National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxides nox ozone

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

  2. 8, 49114947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss processes B. Vogel et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4911 #12;ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss

  3. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  4. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  5. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th...

  6. Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap...

  7. Ozone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3 to a wide span of NOx and VOC emission changes. Properly constrained and well-evaluated modelsOzone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating O3-NOx-VOC sensitivity Rahul A. Zaveri,1 Carl M. Berkowitz,1

  8. NO[x] production by lightning in the continental U.S. and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bond, Donald William

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. High tropospheric NOx concentrations increase ozone (O?) levels via photochemical cycling of NO to NO?, whereas low NOx concentrations result in the ...

  9. Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

  10. High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 , Linda Hembeck1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 emissions2 3;2 hot summer days due to high electricity demand. Between 1997 and 2011, power23 plant emissions of NOx greater59 electricity demand for air conditioning. Singh and Sloan [2005] reported that60

  11. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000006 The Role of Surface Oxides in NOx Storage Reduction Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000006 The Role of Surface Oxides in NOx Storage Reduction Catalysts Jelena which a reductant is injected into the exhaust stream and reacts with the stored NOx, possi- bly catalyst is that the catalyst must be active for both NO oxidation and NOx reduction. In recent years

  12. Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations R. G. Derwent & D. S distributions of methane CH4 and ozone O3 following the emission of pulses of the oxides of nitrogen NOx. Month-long emission pulses of NOx produce deficits in CH4 mixing ratios that bring about negative radiative forcing

  13. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  14. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  15. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. THE NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROVERSY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Harold S.

    2012-01-01

    OZONE-COLUMN REDUCTION FOR STA DA D NOx INPUT BY LIVERMOREof NOx perturbation, one could calculate ozone reductionscalculates a reduction of the ozone column by NOx injections

  17. Method of preparing doped oxide catalysts for lean NOx exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-09

    The lean NOx catalyst includes a substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina deposited on the substrate and a metal or metal oxide promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium cerium, and vanadium, and oxides thereof, and any combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between 80 and 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to about 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  18. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI

  19. North American influence on tropospheric ozone and the effects of recent emission reductions: Constraints from ICARTT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    s, possibly reflecting the decrease in the NOx/CO emission ratio as well as an increase in the ozone production efficiency per unit NOx. North American NOx emissions during summer 2004 as constrained organic compounds (NMVOCs) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). Anthropogenic emissions

  20. Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Imke

    Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Nitrite Reductase: 1204 2. Copper Nitrite Reductases 1206 B. Nitric Oxide Reductase 1208 1. Structure 1208 Nitric Oxide Sensors, Scavengers, and Delivery Agents 1227 IV. Concluding Remarks 1229 V. Acknowledgments

  1. Multi-component Zirconia-Titania Mixed Oxides: Catalytic Materials with Unprecedented Performance in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 after harsh hydrothermal ageing. Nathalie MARCOTTE1#, Bernard catalytic reduction. 1. Introduction. The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM% H2O, ~ 1050 K) is a prerequisite for deNOx catalysts of tomorrow in Diesel exhaust gas treatment

  2. Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

  3. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

  4. Does the location of aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions affect their climate impact?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    integrations: a base case, then variants with extra aircraft nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions added to specific NOx emissions. NOx promotes tropospheric ozone (O3) production, but also stimulates methane (CH4 how important the emission location is in influencing the impact of aviation NOx on O3 and CH4. 2

  5. Performance Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    technology for controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The development strategies for coal-fired power plants. Details of the IECM's copper oxide process, power plant air preheater via the power plant air preheater. The net chemical reactions occurring in the absorber are: CuO (s

  6. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2007-01-01

    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

  7. Analytica Chimica Acta 573574 (2006) 913 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Analytica Chimica Acta 573­574 (2006) 9­13 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone. Their structural, electrical and ozone sensing properties were analyzed. Structural investigations carried out with ultraviolet light and subsequent oxidation in ozone atmosphere at room temperature. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore »speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., -1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.« less

  9. Ground-level ozone in eastern North America : its formation and transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zemba, Stephen G.

