WESLEYW. PARKS, PATRICIAJ. DONLEY, and SAMUEL F. HERRICK, Jr.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u.s. Trade in Tuna for Canning, 1987 WESLEYW. PARKS, PATRICIAJ. DONLEY, and SAMUEL F. HERRICK, Jr. Introduction The U.S. cannedtuna harvesting/pro cessing industry is an active participant in the global tuna industry. In 1986 U.S. vessels took 8 percent ofthe total world catch ofall tuna species1. Having devel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Factors Influencing the Analytical Performance of an Atmospheric Sampling Glow Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have been delineated previously [15, 16]. How- ever, a rigorous kinetic analysis of the fundamental (5) Values of parameters for the various fundamental pro- cesses occurring in the ASGDI source, 89, 1­72. 27. Marion, J. B.; Gray, D. E. American Institute of Physics Handbook; 3rd ed; Mc

222

A PHYSICAL BASIS FOR MULTI-FIBER RECONSTRUCTION FROM DW-MRI DATA Ritwik Kumar1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A PHYSICAL BASIS FOR MULTI-FIBER RECONSTRUCTION FROM DW-MRI DATA Ritwik Kumar1 , Angelos Barmpoutis to model the signal attenuation obtained from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-value, gradient pulse duration, pulse separation etc.) involved in the DW-MRI acquisition pro- cess. To address

Kumar, Ritwik

223

ContentsContents4040sampling distributions and estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

components, aircraft components or ordinary everyday items such as light bulbs, cycle tyres and cutlery ef, it is impossible to check the complete output of some manufacturing pro- cesses. Items such as electric light bulbs, nuts, bolts, springs and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are produced in their millions and the sheer cost

Vickers, James

224

User Transparency: A Fully Sequential Programming Model for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

researchers in imaging do not benefit from high performance computing on a daily basis. Essen­ tially of high performance computing and image pro­ cessing has been commonplace, and often resulted in hardware of the significant achievements in this direction, the application of high performance computing in imaging research

Seinstra, Frank J.

225

Novel Application of X-ray Computed Tomography: Determination of Gas/Liquid Contact Area and Liquid Holdup in Structured Packing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demonstrated that osmotically driven and thermally driven membrane contactor pro- cesses, including forward to membrane fouling. In one of our early investigations, liquids produced during centrifuge dewatering.E. Childress, Removal of natural steroid hormones from wastewater using membrane contactor processes, Environ

Eldridge, R. Bruce

226

Access Control for a Replica Management Database Justin M. Wozniak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity hardware may be cataloged into a unified, high- utilization system. Such widely distributed-59593-552-5/06/0010 ...$5.00. massively parallel computing infrastructure, capable of pro- cessing vast amounts of user data. A variety of options exist to parallelize and distribute stor- age over clusters or grids, but several

Thain, Douglas

227

A mechanism of abiotic immobilization of nitrate in forest ecosystems: the ferrous wheel hypothesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and abiological processes, but the reducing power of plant- derived organic matter may build up over seasons often limits rates of plant growth, increased N inputs could affect several ecosystem pro- cesses Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0038, USA, {Department of Plant, Soil, and Environmental

Chorover, Jon

228

8 FEBRUARY 2005 Over 95 percent of the approximate1y 1.5 million  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; compatibility and adaptability of manufacturing pro- cesses, resin, and additive systems; stability of structural composites. Inorganic borates are being used as an additive during panel manufacturing to provide to the strand-based structural composites. Structural wood composites are manufactured by heat and pressure

229

Continuum Percolation in the Relative Neighborhood Graph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.-M. Billiot, and R. Drouilhet. Existence of Delaunay Pairwise Gibbs Point Processes with Superstable Component. J. of Statist. Physics, 95:719­744, 1999. [8] E. Bertin, J.-M. Billiot, and R. Drouilhet. Existence, and R. Drouilhet. k-Nearest-Neighbour Gibbs Point Pro- cesses. Markov Processes and Related Fields, 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Bureau of Justice Statistics November 2006, NCJ 214256  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

program collects infor- mation on background checks conducted by State and local agencies, and com- bines of these applications (60%), and State and local agencies pro- cessed 3.3 million (40%). Nearly 70 million background or permits in 2005 were rejected by the FBI (66,700 applications) or State and local agencies (65

Hemmers, Oliver

231

MEASUREMENT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION IN FLUID-FLUID SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interfacial tension at fluid-fluid interfaces is a reflection of the excess energy associated with unsaturated in parts per million concentration (27). DYNAMIC INTERFACIAL TENSION MEASUREMENTS In fluid-fluid systems, detergency, foam or froth generation, and stability (3). In these pro- cesses, dynamic interfacial tensions

Loh, Watson

232

Economic Impact of the Florida Clam Culture Industry: 2007 Results From small beginnings in the early 1990s,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic Impact of the Florida Clam Culture Industry: 2007 Results From small beginnings of the diverse mix of food items produced by the Florida aquaculture industry. The culture pro- cess the industry resides. And aside from the revenue generated by the sale and distribution of market ready clams

Florida, University of

233

INFRASTRUCTURE, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENT TECHNICAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 A.1. Current and Projected Consumption and Price of Crude Oil and Jet Fuel in the United States loss of 1 percent in energy per unit volume of fuel. A small reduction of fuel lubricity may also yield a fuel meeting all current specifications for Jet A. Pro- cessing oil sands and VHOs for fuel

Waitz, Ian A.

234

Science Frontiers at Petascale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and physics- inclusive simulations of an entire nuclear reactor core and provide insight into pro- cesses use. physics in ways unimaginable when science had just two pillars--theory and experiment. Computing into complex challenges, including the design of future car batteries, the operation of a nuclear fusion

235

A Multicore Operating System with QoS Guarantees for Network Audio Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of such applications. For instance, device interrupt handling, network protocol pro- cessing, scheduling decisionsS domains called cells, and Tessellation distributes re- sources to cells. Further, each cell offers of a cell makes it possible to experimentally observe application perfor- mance metrics (e.g., completion

Kubiatowicz, John D.

236

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL L?1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Levin, Lisa

237

I'm scared to look but I'm dying to know: information seeking and sharing on Pro-Ana weblogs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As individuals' access to the Internet has grown, so has the diversity of lifestyles and interests represented on the web. On the Internet, members of any subculture can communicate and share information anonymously and directly on a variety of platforms. ... Keywords: information practice, information seeking and sharing, online communities, peer information sharing, pro-anorexia, sharing harmful information

Rachel A. Fleming-May; Laura E. Miller

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN THE GEOSCIENCES In this lab we will use Google Earth (Part 1) and Google Earth Pro (Part 2) to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN THE GEOSCIENCES 1 In this lab we will use Google Earth (Part 1) and Google Earth Pro (Part 2) to inspect a few different geographic regions and a large earthquake data set. In Google Earth, you will learn to create placemarks with text, web links, movies, and more. You will also

Smith-Konter, Bridget

239

www.stke.org/cgi/content/full/sigtrans;2003/212/re15 Page 1 The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a pro-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the control of cell growth and proliferation. The activity of mTOR is controlled not only by amino acids the activity of TOR is controlled have been mysterious. Within the past year, a spate of reports from several, but also by hormones and growth factors that activate the pro- tein kinase Akt. The signaling pathway

240

Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coadsorption and interactions of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. In the absence of hydrogen oxygen forms a (2 x 2) ordered structure. Coadsorption of hydrogen leads to a structural transformation from (2 x 2) to a ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree structure. In addition to this transformation, hydrogen enhances the mobility of oxygen. To explain these observations, the interaction of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied within the density functional theory. In agreement with the experiment the calculations find a total energy minimum for the oxygen (2 x 2) structure. The interaction between H and O atoms was found to be repulsive and short ranged, leading to a compression of the O islands from (2 x 2) to ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree ordered structure at high H coverage. The computed energy barriers for the oxygen diffusion were found to be reduced due to the coadsorption of hydrogen, in agreement with the experimentally observed enhancement of oxygen mobility. The calculations also support the finding that at low temperatures the water formation reaction does not occur on Pd(1 1 1).

Demchenko, D.O.; Sacha, G.M.; Salmeron, M.; Wang, L.-W.

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

242

Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

243

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen consumption is an essential process of the functioning brain. The rate at which the brain consumes oxygen is known as the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?). CMRO? is intimately related to brain health and ...

Bolar, Divya Sanam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

246

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Seabird SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ocean for ...

Eric A. DAsaro; Craig McNeil

247

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above

248

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

249

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

SciTech Connect

These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

253

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

An additional benefit from the oxygen in-situ combustion process or fireflooding is the generation of produced gases containing a high concentration of CO/sub 2/ (>90 mole %). This CO/sub 2/ could be recovered and utilized for miscible and immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding for EOR. This paper investigates the feasibility of recovering and marketing CO/sub 2/ from oxygen firefloods for this purpose. The expected compositions and volumes of associated gas produced from commercial oxygen in-situ combustion projects based on literature data and actual field tests are presented. In addition, the market prospects based on the transportation requirements and the costs associated with the recovery of CO/sub 2/ from an oxygen in-situ combustion project are discussed. 12 references, 2 figures, 4 tables. (JMT)

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Sea-Bird Electronics SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ...

Eric A. D'Asaro; Craig McNeil

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

256

Effect of Oxygen Potential on Crack Growth in Alloy 617  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static crack growth rate increases from 4 x 10-9 m/sec to 4 x 10-8 m/sec when the oxygen concentration decreases from .001 to .0000001 atm. Proceedings...

257

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

The use of high purity oxygen in a fireflood project prevents the introduction of nonreactive nitrogen into the oil reservoir, and thus will significantly increase the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the produced gas. The increased CO/sub 2/ concentration would greatly simplify the recovery and processing required to utilize this CO/sub 2/ in a CO/sub 2/ flooding EOR project. The basic products produced by the reaction of oxygen with hydrocarbon fuel in the in situ combustion process are CO/sub 2/, carbon monoxide, and water. Oxygen fireflooding has technical and economic advantages over conventional fireflooding for EOR. Gas produced in an oxygen fireflood represents a major new source of high concentration CO/sub 2/ for EOR. 12 references.

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Reactive Air Brazing of Nicrofer-6025HT to BSCF for Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Oxygen separation membranes can be used to provide oxygen for ... with an oxide component that promotes wetting of ceramic materials.

260

N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels as a Potential Biomarker for Cardiac Damage After Radiotherapy in Patients With Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac biomarkers may aid in identifying patients with radiation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. We evaluated the correlation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin (TnI) and the dose of radiation to the heart in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: NT-proBNP and TnI plasma concentrations were measured in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 55.0 years) 5 to 22 months after RT (Group I) and in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 57.0 years) before RT as control group (Group II). Dosimetric and geometric parameters of heart and left ventricle were determined in all patients of Group I. Seventeen patients underwent complete two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in Group I (median, 90.0 pg/ml; range, 16.7-333.1 pg/ml) than in Group II (median, 63.2 pg/ml; range, 11.0-172.5 pg/ml). TnI levels remained below the cutoff threshold of 0.07 ng/ml in both groups. In patients with NT-proBNP values above the upper limit of 125 pg/ml, there were significant correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 3Gy}(%) (p = 0.001), the ratios D{sub 15cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.01), the ratios D{sub 15cm}{sup 3}/D{sub 50%} (Gy) (p = 0.008) for the heart and correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 2Gy} (%) (p = 0.002), the ratios D{sub 1cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.03), and the ratios D{sub 0.5cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub 50%}(Gy) (p = 0.05) for the ventricle. Conclusions: Patients with left-sided breast cancer show higher values of NT-pro BNP after RT when compared with non-RT-treated matched patients, increasing in correlation with high doses in small volumes of heart and ventricle. The findings of this study show that the most important parameters are not the mean doses but instead the small percentage of organ volumes (heart or ventricle) receiving high dose levels, supporting the notion that the heart behaves as a serial organ.

D'Errico, Maria P., E-mail: patderrico@libero.it [Department of Laboratory Medicine, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Grimaldi, Luca [Department of Medical Physics, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Petruzzelli, Maria F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Gianicolo, Emilio A.L. [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Tramacere, Francesco [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Monetti, Antonio; Placella, Roberto [Department of Laboratory Medicine, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Pili, Giorgio [Department of Medical Physics, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Sicari, Rosa; Picano, Eugenio [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 7.2a Electricity Net Generation: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.2b and 7.2c; Million Kilowatthours) Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage e Renewable Energy Total j Coal a Petro- leum b Natural Gas c Other Gases d Conven- tional Hydro- electric Power f Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/ PV i Wind Wood g Waste h 1950 Total ................ 154,520 33,734 44,559 NA 0 f ( ) 100,885 390 NA NA NA NA 334,088 1955 Total ................ 301,363 37,138 95,285 NA 0 f ( ) 116,236 276 NA NA NA NA 550,299 1960 Total ................ 403,067 47,987 157,970 NA 518 f ( ) 149,440 140 NA 33 NA NA 759,156 1965 Total ................ 570,926 64,801 221,559 NA 3,657 f ( ) 196,984 269 NA 189 NA NA 1,058,386 1970 Total

262

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 5.9 Refinery Capacity and Utilization, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year Operable Refineries 1 Operable Refineries Capacity Gross Input to Distillation Units 3 Utilization 4 On January 1 Annual Average 2 Number Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day Thousand Barrels per Day Percent 1949 336 6,231 NA 5,556 89.2 1950 320 6,223 NA 5,980 92.5 1955 296 8,386 NA 7,820 92.2 1960 309 9,843 NA 8,439 85.1 1965 293 10,420 NA 9,557 91.8 1970 276 12,021 NA 11,517 92.6 1975 279 14,961 NA 12,902 85.5 1976 276 15,237 NA 13,884 87.8 1977 282 16,398 NA 14,982 89.6 1978 296 17,048 NA 15,071 87.4 1979 308 17,441 NA 14,955 84.4 1980 319 17,988 NA 13,796 75.4 1981 324 18,621 18,603 12,752 68.6 1982 301 17,890 17,432 12,172 69.9 1983 258 16,859 16,668 11,947 71.7 1984 247 16,137 16,035 12,216 76.2 1985 223 15,659 15,671 12,165 77.6 1986 216 15,459

263

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11 1989 1,439 R 6,057 3,993 785 551 12 ( ) 12 1,251 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 R 8,062 2,817 826 432 12 ( ) 12 469 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 R 5,715 3,947 1,275 377 12 ( ) 12 856 3,594 10,489 14,939 1992 4,154 R 5,122 4,279 1,553 477 12 ( ) 12 1,227 4,238 10,118 15,583 1993 5,237 R 8,004 5,352 1,503 856 12 ( ) 12 1,096 5,761 14,094 20,951 1994 6,632 R 9,717 6,855 2,364 510 12 ( ) 12 2,296 9,253 14,528 26,077 1995 6,272 R 12,483 7,198 3,759 1,347 12 ( ) 12 4,585 8,233 18,241 31,059 1996 8,475 R 12,297 8,300 4,753

264

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 11.5a Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2010 (Sum of Tables 11.5b and 11.5c; Thousand Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- thermal 5 Non- Biomass Waste 6 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total 1989 1,573,566 218,384 145,399 363 5,590 1,943,302 14,469 1 984 39 15,493 7,281 495 269 93 8,136 1990 1,592,395 233,852 119,580 384 7,488 1,953,699 14,281 1 937 243 15,462 7,119 513 208 122 7,961 1991 1,592,186 238,084 111,351 398 8,447 1,950,466 14,240 1 856 246 15,342 7,109 498 193 113 7,913 1992 1,617,034 248,149 96,638 400 10,053 1,972,275 14,060 1 704 264 15,030 6,975 477 158 119 7,728 1993 1,687,623 250,411

265

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2011 0 Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2011 (Quadrillion Btu) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 37 1 Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum-biofuels are included in "Renewable Energy." 2 Excludes supplemental gaseous fuels. 3 Includes less than 0.1 quadrillion Btu of coal coke net imports. 4 Conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar/photovoltaic, wind, and biomass. 5 Includes industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. 6 Includes commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. 7 Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Includes 0.1 quadrillion Btu of electricity net

266

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment By Fuel and Equipment Type, 2010 Total Units by Equipment Type, 1985-2010² Coal Units by Equipment Type, Petroleum and Natural Gas Units 1985-2010² by Equipment Type, 1985-2010² 318 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Coal Units Petroleum and Natural Gas Units Particulate Collectors Thousand Megawatts 329 165 185 26 75 1 Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 100 200 300 400 Thousand Megawatts Flue Gas Desulfurization¹ Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas Desulfurization¹ Particulate Collectors Desulfurization¹ Desulfurization¹ Cooling Towers

267

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments, Trade, and Prices 8 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments, Trade, and Prices Number of U.S. Companies Reporting Shipments, 1982-2010 Total Shipments, 1982-2010 Trade, Modules Only, 1996-2010 Prices, 1989-2010 296 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Note: Shipments are for domestic and export shipments, and may include imports that subsequently were shipped to domestic or foreign customers. Source: Table 10.8. 19 18 23 15 17 17 14 17 19 23 21 19 22 24 25 21 21 19 21 19 19 20 19 29 41 46 66 101 112 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Number Cells and Modules Imports 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Thousand Peak Kilowatts Modules Only Modules 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004

