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1

Rich catalytic injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

4

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

5

Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Catalytic ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum wire is experimentally studied by using microcalorimetry and by restricting the flow to the low Reynolds number range so that axisymmetry prevails. The fuels studied are propane, butane, propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Parameters investigated include flow velocity, fuel type and concentration, and oxygen concentration. The catalytic ignition temperatures of the various fuels are accurately determined over extensive ranges of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen concentrations. Results show two distinctly opposite ignition trends depending on the nature of the fuel. That is, the ignition temperature of lean propane/air and butane/air mixtures decreases as their fuel concentration is increased, while the reverse trend is observed for lean mixtures of propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with air. Furthermore, the ignition of propane depends primarily on fuel concentration, while the ignition of carbon monoxide depends on fuel and oxygen concentrations to a comparable extent. These results are explained on the basis of hierarchical surface adsorption strengths of the different reactants in effecting catalytic ignition. Additional phenomena of interest are observed and discussed.

Cho, P.; Law, C.K.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Injectable polymer for in vivo oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis documents the synthesis and characterization of an elastomeric polymer that is oxygen sensitive and can be interrogated using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Magnetic Resonance (MR) technology to report the ...

Imaad, Syed M. (Syed Muhammad)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive in a continuous flow reactor: Process optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive in a continuous flow reactor: Process optimization Malaya R. Nanda a , Zhongshun Yuan a , Wensheng Qin b , Hassan S. Ghaziaskar c , Marc for synthesis of solketal from glycerol was optimized. A maximum yield of 94 ± 2% was obtained at optimum

Qin, Wensheng

11

Aligned carbon nanotube with electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for an electro-chemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of a bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes having a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally in said nanotubes. A method of making an electro-chemical catalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) having a bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes, where a substrate is in a first reaction zone, and a combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into the first reaction zone which is maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is then introduced to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes over the substrate with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

12

The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia in the presence of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supporting the authors conclusions. Kato, et al. (1981 a) studied the catalytic activity of' iron oxide-titanium oxide catalysts with Fe/Ti atonuc ratios of 1/9 for the NO ? NHs ? Oz reaction. No NqO ivas detected in the reaction products, regardless... of the fact that an excess of oxygen ivas present in each reaction stuay. Nitric oxide and ammonia reacted stoichiometrically, regardless of the oxygen concentration, the space velocity, the temperature or the presence of SOz and HqO. The rate...

Gruber, Karen Ann

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. (Center de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.

Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.

Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

18

NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

NOx formation in the combustion of solid hydrocarbonaceous fuel such as coal is reduced by obtaining, from the incoming feed stream of fuel solids and air, a stream having a ratio of fuel solids to air that is higher than that of the feed steam, and injecting the thus obtained stream and a small amount of oxygen to a burner where the fuel solids are combusted.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

19

Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for production of synthesis gas employing a catalytic membrane reactor wherein the membrane comprises a mixed metal oxide material.

Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hoe Creek No. 3 - First long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground experiment, linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, and then the forward gasification process was started - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, about 3900 tons of coal were gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons per day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/scf, suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is about 900 Btu/scf.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Kinetics of oxygen interstitial injection and lattice exchange in rutile TiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existence of a facile surface pathway for generation of O interstitials (O{sub i}) in rutile that can facilitate annihilation of O undesirable vacancies has been demonstrated recently. Through isotopic self-diffusion experiments, the present work determines a value of approximately 1.8?eV for the activation energy of O{sub i} injection from TiO{sub 2} (110). The mean path length for O{sub i} diffusion decreases by nearly an order of magnitude upon adsorption of 0.1 monolayer of sulfur. Sulfur apparently inhibits the surface annihilation rate of Ti interstitials, lowering their bulk concentration and the corresponding catalytic effect they seem to exert upon O{sub i} exchange with the lattice.

Gorai, Prashun; Hollister, Alice G.; Pangan-Okimoto, Kristine; Seebauer, Edmund G., E-mail: eseebaue@illinois.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

22

Study of iron structure stability in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic with oxygen injection using molecular dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion of structural materials in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic is a major problem for design of PbBi cooled reactor. One technique to inhibit corrosion process is to inject oxygen into coolant. In this paper we study and focus on a way of inhibiting the corrosion of iron using molecular dynamics method. For the simulation results we concluded that effective corrosion inhibition of iron may be achieved by injection 0.0532 wt% to 0.1156 wt% oxygen into liquid lead-bismuth. At this oxygen concentration the structure of iron material will be maintained at about 70% in bcc crystal structure during interaction with liquid metal.

Arkundato, Artoto [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Jember University, Jl. Kalimantan 37 Jember (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia); Sudarko [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Jember University, Jl. Kalimantan 37 Jember (Indonesia); Shafii, Mohammad Ali [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang (Indonesia); Celino, Massimo [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

23

Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

Mather, Daniel

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

24

Evidence of the production of hot hydrogen atoms in RF plasmas by catalytic reactions between hydrogen and oxygen species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selective H-atom line broadening was found to be present throughout the volume (13.5 cm ID x 38 cm length) of RF generated H2O plasmas in a GEC cell. Notably, at low pressures (ca. hydrogen was 'hot' with energies greater than 40 eV with a pressure dependence, but only a weak power dependence. The degree of broadening was virtually independent of the position studied within the GEC cell, similar to the recent finding for He/H2 and Ar/H2 plasmas in the same GEC cell. In contrast to the atomic hydrogen lines, no broadening was observed in oxygen species lines at low pressures. Also, in control Xe/H2 plasmas run in the same cell at similar pressures and adsorbed power, no significant broadening of atomic hydrogen, Xe, or any other lines was observed. Stark broadening or acceleration of charged species due to high electric fields can not explain the results since (i) the electron density was insufficient by orders of magnitude, (ii) the RF field was essentially confined to the cathode fall region in contrast to the broadening that was independent of position, and (iii) only the atomic hydrogen lines were broadened. Rather, all of the data is consistent with a model that claims specific, predicted, species can act catalytically through a resonant energy transfer mechanism to create hot hydrogen atoms in plasmas.

Jonathan Phillips; Chun Ku Chen; Randell Mills

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

25

Performance of a Multistream Injection Chemical OxygenIodine Laser with Starlet Ejectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and has the potential for higher pressure recovery. Pressures in the singlet-oxygen generator were technology development to date has focused on the singlet-oxygen generator (SOG). The liquid SOG technology- oxygen generation and transport efficiency. The idea of the starlet nozzle concept stems originally from

Carroll, David L.

26

Hoe Creek No. 3: first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are compelling reasons for pursuing underground coal gasification. The resource that could be exploited is huge - enough to quadruple present proved coal reserves - if the process is successful. Cost estimates indicate that substitute natural gas or gasoline may be producible at reasonable prices by the technique. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, then the forward gasification process began - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, approximately 3900 tons of coal was gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons/day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/SCF (194 kj/mol), suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is approximately 900 Btu/SCF (800 kj/mol).

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

30

Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

31

Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

33

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Alexoff, David (Westhampton, NY)

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

34

Temperature-dependent oxygen release, intercalation behaviour and catalytic properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Temperature dependent oxygen loss and uptake of V{sub 2,38}Nb{sub 10,7}O{sub 32,7} in N{sub 2} (p(O{sub 2}) = 4 x 10{sup -5} bar) and IR spectra of gas mixtures after the reactor with V{sub 2,38}Nb{sub 10,7}O{sub 32,7} (A = 16.1 m{sup 2}/g) and propane. Highlights: {yields} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5} complex oxide compounds as catalysts. {yields} The (V, Nb){sub 2}O{sub 5} phases are able to a reversible release and uptake of oxygen without a structural variation. {yields} Metastable (V, Nb){sub 2}O{sub 5} phases are able to catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and propene. {yields} Thermodynamically stable VNb{sub 9}O{sub 25} phase shows no measurable catalytic activity. -- Abstract: In order to investigate the catalytic properties, V{sub 2,38}Nb{sub 10,7}O{sub 32,7}, VNb{sub 9}O{sub 25} and solid solutions of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in TT-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} were prepared by thermal decomposition of freeze-dried oxalate precursors. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction and surface area determination. The crystalline samples are capable of the intercalation of sodium and lithium ions from solution. Above a temperature of about 500 {sup o}C, in dependence on the oxygen partial pressure a reversible release and uptake of oxygen without a structural variation takes place. The catalytic properties have been evaluated for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane and propene. There are only small differences in the catalytic activity of the different crystalline samples. Because of the relative high starting temperature, a selective catalytic oxidation of propane to propene is hardly observed.

Boerrnert, Carina [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Zosel, Jens [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e. V. Meinsberg, Kurt-Schwabe-Str. 4, D-04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf (Germany)] [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e. V. Meinsberg, Kurt-Schwabe-Str. 4, D-04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf (Germany); Polte, Annette; Wenzel, Roswitha [Fachrichtung Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz Str. 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)] [Fachrichtung Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz Str. 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Guth, Ulrich [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e. V. Meinsberg, Kurt-Schwabe-Str. 4, D-04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf (Germany)] [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e. V. Meinsberg, Kurt-Schwabe-Str. 4, D-04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf (Germany); Langbein, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Langbein@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Fachrichtung Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz Str. 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)] [Fachrichtung Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz Str. 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Molecular oxygen adsorbates at a Au/Ni(111) surface alloy and their role in catalytic CO oxidation at 70 - 250 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen is observed to adsorb molecularly on 0.13 - 0.27 ML Au/Ni(1 111) surface alloys at 77 K, in stark contrast to dissociative adsorption on Ni and no adsorption on Au surfaces. Molecular 02 adsorbates on the Au/Ni(111) ...

Lahr, David Louis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

38

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

40

Catalytic Coherence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to conservation of energy we cannot directly turn a quantum system with a definite energy into a superposition of different energies. However, if we have access to an additional resource in terms of a system with a high degree of coherence, as for standard models of laser light, we can overcome this limitation. The question is to what extent coherence gets degraded when utilized. Here it is shown that coherence can be turned into a catalyst, meaning that we can use it repeatedly without ever diminishing its power to enable coherent operations. This finding stands in contrast to the degradation of other quantum resources, and has direct consequences for quantum thermodynamics, as it shows that latent energy that may be locked into superpositions of energy eigenstates can be released catalytically.