    1990-01-01

    Ozone (Os), a natural component of the troposphere, is augmented by photochemical processes involving manmade emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sufficiently high concentrations of ...

  10. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  11. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-15

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

  12. Observations of the Temperature Dependent Response of Ozone to NOx Reductions in an Urban Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFranchi, B W; Goldstein, A H; Cohen, R C

    2011-01-25

    Observations of NO{sub x} in the Sacramento, CA region show that mixing ratios decreased by 30% between 2001 and 2008. Here we use an observation-based method to quantify net ozone production rates in the outflow from the Sacramento metropolitan region and examine the O{sub 3} decrease resulting from reductions in NO{sub x} emissions. This observational method does not rely on assumptions about detailed chemistry of ozone production, rather it is an independent means to verify and test these assumptions. We use an instantaneous steady-state model as well as a detailed 1-D plume model to aid in interpretation of the ozone production inferred from observations. In agreement with the models, the observations show that early in the plume, the NO{sub x} dependence for O{sub x} (O{sub x} = O{sub 3}+NO{sub 2}) production is strongly coupled with temperature, suggesting that temperature dependent biogenic VOC emissions can drive O{sub x} production between NO{sub x}-limited and NO{sub x}-suppressed regimes. As a result, NO{sub x} reductions were found to be most effective at higher temperatures over the 7 year period. We show that violations of the California 1-hour O{sub 3} standard (90 ppb) in the region have been decreasing linearly with decreases in NO{sub x} (at a given temperature) and predict that reductions of NO{sub x} concentrations (and presumably emissions) by an additional 30% (relative to 2007 levels) will eliminate violations of the state 1 hour standard in the region. If current trends continue, a 30% decrease in NO{sub x} is expected by 2012, and an end to violations of the 1 hour standard in the Sacramento region appears to be imminent.

  13. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  14. Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide concentrations of Ozone destruction and creation at different altitudes and concentrations of CH4 and N2O #12;Contents levels have varying conditions and are governed by different chemical regimes We will simulate ozone

  15. Manganese oxide/titania materials for removal of NOx and elemental mercury from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Ji; Pavani M. Sreekanth; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Stephen W. Thiel; Neville G. Pinto [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering

    2008-07-15

    A novel catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using CO as reductant, MnOx supported on titania, has been shown to be effective for both elemental mercury capture and low temperature SCR. In low temperature (200{sup o}C) SCR trials using an industrially relevant space velocity (50 000 h{sup -1}) and oxygen concentration (2 vol %), nearly quantitative reduction of NOx was obtained using CO as the reductant. Fresh catalyst used as an adsorbent for elemental mercury from an inert atmosphere showed remarkable mercury capture capacity, as high as 17.4 mg/g at 200{sup o}C. The catalyst effectively captured elemental mercury after use in NOx reduction. Mercury capture efficiency was not affected by the presence of water vapor. Mercury capacity was reduced in the presence of SO{sub 2}. Manganese loading and bed temperature, which influence surface oxide composition, were found to be important factors for mercury capture. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal that the mercury is present in its oxidized form (HgO) in spent catalyst, indicating the participation of lattice oxygen of the catalyst in the reaction. These results suggest that a single-step process integrating low temperature SCR and mercury capture from flue gas might be feasible. 42 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmén, Britt A.

    SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD+08 2.6e+08 2.8e+08 3e+08 Time--> Abundance TIC: 0914S4.D INTRODUCTION Diesel exhaust is one into the atmosphere diesel particles can be transformed through physical and chemical processes resulting

  17. New Houston NOx Rules: Implications and Solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    2002-01-01

    Rules: Implications and Solutions Impact ofNew NOx Regulations in the Houston Galveston Area (HGA) Ron Cascone - Mgr. Special Projects, Utilities &Environ. ABSTRACT New regulations drastically cut the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) allowed... monitored six key atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), lead, nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM IO ), sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds (YOCs). Except for NOx, emissions of all have decreased significantly. NOx...