268

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 3.8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil Petroleum Products 1 Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 0.30 2.05 0.01 0.06 (s) 0.01 0.10 0.68 0.46 R 3.18 0.87 R 5.98 1950 .27 1.84 .01 .04 (s) .02 .10 .70 .39 2.69 .78 R 5.29 1955 .48 2.92 .01 .05 .01 .04 .04 .23 .60 3.61 1.14 R 6.85 1960 .35 1.90 .01 .04 (s) .02 .01 .04 .47 2.51 .84 4.51 1965 .48 2.39 .02 .08 .01 .04 (s) .02 .44 2.21 .95 4.74 1970 .96 3.95 .08 .32 .03 .12 .02 .08 .50 2.06 1.59 R 6.53 1975 3.26 R 9.70 .07 .22 .09 .27 (s) (s) 1.01 3.00 4.43 R 13.19 1976 2.91 R 8.19 .07 .19 .10 .28 .03 .08 1.07 3.01 4.17 R 11.75 1977 2.66 7.03 .07 .19 .11 .28 .21 .55 1.14 3.01 4.18 R 11.07 1978 2.05 5.07 .05 .12 .11 .28 .39 .96 1.23 3.05 3.83 R 9.48 1979 3.40 7.76 .08 .18

269

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 2.7 Type of Heating in Occupied Housing Units, Selected Years, 1950-2009 Year Coal 1 Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Natural Gas Electricity Wood Solar Other 2 None 3 Total Million Occupied Housing Units 1950 14.48 9.46 4 ( ) 0.98 11.12 0.28 4.17 NA 0.77 1.57 42.83 1960 6.46 17.16 4 ( ) 2.69 22.85 .93 2.24 NA .22 .48 53.02 1970 1.82 16.47 4 ( ) 3.81 35.01 4.88 .79 NA .27 .40 63.45 1973 .80 17.24 4 ( ) 4.42 38.46 7.21 .60 NA .15 .45 69.34 1975 .57 16.30 4 ( ) 4.15 40.93 9.17 .85 NA .08 .47 72.52 1977 .45 15.62 .44 4.18 41.54 11.15 1.24 NA .15 .51 75.28 1979 .36 15.30 .41 4.13 43.32 13.24 1.14 NA .10 .57 78.57 1981 .36 14.13 .37 4.17 46.08 15.49 1.89 NA .10 .59 83.18 1983 5 .43 12.59 .45 3.87 46.70 15.68 4.09 NA .16 .68 84.64 1985 .45 12.44 1.06 3.58 45.33 18.36 6.25 .05 .37 .53 88.43 1987 .41 12.74 1.08 3.66 45.96 20.61 5.45 .05 .28 .66 90.89 1989 .34 12.47

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 4.5 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Wells Drilled Successful Wells Footage Drilled 1 Average Footage Drilled Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Number Percent Thousand Feet Feet per Well 1949 21,352 3,363 12,597 37,312 66.2 79,428 12,437 43,754 135,619 3,720 3,698 3,473 3,635 1950 23,812 3,439 14,799 42,050 64.8 92,695 13,685 50,977 157,358 3,893 3,979 3,445 3,742 1955 30,432 4,266 20,452 55,150 62.9 121,148 19,930 85,103 226,182 3,981 4,672 4,161 4,101 1960 22,258 5,149 18,212 45,619 60.1 86,568 28,246 77,361 192,176 3,889 5,486 4,248 4,213 1965 18,065 4,482 16,226 38,773 58.2 73,322 24,931 76,629 174,882 4,059 5,562 4,723 4,510 1970 12,968 4,011 11,031 28,010 60.6 56,859 23,623

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 4.3 Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Crude Oil 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Natural Gas Liquids 1 Total Billion Barrels Trillion Cubic Feet 2 Billion Barrels COE 3 Billion Barrels Billion Barrels COE 3 Billion Barrels COE 3 American Petroleum Institute and American Gas Association Data 1949 24.6 179.4 32.0 3.7 3.1 59.7 1950 25.3 184.6 32.9 4.3 3.5 61.7 1955 30.0 222.5 39.7 5.4 4.4 74.1 1960 31.6 262.3 46.8 6.8 5.4 83.8 1965 31.4 286.5 51.0 8.0 6.3 88.6 1970 39.0 290.7 51.7 7.7 5.9 96.6 1971 38.1 278.8 49.6 7.3 5.5 93.2 1972 36.3 266.1 47.1 6.8 5.1 88.5 1973 35.3 250.0 44.0 6.5 4.8 84.1 1974 34.2 237.1 41.9 6.4 4.7 80.8 1975 32.7 228.2 40.2 6.3 4.6 77.5 1976 30.9 216.0 38.0 6.4 4.7 73.6 1977 29.5 208.9 36.8 6.0 4.4 70.6 1978 27.8 200.3 35.2 5.9 4.3 67.3 1979 27.1 194.9 34.3 5.7 4.1 65.5 U.S. Energy Information Administration Data

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 7.4c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.4a) Commercial Sector a Industrial Sector b Coal c Petroleum d Natural Gas e Biomass Coal c Petroleum d Natural Gas e Other Gases g Biomass Other i Waste f Wood h Waste f Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Trillion Btu 1990 Total .................... 1,191 2,056 46 28 27,781 36,159 1,055 275 1,125 41 86 1995 Total .................... 1,419 1,245 78 40 29,363 34,448 1,258 290 1,255 38 95 2000 Total .................... 1,547 1,615 85 47 28,031 30,520 1,386 331 1,244 35 108 2001 Total .................... 1,448 1,832 79 25 25,755 26,817 1,310 248 1,054 27 101 2002 Total ....................

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions Total, 1980-2009 By Source, 2009 Energy Sources by Type, 1980-2009 Agricultural Sources by Major Type, 1980-2009 312 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Adipic acid production (primarily for the manufacture of nylon fibers and plastics) and nitric acid production (primarily for fertilizers). 2 Emissions from passenger cars and trucks; air, rail, and marine transportation; and farm and construction equipment. 3 Consumption of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and wood for heat or electricity. Source: Table 11.4. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 Million Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0 50 100 150 200 Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide 540 143 36 18 Agricultural Energy Industrial Waste 0 200

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Table 6.4 Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Natural Gas Well Productivity, Selected Years, 1960-2011 Year Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals From Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Coalbed, and Shale Gas Wells Natural Gas Well Productivity Texas 1 Louisiana 1 Oklahoma Other States 1 Federal Gulf of Mexico 2 Total Onshore Offshore Total Gross With- drawals From Natural Gas Wells 3 Producing Wells 4 Average Productivity Federal State Total Billion Cubic Feet Billion Cubic Feet Billion Cubic Feet Thousands Thousand Cubic Feet Per Day Per Well 1960 6,965 3,313 1,133 3,677 2 ( ) 15,088 14,815 273 NA 273 15,088 10,853 91 326.7 1965 7,741 4,764 1,414 4,044 2 ( ) 17,963 17,318 646 NA 646 17,963 13,524 112 331.8 1966 7,935 5,365 1,502 4,232 2 ( ) 19,034 18,026 1,007 NA 1,007 19,034 13,894 112 338.4 1967 8,292 6,087 1,621 4,252 2 ( ) 20,252 19,065

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 3 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 By Agency By Source 28 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Includes small amount of renewable energy; see Table 1.13, footnote 8. 2 Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. 3 Chilled water, renewable energy, and other fuels reported as used in facilities. 4 Distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil. 5 Includes ethanol blended into motor gasoline. 6 Aviation gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and other types of fuel used in vehicles and equipment, primarily alternative fuels like methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, and biodiesel. Note: The U.S. Government's fiscal year runs from October 1 through September 30.

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5 5 Table 8.4c Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Source: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.4a; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy Other 9 Electricity Net Imports Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 5 Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 5,8 Wind 5 Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Commercial Sector 10 1989 9 7 18 1 36 - 1 2 9 - - - 12 - - - 47 1990 9 6 28 1 45 - 1 2 15 - - - 18 - - - 63 1995 12 4 44 - 60 - 1 1 21 - - - 23 (s) - - 83 1996 14 4 44 (s) 62 - 1 1 31 - - - 33 (s) - - 95 1997 14 5 40 (s) 59 - 1 1 34 - - - 35 (s) - - 94 1998 11 5 42 (s) 57 - 1 1 32 - - - 34 - - - 91 1999 12 6 40 (s) 57 - 1 (s) 33 - - - 35 (s) - - 92 2000

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Table 2.9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source, Selected Years, 1979-2003 (Trillion Btu) Energy Source and Year Square Footage Category Principal Building Activity Census Region 1 All Buildings 1,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 100,000 Over 100,000 Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office All Other Northeast Midwest South West Major Sources 2 1979 ................ 1,255 2,202 1,508 511 3 ( ) 336 469 278 894 861 1,616 1,217 1,826 1,395 526 4,965 1983 ................ 1,242 1,935 1,646 480 3 ( ) 414 463 362 812 1,018 1,274 858 1,821 1,462 682 4,823 1986 ................ 1,273 2,008 1,696 633 147 247 456 299 985 1,008 1,202 1,037 1,585 1,459 896 4,977 1989 ................ 1,259 2,402 2,127 704 139 255 449 425 1,048 1,230 1,538 1,354 1,659 1,648

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table 7.3 Coal Consumption by Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Residential Sector 1 Commercial Sector 1 Industrial Sector Transportation Sector Electric Power Sector 2 Total CHP 3 Other 4 Total Coke Plants Other Industrial Total Electricity Only CHP Total CHP 5 Non-CHP 6 Total 1949 52.4 7 ( ) 64.1 64.1 91.4 8 ( ) 121.2 121.2 212.6 70.2 84.0 NA 84.0 483.2 1950 51.6 7 ( ) 63.0 63.0 104.0 8 ( ) 120.6 120.6 224.6 63.0 91.9 NA 91.9 494.1 1955 35.6 7 ( ) 32.9 32.9 107.7 8 ( ) 110.1 110.1 217.8 17.0 143.8 NA 143.8 447.0 1960 24.2 7 ( ) 16.8 16.8 81.4 8 ( ) 96.0 96.0 177.4 3.0 176.7 NA 176.7 398.1 1965 14.6 7 ( ) 11.0 11.0 95.3 8 ( ) 105.6 105.6 200.8 .7 244.8 NA 244.8 472.0 1970 9.0 7 ( ) 7.1 7.1 96.5 8 ( ) 90.2 90.2 186.6 .3 320.2 NA 320.2 523.2 1975 2.8 7 ( ) 6.6 6.6 83.6 8 ( ) 63.6 63.6 147.2 (s) 406.0 NA

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Natural Gas THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Figure 6.0 Natural Gas Flow, 2011 (Trillion Cubic Feet) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 177 1 Includes natural gas gross withdrawals from coalbed wells and shale gas wells. 2 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data sources. 3 Lease and plant fuel, and other industrial. 4 Natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines (primarily in compressors), and as fuel in the delivery of natural gas to consumers; plus a small quantity used as vehicle fuel. Notes: * Data are preliminary. * Values are derived from source data prior to rounding for publication. * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Sources: Tables 6.1, 6.2, and 6.5.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, 1949-2011 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports by Fuel 84 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross domestic product implicit price deflators in Table D1. See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Includes small amounts of coal coke. Note: Negative net imports indicate that the value of exports is greater than the value of imports. Source: Table 3.9. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 -50 Billion Real (2005) Dollars¹ 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 -50 Billion Real (2005) Dollars¹ Coal² Natural Gas Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 5.10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Finished Petroleum Products 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Pentanes Plus 4 Total Ethane 2 Isobutane Normal Butane 3 Propane 2,3 Total 1949 53 8 11 61 74 155 223 430 1950 66 12 13 69 101 195 238 499 1955 68 34 30 120 205 390 313 771 1960 47 51 45 161 291 549 333 929 1965 41 92 67 185 390 734 434 1,210 1970 25 201 84 248 561 1,095 540 1,660 1975 7 337 90 237 552 1,217 409 1,633 1976 6 365 82 227 521 1,195 403 1,604 1977 5 397 81 223 513 1,214 399 1,618 1978 3 406 75 210 491 1,182 382 1,567 1979 26 400 104 212 500 1,216 342 1,584 1980 23 396 105 210 494 1,205 345 1,573 1981 18 397 117 224 519 1,256 334 1,609 1982 11 426 109 204 519 1,258 282 1,550 1983 12 456 100 217 541 1,314 233 1,559 1984 4 505 99 203 527 1,334 292 1,630 1985 14 493 127 171 521 1,313 282 1,609 1986 4 485 128 157 508 1,277

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27 .45 8.55 10.69 .53 11.22 5.56 2.73 .54 .05 8.88 .18 28.82 1982 3.23 5.04 NA .27 .46 9.01 10.63 .54 11.17 5.50 2.63 .47 .05 8.65 .13 28.97 1983 3.02 5.00 NA .27 .46 8.76 10.67 .54 11.21 5.46 2.68 .31 .04 8.49 .15 28.62 1984 3.61 5.11 NA .27 .48 9.46 10.68 .66 11.33 5.33 2.60 .40 .05 8.38 .16 29.34 1985 3.89 5.16 NA .26 .48 9.79 10.65

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electricity Electricity Figure 7.1 Electricity Overview (Billion Kilowatthours) Overview, 2012 Net Generation by Sector, 1989-2012 Net Generation by Sector, Monthly Trade, 1949-2012 92 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Electric Power Total c Imports Exports 3,899 11 145 59 12 3,687 136 Electric Commercial Industrial Imports Exports Retail Direct 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 End Use Net Generation Trade Sales a Use b Power 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 Total c Electric Power J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 100 200 300 400 500 Industrial 2013 2011 Industrial 2012 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 a Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utili- ties and other energy service providers.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 1.9 Heating Degree-Days by Census Division, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central South Atlantic East South Central West South Central Mountain Pacific 1 United States 1 1949 5,829 5,091 5,801 6,479 2,367 2,942 2,133 5,483 3,729 4,234 1950 6,470 5,765 6,619 7,136 2,713 3,315 1,974 4,930 3,355 4,536 1955 6,577 5,708 6,101 6,630 2,786 3,314 2,083 5,517 3,723 4,521 1960 6,561 5,901 6,544 6,884 3,147 3,958 2,551 5,328 3,309 4,724 1965 6,825 5,933 6,284 6,646 2,830 3,374 2,078 5,318 3,378 4,549 1970 6,839 5,943 6,455 6,835 2,997 3,685 2,396 5,436 3,257 4,664 1975 6,362 5,477 6,169 6,678 2,640 3,336 2,187 5,693 3,623 4,472 1976 6,839 6,097 6,768 6,670 3,040 3,881 2,446 5,303 3,115 4,726 1977 6,579 5,889 6,538 6,506 3,047 3,812 2,330 5,060 3,135

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Electricity Overview (Billion Kilowatthours) Overview, 2012 Net Generation by Sector, 1989-2012 Net Generation by Sector, Monthly Trade, 1949-2012 92 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Electric Power Total c Imports Exports 3,899 11 145 59 12 3,687 136 Electric Commercial Industrial Imports Exports Retail Direct 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 End Use Net Generation Trade Sales a Use b Power 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 Total c Electric Power J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 100 200 300 400 500 Industrial 2013 2011 Industrial 2012 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 a Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utili- ties and other energy service providers. b See "Direct Use" in Glossary.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source Total Energy, 1970-2010 By Energy Type, 2010 Prices³ by Energy Type, Indexed, 1970-2010 By Petroleum Product, 2010 72 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Fuel Oil Gasoline 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Wood and wood-derived fuels, and biomass waste; excludes fuel ethanol and biodiesel. Prior to 2001, also includes non-biomass waste. 3 Based on nominal dollars. 4 Liquefied petroleum gases. 5 Consumption-weighted average price for asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, kerosene, lubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, special naphthas, waxes, and miscella- neous petroleum products. Source: Table 3.3. Electricity

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66 63 297 2 NA NA 2 1955 76 35 28 4 3 9 NA 38 82 88 281 1 NA NA 1 1960 39 56 36 3 5 5 NA 44 93 124 312 1 NA NA 1 1965 25 79 39 4 6 5 NA 51 106 177 387 1 NA NA 1 1970 16 131 43 4 9 6 NA 56 119 268 534 1 NA NA 1 1975 14 136 43 4 8 6 NA 39 100 333 583 1 NA NA 1 1976 14 144 48 3 9 7 NA 45 111 358 627 1 NA NA 1 1977 14

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 7.4a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.4b and 7.4c) Coal a Petroleum Natural Gas f Other Gases g Biomass Other j Distillate Fuel Oil b Residual Fuel Oil c Other Liquids d Petroleum Coke e Total e Wood h Waste i Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Trillion Btu 1950 Total .................... 91,871 5,423 69,998 NA NA 75,421 629 NA 5 NA NA 1955 Total .................... 143,759 5,412 69,862 NA NA 75,274 1,153 NA 3 NA NA 1960 Total .................... 176,685 3,824 84,371 NA NA 88,195 1,725 NA 2 NA NA 1965 Total ....................