Johan Aberg

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oxygen enriched fireflooding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both pure oxygen and enriched air have been considered in fireflooding for enhanced oil recovery. Laboratory and field testing have conclusively shown that oxygen is practical and cost effective for this application. For reservoirs that require a large volume of high pressure gas, oxygen is cheaper than air simply based on compression costs. Additional process benefits with oxygen include: Faster Oil Production; Lower Injection Pressure; Greater Well Spacing; Increased Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure; Lower Gas-to-Oil Ratios; and Purer Produced Gas. These features provide a compelling case for oxygen, once the safety and materials compatibility issues are properly addressed.

Shahani, G.H.; Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

Seth, Manu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Task Technical Plan for Studies of Oxygen Consumption in the Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Tetraphenylborate Ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the plan for studies of how dissolved oxygen affects the catalytic decomposition of the tetraphenylborate ion in alkaline aqueous solution.

Fink, S.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl-Substituted Phenols: Correlations of Kinetic Parameters with Molecular Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction As a result of increasing environmental concerns, catalytic hydrotreating has become an important, oil shale, and tar sands would render the hydrotreating of oxygen-containing com- pounds, mostly

Simons, Jack

48

Catalytic nanoporous membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

49

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

52

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

54

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

55

Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

56

Catalytic hydrodesulfurization of bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigations of the catalytic hydrodesulfurization of Venezuela bitumen and its water emulsion (Orimulsion) were carried out. This material contained a large amount of sulfur and organometallics, such as vanadium and nickel compounds. A variety of nickel and molybdenum catalysts were prepared. These, as well as two commercial catalysts, were tested with Orimulsion and vacuum-dried, pentane-insoluble and soluble bitumen. Catalytic hydrotreatment removed up to 75% of sulfur from the bitumen. Hydrodesulfurization was found to be affected by reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst, and feed material. Moisture-free bitumen and a pentane-soluble bitumen fraction were desulfurized more effectively than Orimulsion. Zeolite-based catalysts gave higher desulfurization than synthetic clay catalysts.

Sharma, R.K.; Olson, E.S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Concentric catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

Bruck, Gerald J. (Oviedo, FL); Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

Experimental and numerical study of the behavior of three-way catalytic converters under different engine operation conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis reports the studies on how the three-way catalytic converters behave under different operation conditions. The main focus of the work is in the oxygen storage capacity of the three-way catalyst. Rich-to-lean ...

Zhang, Yuetao

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Active Oxygen on Au/TiO2 Catalysts DOI: 10.1002/anie.201102062 Active oxygen on a Au/TiO2 catalyst Formation, stability and CO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Active Oxygen on Au/TiO2 Catalysts DOI: 10.1002/anie.201102062 Active oxygen on a Au/TiO2 are the activation of molecular oxygen, the active site for this reaction step, and the nature of the catalytically active oxygen species present under working conditions.[3;9-15] Stiehl et al. had shown that molecularly

Pfeifer, Holger

60

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

Stuart Nemser, PhD

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Catalytic hydrodesulfurization of bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigations of the catalytic hydrodesulfurization of Venezuela bitumen and its water-emulsion (Orimulsion) were carried out. A variety of catalysts were prepared and some impregnated with molybdenum and sulfided. These and two commercial catalysts were tested with Orimulsion, vacuum-dried Orimulsion, and pentane-insoluble and soluble Orimulsion. Hydrotreatment of feed material was done in a 15-mL tube reactor using a variety of catalysts at 390{degrees}C under an initial 1000-psi hydrogen pressure with a reaction time of 1-3 hours. The hydrotreated products were analyzed by total sulfur analysis. Catalytic hydrotreatment removed up to 75% of sulfur from the bitumen. Nickel and/or molybdenum impregnation on various supports promoted sulfur removal from Orimulsion. Hydrodesulfurization was found to be affected by reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst, and feed material. A moisture-free bitumen and a pentane-soluble bitumen fraction were desulfurized more effectively than Orimulsion. Zeolite-based catalysts gave higher desulfurization than synthetic clay catalysts or commercial AMOCAT and HDN catalysts.

Sharma, R.K.; Olson, E.S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

5, 35333559, 2005 Catalytic conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurement technique, employing selective gas- phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde it the second most abundant organic trace gas after methane. Methanol can play an important role in upper tropoACPD 5, 3533­3559, 2005 Catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde S. J. Solomon et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Function of Novel...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization, and Catalytic Function of Novel Highly Dispersed Tungsten Oxide Catalysts on Mesoporous Silica . Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Function of Novel...

67

Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten Trioxide Cyclic Trimers on FeO(111)Pt(111). Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten...

68

Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fluid catalytic cracking of heavy petroleum fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is claimed for fluid catalytic cracking of residuum and other heavy oils comprising of gas oil, petroleum residue, reduced and whole crudes and shale oil to produce gasoline and other liquid products which are separated in various streams in a fractionator and associated vapor recovery equipment. The heat from combustion of coke on the coked catalyst is removed by reacting sulfur-containing coke deposits with steam and oxygen in a separate stripper-gasifier to produce a low btu gas stream comprising of sulfur compounds, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide at a temperature of from about 1100/sup 0/F. To about 2200/sup 0/F. The partially regenerated catalyst then undergoes complete carbon removal in a regeneration vessel. The regenerated catalyst is recycled for re-use in the cracking of heavy petroleum fractions. The liquid products are gasoline, distillates, heavy fuel oil, and light hydrocarbons.

McHenry, K.W.

1981-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Catalytic bromine recovery from HBr waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste HBr is formed during the bromination of many organic molecules, such as flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. For over 50 years attempts to recover the bromine from waste HBr by catalytic oxidation have been unsuccessful due to low catalyst activity and stability. The discovery of a new high-activity catalysts with excellent long-term stability and life capable of high HBr conversion below 300{degrees}C has made catalytic oxidation of waste HBr commercially feasible. The oxidation of anhydrous HBr using oxygen is highly exothermic, giving an adiabatic temperature rise of 2000{degrees}C. Use of 48 wt% HBr in the oxidation reduces the adiabatic temperature rise to only 300{degrees}C. A multitubular heat exchanger type of reactor can then be used to manage the heat. A 5,000 kg/yr pilot plant was built to verify the performance of the catalyst, the suitability of the reactor materials of construction, and the multibular reactor concept. The pilot unit has a single full-scale reactor tube 4 m long and 2.54 cm in diameter with a hot oil jacket for heat management. Excellent catalyst stability was observed during a 600 h catalyst-life test. HBr conversion of 99% was maintained throughout the run, and over 360 kg of bromine was produced. The temperature at a localized hot spot near the reactor inlet was only 15-20{degrees}C above the reactor inlet temperature, indicating efficient heat management.

Schubert, P.F.; Beatty, R.D.; Mahajan, S. [Catalytica Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen reactions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R S 5 NOVEMBER 2001 Distinct Reaction Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110) Summary: . Left side: COA adsorbed near oxygen atoms. Right side: COB...

72

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute atomic oxygen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R S 5 NOVEMBER 2001 Distinct Reaction Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110) Summary: - race, the rows are in antiphase, just as the oxygen atoms are....

73

The catalytic oxidation of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

Sanderson, Charles Frederick

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas Pauline Briaulta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas atmosphere Pauline Briaulta. An innovative application of this system would be to recover energy from exhaust gas of a thermal engine in a mixture of hydrocarbons (propane, propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

76

Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool III, Lawrence E.

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

77

Oxygenation cost estimates for Cherokee, Douglas, and Norris reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capital and annual costs associated with reoxygenation of the turbine releases at Cherokee, Douglas and Norris Reservoirs using the small bubble injection technique developed for Ft. Patrick Henry Dam were computed. The weekly average dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits were computed for each reservoir for an average year (based on 16 years of records). The total annual cost of an oxygen supply and injection system for each reservoir is presented. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Fain, T.G.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

Remarkable catalytic activity of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin modified on a titania for the oxidation of carbon monoxide below room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CoTPP on TiO/sub 2/-120s modified at 250 /sup 0/C under vacuum catalytically oxidized carbon monoxide rapidly with oxygen even at -79/sup 0/C. Its catalytic activity was incomparably higher than that of commercial Hopcalite. Comparison of its catalytic performance with those of the same catalyst or different TiO/sub 2/ supporting catalyst both evacuated at 200 /sup 0/C revealed unique features of the present catalyst in terms of its oxygen adsorption, the poisoning of adsorbed oxygen, and the insolubility of the complex in benzene. Both significant structural modification of the complex and its strong interaction with properly dehydrated TiO/sub 2/-120s brought about by evacuation at 250 /sup 0/C may induce such extraordinary activity. 14 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Mochida, I.; Iwai, Y.; Kamo, T.; Fujitsu, H.

1985-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

80

Understanding ammonia selective catalytic reduction kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Catalytic properties are examined using NO oxidation, ammonia oxidation,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory 2004deermarshall.pdf More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic...

82

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

83

Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Activated Carbon Injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

88

Activated Carbon Injection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOEâ??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL® designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL® catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL® combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative2|Department ofDepartment of Energy

92

Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartment of Energy Moniz: WhatM-1at theFigureSelf-powered

93

Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. The process includes providing a film of a fuel source including at least one organic compound on a wall of a reactor, contacting the fuel source with a source of oxygen, forming a vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen, and contacting the vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen with a catalyst under conditions effective to produce a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. Preferred products include .alpha.-olefins and synthesis gas. A preferred catalyst is a supported metal catalyst, preferably including rhodium, platinum, and mixtures thereof.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Krummenacher, Jakob J.; West, Kevin N.

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates - Energy Innovation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About...

97

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

3 DEER Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory 2003deermarshall.pdf More Documents & Publications Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as...

98

Catalytic membranes for fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

99

Premixed direct injection disk  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

Effects of secondary air injection during cold start of SI engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paucity of exhaust oxygen during cold start of automobile SI engines limits the extent of exothermic chemical reactions in the exhaust port, manifold, and catalyst. The injection of air into the exhaust system therefore ...

Lee, Dongkun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Tevatron injection timing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

103

Transonic Combustion ? - Injection Strategy Development for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy...

104

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Submitted Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Utilization takes place during catalytic decomposition. This thesis focuses on the utilization of char as a catalyst

106

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

Professor Francisco Zaera

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

108

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using...

109

Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

110

Nanoporous carbon catalytic membranes and method for making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalytic membranes comprising highly-dispersed, catalytically-active metals in nanoporous carbon membranes and a novel single-phase process to produce the membranes.

Foley, Henry C. (Hockessin, DE); Strano, Michael (Wilmington, DE); Acharya, Madhav (New Castle, DE); Raich, Brenda A. (Houston, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

112

High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Seven-Membered Diphosphine Ligands Containing High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using...