  18. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  20. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  1. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  2. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  3. Ultrahigh vacuum and low-temperature cleaning of oxide surfaces using a low-concentration ozone beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, A. [CNR – ISMN, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, v. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Prezioso, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Harold Frank Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Yamauchi, Y., E-mail: yamauchi.yasushi@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    We present a novel method of delivering a low-concentration (<15%) ozone beam to an ultra-high vacuum environment for the purpose of cleaning and dosing experimental samples through oxidation processing. The system described is safe, low-cost, and practical and overcomes the limitations of ozone transport in the molecular flow environment of high or ultrahigh vacuum whilst circumventing the use of pure ozone gas which is potentially highly explosive. The effectiveness of this method in removing surface contamination is demonstrated through comparison of high-temperature annealing of a simple oxide (MgO) in ozone and oxygen environments as monitored using quadrupole mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of ozone for obtaining clean complex oxide surfaces without the need for high-temperature annealing which may significantly alter surface structure.

  4. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

  5. Observational constraints on the contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production on the western slope of the Sierra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    measurements of isoprene and its oxi- dation products formaldehyde (HCHO), methyl vinyl ketone (MVKObservational constraints on the contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production products methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) are used to quantify the impact of isoprene

  6. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    of the world econ- omy and demand for aviation and its emissions are expected to increase in the future from aviation (mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), VOCsComparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

  7. NOx control technology requirements under the United States 1990 Clean Air Act amendments compared to those in selected pacific rim countries. Report for September 1993-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.A.; Hall, R.E.; Stern, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The paper compares nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology requirements under the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) with those in selected Pacific Rim countries. The CAAAs require reduction of NOx emissions under Titles I (requiring control of NOx from all source types for the purpose of attaining ambient air quality standards for NOx and ozone) and IV (requiring control of NOx from coal-fired utility boilers for the reduction of acid rain precursors). Title IV sets national emission standards for dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired boilers based on low NOx burner technology, defined by EPA to include separated overfire air. Emission standards for other boiler types are to be promulgated by 1997. Title I controls, based on reductions necessary to reduce local and regional ambient levels of NOx and ozone, involve Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) as defined by EPA`s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards; however, emission levels are set by the states according to local conditions. Technologies defined as RACT include low NOx burner technology, selective non-catalytic modifications, and selective catalytic reduction. These and other combustion modifications and flue gas treatment technologies are described.

  8. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    LSCo for Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Anodes”, J. Electrochem.gas sensors. Batteries, electrolyzers, and gas sensors allmake a sensor or an electrolyzer. By reading an open circuit

  9. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  10. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  11. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  12. A Novel Technology for the Reduction of NOx on Char by Microwaves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buenger, C.; Peterson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis on reduction of NOx as a precursor to street level ozone has increased the need for technologies capable of reducing NOx (>95%) to very low levels in major metropolitan areas from a wide variety of sources. Technology offerings...

  13. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  14. Potential of Ozone Formation by the Smog Mechanism to shield the surface of the Early Earth from UV radiation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Lee Grenfell; Barbara Stracke; Beate Patzer; Ruth Titz; Heike Rauer