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 2.4 Household 1 Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted) Census Region 2 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 United States Total (does not include wood) ...... 10.56 9.74 9.32 9.29 8.58 9.04 9.13 9.22 10.01 10.25 9.86 10.55 10.18 Natural Gas ........................................................ 5.58 5.31 4.97 5.27 4.74 4.98 4.83 4.86 5.27 5.28 4.84 4.79 4.69 Electricity 3 .......................................................... 2.47 2.42 2.48 2.42 2.35 2.48 2.76 3.03 3.28 3.54 3.89 4.35 4.39 Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene ......................... 2.19 1.71 1.52 1.28 1.20 1.26 1.22 1.04 1.07 1.07 .75 .88 .61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................ .33 .31 .35 .31 .29 .31 .32 .28

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 1.6 State-Level Energy Consumption, Expenditure, and Price Estimates, 2010 Rank Consumption Consumption per Capita Expenditures 1 Expenditures 1 per Capita Prices 1 Trillion Btu Million Btu Million Dollars 2 Dollars 2 Dollars 2 per Million Btu 1 Texas 11,769.9 Wyoming 948.1 Texas 137,532 Alaska 8,807 Hawaii 30.75 2 California 7,825.7 Alaska 898.5 California 117,003 Louisiana 8,661 District of Columbia 26.19 3 Florida 4,381.9 Louisiana 894.4 New York 61,619 Wyoming 7,904 Connecticut 25.63 4 Louisiana 4,065.4 North Dakota 712.6 Florida 60,172 North Dakota 6,740 Vermont 24.20 5 Illinois 3,936.7 Iowa 489.3 Pennsylvania 48,701 Texas 5,446 New Hampshire

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation Coal by Sector, 1989-2012 Petroleum by Sector, 1989-2012 Natural Gas by Sector, 1989-2012 Other Gases b by Sector, 1989-2012 Wood by Sector, 1989-2012 Waste by Sector, 1989-2012 98 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Commercial Industrial Electric Power Electric Power Industrial Industrial Total a Total a 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 Billion Short Tons Total a Electric Power 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Million Barrels Total a Electric Power Industrial a Includes commercial sector. b Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas . Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Renewable Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) Total and Major Sources, 1949-2012 By Source, 2012 By Sector, 2012 Compared With Other Resources, 1949-2012 136 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Total Hydroelectric Power b Other c Renewable Energy a See Table 10.1 for definition. b Conventional hydroelectric power. c Geothermal, solar/PV, and wind. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable. Sources: Tables 1.3 and 10.1-10.2c. Power fuels a Fossil Fuels Biomass a Nuclear Electric Power 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 2.7 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.5 0.2 0.2 Hydro- Wood Bio- Wind Waste Solar/ Geo- 0 1 2 3 0.7 0.1 2.2 1.2 4.7 Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric 0 1 2 3 4 5 PV a a a a thermal a electric Power

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Resource Gas Resource Development Note. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells. Three well types are considered in the Monthly Energy Review (MER) drilling statistics: "completed for crude oil," "completed for natural gas," and "dry hole." Wells that productively encounter both crude oil and natural gas are categorized as "completed for crude oil." Both development wells and exploratory wells (new field wildcats, new pool tests, and extension tests) are included in the statistics. All other classes of wells drilled in connection with the search for producible hydrocarbons are excluded. If a lateral is drilled at the same time as the original hole it is not counted separately, but its footage is included.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Selected years of data from 1949 through 1972 have been added to this table. For all years of data from 1949 through 2010, see the "Web Page" cited above. Data for 2011 forward in this table have been removed while EIA evaluates the quality of the data and the estimation methodology. Table 5.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells Wells Drilled Total Footage Drilled Exploratory Development Total Crude Oil Natural Gas Dry Total Crude Oil Natural Gas Dry Total Crude Oil Natural Gas Dry Total Number Thousand Feet 1950 Total .................... 1,583 431 8,292 10,306 22,229 3,008 6,507 31,744 23,812 3,439 14,799 42,050 157,358 1955 Total .................... 2,236 874 11,832 14,942 28,196

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

49 49 Table 2.3 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by End Use, 2006 End-Use Category Net Electricity 1 Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil LPG 2 and NGL 3 Natural Gas Coal 4 Total 5 Million Kilowatthours Million Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Million Short Tons Indirect End Use (Boiler Fuel) ......................................... 12,109 21 4 2 2,059 25 - - Conventional Boiler Use ............................................. 12,109 11 3 2 1,245 6 - - CHP 6 and/or Cogeneration Process .......................... - - 10 1 (s) 814 19 - - Direct End Use All Process Uses ......................................................... 657,810 10 9 10 2,709 19

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

29 29 Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323 96 462 93 973 546 30 577 39 1,589 1990 363 127 538 141 1,168 651 36 687 40 1,896 1991 352 112 547 148 1,159 623 37 660 44 1,863 1992 367 117 592 160 1,236 658 40 698 42 1,976 1993 373 129 604 142 1,248 668 45 713 41 2,002 1994 388 133 646 144 1,309 722 45 767 42 2,119 1995 386 121 686 145 1,338 721 47 768 44 2,151 1996 392 133 711 150 1,385 701 55 756 43 2,184 1997 389 137 713 150 1,389 731 55 785 53 2,227 1998 382 136 782 167 1,466 700 57 757 46 2,269 1999 386 125 811 179 1,501 690 55 744 48 2,294 2000 384 108 812 184 1,488 707 56 764 50 2,302 2001 354 90 741 133 1,318 557 28 585 55 1,958 2002

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Electricity Net Generation (Billion Kilowatthours) Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, 1949-2012 Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, Monthly Electric Power Sector, Major Sources, 2012 Commercial Sector, Major Sources, 2012 Industrial Sector, Major Sources, 2012 94 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Gases b Gas Gas electric Power c Natural Gas Petroleum Renewable Energy a Natural Gas 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Coal Nuclear Electric Power 2013 2011 2012 Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy a Coal 1,503 1,138 769 463 20 Coal Natural Nuclear Renewable Petro- 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 0 50 100 150 200 Petroleum Energy a Gas Electric Power leum 5.9 2.5 0.8 0.1 Natural Waste Coal

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory Wells, 1949-2010 Exploratory Wells Drilled by Well Type Exploratory Footage Drilled by Well Type Exploratory Wells Average Depth, All Wells Exploratory Wells Average Depth by Well Type 98 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Note: These graphs depict exploratory wells only; see Figure 4.5 for all wells and Figure 4.7 for development wells only. Source: Table 4.6. Dry Holes 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 3 6 9 12 15 Thousand Wells 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 20 40 60 80 Million Feet Crude Oil Wells Natural Gas Wells Crude Oil Wells Natural Gas Wells Dry Holes Crude Oil Wells Natural Gas Wells Dry Holes 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 Thousand Feet Per Well 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 Thousand Feet

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Figure 7.0 Coal Flow, 2011 (Million Short Tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 197 Notes: * Production categories are estimated; all data are preliminary. * Values are derived from source data prior to rounding for publication. * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Sources: Tables 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3. Figure 7.1 Coal Overview Overview, 1949-2011 Overview, 2011 Production as Share of Consumption by Major Source, 1949-2011 198 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Dry natural gas production as share of natural gas consumption. 2 Petroleum and other liquids production as share of petroleum and other liquids estimated consumption.

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4) 4) Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of recent and historical energy statistics. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; and data unit conversions. Release of the MER is in keeping with responsibilities given to EIA in Public Law 95-91 (Depart- ment of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2): "The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehen- sive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evalu- ate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information...."

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Household Energy Consumption Household Energy Consumption Household Energy Consumpton by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009¹ Household Energy Consumption by Source, 2009 Energy Consumption per Household, Selected Years, 1978-2009¹ Energy Consumption per Household, by Census Region, 2009 50 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 For years not shown, there are no data available. 2 Liquefied petroleum gases. Notes: * Data include natural gas, electricity, distillate fuel oil, kerosene, and liquefied petro- leum gases; data do not include wood. * Data for 1978-1984 are for April of the year shown through March of following year; data for 1987 forward are for the calendar year. * See Appen- dix C for map of Census regions. Source: Table 2.4.

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table 7.1 Coal Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Production 1 Waste Coal Supplied 2 Trade Stock Change 4,5 Losses and Unaccounted for 6 Consumption Imports Exports Net Imports 3 1949 480.6 NA 0.3 32.8 -32.5 7 ( ) 7 -35.1 483.2 1950 560.4 NA .4 29.4 -29.0 R 27.8 R 9.5 494.1 1955 490.8 NA .3 54.4 -54.1 R -4.0 R -6.3 447.0 1960 434.3 NA .3 38.0 -37.7 R -3.2 R 1.7 398.1 1965 527.0 NA .2 51.0 -50.8 R 1.9 R 2.2 472.0 1970 612.7 NA (s) 71.7 -71.7 R 11.1 R 6.6 523.2 1975 654.6 NA .9 66.3 -65.4 32.2 -5.5 562.6 1976 684.9 NA 1.2 60.0 -58.8 8.5 13.8 603.8 1977 697.2 NA 1.6 54.3 -52.7 22.6 -3.4 625.3 1978 670.2 NA 3.0 40.7 -37.8 -4.9 12.1 625.2 1979 781.1 NA 2.1 66.0 -64.0 36.2 .4 680.5 1980 829.7 NA 1.2 91.7 -90.5 25.6 10.8 702.7 1981 823.8 NA 1.0 112.5 -111.5 -19.0 -1.4 732.6 1982 838.1 NA .7 106.3 -105.5 22.6 3.1 706.9 1983 782.1 NA

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table 10.4 Biodiesel Overview, 2001-2011 Year Feedstock 1 Losses and Co-products 2 Production Trade Stocks, End of Year Stock Change 4 Balancing Item 5 Consumption Imports Exports Net Imports 3 Trillion Btu Trillion Btu Thousand Barrels Million Gallons Trillion Btu Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Million Gallons Trillion Btu 2001 1 (s) 204 9 1 78 39 39 NA NA NA 243 10 1 2002 1 (s) 250 10 1 191 56 135 NA NA NA 385 16 2 2003 2 (s) 338 14 2 94 110 -16 NA NA NA 322 14 2 2004 4 (s) 666 28 4 97 124 -26 NA NA NA 640 27 3 2005 12 (s) 2,162 91 12 207 206 1 NA NA NA 2,163 91 12 2006 32 (s) 5,963 250 32 1,069 828 242 NA NA NA 6,204 261 33 2007 63 1 11,662 490 62 3,342 6,477 -3,135 NA NA NA 8,528 358 46 2008 88 1 16,145 678 87 7,502 16,128 -8,626 NA NA NA 7,519

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Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gases Lubricants Motor Gasoline 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 5 Total Percentage Change From Previous Year Propane 3 Total 1949 380 172 1,918 2 ( ) 582 NA 274 201...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu) Consumption, Production, and Imports, 1973-2012 Consumption, Production, and Imports, Monthly Overview, April 2013 Net Imports,...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Primary Energy Overview Overview, 1949-2011 Production and Consumption, 2011 Overview, 2011 Energy Flow, 2011 (Quadrillion Btu) 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gross Withdrawals by Well Type, 2011 180 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Dry Gas Production 1 Volume reduction resulting from the removal of...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Fuel, 1949-2011 Overview, 2011 70 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Production 1 In chained (2005) dollars, calculated by using gross...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Coal Flow, 2011 (Million Short Tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 197 Notes: * Production categories are estimated; all data are...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Estimated Consumption, 1949-2011 118 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Note: Production includes production of crude oil (including lease...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Major Source, 1949-2011 198 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Dry natural gas production as share of natural gas consumption. 2...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Primary Energy Production (Quadrillion Btu) Total, 1973-2012 Total, Monthly By Source, 1973-2012 By Source, Monthly Total, January-April By Source, April 2013 a Natural gas plant...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

dataannualpetroleum for all annual data beginning in 1949. * See http:www.eia.govpetroleum for related information. Sources: * 1949-1975-Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2011 1 Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. 2 Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. 3 Jet fuel and kerosene. 4 Petroleum coke, which is reported in short tons, is converted at a rate of 5 barrels per...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Includes combined-heat-and-power plants and a small number of electricity-only plants. Web Page: http:www.eia.govtotalenergydatamonthlypetroleum. Sources: Tables 3.7a-3.7c....

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

on calculations of data from 1971 through 2000. Source: Table 1.7. 494 (2000) 577 (1954) 687 (2006) 683 (1956) 396 (2001) 449 (1975) 831 (1960) 367 (1976) 668 (1976) 1,188...

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 5.17 Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 1977-2011 (Million Barrels, Except as Noted) Year Foreign Crude Oil Receipts Domestic Crude Oil Receipts Withdrawals End-of-Year Stocks Days of Petroleum Net Imports 4 Imported by SPR Imported by Others 1,2 Purchases Exchanges 2 Sales Exchanges Quantity Percent of Crude Oil 3 Stocks Percent of Total Petroleum Stocks 1977 7.54 0.00 5 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.46 2.1 0.6 1 1978 58.80 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 66.86 17.8 5.2 8 1979 24.43 .00 (s) .00 .00 .00 91.19 21.2 6.8 11 1980 16.07 .00 1.30 .00 .00 .00 107.80 23.1 7.7 17 1981 93.30 .00 28.79 .00 .00 .00 230.34 38.8 15.5 43 1982 60.19 .00 3.79 .00 .00 .00 293.83 45.7 20.5 68 1983 85.29 .00 .42 .00 .00 .00 379.09 52.4 26.1 88 1984 72.04 .00 .05 .00 .00 .00 450.51 56.6 28.9 96 1985 43.12 .00 .17 .00 .00 .00 493.32 60.6 32.5 115 1986 17.56 .00 1.21 .00 .00 .00 511.57 60.7

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Sector 2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide) Total a by End-Use Sector, b 1973-2012 Residential Sector by Major Source, 1973-2012 Commercial Sector by Major Source, 1973-2012 Industrial Sector by Major Source, 1973-2012 Transportation Sector by Major Source, 1973-2012 Electric Power Sector by Major Source, 1973-2012 160 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 250 500 750 1,000 Petroleum Natural Gas Retail Electricity b Industrial Transportation Residential Commercial Retail Electricity b 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 250 500 750 1,000 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 250 500 750 1,000 Retail Electricity

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 8.13 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs, 1989-2010 Year Actual Peakload Reductions 1 Energy Savings Electric Utility Costs 4 Energy Efficiency 2 Load Management 3 Total Megawatts Million Kilowatthours Thousand Dollars 5 1989 NA NA 12,463 14,672 872,935 1990 NA NA 13,704 20,458 1,177,457 1991 NA NA 15,619 24,848 1,803,773 1992 7,890 9,314 17,204 35,563 2,348,094 1993 10,368 12,701 23,069 45,294 2,743,533 1994 11,662 13,340 25,001 52,483 2,715,657 1995 13,212 16,347 29,561 57,421 2,421,284 1996 14,243 15,650 29,893 61,842 1,902,197 1997 13,327 11,958 25,284 56,406 1,636,020 1998 13,591 13,640 27,231 49,167 1,420,920 1999 13,452 13,003 26,455 50,563 1,423,644 2000 12,873 10,027 22,901 53,701 1,564,901 2001 13,027 11,928 24,955 53,936 1,630,286 2002 13,420 9,516 22,936 54,075 1,625,537 2003 13,581 9,323

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Note. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Note. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the total energy-related CO 2 emissions reported in the Annual Energy Review Section 11, but appear separately in Tables 11.1-11.2e. According to current international convention (see the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's "2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inven- tories"), carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combus- tion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time. (This is not to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.5c Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Breakout of Table 8.5b) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Trillion Btu Trillion Btu Electricity-Only Plants 11 1989 767,378 25,574 241,960 3 517 270,125 2,790,567 - 59 111 - 1990 774,213 14,956 181,231 17 1,008 201,246 2,794,110 (s) 87 162 - 1995 832,928 16,169 86,584 133 1,082 108,297 3,287,571 (s)

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type Total, 1949-2012 Petroleum Products Supplied as Share of Total Energy Consumption, 1949-2012 By Product, October 2013 50 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 Quadrillion Btu 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percent d 0.074 0.002 0.708 0.244 0.001 0.258 0.022 1.462 0.061 0.033 0.302 Asphalt Aviation Distillate Jet Kerosene Liquefied Lubricants Motor Petroleum Residual Other 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Quadrillion Btu a Includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distil- late fuel oil. b Includes kerosene-type jet fuel only. c Includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8 1989 14 4 10 (s) 27 (s) 10 10 - 38 1990 15 5 16 (s) 36 (s) 10 11 - 46 1995 17 3 29 - 48 (s) 15 15 (s) 63 1996 20 3 33 R - 55 1 17 18 - 73 1997 22 4 40 (s) 66 1 19 20 - 86 1998 20 5 39 (s) 64 1 18 18 - 82 1999 20 3 37 R - 61 1 17 17 - 78 2000 21 4 39 R - 64 1 17 18 - 82 2001 18 4 35 - 58 1 8 8 6 72 2002 18 3 36 - 57 1 6 7 5 69 2003 23 3 17 - 42 1 8 8 6 57 2004 22 4 22 - 49 (s) 8 9 6 64 2005 23 4 20 - 47 (s) 8 9 6 61 2006 22 2 19 (s) 44 (s) 9 9 6 59 2007 23 2 20 - 44 1 6 7 4 55 2008 23 2 20 - 45 (s) 9 9 6 60 2009 20