113

Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels This fact sheet provides an overview of the...

114

TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products...

115

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SGP-TR-I12 Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields James Lovekin May 1987&injection optimization problem is broke$ into two subpmbkm:(1) choosing a configuration of injectorsfrom an existing set is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells

Stanford University

116

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

117

Catalytic converter with thermoelectric generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique design of an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and the inclusion of an ECO valve in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine will meet the strict new emission requirements, especially at vehicle cold start, adopted by several states in this country as well as in Europe and Japan. The catalytic converter (CC) has been a most useful tool in pollution abatement for the automobile. But the emission requirements are becoming more stringent and, along with other improvements, the CC must be improved to meet these new standards. Coupled with the ECO valve, the EHC can meet these new emission limits. In an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), approximately 80% of the energy consumed leaves the vehicle as waste heat: out the tail pipe, through the radiator, or convected/radiated off the engine. Included with the waste heat out the tail pipe are the products of combustion which must meet strict emission requirements. The design of a new CC is presented here. This is an automobile CC that has the capability of producing electrical power and reducing the quantity of emissions at vehicle cold start, the Thermoelectric Catalytic Power Generator. The CC utilizes the energy of the exothermic reactions that take place in the catalysis substrate to produce electrical energy with a thermoelectric generator. On vehicle cold start, the thermoelectric generator is used as a heat pump to heat the catalyst substrate to reduce the time to catalyst light-off. Thus an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) will be used to augment the abatement of tail pipe emissions. Included with the EHC in the exhaust stream of the automobile is the ECO valve. This valve restricts the flow of pollutants out the tail pipe of the vehicle for a specified amount of time until the EHC comes up to operating temperature. Then the ECO valve opens and allows the full exhaust, now treated by the EHC, to leave the vehicle.

Parise, R.J.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

Dees, D.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

119

Catalytic and stoichiometric bromination of aromatic compounds in aqueous trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mono- and polybromination of benzene, halogenobenzenes, toluene, p-xylene, anisole, biphenyl, benzotrifluoride, benzoic acid, p-nitro- and p-carboxytoluene, p-methoxybenzonitrile, tetralin, and naphthalene were studied in trifluoroacetic acid and its aqueous solutions in systems containing stoichiometric amounts of bromine or alkali-metal bromide and stoichiometric or catalytic (in the presence of oxygen or air) amounts of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent (nitrogen(IV) oxide, alkali-metal nitrate or nitrite). It is suggested that the brominating agent under the investigated conditions is nitryl bromide NO/sub 2/Br. Under the conditions of catalytic bromination anthracene is oxidized to anthraquinone with a preparative yield.

Cheprakov, A.V.; Makhon'kov, D.I.; Rodkin, M.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

1988-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

120

Injection-controlled laser resonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

Chang, J.J.

1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Alkaline flooding injection strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Underground Injection Control (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule set forth criteria and standards for the requirements which apply to the State Underground Injection Control Program (U.I.C.). The UIC permit program regulates underground injections by...

124

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

126

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

127

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Palladium-catalyzed allylic oxidation of cyclohexenes using molecular oxygen as oxidant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclohexane and some related alkenes are readily converted into allyl by catalytic amounts of palladium acetate and a reoxidation system consisting of molecular oxygen and either hydroquinone and a second transition metal acetate or cobalt(II) Schiff's base complexes such as 7 and 8.

Bystroem, S.E.; Larsson, E.M.; Akermark, B. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Valuable Chemical Products over Composite Catalytic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presented is an experimental study on catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Catalysts having different catalytic functions were synthesized and combined in different ways to enhance selectivity to desired products. The combined catalyst system possessed the following functions: methanol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, water-gas-shift and hydrogenation. Results showed that the methods of integrating these catalytic functions played important role in achieving desired product selectivity. It was speculated that if methanol synthesis sites were located adjacent to the C-C chain growth sites, the formation rate of C2 oxygenates would be enhanced. The advantage of using high temperature methanol catalyst PdZnAl in the combined catalyst system was demonstrated. In the presence of PdZnAl catalyst, the combined catalyst system was stable at temperature of 380oC. It was observed that, at high temperature, kinetics favored oxygenate formation. Results implied that the process can be intensified by operating at high temperature using Pd-based methanol synthesis catalyst. Steam reforming of the byproduct organics was demonstrated as a means to provide supplemental hydrogen. Preliminary process design, simulation, and economic analysis of the proposed CO2 conversion process were carried out. Economic analysis indicates how ethanol production cost was affected by the price of CO2 and hydrogen.

Dagle, Robert A.; Hu, Jianli; Jones, Susanne B.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Frye, John G.; White, J. F.; Jiang, Juyuan; Wang, Yong

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 13 August, 2011 Diesel Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala #12;ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES A Milestone in Green Initiatives by Indian Diesel Locomotive equipped with "Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)" was turned out by the Diesel Loco

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

133

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications...

136

Premixed direct injection nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

139

Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

140

Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C.Y Mou. Catalytic nano-rattle of Au@ hollow silica: towardshollow nanostructures induced by the Kirkendall effect: The basic concept. NanoHollow mesoporous aluminosilica spheres with perpendicular pore channels as catalytic nanoreactors. ACS Nano,

Ewers, Trevor David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Biofuels from Pyrolysis: Catalytic Biocrude Production in a Novel, Short-Contact Time Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: RTI is developing a new pyrolysis process to convert second-generation biomass into biofuels in one simple step. Pyrolysis is the decomposition of substances by heating—the same process used to render wood into charcoal, caramelize sugar, and dry roast coffee and beans. RTI’s catalytic biomass pyrolysis differs from conventional flash pyrolysis in that its end product contains less oxygen, metals, and nitrogen—all of which contribute to corrosion, instability, and inefficiency in the fuel-production process. This technology is expected to easily integrate into the existing domestic petroleum refining infrastructure, making it an economically attractive option for biofuels production.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The complexity of catalytically "cracking" cellulose | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chain length affects oxygen's departure in key reaction for building bio-fuels Replacing fossil fuels in industrial applications could reduce economic, environmental and security...

145

Transparent and Catalytic Carbon Nanotube Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a reaction that is important for the dye-sensitized solar cell, with a charge-transfer resistance as measured for the dye-sensitized solar cell. Other possible applications include batteries, fuel cells to be electrochemically active in several systems.1,8­15 For example, they are catalytic in the dye-sensitized solar cell

Hone, James

146

Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Common Rail Injection System Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Influence of the nature of FCC feed on the production of light olefins by catalytic cracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act has act rules for gasoline reformulation, which requires major compositional changes, Including a higher contribution of oxygenated compounds to the gasoline pool. This explains why FCC units are expected to play a major role in the coming years as a producer of light olefins (propylene, butenes and amylenes) to be used as feedstock for oxygenate (MTBE/TAME) production. The impact of the nature of FCC feedstock on light olefins production (C3 to C5 olefins) has been studied using a MAT unit running at various operating conditions (C/O ratio, reactor temperature). Paraffinic feeds are potentially efficient to produce light olefins by catalytic cracking. Heavier paraffinic feeds like mixtures VGO + reside and pure reside have also been evaluated, and compared to naphthenic and aromatic feeds.

Chapus, Th.; Cauffriez, H.; Marcilly, Ch. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Exploration of the active center structure of nitrogen-doped graphene-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a breakthrough for metal-free, N-containing catalysts and their use in applications such as metal­air batteries activity, indicating their potential as a catalyst for fuel cells and metal air batteries. However-graphene) and demonstrate its use as a metal-free catalyst to study the catalytic active center for the oxygen reduction

150

Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic firebox reactor employing an exothermic catalytic reaction channel and multiple cooling conduits for creating a partially reacted fuel/oxidant mixture. An oxidation catalyst is deposited on the walls forming the boundary between the multiple cooling conduits and the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, on the side of the walls facing the exothermic catalytic reaction channel. This configuration allows the oxidation catalyst to be backside cooled by any fluid passing through the cooling conduits. The heat of reaction is added to both the fluid in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel and the fluid passing through the cooling conduits. After discharge of the fluids from the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, the fluids mix to create a single combined flow. A further innovation in the reactor incorporates geometric changes in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel to provide streamwise variation of the velocity of the fluids in the reactor.

Smith, Lance L. (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Ulkarim, Hasan (Hamden, CT); Castaldi, Marco J. (Bridgeport, CT); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Catalytic process for control of NOx emissions using hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selective catalytic reduction process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent. A zirconium sulfate (ZrO2)SO4 catalyst support material with about 0.01-2.0 wt. % Pd is applied to a catalytic bed positioned in a flow of exhaust gas at about 70-200.degree. C. The support material may be (ZrO2--SiO2)SO4. H2O and hydrogen may be injected into the exhaust gas upstream of the catalyst to a concentration of about 15-23 vol. % H2O and a molar ratio for H2/NOx in the range of 10-100. A hydrogen-containing fuel may be synthesized in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant for combustion in a gas turbine to produce the exhaust gas flow. A portion of the fuel may be diverted for the hydrogen injection.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

152

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

On the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons over Cu-ZSM-5 via X-ray absorption spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An understanding of the catalytic mechanism of NO{sub x} reduction is critical for the development of next-generation high-fuel efficiency, low-emission vehicles. This paper compiles the investigations in recent years on the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbon over Cu-ZSM-5. The studies were focused on the oxidation state and coordination chemistry of the exchanged Cu as the active site during the catalytic reaction using X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) techniques, mainly XANES and EXAFS. Their experiment demonstrated the existence of a redox mechanism which involves cyclic switching of the oxidation states between Cu(II) and Cu(I) in an oxygen-rich gas mixture under elevated temperature. The authors also observed the coordination structural change of copper ion in ZSM-5 accompanying the change of oxidation state. A correlation between cuprous ion concentration and catalytic activity was found in NO SCR by propene. The impact of another two hydrocarbons, propane and methane, on the copper redox behavior also appears to correlate to catalytic activities in the respective mixtures. Discussions on the nature of the active sites and the mechanism of SCR are presented based on the XAS data analysis. The similarity and difference of the physical properties of copper ion between NO catalytic decomposition and NO SCR are also discussed.