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table 10.2c Renewable Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector (Trillion Btu) Hydro- electric Power a Geo- thermal b Solar/PV c Wind d Biomass Total Wood e Waste f Total 1950 Total .................... 1,346 NA NA NA 5 NA 5 1,351 1955 Total .................... 1,322 NA NA NA 3 NA 3 1,325 1960 Total .................... 1,569 (s) NA NA 2 NA 2 1,571 1965 Total .................... 2,026 2 NA NA 3 NA 3 2,031 1970 Total .................... 2,600 6 NA NA 1 2 4 2,609 1975 Total .................... 3,122 34 NA NA (s) 2 2 3,158 1980 Total .................... 2,867 53 NA NA 3 2 4 2,925 1985 Total .................... 2,937 97 (s) (s)

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a Electric Net Summer Capacity, Total (All Sectors) a Electric Net Summer Capacity, Total (All Sectors) Total, 1949-2011 By Major Category, 2011 By Source, 2011 256 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Total 1 Conventional and pumped storage. 2 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, and miscellaneous technologies. Source: Table 8.11a. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 Million Kilowatts Electric Power 791 140 101 22 Fossil Renewable Nuclear Hydroelectric 0 300 600 900 Million Kilowatts Nuclear Electric Power Fuels Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Energy Pumped Storage Electric Power 413 319 101 101 56 45 7 4 2 1 4 Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Hydro- Petroleum Wind Wood Waste Geothermal Solar/PV

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Coal Mining Productivity 7 Coal Mining Productivity Total, 1949-2011 By Mining Method, 2011 By Location, 2011 By Mining Method, 1 1949-2011 By Region and Mining Method, 2011 210 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Mississippi 1 For 1979 forward, includes all coal; prior to 1979, excludes anthracite. Note: Beginning in 2001, surface mining includes a small amount of refuse recovery. Source: Table 7.7. 2.68 15.98 East of the West of the 0 5 10 15 20 Short Tons per Employee Hour 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 2 4 6 8 Short Tons per Employee Hour Mississippi 2.76 8.86 Underground Surface 0 3 6 9 12 Short Tons per Employee Hour 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 3 6 9 12 Short Tons per Employee Hour 2.52 3.03 5.54 19.34 Underground Surface Underground Surface 0 6 12 18 24 Short Tons

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

61 61 Table 8.11d Electric Net Summer Capacity: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.11a; Million Kilowatts) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage Renewable Energy Other 8 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 7 Wind Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 9 1989 0.3 0.2 0.6 - 1.0 - - (s) (s) 0.2 - - - 0.2 - 1.2 1990 .3 .2 .7 - 1.2 - - (s) (s) .2 - - - .2 - 1.4 1995 .3 .2 1.2 - 1.8 - - (s) (s) .3 - - - .3 - 2.1 1996 .3 .3 1.2 - 1.8 - - (s) (s) .4 - - - .5 - 2.3 1997 .3 .4 1.2 - 1.9 - - (s) (s) .4 - - - .5 - 2.3 1998 .3 .3 1.2 - 1.8 - - (s) (s)

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20 1986 - - 39,026 69,606 37,564 35,943 - - - - 21,029 - - - - 105,570 47,123 316,835 39,335 81,787 476,983 NA 1987 - - 42,651 72,561 40,526 37,446 - - - - 23,162 - - - - 109,798 47,723 331,216 39,339 82,967

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

44 44 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Trillion Btu Trillion Btu 1989 639 120 1,471 1 - 1,591 81,670 3 24 6 1 1990 1,266 173 1,630 2 - 1,805 97,330 5 23 8 (s) 1991 1,221 104 995 1 - 1,101 99,868 5 21 11 1 1992 1,704 154 1,045 10 4 1,229 122,908 6 21 10 2 1993 1,794 290 1,074 27 40 1,591 128,743 4 21 10 2 1994 2,241

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Energy Note. Renewable Energy Production and Consump- tion. In Tables 1.1, 1.3, and 10.1, renewable energy consumption consists of: conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate-see Table A6); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate-see Table A6), and geothermal heat pump and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate -see Table A6), and solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil- fuels heat rate-see Table A6); wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass waste (municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricul-

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

59 59 Table 8.11b Electric Net Summer Capacity: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Subset of Table 8.11a; Million Kilowatts) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage Renewable Energy Other 9 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 5 Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 8 Wind Total Wood 6 Waste 7 1949 NA NA NA NA 44.9 0.0 5 ( ) 18.5 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 18.5 NA 63.4 1950 NA NA NA NA 50.0 .0 5 ( ) 19.2 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 19.2 NA 69.2 1955 NA NA NA NA 86.8 .0 5 ( ) 27.4 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 27.4 NA 114.2 1960 NA NA NA NA 130.8 .4 5 ( ) 35.8 .1 10 ( ) (s) NA NA 35.9 NA 167.1 1965 NA NA NA NA 182.9 .8 5 ( ) 51.0 .1 10 ( ) (s) NA NA 51.1 NA

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614 1983 71 43 114 1 11 11 337 1 75 413 79 617 1984 86 45 132 1 11 11 355 2 74 431 87 661 1985 98 46 143 1 11 12 344 2 73 419 88 662 1986 107 45 152 1 11 12 329 2 71 402 86 652 1987 120 46 166 1 12 13 328 1 71 400 90 669 1988 138 48 185 1 12 13 329 1 71 401 95 694 1989 146 49 195 1 12 13 336 1 70 407 98 713 1990 88 47 135 1 12 13 432 1 66 499 96 743 1991 93 46 139 1 13 14 429 1 66 497 98 748 1992 96 47 143 1 13 14 445 2 66 512 95

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4 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.4b Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Subset of Table 8.4a; Trillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power 5 Renewable Energy Other 9 Electricity Net Imports 10 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 5 Biomass Geo- thermal 5 Solar/PV 5,8 Wind 5 Total Wood 6 Waste 7 1949 1,995 415 569 NA 2,979 0 1,349 6 NA NA NA NA 1,355 NA 5 4,339 1950 2,199 472 651 NA 3,322 0 1,346 5 NA NA NA NA 1,351 NA 6 4,679 1955 3,458 471 1,194 NA 5,123 0 1,322 3 NA NA NA NA 1,325 NA 14 6,461 1960 4,228 553 1,785 NA 6,565 6 1,569 2 NA (s) NA NA 1,571 NA 15 8,158 1965

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 3.3d Petroleum Trade: Imports From Non-OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Brazil Canada Colombia Mexico Nether- lands Norway Russia a United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands Other Total Non-OPEC 1960 Average ...................... 1 120 42 16 NA NA 0 (s) NA NA 581 1965 Average ...................... 0 323 51 48 1 0 0 (s) 0 606 1,029 1970 Average ...................... 2 766 46 42 39 0 3 11 189 1,027 2,126 1975 Average ...................... 5 846 9 71 19 17 14 14 406 1,052 2,454 1980 Average ...................... 3 455 4 533 2 144 1 176 388 903 2,609 1985 Average ...................... 61 770 23 816 58 32 8 310 247 913 3,237 1990 Average ...................... 49 934 182 755 55 102 45 189 282 1,128 3,721 1995 Average ...................... 8 1,332 219 1,068 15 273 25 383 278 1,233 4,833 2000 Average ......................

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 9.1 Nuclear Generating Units, 1955-2011 Year Original Licensing Regulations (10 CFR Part 50) 1 Current Licensing Regulations (10 CFR Part 52) 1 Permanent Shutdowns Operable Units 7 Construction Permits Issued 2,3 Low-Power Operating Licenses Issued 3,4 Full-Power Operating Licenses Issued 3,5 Early Site Permits Issued 3 Combined License Applications Received 6 Combined Licenses Issued 3 1955 1 0 0 - - - - - - 0 0 1956 3 0 0 - - - - - - 0 0 1957 1 1 1 - - - - - - 0 1 1958 0 0 0 - - - - - - 0 1 1959 3 1 1 - - - - - - 0 2 1960 7 1 1 - - - - - - 0 3 1961 0 0 0 - - - - - - 0 3 1962 1 7 6 - - - - - - 0 9 1963 1 3 2 - - - - - - R 1 11 1964 3 2 3 - - - - - - 1 13 1965 1 0 0 - - - - - - 0 13 1966 5 1 2 - - - - - - 1 14 1967 14 3 3 - - - - - - 2 15 1968 23 0 0 - - - - - - R 1 13 1969 7 4 4 - - - - - - 0 17 1970 10 4 3 - - - - - - R 1 20 1971 4 5 2 - - - - - - 0 22 1972 8 6

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 12. Environment Figure 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide) Total, 1973-2012 Total, a Monthly By Major Source, 1973-2012 By Major Source, Monthly Total, January-August By Major Source, August 2013 158 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Natural Gas 196 162 102 Petroleum Coal Natural Gas 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 0 100 200 300 Coal b Petroleum b a a 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 0 200 400 600 800 2011 2012 2013 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 Petroleum Coal b Natural Gas 2011 2012 2013

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table 3.7b Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector (Thousand Barrels per Day) Industrial Sector a Asphalt and Road Oil Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lubricants Motor Gasoline b Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other c Total 1950 Average .................... 180 328 132 100 43 131 41 617 250 1,822 1955 Average .................... 254 466 116 212 47 173 67 686 366 2,387 1960 Average .................... 302 476 78 333 48 198 149 689 435 2,708 1965 Average .................... 368 541 80 470 62 179 202 689 657 3,247 1970 Average .................... 447 577 89 699 70 150 203 708 866 3,808 1975 Average .................... 419 630 58 844 68 116 246 658 1,001 4,038 1980 Average .................... 396 621 87 1,172

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6 2001 Total .... 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 .......... 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 .... 240 24 5 0 1 16 232 9 0 12 0 0 268 High 9 .......... 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2002 Total .... 11,000 595 62 4 1

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 11.5c Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2010 (Subset of Table 11.5a; Thousand Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- thermal 5 Non- Biomass Waste 6 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Commercial Sector 8 1989 2,320 1,542 637 - 804 5,303 37 (s) 5 1 43 9 3 2 3 17 1990 2,418 2,294 706 - 959 6,377 39 (s) 4 1 45 10 6 1 4 21 1991 2,680 2,287 544 - 1,014 6,526 32 (s) 3 1 35 10 6 1 4 21 1992 2,552 2,787 474 - 1,258 7,070 32 (s) 3 1 35 10 7 1 4 21 1993 2,988 3,315 616 - 1,285 8,205 40 (s) 3 1 44 12 7 1 4 24 1994 2,932 3,722 654 - 1,292 8,601 39 (s) 3 (s) 42 11 8 1 4 24 1995 3,106 4,070 509 -

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

77 77 Table 5.1 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity Measurements (Number of Rigs) Rotary Rigs in Operation a Active Well Service Rig Count c By Site By Type Total b Onshore Offshore Crude Oil Natural Gas 1950 Average ........................ NA NA NA NA 2,154 NA 1955 Average ........................ NA NA NA NA 2,686 NA 1960 Average ........................ NA NA NA NA 1,748 NA 1965 Average ........................ NA NA NA NA 1,388 NA 1970 Average ........................ NA NA NA NA 1,028 NA 1975 Average ........................ 1,554 106 NA NA 1,660 2,486 1980 Average ........................ 2,678 231 NA NA 2,909 4,089 1985 Average ........................ 1,774 206 NA NA

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 12.6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Natural Gas b Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste d Total e Distillate Fuel Oil c Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total 1973 Total ............................ 812 199 20 2 254 276 NA NA 1,286 1975 Total ............................ 824 172 17 (s) 231 248 NA NA 1,244 1980 Total ............................ 1,137 200 12 1 194 207 NA NA 1,544 1985 Total ............................ 1,367 166 6 1 79 86 NA NA 1,619 1990 Total ............................ 1,548 176 7 3 92 102 (s) 6 1,831 1995 Total ............................ 1,661 228 8 8 45 61 (s) 10 1,960 1996 Total ............................ 1,752 205 8 8 50 66 (s) 10 2,033

342

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 1.15 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels, Selected Years, 1980-2011 Year Petroleum Products Natural Gas 4 Coal Total Percent of Total Energy Consumption Asphalt and Road Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1 Lubricants Petro- chemical Feedstocks 2 Petroleum Coke Special Naphthas Other 3 Total Physical Units 5 1980 145 230 58 253 R 14 37 58 R 795 639 2.4 - - - - 1985 156 R 278 53 144 R 16 30 41 R 719 500 1.1 - - - - 1990 176 R 373 60 199 20 20 39 R 887 R 567 .6 - - - - 1991 162 R 426 53 203 17 17 44 R 922 573 .6 - - - - 1992 166 R 448 54 214 R 28 20 35 R 966 R 606 1.2 - - - - 1993 174 R 436 55 216 R 18 20 35 R 955 R 640 .9 - - - - 1994 176 R 483 58 224 R 21 15 35 R 1,013 673 .9 - - - - 1995 178 R 479 57 215 R 20 13 33 R 996 R 695 .9 - - - - 1996 177 R 502 55 217 R 20 14 33 R 1,019 R 718 .9 - - - - 1997 184 R 501 58 250 R 15 14 34 R 1,056 R 740 .9 - - - - 1998 190 R 485 61 252 25 20 39 R 1,073 762 .8 - - - - 1999 200 R 566 62 238

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Crude Oil Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, Indexed 90 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Notes: * Data are at end of year. * Crude oil includes lease condensate. Source: Table 4.2. Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Crude Oil Cumulative Production Natural Gas (Dry) Proved Reserves Crude Oil Proved Reserves 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0 50 100 150 200 250 Index: 1977=100 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0 300 600 900 1,200 1,500 Trillion Cubic Feet 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0 50 100 150 200 250 Billion Barrels Cumulative Production Cumulative Production Proved Reserves

344

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Geothermal Resources 5 Geothermal Resources 112 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Notes: * Data are for locations of identified hydrothermal sites and favorability of deep enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). * Map does not include shallow EGS resources located near hydrothermal sites or USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrothermal resources. * *"N/A" regions have temperatures less than 150°C at 10 kilometers (km) depth and were not assessed for deep EGS potential. * **Temperature at depth data for deep EGS in Alaska and Hawaii not available. Web Page: For related information, see http://www.nrel.gov/gis/maps.html. Sources: This map was created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Department of Energy (October 13, 2009). Source data for deep EGS includes tempera-

345

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output Coal by Sector, 1989-2012 Petroleum by Sector, 1989-2012 Natural Gas by Sector, 1989-2012 Other Gases b by Sector, 1989-2012 Wood by Sector, 1989-2012 Waste by Sector, 1989-2012 102 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Industrial Commercial Industrial Electric Power Industrial Total a 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 Billion Short Tons Total a 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 90 180 270 360 Million Barrels Electric Power a Includes commercial sector. b Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas . Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table 12.3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Electricity f Total g Distillate Fuel Oil c Kerosene LPG d Motor Gasoline e Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total 1973 Total ........................ 15 141 47 5 9 6 NA 52 120 334 609 1975 Total ........................ 14 136 43 4 8 6 NA 39 100 333 583 1980 Total ........................ 11 141 38 3 6 8 NA 44 98 412 662 1985 Total ........................ 13 132 46 2 6 7 NA 18 79 480 704 1990 Total ........................ 12 142 39 1 6 8 0 18 73 566 793 1995 Total ........................ 11 164 35 2 7 1 (s) 11 56 620 851 1996 Total ........................ 12 171 35 2 8 2 (s) 11 57 643 883

347

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

175 175 Table A5. Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke (Million Btu per Short Ton) Coal Coal Coke Production a Waste Coal Supplied b Consumption Imports Exports Imports and Exports Residential and Commercial Sectors c Industrial Sector Electric Power Sector e,f Total Coke Plants Other d 1950 ........................ 25.090 NA 24.461 26.798 24.820 23.937 24.989 25.020 26.788 24.800 1955 ........................ 25.201 NA 24.373 26.794 24.821 24.056 24.982 25.000 26.907 24.800 1960 ........................ 24.906 NA 24.226 26.791 24.609 23.927 24.713 25.003 26.939 24.800 1965 ........................ 24.775 NA 24.028 26.787 24.385 23.780 24.537 25.000 26.973 24.800 1970 ........................ 23.842 NA 23.203 26.784 22.983 22.573 23.440 25.000 26.982 24.800 1975 ........................