Liu, D.J. [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Robota, H.J. [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

155

Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI): Sun, Yong (Madison, WI)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

160

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ND Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process .... Coal gasification in existing R&D pilot facility. Preliminary testing...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by hydrocarbons was investigated on Pt doped MCM-41 and copper ion and/or cerium ion-exchanged Al-MCM-41 in the presence of excess oxygen. It was found that Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts reported in the literature, such as Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pt/ZSM-5. For different hydrocarbons, the catalytic activity decreased according to the sequence of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} {approx} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} >> C{sub 3}H{sub 8} > CH{sub 4}. This catalyst was also stable in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Cu exchanged Al-MCM-41 and cerium promoted Cu-Al-MCM-41 (i.e., Ce-Cu-Al-MCM-41) were also found to be active in this reaction. Higher NO{sub x} conversions to N2 were obtained on the Ce-Cu-Al-MCM-41 as compared with Cu-Al-MCM-41. The activity of Ce-Cu-Al-MCM-41 was approximately the same as that of Cu-ZSM-5; but the former had a wider temperature window. TPR results indicated that only isolated Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} ions were detected in the Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged Al-MCM-41 samples, which may play an important role in the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. After some cerium ions were introduced into Cu-Al-MCM-41, Cu{sup 2+} in the molecular sieve became more easily reducible by H{sub 2}. This may be related to the increase of catalytic activity of NO{sub x} reduction by ethylene.

R. Q. LONG; R.T. YANG

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

163

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

U-174: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability U-174: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability May 22, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Serendipity Unspecified SQL...

167

Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

169

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

174

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria,” J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Single Supported Atoms Participate in Catalytic Processes | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Functional Materials for Energy Single Supported Atoms Participate in Catalytic Processes December 04, 2014 Pathways for NO oxidation on single Pt atoms supported on the (010)...

177

The Effects of Trace Contaminants on Catalytic Processing of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Processing of Biomass-Derived Feedstocks . Abstract: Trace components in biomass feedstocks are potential catalyst poisons when catalytically processing these materials to...

178

Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

179

Printing 3D Catalytic Devices | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Printing 3D Catalytic Devices Ames Laboratory scientist Igor Slowing discusses using 3D printers to create new materials, including catalysts...

180

Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deermarshall.pdf More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic...

182

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

183

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. has conducted a series of eleven catalytic, multi-stage, liquefaction (CMSL) bench scale runs between February, 1991, and September, 1995. The purpose of these runs was to investigate novel approaches to liquefaction relating to feedstocks, hydrogen source, improved catalysts as well as processing variables, all of which are designed to lower the cost of producing coal-derived liquid products. This report summarizes the technical assessment of these runs, and in particular the evaluation of the economic impact of the results.

Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Injection system for small betatron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to reduce the head loads on the injector electrodes and to raise the efficiency of electron capture during acceleration, small betatrons are provided with an injection system with a controlled three-electrode injector in which injection current pulse with steep leading and trailing edges is formed by the application of a voltage pulse to the control electrode from a separate circuit through a pulse transformer. In a betatron injection system described, elements of the controlled injector of the accelerating chamber are used to correct the shape of the current pulse. The circuit for correcting the current-pulse shape can increase the accelerated charge by the average of 75% per betatron cycle and decrease the heat loads on the electrodes of the injector without the use of a generator of controlling voltage pulses.

Zuorygin, V.P.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Pushin, U.S.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

188

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

Oxygenation cost estimates in 1983 dollars for Cherokee and Douglas Dams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Reservoir Releases Program, estimates of costs associated with providing high purity oxygen injection systems at Cherokee and Douglas Dams were computed in 1983 dollars. This report presents results of the computations. An 8.125% interest rate, a 25-year economic life, and a 10-year diffuser life were assumed. Weekly average dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and turbine flowrate data were available for the years 1958 through 1980. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Fain, T.G.; Boyd, J.W.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Catalytic oxidation of propylene to allyl acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for the preparation of allyl acetate which comprises first activating a supported palladium metal catalyst by contacting it with a C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/ olefin at a temperature of greater than about 50/sup 0/C for a period for time sufficient to provide at least a small but perceptible quantity of the activated catalyst, in the substantial absence of oxygen, and thereafter contacting the activated catalyst with acetic acid and propylene admixed with air or oxygen in a liquid medium, thereby forming allyl acetate.

Lyons, J.E.; Suld, G.

1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Methods for preparation of catalytic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To establish guidelines for the development of a scientific basis for catalyst preparation is perhaps a very ambitious goal. One would re required first to answer the following rhetorical questions: what are the properties which determine the performance of a catalytic material; how can these properties be introduced, developed, and/or improved during preparation? The answer to these questions involves a comprehensive discussion of the theories of catalysis, which is beyond the scope of this review. The authors will attempt, instead, to provide a rationale for each reader to answer these questions on the basis of his/her own interests. They start the discussion by describing the fundamental steps in producing bulk catalysts and/or catalyst supports. The fundamental processes involved are those derived from traditional three-dimensional chemistry. The topic areas will include single-component and multicomponent metal oxides. Unsupported metallic catalysts are formed by transformations involving physical or chemical processes, and the preparation methods for this class of materials will be discussed next. Attention will then turn to the preparation of supported catalytic materials. The main topics to be discussed will be those related to the interaction between the support and the active phase when they are put together to generate the catalyst. In this approach, the authors exploit the virtually unexplored field of surface, or two-dimensional, physical chemistry. The materials considered include dispersed metals and alloys and composite oxides. 366 refs.

Schwarz, J.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Contescu, C.; Contescu, A. [Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

194

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

-Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigator: Roland N. Home September 1986 Second Annual Report Department of Energy Contract Number through the evaluation of fluid reserves, and the forecastingl of field behavior with time. Injection al series of Proceedings that are a prominent literature source on geothermal energy. The Program

Stanford University

196

-Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigator: Roland N. Home September 1985 First Annual Report Department of Energy Contract Number, and the forecasting of field behavior with time. Injection I I Tec hnology is a research area receiving special on geothermal energy. The Program publishes technical reports on all of its research projects. Research findings

Stanford University

197

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

198

Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

199

Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;NOx - 2 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines

Nizkorodov, Sergey

200

Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

202

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates for structured catalytic reactors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for structured catalytic reactors. Thierry Giornelli, Axel Löfberg* and Elisabeth Bordes-Richard Unité de.Lofberg@univ-lille1.fr Abstract The parameters to be controlled to coat metallic walls by VOx/TiO2 catalysts which) was chosen because of its large application in industrial catalytic reactors. TiO2 films on stainless steel

Boyer, Edmond

206

Catalytic cracking of residual petroleum fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on Arabian Light crude oil vacuum bottoms fractionated into five high-boiling fractions by wiped film evaporation, and the fractions subjected to catalytic cracking in a fixed-fluidized bed using a commercial equilibrium cracking catalyst. Density, aromaticity, and heteroatom content generally increased with boiling point, as did metals content except for vanadium and iron which demonstrated possible bimodal distributions. The cracking response of these fractions showed increasing yields of dry gas and coke, with decreasing gasoline yields, as a function of increasing apparent boiling point as would normally be expected. Surprisingly, however, local maxima were observed for wet gas yield and total conversion, with local minima for cycle oil and slurry yields, in the region of the 1200-1263{degrees}F (650-680{degrees}C) middle fraction. All fractions showed significant response to cracking, with coke yields generally being the only negative factor observed.

Moore, H.F.; Mayo, S.L.; Goolsby, T.L. (Research and Development Dept., Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

208

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

212

Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electrochemical studies of quinone oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Asphaltenes are a chemically complex mixture of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. This material contains oxygen in various functional groups. The distribution includes esters, carboxylic acids, phenolic and most probably quinone type oxygen functionalities. The present work details the complete electrochemical behaviour of quinone type oxygen. The method is quinone specific. A condensed aromatic quinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, was selected as representative of complex quinones. By this method quinones can be determined in the presence of other oxygen functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, and other carbonyls.

Deanhardt, M.L. (Lander College, Greenwood, SC (US)); Mushrush, G.W.; Stalick, W.M. (Chemistry Dept., George mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (US)); Watkins, J.M. Jr. (Naval Research Lab., Fuels Section, Code 6180, Washington, DC (US))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Ignition and extinction in the catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons over platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ignition-extinction behavior in the oxidation of methane, ethane, propane and isobutane, as well as of ethylene and propylene over a platinum-foil catalyst was studied over the entire range of fuel/air ratios at atmospheric pressure. Ignition and extinction of the heterogeneous surface reaction, homogeneous ignition and the autothermal behavior of these fuel-air mixtures were investigated. The results show a common trend in the ignition extinction behavior of the alkanes and a different trend for the olefins. This is discussed in terms of a simple model, which correctly predicts the composition dependence of the surface ignition curve for reasonable values of parameters, indicating a mainly oxygen-covered surface during ignition of the alkanes and a mainly hydrocarbon-covered surface in the case of the olefins. Different branches of the complete bifurcation diagrams are discussed separately, allowing qualitative conclusions about the catalytic activity of Pt for the oxidation reactions of different fuels.

Veser, G.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Final report, January 1, 1990--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement (Phase I-III), we uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of fight alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of fight hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane>propane>ethane>methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase V). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases IV, VI), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases VII through IX). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phases V and VI so that further work is not anticipated. We made excellent progress during 1994 in generating a class of less costly new materials which have the potential for high catalytic activity. New routes were developed for replacing costly perfluorophenyl groups in the meso-position of metalloporphyrin catalysts with far less expensive and lower molecular weight perfluoromethyl groups.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

Ted Oyama, Foster Agblevor, Francine Battaglia, Michael Klein

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

222

Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load) ErrorEnergy Information Injectivity Test Jump to:

223

Radial lean direct injection burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

224

A new approach to oxygen enriched high temperature blast generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When increasing fuel injection in a blast furnace in order to reduce coke consumption and/or to increase production, the blast furnace operator tries to keep similar raceway conditions, for instance, an equivalent flame temperature. To compensate for the cooling effect due to the higher injection rate, two solutions can be selected or combined: to raise the temperature of the blast and/or to increase the level of oxygen in the blast. Whatever the choice, the Blast Furnace manager will certainly try to reduce the resulting investment and operating costs to a minimum. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are trying to provide a new way to address these needs by offering a new technology for blast heating. A higher blast temperature will not only allow a higher fuel injection at tuyere level, a lower coke consumption, but also a lower oxygen consumption. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are now able to offer a new heat regenerator with major advantages over conventional stoves. This new device can be used as a permanent substitute for a stove, or as a temporary one during repair, or stove improvement. It can also be added to an existing set of stoves to increase the average blast temperature.

Queille, P.H.; Macauley, D.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

228

An environmental analysis of injection molding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

Thiriez, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Chapter 27 of the Texas Water Code (the Injection Well Act) defines an “injection well” as “an artificial excavation or opening in the ground made by digging, boring, drilling, jetting, driving, or...

230

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

Ali Afshar Farniya; Maria J. Esplandiu; Adrian Bachtold

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION Ya. V. Getmanov, O. A acceleration #12;Storage ring with laser injection CYCLIC ACCELERATOR RF Electron injection The LWFA beam ­ accelerating light, 5 ­ accelerated electrons, 6 ­fast kicker - + accelerating laser pulse evaporatinglaser

233

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

234

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Oxygen detection using evanescent fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

Boynton, Walter R.

240

CATALYTIC MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS FOR RENEWABLE PHENOLS AND FUELS .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Bio-oil is an unstable intermediate and needs to be upgraded before its use. This study focused on improving the selectivity of bio-oilby catalytic pyrolysis of… (more)

[No author

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

atp catalytic domain: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 328 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

242

acidic multimetallic catalytic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 106 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

243

automobile catalytic converters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Odei 2006-01-01 408 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

244

atp catalytic cycle: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 275 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

245

advanced catalytic hydrogenation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 188 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

246

apparent catalytic site: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 257 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

247

advanced catalytic materials: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 225 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

248

acrylamide catalytically inhibits: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 78 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

249

assisted catalytic oxidation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 251 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

250

active catalytic sites: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 337 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

251

atpase catalytic domain: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 266 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

252

advanced catalytic materials 1996: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 467 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

253

archaeal primase catalytic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 92 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

254

advanced catalytic science: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produc Kik, Pieter 488 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

255

Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic Activity Thanks to a groundbreaking new method, scientists have created the first 3D super-resolution maps of...

256

Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

257

In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

258

Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...

Salinas, S. Adriana

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

262

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Method for preventing bitumen backflow in injection wells when steam injection is interrupted  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method for preventing viscous hydrocarbonaceous fluids from backflowing into a well upon interruption of a steamflood. It comprises: detecting a substantial reduction in steam injection pressure in at least one injection well via a pressure sensing device; and causing automatically a pressurized fluid to be injected into the injection well in response to the reduction in pressure which prevents viscous hydrocarbonaceous fluids from backflowing into the injection well.

Freeman, D.C.; Djabbarah, N.F.

1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

266

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

269

Oxygen transfer in the implant environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

Goor, Jared Braden

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

Kim, K.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

Mallin, Michael

272

Immobilization of vanadia deposited on catalytic materials during carbo-metallic oil conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the cracking of a hydrocarbon oil feed having a significant content of at least 0.1 ppm vanadium to lighter oil products. The process consists of contacting the feed under conversion conditions in a conversion zone with a catalyst containing a precipitated metal additive to immobilize vanadium compounds by forming compounds therewith that have melting points above temperatures found in regenerating a coked catalyst; and having catalytic cracking characteristics, coke and vanadium being deposited on the catalyst by the contact; regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of an oxygen containing gas at a temperature sufficient to remove at least some of the coke, and, recycling the regenerated catalyst to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed; the metal additive being present on the catalyst in an amount sufficient to immobilize at least a portion of the vanadium compound in the presence of the oxygen containing gas at the catalyst regeneration temperature; wherein the metal additive to immobilize vanadium compounds deposited on the catalyst is selected from the group consisting of Sr, Sc, Y, Nb, and Ta elements, and an element in the actinide series, or a combination of two or more of the elements.

Beck, H.W.; Carruthers, J.D.; Cornelius, E.B.; Hettinger, Jr., W.P.; Kovach, S.M.; Palmer, J.L.; Zandona, O.J.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

275

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

276

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

277

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

279

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradientstechnology is the ability to rapidly generate and alter oxygentechnology should enable numerous studies in the field of biology where oxygen

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

283

Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

284

Energy-efficient control in injection molding.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??As an energy-intensive process, in injection molding, energy cost is one of the major cost components. The energy expenditure during molding can be divided into… (more)

Yao, Ke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact Sheet Abstract...

286

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine technology in the near term as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost...

287

Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to address the keys to understanding the relation between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Of concern are questions related to enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts and critical active site requirements for molecular synthesis and rearrangement. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), UV and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our research program builds upon our previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well we are exploiting our recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. The program is proceeding toward the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

Goodman, D.W.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

291

Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

2011-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for spray coating material which employs a plasma gun that has a cathode, an anode, an arc gas inlet, a first powder injection port, and a second powder injection port. A suitable arc gas is introduced through the arc gas inlet, and ionization of the arc gas between the cathode and the anode forms a plasma. The plasma is directed to emenate from an open-ended chamber defined by the boundary of the anode. A coating is deposited upon a base metal part by suspending a binder powder within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the first powder injection port; a material subject to degradation by high temperature oxygen reactions is suspended within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the second injection port. The material fed through the second injection port experiences a cooler portion of the plasma and has a shorter dwell time within the plasma to minimize high temperature oxygen reactions. The material of the first port and the material of the second port intermingle within the plasma to form a uniform coating having constituent percentages related to the powder-feed rates of the materials through the respective ports.

Lenling, William J. (Madison, WI); Henfling, Joseph A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

294

Imaging Catalytic Surfaces by Multiplexed Capillary Electrophoresis With Absorption Detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new technique for in situ imaging and screening heterogeneous catalysts by using multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with absorption detection was developed. By bundling the inlets of a large number of capillaries, an imaging probe can be created that can be used to sample products formed directly from a catalytic surface with high spatial resolution. In this work, they used surfaces made of platinum, iron or gold wires as model catalytic surfaces for imaging. Various shapes were recorded including squares and triangles. Model catalytic surfaces consisting of both iron and platinum wires in the shape of a cross were also imaged successfully. Each of the two wires produced a different electrochemical product that was separated by capillary electrophoresis. Based on the collected data they were able to distinguish the products from each wire in the reconstructed image.

Michael Christodoulou

2002-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

295

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Theoretical Investigation of the Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer of ?-phosphoglucomutase: Revisiting Both Steps of the Catalytic Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enzyme catalyzed phosphate transfer is a part of almost all metabolic processes. Such reactions are of central importance for the energy balance in all organisms and play important roles in cellular control at all levels. Mutases transfer a phosphoryl group while nucleases cleave the phosphodiester linkages between two nucleotides. The subject of our present study is the Lactococcus lactis ?-phosphoglucomutase (?-PGM), which effectively catalyzes the interconversion of ?-D-glucose-1-phosphate (?-G1P) to ?- D-glucose-6-phosphate (?-G6P) and vice versa via stabile intermediate ?-D-glucose-1,6-(bis)phosphate (?-G1,6diP) in the presence of Mg2+. In this paper we revisited the reaction mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer starting from the bisphosphate ?-G1,6diP in both directions (toward ?-G1P and ?-G6P) combining docking techniques and QM/MM theoretical method at the DFT/PBE0 level of theory. In addition we performed NEB (nudged elastic band) and free energy calculations to optimize the path and to identify the transition states and the energies involved in the catalytic cycle. Our calculations reveal that both steps proceed via dissociative pentacoordinated phosphorane, which is not a stabile intermediate but rather a transition state. In addition to the Mg2+ ion, Ser114 and Lys145 also play important roles in stabilizing the large negative charge on the phosphate through strong coordination with the phosphate oxygens and guiding the phosphate group throughout the catalytic process. The calculated energy barrier of the reaction for the ?-G1P to ?-G1,6diP step is only slightly higher than for the ?-G1,6diP to ?-G6P step (16.10 kcal mol-1 versus 15.10 kcal mol-1) and is in excellent agreement with experimental findings (14.65 kcal mol-1).

Elsasser, Brigitta M.; Dohmeier-Fischer, Silvia; Fels, Gregor

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

Eteman, Shahrokh

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Oxygen uptake of benthic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

Priebe, William Franklin

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

302

5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles:...

303

Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis The in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis pathway involves rapidly heating biomass with a catalyst to create bio-oils,...

304

Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis In ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, biomass is heated with catalysts to create bio-oils, which are then used to...

305

Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Model catalytic studies of single crystal, polycrystalline metal, and supported catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation is focused on understanding the structure-activity relationship in heterogeneous catalysis by studying model catalytic systems. The catalytic oxidation of CO was chosen as a model reaction for studies on a variety of catalysts. A...

Yan, Zhen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Continued investigations of the catalytic reduction of N? to NH? by molybdenum triamidoamine complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study of the effects of employing different solvents and the introduction of dihydrogen during the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia with [HIPTN 3N]Mo complexes was completed. During a catalytic reaction, the ...

Hanna, Brian S. (Brian Stewart)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using...

310

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); McLean, Joseph B. (So. Somerville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

314

Catalytic, Enantioselective Alkylations of N,O-Acetals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 10998-10999. (2) Hoveyda et al. have developed a Ni-catalyzed alkylation reaction of allylic acetalsCatalytic, Enantioselective Alkylations of N,O-Acetals Dana Ferraris, Travis Dudding, Brandon Young alkylation reactions of acetals have attained a prominent position in organic synthesis.1 Methods employing

Lectka, Thomas

315

Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydroxy Enol Ethers: Approach to a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the generation of polypro- pionate backbone.1-7 In contrast, the asymmetric acetate aldol reaction that leads associated with acetate aldol reactions have prompted investigations into alternative methods to generate the catalytic asymmetric allylation of aldehydes followed by oxidative cleavage of the allyl group (Scheme 1, A

Walsh, Patrick J.

316

Scaling behavior of optimally structured catalytic microfluidic reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study of catalytic microfluidic reactors we show that, when optimally structured, these reactors share underlying scaling properties. The scaling is predicted theoretically and verified numerically. Furthermore, we show how to increase the reaction rate significantly by distributing the active porous material within the reactor using a high-level implementation of topology optimization.

Okkels, F; Bruus, Henrik; Okkels, Fridolin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORTS Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echoes in solutions. Here, we extend the technique to probing the interfacial dynamics and structure of a silica. The structural dynamics, as reported on by a carbonyl stretch vibration of the surface-bound complex, have

Fayer, Michael D.

318

Nanostructured Molybdenum Carbide: Sonochemical Synthesis and Catalytic Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be a useful technique to generate nanophase transition metals.7,8 Recently, molybdenum and tungsten carbides of metal salts.5,6 Sonochemical decomposition of transition metal carbonyl compounds has also been provenNanostructured Molybdenum Carbide: Sonochemical Synthesis and Catalytic Properties Taeghwan Hyeon

Suslick, Kenneth S.