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, Selected Years, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels per Day Percent 1960 NA 8 ( ) 9 ( ) 84 910 1,232 86 -2 -12 34 381 1,613 16.5 76.4 12.6 1965 NA 8 ( ) 9 ( ) 158 994 1,438 297 21 -11 45 843 2,281 19.8 63.0 12.5 1970 NA 8 9 ( ) 30 989 1,294 736 9 -1 270 1,867 3,161 21.5 40.9 8.8 1971 NA 15 102 128 1,019 1,671 831 -14 1 365 2,030 3,701 24.3 45.1 11.0 1972 NA 92 251 189 959 2,044 1,082 -20 -1 428 2,475 4,519 27.6 45.2 12.5 1973 NA 136 459 485 1,134 2,991 1,294 -28 6 426

349

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian .............................................. 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama ................................................... .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .................................... .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .......................................................... .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1

350

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 7.2c Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours) Commercial Sector a Industrial Sector b Coal c Petro- leum d Natural Gas e Biomass Total g Coal c Petro- leum d Natural Gas e Other Gases h Hydro- electric Power i Biomass Total k Waste f Wood j Waste f 1950 Total .................... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 4,946 NA NA 4,946 1955 Total .................... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,261 NA NA 3,261 1960 Total .................... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,607 NA NA 3,607 1965 Total .................... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

351

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source 1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide) Total, 1973-2012 Total, a Monthly By Major Source, 1973-2012 By Major Source, Monthly Total, January-August By Major Source, August 2013 158 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Natural Gas 196 162 102 Petroleum Coal Natural Gas 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 0 100 200 300 Coal b Petroleum b a a 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D 0 200 400 600 800 2011 2012 2013 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 Petroleum Coal b Natural Gas 2011 2012 2013

352

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Figure 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption Total¹ 1949-2011 Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1949-2011 By Major Source, 1949-2011 By Biomass¹ Source, 2011 302 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 ¹ Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption are excluded from total emissions. See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. 2 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multi- plying by 12/44. 3 Based on chained (2005) dollars. Sources: Tables 1.5, 11.1, and 11.2a-11.2e. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Billion Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide² Real³ Gross Domestic Product

353

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Table 4.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 2 Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 3 Billion Barrels Trillion Cubic Feet 1977 118.1 31.8 514.4 207.4 1978 121.3 31.4 533.6 208.0 1979 124.4 31.2 553.2 201.0 1980 127.5 31.3 572.6 199.0 1981 130.7 31.0 591.8 201.7 1982 133.8 29.5 609.6 201.5 1983 137.0 29.3 625.7 200.2 1984 140.2 30.0 643.2 197.5 1985 143.5 29.9 659.6 193.4 1986 146.7 28.3 675.7 191.6 1987 149.7 28.7 692.3 187.2 1988 152.7 28.2 709.4 168.0 1989 155.5 27.9 726.7 167.1 1990 158.2 27.6 744.5 169.3 1991 160.9 25.9 762.2 167.1 1992 163.5 25.0 780.1 165.0 1993 166.0 24.1 798.2 162.4 1994 168.4 23.6 817.0 163.8 1995 170.8 23.5 835.6 165.1 1996 173.2 23.3 854.5 166.5 1997 175.6 23.9 873.4 167.2 1998 177.8 22.4 892.4

354

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2013 Table A2. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Production, Imports, and Exports (Million Btu per Barrel) Production Imports Exports Crude Oil a Natural Gas Plant Liquids Crude Oil a Petroleum Products Total Crude Oil a Petroleum Products Total 1950 ................................ 5.800 4.522 5.943 6.263 6.080 5.800 5.751 5.766 1955 ................................ 5.800 4.406 5.924 6.234 6.040 5.800 5.765 5.768 1960 ................................ 5.800 4.295 5.911 6.161 6.021 5.800 5.835 5.834 1965 ................................ 5.800 4.264 5.872 6.123 5.997 5.800 5.742 5.743 1970 ................................ 5.800 4.146 5.822 6.088 5.985 5.800 5.811 5.810 1975 ................................

355

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table 9.2 Nuclear Power Plant Operations, 1957-2011 Year Nuclear Electricity Net Generation Nuclear Share of Total Electricity Net Generation Net Summer Capacity of Operable Units 1 Capacity Factor 2 Billion Kilowatthours Percent Million Kilowatts Percent 1957 (s) (s) 0.1 NA 1958 .2 (s) .1 NA 1959 .2 (s) .1 NA 1960 .5 .1 .4 NA 1961 1.7 .2 .4 NA 1962 2.3 .3 .7 NA 1963 3.2 .3 .8 NA 1964 3.3 .3 .8 NA 1965 3.7 .3 .8 NA 1966 5.5 .5 1.7 NA 1967 7.7 .6 2.7 NA 1968 12.5 .9 2.7 NA 1969 13.9 1.0 4.4 NA 1970 21.8 1.4 7.0 NA 1971 38.1 2.4 9.0 NA 1972 54.1 3.1 14.5 NA 1973 83.5 4.5 22.7 53.5 1974 114.0 6.1 31.9 47.8 1975 172.5 9.0 37.3 55.9 1976 191.1 9.4 43.8 54.7 1977 250.9 11.8 46.3 63.3 1978 276.4 12.5 50.8 64.5 1979 255.2 11.3 49.7 58.4 1980 251.1 11.0 51.8 56.3 1981 272.7 11.9 56.0 58.2 1982 282.8 12.6 60.0 56.6 1983 293.7 12.7 63.0 54.4 1984 327.6 13.5 69.7 56.3 1985 383.7 15.5 79.4 58.0 1986

356

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table 10.2b Renewable Energy Consumption: Industrial and Transportation Sectors, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Trillion Btu) Year Industrial Sector 1 Transportation Sector Hydro- electric Power 2 Geo- thermal 3 Solar/PV 4 Wind 5 Biomass Total Biomass Wood 6 Waste 7 Fuel Ethanol 8 Losses and Co-products 9 Total Fuel Ethanol 10 Biodiesel Total 1949 76 NA NA NA 468 NA NA NA 468 544 NA NA NA 1950 69 NA NA NA 532 NA NA NA 532 602 NA NA NA 1955 38 NA NA NA 631 NA NA NA 631 669 NA NA NA 1960 39 NA NA NA 680 NA NA NA 680 719 NA NA NA 1965 33 NA NA NA 855 NA NA NA 855

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Nuclear Energy . Nuclear Energy Figure 9.1 Nuclear Generating Units Operable Units, 1 1957-2011 Nuclear Net Summer Capacity Change, 1950-2011 Status of All Nuclear Generating Units, 2011 Permanent Shutdowns by Year, 1955-2011 270 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Units holding full-power operating licenses, or equivalent permission to operate, at the end of the year. Note: Data are at end of year. Sources: Tables 9.1 and 8.11a. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 -4 0 4 8 12 -4 Million Kilowatts 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 30 60 90 120 Number of Units 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1 2 3 4 0 Number Total Units Ordered: 259 Permanent Shutdowns 28 104 Operable Units¹ U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011

358

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2013 43 Table 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports and Exports by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Imports Exports Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel d LPG b Motor Gasoline f Residual Fuel Oil Other g Total Crude Oil a Petroleum Products Total SPR c Total Propane e Total 1950 Average ................ - - 487 7 d ( ) 0 0 (s) 329 27 850 95 210 305 1955 Average ................ - - 782 12 d ( ) 0 0 13 417 24 1,248 32 336 368 1960 Average ................ - - 1,015 35 34 NA 4 27 637 62 1,815 8 193 202 1965 Average ................ - - 1,238 36 81 NA 21 28 946 119 2,468 3 184 187 1970 Average ................ - - 1,324 147 144 26 52 67 1,528 157 3,419 14 245 259 1975 Average ................ - - 4,105 155 133 60 112 184 1,223 144 6,056 6 204 209 1980 Average ................

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Petroleum Note 1. Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption. Total petroleum products supplied is the sum of the products supplied for each petroleum product, crude oil, unfinished oils, and gasoline blending compo- nents. For each of these except crude oil, product supplied is calculated by adding refinery production, natural gas plant liquids production, new supply of other liquids, imports, and stock withdrawals, and subtracting stock additions, refinery inputs, and exports. Crude oil product supplied is the sum of crude oil burned on leases and at pipeline pump stations as reported on Form EIA-813, "Monthly Crude Oil Report." Prior to 1983, crude oil burned on leases and used at pipeline pump stations was reported as either distillate or residual fuel oil and was

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Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 4.10 Uranium Reserves, 1 2008 (Million Pounds Uranium Oxide) State Forward-Cost 2 Category (dollars 3 per pound) $50 or Less $100 or Less Total .................................................................................................................................... 539 1,227 Wyoming ......................................................................................................................... 220 446 New Mexico .................................................................................................................... 179 390 Arizona, Colorado, Utah ................................................................................................. 63 198 Texas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Word Pro - S5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Indicators Rotary Rigs in Operation by Type, 1949-2012 Rotary Rigs in Operation by Type, Monthly Active Well Service Rig Count, Monthly Total Wells Drilled by Type, 1949-2010 . 76 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Total 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 1 2 3 4 Thousand Rigs 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 Thousand Wells Dry Wells Crude Oil Wells Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#crude. Sources: Tables 5.1 and 5.2. Crude Oil J FMAMJ J A SOND J FMAMJ J A SOND J FMAMJ J

362

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Note 1. Coal Production. Preliminary monthly estimates of national coal production are the sum of weekly estimates developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and published in the Weekly Coal Production report. When a week extends into a new month, production is allo- cated on a daily basis and added to the appropriate month. Weekly estimates are based on Association of American Railroads (AAR) data showing the number of railcars loaded with coal during the week by Class I and certain other railroads. Through 2001, the weekly coal production model converted AAR data into short tons of coal by using the average number of short tons of coal per railcar loaded reported in the "Quarterly Freight Commodity Statistics" from the Surface Transportation Board. If an average coal tonnage

363

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 1.13 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 (Trillion Btu) Resource and Fiscal Years Agriculture Defense Energy GSA 1 HHS 2 Interior Justice NASA 3 Postal Service Trans- portation Veterans Affairs Other 4 Total Coal 2003 ..................................... (s) 15.4 2.0 0.0 (s) (s) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 17.7 2010 ..................................... (s) 15.5 4.5 .0 0.0 0.0 .0 .0 (s) .0 .1 .0 20.1 2011 P .................................. 0.0 14.3 4.2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 (s) .0 .1 .0 18.6 Natural Gas 5 2003 ..................................... 1.4 76.6 7.0 7.6 3.7 1.3 8.6 2.9 10.4 .7 15.6 4.2 139.7

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 4.7 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Development Wells, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Wells Drilled Successful Wells Footage Drilled 1 Average Footage Drilled Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Number Percent Thousand Feet Feet per Well 1949 19,946 2,939 5,369 28,254 81.0 73,478 10,028 17,315 100,821 3,684 3,412 3,225 3,568 1950 22,229 3,008 6,507 31,744 79.5 85,833 11,329 20,020 117,183 3,861 3,766 3,077 3,691 1955 28,196 3,392 8,620 40,208 78.6 110,374 14,718 31,883 156,976 3,915 4,339 3,699 3,904 1960 20,937 4,281 8,697 33,915 74.4 79,739 22,780 33,826 136,345 3,809 5,321 3,889 4,020 1965 17,119 3,967 8,221 29,307 71.9 67,956 21,174 36,548 125,678 3,970 5,337 4,446 4,288 1970 12,211 3,534 4,869 20,614 76.4 52,130 19,945 22,951 95,026 4,269 5,644

365

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 7.3c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.3a) Commercial Sector a Industrial Sector b Coal c Petroleum d Natural Gas e Biomass Coal c Petroleum d Natural Gas e Other Gases g Biomass Other i Waste f Wood h Waste f Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Trillion Btu 1990 Total .................... 417 953 28 15 10,740 13,103 517 104 335 16 36 1995 Total .................... 569 649 43 21 12,171 12,265 601 114 373 13 40 2000 Total .................... 514 823 37 26 11,706 10,459 640 107 369 10 45 2001 Total .................... 532 1,023 36 15 10,636 10,530 654 88 370 7 44 2002 Total .................... 477 834 33 18 11,855 11,608 685 106 464 15 43 2003 Total

366

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table 6.2 Coal Consumption by Sector (Thousand Short Tons) End-Use Sectors Electric Power Sector e,f Total Resi- dential Commercial Industrial Trans- portation CHP a Other b Total Coke Plants Other Industrial Total CHP c Non-CHP d Total 1950 Total .................... 51,562 g ( ) 63,021 63,021 104,014 h ( ) 120,623 120,623 224,637 63,011 91,871 494,102 1955 Total .................... 35,590 g ( ) 32,852 32,852 107,743 h ( ) 110,096 110,096 217,839 16,972 143,759 447,012 1960 Total .................... 24,159 g ( ) 16,789 16,789 81,385 h ( ) 96,017 96,017 177,402 3,046 176,685 398,081 1965 Total .................... 14,635 g ( ) 11,041 11,041 95,286 h ( ) 105,560 105,560 200,846 655 244,788 471,965 1970 Total .................... 9,024 g ( ) 7,090

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 1.5 Energy Consumption, Expenditures, and Emissions Indicators Estimates, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year Energy Consumption Energy Consumption per Capita Energy Expenditures 1 Energy Expenditures 1 per Capita Gross Output 3 Energy Expenditures 1 as Share of Gross Output 3 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Energy Expenditures 1 as Share of GDP Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2 per Real Dollar of GDP Quadrillion Btu Million Btu Million Nominal Dollars 4 Nominal Dollars 4 Billion Nominal Dollars 4 Percent Billion Nominal Dollars 4 Percent Billion Real (2005) Dollars 5 Thousand Btu per Real (2005) Dollar 5 Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide per Million Real (2005) Dollars 5 1949 31.982 214 NA NA NA NA 267.2 NA R 1,843.1 R 17.35 R 1,197 1950 34.616 227 NA NA NA NA

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity (Btu per Kilowatthour) Approximate Heat Rates a for Electricity Net Generation Heat Content j of Electricity k Fossil Fuels b Nuclear h Noncombustible Renewable Energy g,i Coal c Petroleum d Natural Gas e Total Fossil Fuels f,g 1950 .............................. NA NA NA 14,030 - - 14,030 3,412 1955 .............................. NA NA NA 11,699 - - 11,699 3,412 1960 .............................. NA NA NA 10,760 11,629 10,760 3,412 1965 .............................. NA NA NA 10,453 11,804 10,453 3,412 1970 .............................. NA NA NA 10,494 10,977 10,494 3,412 1975 .............................. NA NA NA

369

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9 357 8 273 26 918 2,382 147 NA NA NA 147 1955 1,038 472 24 247 21 48 27 10 473 13 274 38 1,175 2,685 134 NA NA NA 134 1960 915 650 21 291 53 41 42 10 543 29 275 45 1,349 2,914 124 NA NA NA 124 1965 1,075 828 15 330 87 40 57 11 627 39 289 65 1,559 3,462 125 NA NA NA 125 1970 1,134 1,144 7 394 141 39 78 11 789 41 396 85 1,983 4,261

370

Word Pro - A  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thermal Conversion Factor Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation Approximate Heat Content of Petro- leum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Asphalt. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petro- leum Statement, Annual, 1956. Aviation Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel as adopted by the Bureau of Mines from the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation publication Competition and Growth in Ameri- can Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of histori- cal and projected statistics. Butane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conver- sion factor of 4.326 million Btu per barrel as published in

371

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 7.5 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector Coal a Petroleum Distillate Fuel Oil b Residual Fuel Oil c Other Liquids d Petroleum Coke e Total e,f Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels 1950 Year ............................. 31,842 NA NA NA NA 10,201 1955 Year ............................. 41,391 NA NA NA NA 13,671 1960 Year ............................. 51,735 NA NA NA NA 19,572 1965 Year ............................. 54,525 NA NA NA NA 25,647 1970 Year ............................. 71,908 NA NA NA 239 39,151 1975 Year ............................. 110,724 16,432 108,825 NA 31 125,413 1980 Year ............................. 183,010 30,023 105,351 NA 52 135,635 1985 Year .............................

372

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1955 324 63 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 424 (s) NA (s) 1960 396 95 2 NA 42 43 NA NA 535 (s) NA (s) 1965 546 127 2 NA 55 57 NA NA 730 (s) NA (s) 1970 678 215 10 2 154 166 NA NA 1,059 (s) (s) (s) 1975 824 172 17 (s) 231 248 NA NA 1,244 (s) (s) (s) 1976 911 167 18 (s) 255 273 NA NA 1,351 (s) (s) (s) 1977 962 174 21 (s) 285 306 NA NA

373

Word Pro - S12  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 12.4 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity g Total h Distillate Fuel Oil c Kero- sene LPG d Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline e Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other f Total 1973 Total .................... 371 -1 536 106 11 44 7 18 52 144 100 483 515 1,904 1975 Total .................... 336 2 440 97 9 39 6 16 51 117 97 431 490 1,697 1980 Total .................... 289 -4 429 96 13 61 7 11 48 105 142 483 601 1,798 1985 Total .................... 256 -2 360 81 3 59 6 15 54 57 93 369 583 1,566 1990 Total .................... 258 1 432 84 1 37 7 13 67 31 127 366 638 1,695 1995 Total .................... 233 7 489 82 1 47 7 14 67 25 121 364 659 1,751 1996 Total .................... 227 3 505 87 1 48 6 14 71 24 139 391

374

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Includes Adjustment for Fossil Fuel Equivalence. See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. 2 Includes electricity sales to each sector in addition to Primary Energy consumed in the sector. 3 Small amounts of coal consumed for transportation are reported as industrial sector consumption. Includes net imports of s upplemental liquids and coal coke. 4 Calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. 26,784 71,220 27,451 23,267 8,711 11,791 98,004 39,579 27,425 19,984 4,175 6,841 Total Transporta- tion Indust- rial Commer- cial Residen- tial Total Electric Power Transporta- tion 3 Indus- trial 3 Commer- cial Residen- tial Electrical System Energy Losses 4 Delivered Total Energy 2 Primary Energy Consumption

375

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Introduction Introduction This year, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has examined different ways to represent energy consumption in the Annual Energy Review (AER). This examination centered on two methods for representing related aspects of energy consumption and losses. The first is an alternative method for deriving the energy content of noncombustible renewable resources, which has been implemented in AER 2010 (Table 1.3). The second is a new representation of delivered total energy and energy losses. This appendix provides an explanation of these alternative methods. Section II provides a background discussion of the alternatives and the reasons for considering these changes to the energy balance presentation. Section III identifies the specific

376

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 U.S. Shipments of Photovoltaic Modules Only by Sector and End Use, 2010 9 U.S. Shipments of Photovoltaic Modules Only by Sector and End Use, 2010 By End Use By Sector 298 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 See "Electric Power Grid" in Glossary. 2 Photovoltaic modules that are connected to the electric power grid, and whose output is fed directly into the grid. 3 Photovoltaic modules that are connected to the electric power grid, and whose output is consumed mainly onsite. 4 Photovoltaic modules that are not connected to the electric power grid, and that are used to provide electric power to remote households or communities. 5 Photovoltaic modules that are not connected to the electric power grid, and that are used to provide electric power for a variety of non-domestic applications.

377

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output 5 Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output Emissions by Type of Generating Unit, 2010 Emissions by Sector, 1989-2010 314 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 5.0 (s) 0.2 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Million Metric Tons of Gas Sulfur Dioxide ¹ For carbon dioxide: municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources; tire-derived fuel, and geothermal. For sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides: blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels; wood and wood-derived fuels; municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, tires, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass; and chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, sulfur, and tar coal. 2 Includes Commercial Sector. (s)=Less than 0.05 million metric tons.

378

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade 6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade Total Shipments, 1974-2009 Trade, 1978-2009 Price of Total Shipments, 1986-2009 Number of U.S. Manufacturers by Type of Collector, 1974-2009 Average Annual Shipments per Manufacturer, 1974-2009 292 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees Fahrenheit but can also operate at temperatures as low as 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Special collectors-evacuated tube collectors or concentrating (focusing) collectors-are included in the medium-temperature category. 3 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 degrees Fahrenheit.

379

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Selected years of data from 1949 through 1972 have been added to this table. For all years of data from 1949 through 2013, see the "Web Page" cited above. Table 7.2b Electricity Net Generation: Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours) Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage e Renewable Energy Total j Coal a Petro- leum b Natural Gas c Other Gases d Conven- tional Hydro- electric Power f Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/ PV i Wind Wood g Waste h 1950 Total .................. 154,520 33,734 44,559 NA 0 f ( ) 95,938 390 NA NA NA NA 329,141 1955 Total .................. 301,363 37,138 95,285 NA 0 f ( ) 112,975 276 NA NA NA NA

380

Word Pro - S12  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

59 59 Table 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal b Natural Gas c Petroleum Total h,i Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil d Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG e Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline f Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other g Total 1973 Total .................... 1,207 1,178 6 480 155 32 92 13 911 54 508 100 2,350 4,735 1975 Total .................... 1,181 1,046 5 443 146 24 82 11 911 51 443 97 2,212 4,439 1980 Total .................... 1,436 1,061 4 446 156 24 87 13 900 49 453 142 2,275 4,771 1985 Total .................... 1,638 926 3 445 178 17 87 12 930 54 216 93 2,036 4,600 1990 Total .................... 1,821 1,024 3 470 223 6 67 13 988 70 220 127 2,187 5,039 1995 Total .................... 1,913 1,183 3 498 222 8 80 13 1,044 76 152 121 2,216 5,323 1996 Total ....................

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381

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

41 41 Table E1. Estimated Primary Energy Consumption in the United States, Selected Years, 1635-1945 (Quadrillion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Electricity Net Imports Total Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power Biomass Total Wood 1 1635 NA - - - - NA - - (s) (s) - - (s) 1645 NA - - - - NA - - 0.001 0.001 - - 0.001 1655 NA - - - - NA - - .002 .002 - - .002 1665 NA - - - - NA - - .005 .005 - - .005 1675 NA - - - - NA - - .007 .007 - - .007 1685 NA - - - - NA - - .009 .009 - - .009 1695 NA - - - - NA - - .014 .014 - - .014 1705 NA - - - - NA - - .022 .022 - - .022 1715 NA - - - - NA - - .037 .037 - - .037

382

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 2.5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space Heating Air Conditioning Water Heating Appliances, 2 Electronics, and Lighting Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 LPG 5 Total Consumption (quadrillion Btu) 1978 4.26 0.40 2.05 0.23 6.94 0.31 1.04 0.29 0.14 0.06 1.53 0.28 1.46 0.03 1.77 1980 3.41 .27 1.30 .23 5.21 .36 1.15 .30 .22 .07 1.74 .36 1.54 .05 1.95 1981 3.69 .26 1.06 .21 5.22 .34 1.13 .30 .22 .06 1.71 .43 1.52 .05 2.00 1982 3.14 .25 1.04 .19 4.62 .31 1.15 .28 .15 .06 1.64 .43 1.50 .05 1.98 1984 3.51 .25 1.11 .21 5.08 .32 1.10 .32 .15 .06 1.63 .35 1.59 .04 1.98 1987 3.38 .28 1.05 .22 4.93 .44 1.10 .31 .17 .06 1.64 .34 1.72 .04 2.10 1990 3.37 .30 .93 .19 4.79 .48 1.16 .34 .11 .06 1.67 .33 1.91 .03 2.27 1993 3.67

383

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 2.11 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End Use, 2003 (Trillion Btu) End Use Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office Equipment Computers Other 1 Total All Buildings .................................... 167 481 436 88 1,340 24 381 69 156 418 3,559 Principal Building Activity Education ...................................... 15 74 83 11 113 2 16 4 32 21 371 Food Sales ................................... 6 12 7 Q 46 2 119 2 2 10 208 Food Service ................................ 10 28 24 10 42 13 70 2 2 15 217

384

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 2.2 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 (Trillion Btu ) NAICS 1 Code Manufacturing Group Coal Coal Coke and Breeze 2 Natural Gas Distillate Fuel Oil LPG 3 and NGL 4 Residual Fuel Oil Net Electricity 5 Other 6 Shipments of Energy Sources 7 Total 8 311 Food ................................................................................. 147 1 638 16 3 26 251 105 (s) 1,186 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products ..................................... 20 0 41 1 1 3 30 11 -0 107

385

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 a Exact conversion. b Calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Web Page: For related information, see http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/#appendices. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Techni- cal Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices, NIST Handbook 44, 1994 Edition (Washington, DC, October 1993), pp. B-10, C-17 and C-21. cubic feet (ft 3 ) 128 a = 1 cord (cd) shorts tons 1.25 b = 1 cord (cd) Wood kilograms (kg) 1,000 a = 1 metric ton (t) pounds (lb) 2,240 a = 1 long ton pounds (lb) 2,000 a = 1 short ton Coal U.S. gallons (gal) 42 a = 1 barrel (bbl) Petroleum alent in Final Units Equiv

386

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table 2.8 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbase 1 Light-Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbase 2 Heavy-Duty Trucks 3 All Motor Vehicles 4 Mileage Fuel Consumption Fuel Economy Mileage Fuel Consumption Fuel Economy Mileage Fuel Consumption Fuel Economy Mileage Fuel Consumption Fuel Economy Miles per Vehicle Gallons per Vehicle Miles per Gallon Miles per Vehicle Gallons per Vehicle Miles per Gallon Miles per vehicle Gallons per vehicle Miles per Gallon Miles per Vehicle Gallons per Vehicle Miles per Gallon 1949 9,388 627 15.0 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 9,712 1,080 9.0 9,498 726 13.1 1950 9,060 603 15.0 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 10,316 1,229 8.4 9,321 725 12.8 1955 9,447 645 14.6 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 10,576 1,293 8.2 9,661 761 12.7 1960 9,518 668 14.3 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 10,693 1,333 8.0 9,732 784 12.4 1965 9,603

387

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Electricity THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Figure 8.0 Electricity Flow, 2011 (Quadrillion Btu) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 219 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 3 Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error. Derived for the diagram by subtracting the "T & D Losses" estimate from "T & D Losses and Unaccounted for" derived from Table 8.1. 4 Electric energy used in the operation of power plants. 5 Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of

388

TEXT Pro Force Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Protective Basic Protective Force Training Program DOE/IG-0641 March 2004 * None of the 10 sites included instruction in rappelling even though it was part of the special response team core curriculum and continued to be offered by the Nonprolif- eration and National Security Institute; * Only one site conducted basic training on use of a shotgun, despite the fact that a num- ber of sites used the weapon for breaching exercises and other purposes; and, * Seven of the sites modified prescribed training techniques by reducing the intensity or delivery method for skills that some security experts characterized as critical, such as handcuffing, hand-to- hand combat, and vehicle assaults. We found that the Department's facilities were not required to report departures from the core

389

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.11a Electric Net Summer Capacity: Total (All Sectors), Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.11b and 8.11d; Million Kilowatts) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage Renewable Energy Other 9 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 5 Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 8 Wind Total Wood 6 Waste 7 1949 NA NA NA NA 44.9 0.0 5 ( ) 18.5 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 18.5 NA 63.4 1950 NA NA NA NA 50.0 .0 5 ( ) 19.2 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 19.2 NA 69.2 1955 NA NA NA NA 86.8 .0 5 ( ) 27.4 (s) 10 ( ) NA NA NA 27.4 NA 114.2 1960 NA NA NA NA 130.8 .4 5 ( ) 35.8 .1 10

390

Word Pro - S3  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Overview Petroleum Overview (Million Barrels per Day) Overview, 1949-2012 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Field Production, 1949-2012 Overview, January-October Total Field Production, a Monthly 36 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Total Field Production a 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 5 10 15 20 25 Products Supplied Net Imports 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Crude Oil b J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2011 2012 2013 9.9 6.5 18.8 8.8 7.6 18.5 7.8 8.6 18.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 2011 2012 2013 Net Imports Products Supplied Total Field Production a a Crude oil, including lease condensate, and natural gas plant liquids field

391

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Appendix D Table D1. Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and Implicit Price Deflator, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year Population U.S. Gross Domestic Product United States 1 World United States as Share of World Billion Nominal Dollars 2 Billion Real (2005) Dollars 3 Implicit Price Deflator 4 (2005 = 1.00000) Million People Percent 1949 149.2 NA NA 267.2 R 1,843.1 R 0.14499 1950 152.3 2,556.5 6.0 293.7 R 2,004.2 R .14656 1955 165.9 2,781.2 6.0 414.7 R 2,498.2 R .16601 1960 180.7 3,042.4 5.9 526.4 R 2,828.5 R .18612 1965 194.3 R 3,350.3 5.8 719.1 R 3,607.0 R .19936 1970 205.1 3,713.0 5.5 1,038.3 R 4,266.3 R .24338 1975 216.0 R 4,090.6 5.3 1,637.7 R 4,875.4 R .33591 1976 218.0 R 4,161.9 5.2 1,824.6 R 5,136.9 R .35519 1977 220.2 R 4,233.9 5.2 2,030.1 R 5,373.1 R .37783 1978 222.6 R 4,306.1 5.2 2,293.8 R 5,672.8 R .40435 1979 225.1 R 4,381.1 5.1 2,562.2

392

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

69 69 Table 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3 Fossil Fuel Composite 4 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Percent Change 7 1949 0.21 1.45 0.05 0.37 0.44 3.02 0.26 1.81 - - 1950 .21 1.41 .06 .43 .43 R 2.95 .26 1.74 -3.6 1955 .19 1.12 .09 .54 .48 2.88 .27 R 1.63 -3.6 1960 .19 1.04 .13 .68 .50 2.67 .28 1.52 -2.3 1965 .18 .92 .15 .73 .49 R 2.47 .28 1.39 -1.5 1970 .27 1.09 .15 .63 .55 R 2.25 .32 1.31 .8 1975 .85 2.52 .40 1.20 1.32 3.94 .82 2.45 10.9 1976 .86 2.41 .53 R 1.49 1.41 3.98 .90 2.54 3.8 1977 .88 2.34 .72 R 1.91 1.48 3.91 1.01 2.67 5.1 1978 .98 2.43 .84 2.07 1.55 3.84 1.12 2.76 3.4 1979 1.06 R 2.41 1.08 2.47 2.18 4.98 1.42 R 3.23 17.3 1980 1.10 2.30 1.45 3.03 3.72 R 7.79 2.04 R 4.27 32.1 1981 1.18 R 2.26 1.80 R 3.43 5.48 R 10.48 R 2.74 R 5.25 22.9 1982 1.23 2.21

393

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Technically Recoverable Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Estimates, 2009 Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Total Technically Dry Natural Gas, Total Technically Recoverable Resources Recoverable Resources Crude Oil and Lease Condensate by Type Dry Natural Gas by Type 88 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 58% 25% 18% 48 States¹ Onshore 48 States¹ Offshore Alaska 20% 13% 13% 54% 48 States¹ Onshore 48 States¹ Offshore Gas Alaska Tight Gas, Shale Gas, and Coalbed Methane Total 220 billion barrels Reserves Resources Technically Recoverable Resources Total 2,203 trillion cubic feet 22 198 220 Proved Unproved Total 0 50 100 150 200 250 Billion Barrels 273 1,931 2,203 Proved Unproved Total 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Trillion Cubic Feet Reserves Technically Recoverable Resources

394

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 3.7 Value of Fossil Fuel Imports, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil 1 Petroleum Products 2 Total Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 1949 (s) 0.02 (s) 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.30 2.10 0.14 0.95 0.45 3.09 1950 (s) .02 .01 .04 .00 .00 .37 2.52 .21 R 1.46 .59 4.04 1955 (s) .02 (s) .01 (s) .01 .65 R 3.94 .44 2.66 1.10 6.64 1960 (s) .01 (s) .01 .03 .15 .90 4.81 .73 3.93 1.66 R 8.91 1965 (s) .01 (s) .01 .11 .53 1.12 5.62 .92 R 4.63 2.15 R 10.79 1970 (s) (s) (s) .01 .26 1.06 1.26 5.18 1.48 R 6.09 3.00 R 12.34 1975 .02 .06 .16 .47 1.15 3.43 18.29 R 54.45 6.77 R 20.15 26.39 R 78.56 1976 .02 .05 .11 .31 1.66 R 4.67 25.46 R 71.67 6.65 R 18.73 33.90 R 95.43 1977 .04 .10 .13 .35 2.00 R 5.29 33.59 R 88.91 8.42 R 22.28 44.18 R 116.93 1978 .07 .18 .41

395

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 3.4 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Natural Gas 2 Petroleum Retail Electricity 3 Total 4 Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Retail Electricity 3 Total 6,7 Coal Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Biomass 8 Retail Electricity 3 Total 7,9 Petroleum 5 Total 7,10 1970 1.06 1.54 6.51 2.10 0.75 R 0.90 6.09 1.97 0.45 0.38 0.98 1.59 2.99 0.84 2.31 2.31 1971 1.12 1.59 6.80 2.24 .80 1.02 6.44 2.15 .50 .41 1.05 1.59 3.22 R .93 2.37 2.37 1972 1.18 R 1.61 7.09 2.37 .86 1.05 6.71 2.32 .55 .46 1.05 1.59 3.40 .99 2.38 2.38 1973 1.26 R 2.09 7.44 2.71 .91 R 1.20 7.06 2.55 .63 .50 1.18 1.60 3.66 1.10 2.57 2.57 1974 1.42 2.85 9.09 3.38 1.05 R 2.25 8.91 R 3.40 1.22 .67 R 2.25 1.60 4.95 1.78 3.70 3.70 1975 1.67 R 3.02 10.29 3.80 1.32 R 2.39 10.11 R 4.06 1.50 .95 R 2.47 1.60 6.07

396

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 4.6 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory Wells, Selected Years, 1949-2010 Year Wells Drilled Successful Wells Footage Drilled 1 Average Footage Drilled Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas 3 Dry Holes 4 Total Number Percent Thousand Feet Feet per Well 1949 1,406 424 7,228 9,058 20.2 5,950 2,409 26,439 34,798 4,232 5,682 3,658 3,842 1950 1,583 431 8,292 10,306 19.5 6,862 2,356 30,957 40,175 4,335 5,466 3,733 3,898 1955 2,236 874 11,832 14,942 20.8 10,774 5,212 53,220 69,206 4,819 5,964 4,498 4,632 1960 1,321 868 9,515 11,704 18.7 6,829 5,466 43,535 55,831 5,170 6,298 4,575 4,770 1965 946 515 8,005 9,466 15.4 5,366 3,757 40,081 49,204 5,672 7,295 5,007 5,198 1970 757 477 6,162 7,396 16.7 4,729 3,678 35,123 43,530 6,247 7,695 5,700 5,885 1975 982 1,248 7,129 9,359 23.8 5,806

397

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Biomass Resources 6 Biomass Resources U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 113 Notes: * Data are for total biomass per square kilometer. * km 2 = square kilometer. * This study estimates the biomass resources currently available in the United States by county. It includes the following feedstock categories: crop residues (5 year average: 2003-2007), forest and primary mill residues (2007), secondary mill and urban wood waste (2002), methane emis- sions from landfills (2008), domestic wastewater treatment (2007), and animal manure (2002). For more information on the data development, please refer to http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39181.pdf. Although, the document contains the methodology for the development of an older assessment,

398

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments by Market Sector, End-Use, and Type, 2009 7 Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments by Market Sector, End-Use, and Type, 2009 End Use Market Sector Type of Collector End Use by Type of Collector 294 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Combined space and water heating. 2 Space heating, combined heating, and space cooling. 3 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 degrees Fahrenheit. 4 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees Fahrenheit but can also operate at temperatures as low as 110 degrees Fahrenheit. 5 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures above 180 degrees Fahrenheit. 6 Water heating and combined heating.