319

The Biodiversity of Catalytic Super-Brownian Motion Klaus Fleischmann  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Biodiversity of Catalytic Super-Brownian Motion Klaus Fleischmann WeierstraÃ?-Institut f that the reactant has an infinite local biodiversity or genetic abundance. This contrasts the finite local biodiversity of the equilibrium of classical super-Brownian motion. Another question we address

Klenke, Achim

320

Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC) MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUES WITHIN THE ACTIVE SITE AND HYDROPHOBIC RIDGE OF PLC 1* (Received for publication, November 20, 1997 Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, United Kingdom Structural studies of phospholipase C 1 (PLC

Williams, Roger L.

322

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Interacting FisherWright Diffusions in a Catalytic Medium Andreas Greven  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environment (catalytic medium). Here we introduce a model of interacting Fisher­Wright diffusions where environment, catalytic medium, longtime behaviour, rescaling. AMS Subject Classification: 60K35, 60J70Interacting Fisher­Wright Diffusions in a Catalytic Medium Andreas Greven Mathematisches Institut

Klenke, Achim

325

Catalytic membrane program novation: High temperature catalytic membrane reactors. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The original objective was to develop an energy-efficient hydrocarbon dehydrogenation process based on catalytic membrane reactors. Golden Technologies determined that the goals of this contract would be best served by novating the contract to an end user or other interested party which is better informed on the economic justification aspects of petrochemical refining processes to carry out the remaining work. In light of the Chevron results, the program objective was broadened to include development of inorganic membranes for applications in the chemical industry. The proposed membrane technologies shall offer the potential to improve chemical production processes via conversion increase and energy savings. The objective of this subcontract is to seek a party that would serve as a prime contractor to carry out the remaining tasks on the agreement and bring the agreement to a successful conclusion. Four tasks were defined to select the prime contractor. They were (1) prepare a request for proposal, (2) solicit companies as potential prime contractors as well as team members, (3) discuss modifications requested by the potential prime contractors, and (4) obtain, review and rank the proposals. The accomplishments on the tasks is described in detail in the following sections.

Kleiner, R.N. [Kleiner (Richard N.), Englewood, CO (United States)] [Kleiner (Richard N.), Englewood, CO (United States)

1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Several lines of evidence indicate that the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis preceded the oxygenation of the atmosphere—perhaps by as much as 300 million years. The… (more)

Olson, Stephanie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Crystal Structure of 12-Lipoxygenase Catalytic-Domain-Inhibitor Complex Identifies a Substrate-Binding Channel for Catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lipoxygenases are critical enzymes in the biosynthesis of families of bioactive lipids including compounds with important roles in the initiation and resolution of inflammation and in associated diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Crystals diffracting to high resolution (1.9 {angstrom}) were obtained for a complex between the catalytic domain of leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and the isoform-specific inhibitor, 4-(2-oxapentadeca-4-yne)phenylpropanoic acid (OPP). In the three-dimensional structure of the complex, the inhibitor occupied a new U-shaped channel open at one end to the surface of the protein and extending past the redox-active iron site that is essential for catalysis. In models, the channel accommodated arachidonic acid, defining the binding site for the substrate of the catalyzed reaction. There was a void adjacent to the OPP binding site connecting to the surface of the enzyme and providing a plausible access channel for the other substrate, oxygen.

Xu, Shu; Mueser, Timothy C.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Funk, Jr., Max O. (Toledo); (Vanderbilt)

2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

328

Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Resonantly pumped optical pumping injection cavity lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An optical parametric oscillator is tuned to the resonance wavelength of the etalon in an optical pumping injection cavity (OPIC) laser with a type-II "W" active region, thereby minimizing the threshold pump intensity and ...

Santilli, Michael Robert; McAlpine, T. C.; Greene, K. R.; Olafsen, L. J.; Bewley, W. W.; Felix, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Lee, H.; Martinelli, R. U.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Underground Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule establishes schedules of permit fees for state under?ground injection control permits issued by the Chief of the Office of Water Resources. This rule applies to any person who is...

331

Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. p-10gibbs.pdf...

332

Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (UIC code) is adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-5-11). It is the...

333

Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 9209 (United States)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

Golfinopoulos, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

338

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

339

Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

344

Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

345

Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission...

346

automated flow injection: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the great majority the feasibility of our attack. The friend injection attack enables a stealth infiltra- tion of social networks Boyer, Edmond 7 Preventing injection attacks...

347

Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics 1 **diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasmaplasma v . High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic

Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids. Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids....

349

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI...

350

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Presentation...

351

Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

injection supplies (cotton, cookers, water, and bleach),injection equipment, such as cookers, cottons, and rinsepartners, n=148 Shared cooker, cotton, or rinse water

Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

426 AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS SEP 2 1196: vuUiJo HIM. . SPECIAL and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS -temperature meter 11 Maintenance and trouble -shooting 12 #12;AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER

353

Effects of oxygen on fracturing fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of polysaccharide gels at high temperature is limited by such factors as pH, mechanical degradation, and oxidants. Oxygen is unavoidably placed in fracturing fluids through dissolution of air. To prevent premature degradation of the fracturing fluid by this oxidant, oxygen scavengers are commonly used. In this paper, the effects of oxygen and various oxygen scavengers on gel stability will be presented. Mechanical removal of oxygen resulted in surprisingly stable fracturing gels at 275 F. However, chemical removal of oxygen gave mixed results. Test data from sodium thiosulfate, sodium sulfite, and sodium erythorbate used as oxygen scavengers/gel stabilizers showed that the efficiency of oxygen removal from gels did not directly coincide with the viscosity retention of the gel, and large excesses of additives were necessary to provide optimum gel stabilization. The inability of some oxygen scavengers to stabilize the gel was the result of products created from the interaction of oxygen with the oxygen scavenger, which in turn, produced species that degraded the gel. The ideal oxygen scavenger should provide superior gel stabilization without creating detrimental side reaction products. Of the materials tested, sodium thiosulfate appeared to be the most beneficial.

Walker, M.L.; Shuchart, C.E.; Yaritz, J.G.; Norman, L.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

Ghosh, Ruby N.

355

8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 2225­2248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) from High Efficiency Clean Combustion: Catalytic Exhaust Treatment Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) strategies such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer much promise for the reduction of NOx and PM from diesel engines. While delivering low PM and low NOx, these combustion modes often produce much higher levels of CO and HC than conventional diesel combustion modes. In addition, partially oxygenated species such as formaldehyde (an MSAT) and other aldehydes increase with HECC modes. The higher levels of CO and HCs have the potential to compromise the performance of the catalytic aftertreatment, specifically at low load operating points. As HECC strategies become incorporated into vehicle calibrations, manufacturers need to avoid producing MSATs in higher quantities than found in conventional combustion modes. This paper describes research on two different HECC strategies, HCCI and PCCI. Engine-out data for several MSAT species (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, PAHs, diesel PM) as well as other HC species are presented and compared when possible with conventional operation. In addition, catalyst-out values were measured to assess the destruction of individual MSATs over the catalyst. At low engine loads, MSATs were higher and catalyst performance was poorer. Particle sizing results identify large differences between PM from conventional and HECC operation.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 3. Topical report, January 1990--December 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in the first simple, economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to an alcohol-rich oxygenated product which can either be used as an environmentally friendly, high-performance liquid fuel, or a precursor to a liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. The authors have entered the proof-of-concept stage for converting isobutane to tert butyl alcohol in a practical process and are preparing to enter proof-of-concept of a propane to isopropyl alcohol process in the near future. Methane and ethane are more refractory and thus more difficult to oxidize than the C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Nonetheless, advances made in this area indicate that further research progress could achieve the goal of their direct conversion to alcohols. Progress in Phase 3 catalytic vapor phase methane and ethane oxidation over metals in regular oxidic lattices are the subject of this topical report.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

360

Oxygen consumption of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells is considered to be a key determinant of oocyte oxygenation in follicles. The oxygen status of the oocyte… (more)

Li, Dongxing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This process offers an attractive route for converting glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel, to solketal: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy #12;1. Introduction The booming of biodiesel industry all over for the sustainability of biodiesel industry. In this regard, the fuel industry seems to be a suitable market where

Qin, Wensheng

362

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of a catalytic process to convert glycerol into solketal as an oxygenated fuel additive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biodiesel production via transesterfication reactions. The biodiesel production generates approximately 10 exchange resin Kinetics a b s t r a c t Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel industry and can be converted with petroleum-based transporta- tion fuels, the interest in producing bio-fuels (bio-ethanol and biodiesel) has

Qin, Wensheng

363

Catalytic conversion of syngas into C2 oxygenates over Rh-based catalysts--Effect of carbon supports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, PR China 1. Introduction Ethanol attracts increasing attention as a clean fuel or an additive to gasoline [1 from natural gas, coal and biomass [3]. This process was first patented by Union Carbide Corporation

Bao, Xinhe

364

Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

Wurtzel, Eleanore

366

Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

Carroll, David L.

367

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

368

Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

Opacity reduction using hydrated lime injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of injecting dry hydrated lime into flue gas to reduce sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) concentrations and consequently stack opacity at the University of Missouri, Columbia power plant. Burning of high sulfur coal (approx. 4% by weight) at the power plant resulted in opacity violations. The opacity problem was due to sulfuric acid mist (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) forming at the stack from high SO{sub 3} concentrations. As a result of light scattering by the mist, a visible plume leaves the stack. Therefore, reducing high concentrations of SO{sub 3} reduces the sulfuric acid mist and consequently the opacity problem. The current hydrated lime injection system has reduced the opacity to acceptable limits. To reduce SO{sub 3} concentrations, dry hydrated lime is injected into the flue gas upstream of a particulate collection device (baghouse) and downstream of the induced draft fan. The lime is periodically injected into the flue via a pneumatic piping system. The hydrated lime is transported down the flue and deposited on the filter bags in the baghouse. As the hydrated lime is deposited on the bags a filter cake is established. The reaction between the SO{sub 3} and the hydrated lime takes place on the filter bags. The hydrated lime injection system has resulted in at least 95% reduction in the SO{sub 3} concentration. Low capital equipment requirements and operating cost coupled with easy installation and maintenance makes the system very attractive to industries with similar problems. This paper documents the hydrated lime injection system and tests the effectiveness of the system on SO{sub 3} removal and subsequent opacity reduction. Measurements Of SO{sub 3} concentrations, flue gas velocities, and temperatures have been performed at the duct work and baghouse. A complete analysis of the hydrated lime injection system is provided.