399

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 a Exact conversion. b Calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. c The Btu used in this table is the International Table Btu adopted by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam, London, 1956. d To convert degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) to degrees Celsius (ºC) exactly, subtract 32, then multiply by 5/9. Notes: * Spaces have been inserted after every third digit to the right of the decimal for ease of reading. * Most metric units belong to the International System of Units (SI), and the liter, hectare, and metric ton are accepted for use with the SI units. For more information about the SI units, see http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/index.html.

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 11.2a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Total Wood 6 Total 6 1949 121 55 51 21 7 80 66 321 99 99 1950 120 66 61 25 9 95 69 350 94 94 1955 83 117 87 27 13 127 110 436 73 73 1960 56 170 115 26 19 160 156 542 59 59 1965 34 214 125 24 24 174 223 644 44 44 1970 20 265 137 22 35 194 355 833 38 38 1975 6 266 132 12 32 176 419 867 40 40 1976 6 273 145 13 34 192 442 913 45 45 1977 5 261 146 12 33 191 478 935 51 51 1978 5 264 143 11 32 186 484 938 58 58 1979 4 268 119 10 21 150 496 918 68 68 1980 3 256 96 8 20 124 529 911 80 80 1981 3 245 84 6 19 109 522 878 82 82 1982 3 250 77 7 18 102 518 873 91 91 1983 3 238 68 6 22 95 531 867 91 91 1984 4 247 80 12 18 109 542 902 92 92 1985 4 241

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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401

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Selected years of data from 1949 through 1972 have been added to this table. For all years of data from 1949 through 2013, see the "Web Page" cited above. Table 7.6 Electricity End Use (Million Kilowatthours) Retail Sales a Direct Use f Total End Use g Discontinued Retail Sales Series Residential Commercial b Industrial c Transpor- tation d Total Retail Sales e Commercial (Old) h Other (Old) i 1950 Total .................... 72,200 E 65,971 146,479 E 6,793 291,443 NA 291,443 50,637 22,127 1955 Total .................... 128,401 E 102,547 259,974 E 5,826 496,748 NA 496,748 79,389 28,984 1960 Total .................... 201,463 E 159,144 324,402 E 3,066 688,075 NA 688,075 130,702 31,508 1965 Total .................... 291,013 E 231,126 428,727 E 2,923 953,789 NA 953,789

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) Coal Natural Gas b Petroleum Retail Electricity e Total f Distillate Fuel Oil c Kerosene LPG d Total 1973 Total .......................... 9 264 147 16 36 199 435 907 1975 Total .......................... 6 266 132 12 32 176 419 867 1980 Total .......................... 3 256 96 8 20 124 529 911 1985 Total .......................... 4 241 80 11 20 111 553 909 1990 Total .......................... 3 238 72 5 22 98 624 963 1995 Total .......................... 2 263 66 5 25 96 678 1,039 1996 Total .......................... 2 284 68 6 30 104 710 1,099 1997 Total .......................... 2 270 64 7 29 99 719 1,090 1998 Total .......................... 1 247 56 8 27 91 759 1,097 1999 Total ..........................

403

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Energy Review 2011 Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 5.1a Petroleum and Other Liquids Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year Production 1 Production as Share of Estimated Consumption Net Imports 2 Net Imports as Share of Estimated Consumption Balancing Item 3 Estimated Consumption 4 Thousand Barrels per Day Percent Thousand Barrels per Day Percent Thousand Barrels per Day 1949 5,475 95.0 318 5.5 -30 5,763 1950 5,908 91.5 545 8.4 5 6,458 1955 7,611 90.0 880 10.4 -37 8,455 1960 8,110 82.8 1,613 16.5 74 9,797 1965 9,234 80.2 2,281 19.8 -2 11,512 1970 11,656 79.3 3,161 21.5 -119 14,697 1975 10,467 64.1 5,846 35.8 8 16,322 1976 10,213 58.5 7,090 40.6 159 17,461 1977 10,387 56.4 8,565 46.5 -520 18,431 1978 10,771 57.2 8,002 42.5 74 18,847 1979 10,662 57.6 7,985 43.1 -135 18,513 1980 10,767 63.1 6,365 37.3 -76 17,056 1981 10,693 66.6 5,401 33.6 -31 16,063 1982 10,744 70.2 4,298

404

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methane Emissions Methane Emissions Total, 1980-2009 By Source, 2009 Energy Sources by Type 1980-2009 Agricultural Sources by Major Type, 1980-2009 310 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Chemical production, and iron and steel production. 2 Natural gas production, processing, and distribution. 3 Petroleum production, refining, and distribution. 4 Consumption of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and wood for heat or electricity. 5 Emissions from passenger cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, and other transport. 6 Methane emitted as a product of digestion in animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and swine. Source: Table 11.3. Sources Sources Management Processes¹ 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0 10 20 30 40 Million Metric Tons of Methane 12.1 8.6 8.3 0.2 Energy Agricultural

405

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

16 16 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 11.5b Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2010 (Subset of Table 11.5a; Thousand Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- thermal 5 Non- Biomass Waste 6 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total 1989 1,520,230 169,653 133,546 363 4,366 1,828,158 13,815 1 810 7 14,633 7,055 390 246 25 7,717 1990 1,534,141 177,232 101,800 384 5,795 1,819,351 13,576 1 628 13 14,218 6,878 390 175 36 7,480 1991 1,534,559 180,541 95,149 398 7,207 1,817,854 13,590 1 621 15 14,227 6,886 384 165 42 7,476 1992 1,556,741 187,730 79,153 400 8,476 1,832,501

406

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 1.7 Heating Degree-Days by Month, Selected Years, 1949-2011 Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Total 1949 858 701 611 330 128 21 7 9 94 209 503 763 4,234 1950 761 721 693 412 162 40 11 18 85 196 565 872 4,536 1955 927 759 600 272 121 48 9 6 56 237 600 886 4,521 1960 884 780 831 278 160 33 7 11 48 254 502 936 4,724 1965 907 780 738 355 114 48 11 14 78 271 494 739 4,549 1970 1,063 758 685 344 120 31 4 9 55 253 541 801 4,664 1975 821 742 686 449 117 37 5 13 100 235 462 805 4,472 1976 974 609 544 309 178 28 8 19 81 367 668 941 4,726 1977 1,188 751 529 270 119 38 6 13 59 295 493 844 4,605 1978 1,061 958 677 350 157 31 7 11 59 283 517 847 4,958 1979 1,079 950 575 364 148 37 6 15 58 271 528 750 4,781 1980 887 831 680 338 142 49 5 10 54 316 564 831 4,707 1981 984 689 620 260 165 25 6 11 76 327 504 845

407

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

85 85 a Exact conversion. b Calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Techni- cal Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices, NIST Handbook 44, 1994 Edition (Washington, DC, October 1993), pp. B-10, C-17 and C-21. cubic feet (ft 3 ) 128 a = 1 cord (cd) shorts tons 1.25 b = 1 cord (cd) Wood kilograms (kg) 1,000 a = 1 metric ton (t) pounds (lb) 2,240 a = 1 long ton pounds (lb) 2,000 a = 1 short ton Coal U.S. gallons (gal) 42 a = 1 barrel (bbl) Petroleum alent in Final Units Equiv Original Unit Energy Source

408

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table 12.7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Consumption (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide a ) By Source By Sector Wood b Biomass Waste c Fuel Ethanol d Bio- diesel Total Resi- dential Com- mercial e Indus- trial f Trans- portation Electric Power g Total 1973 Total ...................... 143 (s) NA NA 143 33 1 109 NA (s) 143 1975 Total ...................... 140 (s) NA NA 141 40 1 100 NA (s) 141 1980 Total ...................... 232 (s) NA NA 232 80 2 150 NA (s) 232 1985 Total ...................... 252 14 3 NA 270 95 2 168 3 1 270 1990 Total ...................... 208 24 4 NA 237 54 8 147 4 23 237 1995 Total ...................... 222 30 8 NA 260 49 9 166 8 28 260 1996 Total ......................

409

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Table A4. Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas (Btu per Cubic Foot) Production Consumption a Imports Exports Marketed Dry End-Use Sectors b Electric Power Sector c Total 1950 ............................ 1,119 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 - - 1,035 1955 ............................ 1,120 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1960 ............................ 1,107 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1965 ............................ 1,101 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 1970 ............................ 1,102 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1975 ............................ 1,095 1,021 1,020 1,026 1,021 1,026 1,014 1980 ............................ 1,098 1,026 1,024 1,035 1,026 1,022 1,013 1981 ............................

410

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants 3 Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 Total (All Sectors) by Source, 2011 By Sector, 1989-2011 By Sector, 2011 228 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). Sources: Tables 8.3a-8.3c. 543 522 296 103 37 36 16 Wood Natural Coal Other Waste Petroleum Other² 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Trillion Btu 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Quadrillion Btu Gases¹ 1.2 0.3 0.1 Industrial Electric Power Commercial 0.0 0.6

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption Total¹ 1949-2011 Economic Growth and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1949-2011 By Major Source, 1949-2011 By Biomass¹ Source, 2011 302 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 ¹ Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption are excluded from total emissions. See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. 2 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multi- plying by 12/44. 3 Based on chained (2005) dollars. Sources: Tables 1.5, 11.1, and 11.2a-11.2e. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Billion Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide² Real³ Gross Domestic Product Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 Selected years of data from 1949 through 1972 have been added to this table. For all years of data from 1949 through 2013, see the "Web Page" cited above. Table 3.8a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Trillion Btu) Residential Sector Commercial Sector a Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Total Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Motor Gasoline b Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total 1950 Total ........................ 829 347 146 1,322 262 47 39 100 NA 424 872 1955 Total ........................ 1,194 371 202 1,767 377 51 54 133 NA 480 1,095 1960 Total ........................ 1,568 354 305 2,227 494 48

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 3.2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Refinery and Blender Net Inputs a Refinery and Blender Net Production b Crude Oil d NGPL e Other Liquids f Total Distillate Fuel Oil g Jet Fuel h LPG c Motor Gasoline j Residual Fuel Oil Other Products k Total Propane i Total 1950 Average .................... 5,739 259 19 6,018 1,093 h ( ) NA 80 2,735 1,165 947 6,019 1955 Average .................... 7,480 345 32 7,857 1,651 155 NA 119 3,648 1,152 1,166 7,891 1960 Average .................... 8,067 455 61 8,583 1,823 241 NA 212 4,126 908 1,420 8,729 1965 Average .................... 9,043 618 88 9,750 2,096 523 NA 293 4,507 736 1,814 9,970 1970 Average .................... 10,870 763 121 11,754 2,454 827 NA 345 5,699 706 2,082 12,113 1975 Average ....................

414

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20 1986 - - 37,976 64,561 32,807 28,036 - - - - 18,850 - - - - 101,849 33,877 279,980 28,730 76,171 422,857 NA 1987 - - 41,902 68,118 35,775 30,606 - - - - 19,335 - - - - 105,476 34,472 293,782 31,399 81,182 448,265 NA 1988 - - 42,951 67,771 36,363 30,631 - - - - 20,162 - - - -

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 3.4 Petroleum Stocks (Million Barrels) Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil f Jet Fuel g LPG b Motor Gasoline i Residual Fuel Oil Other j Total SPR c Non-SPR d,e Total e Propane h Total 1950 Year ..................... - - 248 248 72 g ( ) NA 2 116 41 104 583 1955 Year ..................... - - 266 266 111 3 NA 7 165 39 123 715 1960 Year ..................... - - 240 240 138 7 NA 23 195 45 137 785 1965 Year ..................... - - 220 220 155 19 NA 30 175 56 181 836 1970 Year ..................... - - 276 276 195 28 NA 67 209 54 188 1,018 1975 Year ..................... - - 271 271 209 30 82 125 235 74 188 1,133 1980 Year ..................... 108 358 466 205 42 65 120 261 92 205 1,392 1985 Year ..................... 493 321 814 144 40 39 74 223 50 174 1,519 1990 Year ..................... 586 323 908 132 52 49 98 220 49 162 1,621 1995 Year .....................

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 Table 10.1 Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source (Trillion Btu) Production a Consumption Biomass Total Renew- able Energy d Hydro- electric Power e Geo- thermal f Solar/ PV g Wind h Biomass Total Renew- able Energy Bio- fuels b Total c Wood i Waste j Bio- fuels k Total 1950 Total .................... NA 1,562 2,978 1,415 NA NA NA 1,562 NA NA 1,562 2,978 1955 Total .................... NA 1,424 2,784 1,360 NA NA NA 1,424 NA NA 1,424 2,784 1960 Total .................... NA 1,320 2,928 1,608 (s) NA NA 1,320 NA NA 1,320 2,928 1965 Total .................... NA 1,335 3,396 2,059 2 NA NA 1,335 NA NA 1,335 3,396 1970 Total .................... NA 1,431 4,070 2,634 6 NA NA 1,429 2 NA 1,431 4,070 1975 Total .................... NA

417

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditure Indicators, Selected Years, 1979-2003 0 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditure Indicators, Selected Years, 1979-2003 Buildings by Energy Source Used Consumption Consumption per Square Foot Square Footage per Building by Expenditures Expenditures Per Square Foot Energy Source Used 62 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Electricity only; excludes electrical system energy losses. 2 Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and kerosene. 3 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Note: For years not shown, there are no data available. Source: Table 2.10. District Heat 1979 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1999 2003 0 1 2 3 4 5 Thousands of Buildings 1979 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1999 2003 0 25 50 75 100 125 Thousand Btu Fuel Oil² 1979 1983 1986

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 3.9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil Petroleum Products 1 Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 -0.29 R -2.03 (s) -0.03 (s) -0.01 0.21 1.42 -0.32 -2.24 -0.42 -2.89 1950 -.27 -1.82 (s) -.01 (s) -.02 .27 1.82 -.18 -1.23 -.18 -1.26 1955 -.48 R -2.90 -.01 -.04 -.01 -.03 .62 3.71 -.16 -.95 -.04 -.22 1960 -.35 -1.89 -.01 -.03 .02 .13 .89 4.77 .26 1.42 .82 4.40 1965 -.48 R -2.38 -.01 -.07 .10 .49 1.11 R 5.59 .48 2.43 1.21 R 6.05 1970 -.96 -3.95 -.08 -.31 .23 R .93 1.24 R 5.10 .98 4.03 1.41 5.81 1975 -3.24 -9.64 .08 .24 1.06 3.16 18.29 R 54.45 5.76 R 17.15 21.96 R 65.36 1976 -2.89 R -8.14 .04 .12 1.56 4.39 25.43 R 71.59 5.58 R 15.71 29.72 R 83.68 1977 -2.62 R -6.92 .06 .16 1.89 R 5.01 33.38 R 88.35 7.28

419

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells Total Wells Drilled, 1949-2010 Total Wells Drilled by Type, 1949-2010 Successful Wells, 1949-2010 Wells Drilled, 2010 Footage Drilled, 2010 Average Depth, 2010 96 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Data are for exploratory and development wells combined. Sources: Tables 4.5-4.7. Total¹ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 25 50 75 100 Thousand Wells 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 Thousand Wells 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Total¹ Development Exploratory Development Exploratory Natural Gas Wells Crude Oil Wells Dry Holes 16.3 17.0 4.3 15.6 15.9 3.2 0.7 1.0 1.1 Crude Oil Natural Gas Dry Holes 0 5 10 15 20 Thousand Wells Exploratory Development Total 101 147 22 95 138 16 6 9 6 Crude Oil

420

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table 5.24 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Gallon) Year Motor Gasoline by Grade Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Type On-Highway Diesel Fuel Leaded Regular Unleaded Regular Unleaded Premium All Grades Conventional Gasoline Areas 1,2 Reformulated Gasoline Areas 3,4 All Areas Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Nominal 5 Nominal 5 Nominal 5 1949 0.268 R 1.848 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1950 .268 R 1.829 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1955 .291 R 1.753 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1960 .311 R 1.671 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1965 .312 R 1.565 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1970 .357 R 1.467 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3) 3) Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of recent and historical energy statistics. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; and data unit conversions. Release of the MER is in keeping with responsibilities given to EIA in Public Law 95-91 (Depart- ment of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2): "The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehen- sive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evalu- ate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information...."