Wolf, D.E.; Seaba, J.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Protocol development for evaluation of commercial catalytic cracking catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A complete, new set of testing protocols has been developed for qualification of catalysts for Ashland's commercial catalytic cracking units. The objective of this test development is to identify new generations of improved cracking catalysts. Prior test protocols have classically utilized microactivity (MAT) testing of steamed virgin catalysts, while more advanced methods have utilized fixed fluid bed and/or circulating pilot units. Each of these techniques, however, have been limited by their correlation to commercial operations, weaknesses in metallation and preparation of pseudo-equilibrium catalysts, and mechanical constraints on the use of heavy, vacuum bottoms-containing feedstocks. These new protocols have been baselined, compared to commercial Ashland results on known catalytic cracking catalysts, and utilized to evaluate a range of potentially new catalyst samples.

Mitchell, M.M. Jr.; Moore, H.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

The Role of Carbon in Catalytically Stabilized Transition Metal Sulfides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since WWII considerable progress has been made in understanding the basis for the activity and the selectivity of molybdenum and tungsten based hydrotreating catalysts. Recently, the focus of investigation has turned to the structure of the catalytically stabilized active catalyst. The surface of the catalytically stabilized MoS2 has been shown to be carbided with the formula MoSxCy under hydrotreating conditions. In this paper we review the basis for this finding and present new data extending the concept to the promoted TMS (transition metal sulfides) systems CoMoC and NiMoC. Freshly sulfided CoMoS and NiMoS catalyst have a strong tendency to form the carbided surface phases from any available carbon source.

Kelty,S.; Berhault, G.; Chianelli, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

Critchley, Ian L.

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

378

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION. Because of the costs associated with injection, optimizing an injection program involves not only of the injectate can become available for production and at the same time optimize the present worth of the project

Stanford University

382

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Westerman, Stuart; /SLAC; Cheng, Weixing; /Brookhaven; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

384

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

385

Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

386

Active oxygen species and mechanism for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction on a TiO{sub 2}-supported Au catalyst prepared from Au(PPh{sub 3})(NO{sub 3}) and as-precipitated titanium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The active oxygen species and mechanism for catalytic CO oxidation with O{sub 2} on a highly active TiO{sub 2}-supported Au catalyst (denoted as Au/Ti(OH){sub 4}{sup *}), which was prepared by supporting a Au-phophine complex on as-precipitated wet titanium hydroxide followed by calcination at 673 K, have been studied by means of oxygen isotope exchange, O{sub 2} temperature-programmed desorption (O{sub 2} TPD), electron spin resonance (ESR), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface lattice oxygen atoms on the Au/Ti(OH){sub 4}{sup *} catalyst were inactive for oxygen exchange with O{sub 2} and CO and also for CO oxidation at room temperature. The surface lattice oxygen atoms were exchanged only with the oxygen atoms of CO{sub 2}, probably via carbonates. O{sub 2} did not dissociate to atomic oxygen on the catalyst. The catalyst showed a paramagnetic signal at g = 2.002 due to unpaired electrons trapped at oxygen vacancies mainly at the surface. O{sub 2} adsorbed on the oxygen vacancies to form superoxide O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} with g{sub 1} = 2.020, g{sub 2} = 2.010, and g{sub 3} = 2.005, which are characteristic of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} with an angular arrangement. Upon CO exposure, all the adsorbed oxygen species disappeared. The mechanism for the catalytic CO oxidation on the active Au/Ti(OH){sub 4}{sup *} catalyst is discussed in detail and compared with mechanisms reported previously.

Liu, H.; Kozlov, A.I.; Kozlova, A.P.; Shido, Takafumi; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1999-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Enhanced oil recovery using hydrogen peroxide injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NOVATEC received an US Patent on a novel method to recovery viscous oil by hydrogen peroxide injection. The process appears to offer several significant improvements over existing thermal methods of oil recovery. Tejas joined NOVATEC to test the process in the laboratory and to develop oil field applications and procedures.

Moss, J.T. Jr.; Moss, J.T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

Zhang, Yannan

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

394

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

Riding, Dr Robert E [University of Tennessee (UT); Fralick, Dr Philip [Lakehead University, Canada; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Protein Synthesis. Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after...

397

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There is a growing need for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradients onto a tissue or culture sample in vitro. This dissertation introduces the… (more)

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Catalytic microwave torrefaction and pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet to improve biofuel quality .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aims of this dissertation were to understand the effects of torrefaction as pretreatment on biomass pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis for improving biofuel quality, and… (more)

[No author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - auto-catalytic electroless plating Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electroless plating Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Preparation of highly dispersed PEM fuel cell catalysts using electroless deposition methods Summary: (ED). ED is a catalytic...

402

Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

Low, Clarke Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

404

Composition and method for polymer moderated catalytic water formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition suitable for safely removing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen and oxygen, particularly those mixtures wherein the hydrogen concentration is within the explosive range. The composition comprises a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably Pd dispersed on carbon, wherein the concentration of Pd is from about 1-10 wt %, dispersed in a polymeric material matrix. As well as serving as a matrix to contain the hydrogenation catalyst, the polymeric material, which is substantially unreactive to hydrogen, provides both a diffusion restriction to hydrogen and oxygen, thereby limiting the rate at which the reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) can diffuse to the catalyst surface and thus, the production of heat from the recombination reaction and as a heat sink.

Shepodd, Timothy Jon (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Catalytic oxidation of 2-aminophenols and ortho hydroxylation of aromatic amines by tyrosinase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The usual substrates of tyrosinase, a copper-containing monooxygenase (EC 1.14.18.1), are monophenols and o-diphenols which are both converted to o-quinones. In this paper, the authors studied the reaction of this enzyme with two new classes of substrates: aromatic amines and o-aminophenols, structural analogues of monophenols and o-diphenols, respectively. They undergo the same catalytic reactions (ortho hydroxylation and oxidation), as documented by product analysis and kinetic studies. In the presence of tyrosinase, arylamines and o-aminophenols are converted to o-quinone imines, which are isolated as quinone anils or phenoxazones. As an example, in the presence of tyrosinase, 2-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid (an o-aminophenol) is converted to cinnabarinic acid, a well-known phenoxazone, while p-aminotoluene (an aromatic amine) gives rise to the formation of 5-amino-2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone 1-(4-methylanil). Kinetic studies using an oxygen electrode show that arylamines and the corresponding monophenols exhibit similar Michaelis constants. In contrast, the reaction rates observed for aromatic amines are relatively slow as compared to monophenols. The enzymatic conversion of arylamines by tryosinase is different from the typical ones: N-oxidation and ring hydroxylation without further oxidation. This difference originates from the regiospecific hydroxylation (ortho position) and subsequent oxidation of the intermediate o-aminophenol to the corresponding o-quinone imine. Finally, the well-know monooxygenase activity of tyrosinase was also confirmed for the aromatic amine p-aminotoluene, with /sup 18/O/sub 2/.

Toussaint, O.; Lerch, K.

1987-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

406

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

407

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

Eagar, Thomas W.

408

Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, Maxim [Computational Nanoelectronics Laboratory, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, Vladimir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260-1920 (United States)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

410

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

Lazerson, Samuel

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

411

Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

CX-005329: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fluid-Bed Testing of GreatPoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 02282011 Location(s): Grand Forks, North Dakota...

413

CX-002899: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07082010 Location(s): Grand Forks, North Dakota...

414

Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

416

Studies Relevent to Catalytic Activation Co & other small Molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed annual and triannual reports describing the progress accomplished during the tenure of this grant were filed with the Program Manager for Catalysis at the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. To avoid unnecessary duplication, the present report will provide a brief overview of the research areas that were sponsored by this grant and list the resulting publications and theses based on this DOE supported research. The scientific personnel participating in (and trained by) this grant's research are also listed. Research carried out under this DOE grant was largely concerned with the mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Much of the more recent effort has focused on the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions relevant to substrate carbonylations by homogeneous organometallic catalysts. A wide range of modern investigative techniques were employed, including quantitative fast reaction methodologies such as time-resolved optical (TRO) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy and stopped flow kinetics. Although somewhat diverse, this research falls within the scope of the long-term objective of applying quantitative techniques to elucidate the dynamics and understand the principles of mechanisms relevant to the selective and efficient catalytic conversions of fundamental feedstocks to higher value materials.

Ford, Peter C

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

417

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

SNS Laser Stripping for H- Injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ORNL spallation neutron source (SNS) user facility requires a reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron has the potential to provide the needed beam currents, but it will be limited by intrinsic limitations of carbon and diamond stripping foils. A laser in combination with magnetic stripping has been used to demonstrate a new technique for high intensity proton injection, but several problems need to be solved before a practical system can be realized. Technology developed for use in Free Electron Lasers is being used to address the remaining challenges to practical implementation of laser controlled H- charge exchange injection for the SNS. These technical challenges include (1) operation in vacuum, (2) the control of the UV laser beam to synchronize with the H- beam and to shape the proton beam, (3) the control and stabilization of the Fabry-Perot resonator, and (4) protection of the mirrors from radiation.

V.V. Danilov, Y. Liu, K.B. Beard, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Michelle D. Shinn

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions of Carbohydrates: a Nonoxidative Approach to Oxygenated Organics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a critical need for new environmentally friendly processes in the United States chemical industry as legislative and economic pressures push the industry to zero-waste and cradle-to-grave responsibility for the products they produce. Carbohydrates represent a plentiful, renewable resource, which for some processes might economically replace fossil feedstocks. While the conversion of biomass to fuels, is still not generally economical, the selective synthesis of a commodity or fine chemical, however, could compete effectively if appropriate catalytic conversion systems can be found. Oxygenated organics, found in a variety of products such as nylon and polyester, are particularly attractive targets. We believe that with concerted research efforts, homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions could play a significant role in bringing about this future green chemistry technology.

Andrews, Mark

1997-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

426

Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

427

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Experimental Target Injection and Tracking System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant with an accuracy of and plusmn; 5 mm at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 each second. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-}200{mu}m for indirect drive and {+-}20{mu}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been designed and is being constructed at General Atomics to investigate injection and tracking of both direct drive and indirect drive targets. The design is modular to allow testing of alternate target acceleration and tracking methods. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feed back to the target designers. This 30 m long system will be the centerpiece of a Facility for developing IFE target fabrication and injection technologies. A high-speed high-flow gas valve (designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will provide helium propellant gas to the targets. To avoid target damage from excessive acceleration, an 8 m gun barrel is being built to achieve 400 m/s target speed while not exceeding 10,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Gas expansion chambers and orifices, keep propellant gas out of the target-tracking region. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line scan cameras. High-speed computations will calculate target position in less than 2 ms based on the output from the line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time to a plane in the reaction chamber center will be predicted in real-time based on early target position measurements. The system design, construction progress, and early testing results will be presented.