422

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table 2.1d Industrial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Trillion Btu) Year Primary Consumption 1 Electricity Retail Sales 11 Electrical System Energy Losses 12 Total Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy 2 Total Primary Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4,5 Total Hydroelectric Power 6 Geothermal 7 Solar/PV 8 Wind 9 Biomass 10 Total 1949 5,433 -7 3,188 3,475 12,090 76 NA NA NA 468 544 12,633 418 1,672 14,724 1950 5,781 1 3,546 3,960 13,288 69 NA NA NA 532 602 13,890 500 1,852 16,241 1955 5,620 -10 4,701 5,123 15,434 38 NA NA NA 631 669 16,103 887 2,495 19,485 1960 4,543 -6 5,973 5,766 16,277 39 NA NA NA 680 719 16,996 1,107 2,739 20,842 1965 5,127 -18 7,339 6,813 19,260 33 NA NA NA 855 888 20,148 1,463 3,487 25,098

423

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table 5.2 Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, Selected Years, 1954-2011 Year Crude Oil Production Crude Oil Well 1 Productivity 48 States 2 Alaska 3 Total Onshore Offshore Total Producing Wells 4 Average Productivity 5 Federal State Total Thousand Barrels per Day Thousand Barrels per Day Thousands Barrels per Day per Well 1954 6,342 0 6,342 6,209 NA NA 133 6,342 511 12.4 1955 6,807 0 6,807 6,645 NA NA 162 6,807 524 13.0 1960 7,034 2 7,035 6,716 NA NA 319 7,035 591 11.9 1965 7,774 30 7,804 7,140 NA NA 665 7,804 589 13.2 1970 9,408 229 9,637 8,060 NA NA 1,577 9,637 531 18.1 1975 8,183 191 8,375 7,012 NA NA 1,362 8,375 500 16.8 1976 7,958 173 8,132 6,868 NA NA 1,264 8,132 499 16.3 1977 7,781 464 8,245 7,069 NA NA 1,176 8,245 507 16.3 1978 7,478 1,229 8,707 7,571 NA NA 1,136 8,707 517 16.8 1979 7,151 1,401 8,552

424

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Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Year Approximate Heat Rates 1 for Electricity Net Generation Heat Content 10 of Electricity 11 Fossil Fuels 2 Nuclear 8 Noncombustible Renewable Energy 7,9 Coal 3 Petroleum 4 Natural Gas 5 Total Fossil Fuels 6,7 1949 NA NA NA 15,033 - - 15,033 3,412 1950 NA NA NA 14,030 - - 14,030 3,412 1955 NA NA NA 11,699 - - 11,699 3,412 1960 NA NA NA 10,760 11,629 10,760 3,412 1965 NA NA NA 10,453 11,804 10,453 3,412 1970 NA NA NA 10,494 10,977 10,494 3,412 1975 NA NA NA 10,406 11,013 10,406 3,412 1976 NA NA NA 10,373 11,047 10,373 3,412 1977 NA NA NA 10,435 10,769

425

Word Pro - S3  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review December 2013 Table 3.3c Petroleum Trade: Imports From OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Algeria a Angola b Ecuador c Iraq Kuwait d Libya e Nigeria f Saudi Arabia d Vene- zuela Other g Total OPEC 1960 Average ...................... a ( ) b ( ) c ( ) 22 182 e ( ) f ( ) 84 911 34 1,233 1965 Average ...................... a ( ) b ( ) c ( ) 16 74 42 f ( ) 158 994 155 1,439 1970 Average ...................... 8 b ( ) c ( ) 0 48 47 f ( ) 30 989 172 1,294 1975 Average ...................... 282 b ( ) 57 2 16 232 762 715 702 832 3,601 1980 Average ...................... 488 b ( ) 27 28 27 554 857 1,261 481 577 4,300 1985 Average ...................... 187 b ( ) 67 46 21 4 293 168 605 439 1,830 1990 Average ...................... 280 b ( ) 49 518 86 0 800 1,339 1,025 199 4,296 1995 Average ......................

426

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Table 8.2d Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.2a; Billion Kilowatthours) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage 5 Renewable Energy Other 9 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power Biomass Geo- themal Solar/PV 8 Wind Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Commercial Sector 10 1989 0.7 0.6 2.2 0.1 3.6 - - 0.1 0.1 0.5 - - - 0.7 - 4.3 1990 .8 .6 3.3 .1 4.8 - - .1 .1 .8 - - - 1.1 - 5.8 1995 1.0 .4 5.2 - 6.5 - - .1 .1 1.5 - - - 1.7 (s) 8.2 1996 1.1 .4 5.2 (s) 6.7 - - .1 .1 2.2 - - - 2.4 (s) 9.0 1997 1.0 .4 4.7 (s) 6.2 - - .1 (s) 2.3 - - - 2.5 (s) 8.7 1998 1.0 .4 4.9 (s) 6.3 - - .1 (s) 2.3 - - - 2.5 - 8.7 1999 1.0 .4 4.6 (s) 6.0

427

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table 7.6 Coal Stocks by Sector, Selected Years, End of Year 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Producers and Distributors Consumers Total Residential and Commercial Sectors Industrial Sector Transportation Sector Electric Power Sector 2 Total Coke Plants Other 1 Total 1949 NA 1.4 10.0 16.1 26.0 3 ( ) 22.1 49.5 49.5 1950 NA 2.5 16.8 26.2 43.0 3 ( ) 31.8 77.3 77.3 1955 NA 1.0 13.4 15.9 29.3 3 ( ) 41.4 71.7 71.7 1960 NA .7 11.1 11.6 22.8 3 ( ) 51.7 75.2 75.2 1965 NA .4 10.6 13.1 23.8 3 ( ) 54.5 78.6 78.6 1970 NA .3 9.0 11.8 20.8 3 ( ) 71.9 93.0 93.0 1975 12.1 .2 8.8 8.5 17.3 3 ( ) 110.7 128.3 140.4 1976 14.2 .2 9.9 7.1 17.0 3 ( ) 117.4 134.7 148.9 1977 14.2 .2 12.8 11.1 23.9 3 ( ) 133.2 157.3 171.5 1978 20.7 .4 8.3 9.0 17.3 NA 128.2 145.9 166.6 1979 20.8 .3 10.2 11.8 21.9 NA 159.7 182.0 202.8 1980 24.4 NA 9.1 12.0 21.0 NA 183.0 204.0 228.4 1981

428

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Table 8.2b Electricity Net Generation: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Subset of Table 8.2a; Billion Kilowatthours) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage 5 Renewable Energy Other 10 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 6 Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 9 Wind Total Wood 7 Waste 8 1949 135.5 28.5 37.0 NA 201.0 0.0 6 ( ) 89.7 0.4 NA NA NA NA 90.1 NA 291.1 1950 154.5 33.7 44.6 NA 232.8 .0 6 ( ) 95.9 .4 NA NA NA NA 96.3 NA 329.1 1955 301.4 37.1 95.3 NA 433.8 .0 6 ( ) 113.0 .3 NA NA NA NA 113.3 NA 547.0 1960 403.1 48.0 158.0 NA 609.0 .5 6 ( ) 145.8 .1 NA (s) NA NA 146.0 NA 755.5 1965

429

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

P F P F Ma r c h 2 0 1 2 Mo n t h l y E n e r g y R e v i e w w w w K e i ~ K g o v L me r Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of recent and historical energy statistics. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions. Release of the MER is in keeping with responsibilities given to EIA in Public Law 95-91 (Depart- ment of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2): "The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehen-

430

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Table 7.2 Coal Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1...

431

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 255 Table 8.10 Average Retail Prices of Electricity, Selected Years, 1960-2011 (Cents per Kilowatthour, Including Taxes) Year...

432

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Figure 2.9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source By Survey Year, 1979-2003 By Census Region, 2003 60 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011...

433

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equip- ment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. Source: Table 8.9....

434

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. 7 The sum of "Total...

435

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. RRevised....

436

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and PV energy used in the commercial, industrial, and electric power sectors. 4 Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. 5 Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources,...

437

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solarphotovoltaic, wind, and biomass. Note: * See "Primary Energy Consumption" in...

438

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas (Dry) Crude Oil 3 NGPL 4 Total Hydro- electric Power 6 Geothermal 7 SolarPV 8 Wind 9 Biomass 10 Total 1949 11.974 5.377 10.683 0.714 28.748 0.000...

439

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Wind, petroleum, wood, waste, geothermal, other gases, solar thermal and photovoltaic, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch,...

440

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Renewable Energy. Noncombustible renewable energy is the sum of hydroelectric power, geothermal, solarPV, and wind. In Table 1.3, total primary consumption of noncombustible...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Imports 11 Total Primary Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Total Hydroelectric Power 6 Geothermal 7 SolarPV 8 Wind 9 Biomass 10 Total 1949 1,995 569 415 2,979 0 1,349 NA NA NA 6...

442

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Energy 2 Total Primary Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4,5 Total Hydroelectric Power 6 Geothermal 7 SolarPV 8 WInd 9 Biomass 10 Total 1949 1,554 360 735 2,649 NA NA NA NA 20 20...

443

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate-see Table A6); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate-see...

444

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy 2 Total Primary Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Total Geothermal 5 SolarPV 6 Biomass 7 Total 1949 1,272 1,027 1,106 3,405 NA NA 1,055 1,055 4,460...

445

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 4 Geothermal electricity net generation. 5 Wood and wood-derived fuels. 6 Solar thermal and...

446

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Trillion Btu) Year Hydroelectric Power 1 Geothermal 2 SolarPV 3 Wind 4 Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Total 1949 1,349 NA NA NA 6 NA 6...

447

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Natural Gas." Beginning in 1996, data are from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Natural Gas Imports. * 1949-1972: Assumed by...

448

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Refinery and Blender Net Inputs 1 Refinery and Blender Net Production 2 Processing Gain Crude Oil 3 Natural Gas Plant...

449

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Note 1. Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs. Begin- ning with January 1981, refiner acquisition costs of crude oil are from data collected on U.S. Energy Information...

450

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Quadrillion Btu) Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1949-2012 Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, Monthly By Sector, June 2013 22 Energy...

451

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Table 6.7 Natural Gas Wellhead, Citygate, and Imports Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Wellhead 1 Citygate 2 Imports Nominal 3 Real 4...

452

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quadrillion Btu Natural Gas Electrical Losses Electrical Losses Electrical Losses Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Coal Renewable Energy Coal Petroleum Electricity...

453

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Average Retail Prices of Electricity Total, 1960-2011 By Sector, 2011 By Sector, Nominal Prices, 1960-2011 By Sector, Real 1 Prices, 1960-2011 254 U.S. Energy Information...

454

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Primary Energy 2 Electric Power Sector 11,12 Retail Electricity 13 Total...

455

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

7 Appendix C Figure C1. U.S. Census Regions and Divisions Note: Map not to scale. Web Page: See www.census.govgeowwwusregdiv.pdf. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of...

456

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 Onshore Wind Resources 110 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Notes: * Data are annual average wind speed at 80 meters. * ms meters per second....

457

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Offshore Wind Resources U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 111 Notes: * Data are annual average wind speed at 90 meters. * ms meters per...

458

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Table 8.7a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.7b and 8.7c) Year Coal 1...

459

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants by Sector, 1989-2011 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Wood and Waste 242 U.S....

460

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Table 8.7c Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011...

462

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gas, still gas, manufactured gas, biomass gas, or air or inert gases added for British thermal unit (Btu) stabilization. Annual data beginning with 1980 are from the U.S. Energy...

463

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, 1989-2011 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Wood and Waste 246 U.S. Energy Information...

464

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2011 Table 8.7b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.7a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum...

465

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Nuclear Power Plant Operations Total Electricity and Nuclear Electricity Net Generation, 1957-2011 Nuclear Share of Total Electricity Net Generation, 1957-2011 Net Summer Capacity...

466

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

fuels consumed to produce electricity. Data also include fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a small number of electric utility combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants....

467

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

9 Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries Total, 1973-2011 By Selected Country, 2011 By Selected OPEC Country, 1973-2011 By Selected Non-OPEC Country,...

468

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3 Table 5.19 Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Dollars 1 per Barrel) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries...

469

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 Summary Composite Costs Domestic Costs Imported Costs 166 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 1 See...

470

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

which began in 1977. Crude oil stocks in the SPR include non-U.S. stocks held under foreign or commercial storage agreements. 2 All crude oil and lease condensate stocks...

471

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Table 5.3 Petroleum Imports by Type, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Crude Oil 1,2 Petroleum Products Total Petroleum Asphalt and Road Oil Distillate...

472

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area Type and On-Highway Diesel Fuel, 2011 Motor Gasoline by Grade, 1949-2011 Motor Gasoline Price and Consumption, 1978-2011, Indexed to 1978 172 U.S. Energy Information...

473

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Table 5.14a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption Estimates: Residential and Commercial Sectors, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Trillion Btu) Year Residential Sector Commercial...

474

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Products Supplied Petroleum Products Supplied as Share Total Petroleum and Motor Gasoline Product Supplied, of Total Energy Consumption, 1949-2011 1949-2011 By Product,...

475

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Table 3.8a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Trillion Btu) Residential Sector Commercial Sector a Distillate Fuel Oil Kerosene Liquefied...

476

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

subbituminous coal, and lignite. 2 Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1973-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal combustion plant stocks of petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric...

477

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,4 Total Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 1949 2.52 R 17.37 0.33 2.24 4.68 R 32.27 7.52 R 51.88 1950 2.91 R 19.84 .44 3.00 4.95 R 33.80 8.30 R...

478

Word Pro - S10  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl MMgal TBtu 2001 Total ... 1 (s) 204 9 1 R 81 R 41 R 40 NA NA NA R 244 10 1 2002 Total ... 1 (s) 250 10 1 R 197 R...

479

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 1949 - - - - NA NA NA NA 2.54 R 17.52 1950 - - - - NA NA NA NA 2.51 R 17.13 1955 - - - - NA NA NA NA 2.77 R 16.69 1960...

480

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 0 10 20 30 40 Million Short Tons Indonesia 10% Canada 9% Total 13.1 million short tons Canada 13% Colombia 73% Venezuela 6%...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen pro cess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

9 Table 5.13d Petroleum Consumption Estimates: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Electric Power Sector 1 Electricity Only Combined...

482

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

41 Table 8.5d Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Selected Years, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.5a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum...

483

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Petroleum Consumption Estimates: Transportation and Electric Power Sectors, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Trillion Btu) Year Transportation Sector Electric Power Sector 1 Aviation...

484

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

7 Table 6.5 Natural Gas Consumption by Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Cubic Feet) Year Residential Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Transportation Sector...

485

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Million Btu per Short Ton) Year Coal Coal Coke Production 1 Waste Coal Supplied 2 Consumption Imports Exports Imports and Exports Residential and Commercial Sectors Industrial...

486

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.13a Petroleum Consumption Estimates: Residential and Commercial Sectors, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Residential Sector Commercial Sector...

487

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Table 5.13b Petroleum Consumption Estimates: Industrial Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Industrial Sector Asphalt and Road Oil Distillate Fuel...

488

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

power producers)-consumption for electric generation and useful thermal output at electricity-only and CHP plants within the North American Industry Classification System...

489

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 2.10 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditure Indicators, Selected Years, 1979-2003 Energy Source and Year Building Characteristics Energy Consumption Energy...

490

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Natural Gas, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Btu per Cubic Foot) Year Production Consumption 1 Imports Exports Marketed Dry End-Use Sectors 2 Electric Power Sector 3 Total 1949...

491

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Review 2011 177 1 Includes natural gas gross withdrawals from coalbed wells and shale gas wells. 2 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data...

492

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Table 7.5 Coal Exports by Country of Destination, Selected Years, 1960-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Canada Brazil Europe Japan Other 3 Total Belgium 1 Denmark France Germany 2...

493

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

12 Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet 4 Power 5 Residential Industrial Commercial Electric Power Vehicle Fuel 6 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 12...

494

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Review 2011 125 2 123 5 9 7 112 Feedstock Losses and Production Imports Exports Stock Consumption 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Trillion Btu Change Co-Products 2 2001 2002 2003...

495

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Data Report, Coke and Coal Chemicals, annual reports. * 1981-2004-EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) October-December, quarterly reports. * 2005 forward-EIA, QCR...

496

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Development Wells, 1949-2010 Development Wells Drilled by Well Type Development Footage Drilled by Well Type Development Wells Average Depth, All Wells...

497

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, 1954-2011 Crude Oil Production by Location Number of Producing Wells Crude Oil Production, 48 States and Alaska Crude Oil...

498

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b Petroleum Overview Overview, 1949-2011 Overview, 2011 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Field Production, 1949-2011 Trade, 1949-2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration...

499

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Consumption Biomass Total Renewable Energy 4 Hydro- electric Power 5 Geo- thermal 6 SolarPV 7 Wind 8 Biomass Total Renewable Energy Biofuels 2 Total 3 Wood 9 Waste 10...

500

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

expenditures. * There are no direct fuel costs for hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, or solar energy. * Totals may not equal the sum of components due to independent rounding....