Petzoldt, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Alexander, N.B. [General Atomics (United States); Drake, T.J. [General Atomics (United States); Goodin, D.T. [General Atomics (United States); Stemke, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Jonestrask, K

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Selective oxidation of alkanes and/or alkenes to valuable oxygenates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing at least one of methacrolein and methacrylic acid, for example, by subjecting isobutane or isobutylene or a mixture thereof to a vapor phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen. In the case where isobutane alone is subjected to a vapor phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, the product is at least one of isobutylene, methacrolein and methacrylic acid. The catalyst comprises a compound having the formula A.sub.aB.sub.bX.sub.xY.sub.yZ.sub.zO.sub.o wherein A is one or more elements selected from the group of Mo, W and Zr, B is one or more elements selected from the group of Bi, Sb, Se, and Te, X is one or more elements selected from the group of Al, Bi, Ca, Ce, Co, Fe, Ga, Mg, Ni, Nb, Sn, W and Zn, Y is one or more elements selected from the group of Ag, Au, B, Cr, Cs, Cu, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Re, Ru, Sn, Te, Ti, V and Zr, and Z is one or more element from the X or Y groups or from the following: As, Ba, Pd, Pt, Sr, or mixtures thereof, and wherein a=1, 0.05

Lin, Manhua (Maple Glen, PA); Pillai, Krishnan S. (North Brunwick, NJ)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Analyse of the Injection System * Simulation * Hydraulic Characterisation * Optical Spray Diagnostics Engine Investigations * Experimental Results * Optical Combustion...

436

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes M Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of various nanotube surface and edge reactions (e.g. adsorption of hydrocarbons and hydrogen onto the surface

Grujicic, Mica

437

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

438

Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis of catalytically assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of the tantalum/carbon material system. © 2001 by The Combustion Institute INTRODUCTION Self-propagating high-temperature combustion synthesis

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

439

Scaling behavior of optimally structured catalytic microfluidic reactors Fridolin Okkels and Henrik Bruus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling behavior of optimally structured catalytic microfluidic reactors Fridolin Okkels and Henrik of catalytic microfluidic reactors we show that, when optimally structured, these reactors share underlying the reactor using a high-level implementation of topology optimization. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.016301 PACS

440

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application Takashi: A micro-scale catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology has been developed surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature

Kasagi, Nobuhide

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Non-uniform Heat Generation in Micro Catalytic Combustor Takashi Okamasa*, Yuji Suzuki, and Nobuhide Kasagi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-uniform Heat Generation in Micro Catalytic Combustor Takashi Okamasa*, Yuji Suzuki@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract We developed a micro catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology and nano-porous alumina catalyst layer. It is found that failure of the ceramic combustor occurs due

Kasagi, Nobuhide

442

The Catalytic Chemistry of HCN+NO over Na- and Ba-Y, FAU: An...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Catalytic Chemistry of HCN+NO over Na- and Ba-Y, FAU: An In Situ FTIR and TPDTPR Study. The Catalytic Chemistry of HCN+NO over Na- and Ba-Y, FAU: An In Situ FTIR and TPDTPR...

443

MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

444

Analysis of Power System Dynamics Subject to Stochastic Power Injections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--We propose a framework to study the impact of stochastic active/reactive power injections. In this framework the active/reactive power injections evolve according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model. The DAE model is linearized around a nominal set of active/reactive power injections

Liberzon, Daniel

445

Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

Arnold, S.C.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Electron Cloud at Injection Region BNL/SNS TECHNICAL NOTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's tangential plane. The stripped electrons from the injection beam cause about 145W thermal damage. They haveElectron Cloud at Injection Region BNL/SNS TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 143 Y.Y. Lee, G. Mahler, W. Meng, D, NEW YORK 11973 #12;1 ELECTRON CLOUD AT INJECTION REGEION Y.Y. Lee, G. Mahler, W. Meng, D. Raparia, L

447

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB in the injection site. Copper per os dosing is efficient for treating deficient animals (Lamand et al., 1969 consuming. Therefore we tried to per- fect a copper and zinc deficiency treatment allowing the injection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

Injection and acceleration of H at Earth's bow shock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Injection and acceleration of H and He2 at Earth's bow shock M. Scholer1 , H. Kucharek1 , K the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

Levin, Lisa

450

Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels

Carroll, David L.

451

Evaluation of the effects of contaminant injection location and injection method on the determination of overall relative room ventilation efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Calculation of zeroeth moment Calculation of first moment. . 29 30 Diagram of flows in and out of a perfectly mixed room. 30 Floor plan of test room. 31 Carbon dioxide concentration versus time for supply... duct injection point and pulse injection method. 32 Example of use of moments to determine mean age of air. . . . 29 Figure 7. Carbon dioxide concentration versus time for short circuit injection point and pulse injection method. 32 Figure 8...

Pierce, Stephen Dale

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Characterization of an oxygen suspension used for intravenous infusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygenated fluid mixture can be used to treat critically ill patients suffering from asphyxia, lung injury, and cardiac arrest. This oxygenated fluid delivered intravenously re-oxygenates the bloodstream, allowing for more ...

Peña, Kristen Helen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Blood oxygen transport and depletion : the key of consummate divers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Dill, D. B. (1935). Oxygen dissociation curves of birdE. (1964). A venous blood oxygen reservoir in the divingand Torrance, J. D. (1977). Oxygen-Affinity of Avian Blood.

Meir, Jessica Ulrika

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Abstract: Since oxygen atom...

456

Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon: combined effects on ionization electron charge and scintillation light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dedicated test of the effects of Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. Two detectors have been used: the WArP 2.3 lt prototype and a small (0.7 lt) dedicated detector, coupled with a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Oxygen. Purpose of the test with the 0.7 lt detector is to detect the reduction of the long-lived component lifetime of the Argon scintillation light emission at increasing O2 concentration. Data from the WArP prototype are used for determining the behavior of both the ionization electron lifetime and the scintillation long-lived component lifetime during the O2-purification process activated in closed loop during the acquisition run. The electron lifetime measurements allow to infer the O2 content of the Argon and correlate it with the long-lived scintillation lifetime data. The effect of Oxygen contamination on the scintillation light has been thus measured over a wide range of O2 concentration, spanning from about 10^-3 ppm up to about 10 ppm. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Oxygen in LAr has been found to be k'(O2)=0.54+-0.03 micros^-1 ppm^-1.

R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; F. Tortorici; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

Oxygen Tension Modulates Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Through A Mechanism Involving HIF and VEGF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neural repair. Keywords Oxygen tension . Neurite extension .respective physiological oxygen microenvironments (Chen etet al. 2008). For example, oxygen tension differentially

Genetos, Damian C.; Cheung, Whitney K.; Decaris, Martin L.; Leach, J. Kent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Long-term oxygen sensor implantation in the porcine subcutaneous environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane-­?Covered  Oxygen  Electrode.   Analytical  Microvascular  and  tissue  oxygen   distribution.  vitro  stability  of  an  oxygen  sensor.   Anal  Chem,  

Kumosa, Lucas Stefan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

460

Tantalum pillard montmorillonite: II. Acidic and catalytic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The acidic and catalytic properties of a series of Ta-PILCs synthesized with a different initial tantalum content were characterized by adsorption of gaseous probe molecules (TPD of ammonia and FTIR spectra of absorbed pyridine) and by the test reaction of 1-butanol dehydration. A large increase of acidity was noted in Ta-PILCs compared to Na-montmorillonite or tantalum oxide. Cross-linking pillars and silica layers of the clay induce stronger Lewis and new Bronsted sites. The lack of basic sites formation is evidenced by the dehydration of 1-butanol to butene selectivity (100%). The incorporation of the tantalum oxide between the montmorillonite sheets produce, within Ta-PILC, acid centers of the same nature as observed for the silicon-tantalum mixed oxides. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Guiu, G.; Grange, P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

465

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

467

Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

468

Fabrication of fuel cell electrodes and other catalytic structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte. 1 fig.

Smith, J.L.

1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

469

An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-3 An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner Qingshan Dong Postgraduate Shihong. Zhang Ph. D. Professor Zhiyin Duan Postgraduate Qi Zhou... for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-3 Tab. 1 Compositions of natural gas Compositions CH4 C2H6 C3H8 i-C4H10 n-C4H10 CO2 N2 O2 Volume fraction (%) 93.908 0.951 0.198 0.012 0.011 2.657 1.894 0.369 Lower heating value (kJ Nm-3) 35906 64397 93244 122857...

Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to convert coal into a soluble substance under mild conditions. The strategy involved two steps, first to breakdown the macromolecular network of coal, and second to add hydrogen catalytically. We investigated different basic reagents that could, in priciple, break down coal's structure and alkylation strategies that might enhance its solubility. We examined O- and C-alkylation, the importance of the strength of the base, the character of the added alkyl groups and other reaction parameters. This work provided new information concerning the way in which hydrogen bonding, polarization interactions between aromatic structures and covalent bonding could be disrupted and solubility enhanced. The objective of our research was to explore new organochromium chemistry that might be feasible for the hydrogenation of coal under mild conditions.

Stock, L.M.; Chatterjee, K.; Cheng, C.; Ettinger, M.; Flores, F.; Jiralerspong, S.; Miyake, M.; Muntean, J.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to convert coal into a soluble substance under mild conditions. The strategy involved two steps, first to breakdown the macromolecular network of coal, and second to add hydrogen catalytically. We investigated different basic reagents that could, in priciple, break down coal`s structure and alkylation strategies that might enhance its solubility. We examined O- and C-alkylation, the importance of the strength of the base, the character of the added alkyl groups and other reaction parameters. This work provided new information concerning the way in which hydrogen bonding, polarization interactions between aromatic structures and covalent bonding could be disrupted and solubility enhanced. The objective of our research was to explore new organochromium chemistry that might be feasible for the hydrogenation of coal under mild conditions.

Stock, L.M.; Chatterjee, K.; Cheng, C.; Ettinger, M.; Flores, F.; Jiralerspong, S.; Miyake, M.; Muntean, J.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

475

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies. Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies....

477

Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Abstract: The...

478

Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

479

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

480

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygen injection catalytic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.