    2006-09-08

    We propose that the photochemical smog mechanism produced substantial ozone (O3) in the troposphere during the Proterozoic, which contributed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation shielding hence favoured the establishment of life. The smog mechanism is well-established and is associated with pollution hazes which sometimes cover modern cities. The mechanism proceeds via the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as methane (CH4) in the presence of UV radiation and nitrogen oxides (NOx). It would have been particularly favoured during the Proterozoic given the high levels of CH4 (up to 1000 ppm) recently suggested. Proterozoic UV levels on the surface of the Earth were generally higher compared with today, which would also have favoured the mechanism. On the other hand, Proterozoic O2 required in the final step of the smog mechanism to form O3 was less abundant compared with present times. Further, results are sensitive to Proterozoic NOx concentrations, which are challenging to predict, since they depend on uncertain quantities such as NOx source emissions and OH concentrations. We review NOx sources during the Proterozoic and apply a photochemical box model having methane oxidation with NOx, HOx and Ox chemistry to estimate the O3 production from the smog mechanism. Runs suggest the smog mechanism during the Proterozoic can produce about double present day ozone columns for NOx levels of 1.53 10-9 by volume mixing ratio, which was attainable according to our NOx source analysis, with 1 per-cent present atmospheric levels (PALs) of O2. Clearly, forming ozone in the troposphere is a trade-off for survivability. On the one hand harmful UV is blocked, but on the other hand ozone is a respiratory irratant, which becomes fatal at concentrations exceeding about 1 ppmv.

  15. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41- Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish a budget trading program for nitrogen oxide emissions, setting NOx budget units for generators and an NOx Allowance Tracking System to account for emissions. These...

  16. Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber AT Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Enhanced High Temperature...

  17. Iron(II) catalysis in oxidation of hydrocarbons with ozone in acetonitrile

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2015-02-11

    Oxidation of alcohols, ethers, and sulfoxides by ozone in acetonitrile is catalyzed by submillimolar concentrations of Fe(CH3CN)62+. The catalyst provides both rate acceleration and greater selectivity toward the less oxidized products. For example, Fe(CH3CN)62+-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol yields benzaldehyde almost exclusively (>95%), whereas the uncatalyzed reaction generates a 1:1 mixture of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Similarly, aliphatic alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes/ketones, cyclobutanol to cyclobutanone, and diethyl ether to a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetaldehyde. The kinetics of oxidation of alcohols and diethyl ether are first-order in [Fe(CH3CN)62+] and [O3] and independent of [substrate] at concentrations greater thanmore »~5 mM. In this regime, the rate constant for all of the alcohols is approximately the same, kcat = (8 ± 1) × 104 M–1 s–1, and that for (C2H5)2O is (5 ± 0.5) × 104 M–1 s–1. In the absence of substrate, Fe(CH3CN)62+ reacts with O3 with kFe = (9.3 ± 0.3) × 104 M–1 s–1. The similarity between the rate constants kFe and kcat strongly argues for Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction as rate-determining in catalytic oxidation. The active oxidant produced in Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction is suggested to be an Fe(IV) species in analogy with a related intermediate in aqueous solutions. As a result, this assignment is supported by the similarity in kinetic isotope effects and relative reactivities of the two species toward substrates.« less

  18. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide...

  19. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01

    be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have an adverse effects of health and environment... NOx burners ? Flue gas recirculation ? Steam injection ? Staged combustion NOx reduction I eChnology IN U x ppm IN U x In Ibs/m m Btu L. oDventlona l.J as Burn e r lU 1?.16 Low N 0 x Burn e r 7:> ,U .1 Ultra LOw NUx Burn e r ,Z:> I U . U...

  20. Abatement of Air Pollution: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Ozone Season Trading Program (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations may apply to fossil-fuel fired emission units, and describe nitrogen emission allocations that owners of such units must meet. The regulations also contain provisions for...

  1. Traffic restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    Traffic restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space, Geophys. Res. Lett show in what follows that a reduction in NOx emissions was in fact observed by the Ozone Monitoring

  2. Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods A. Fateev1 , F. Leipold1 , Y. Kusano1 , B. Stenum1 , H acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas-assisted techniques for NOx-reduction: direct treatment of exhaust gases by plasma, injection of N atoms and injection

  3. Relations between isoprene and nitric oxide in exhaled breath and the potential influence of outdoor ozone: a pilot study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Alya; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Galassetti, Pietro; Blake, Donald R.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    2-day 3-day 5-day a 12.7 ppb ozone b Adjusted for splines ofoutput after exposure to ozone. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 80:apparatus against ozone damage, quenches ozone products, and

  4. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results using GOME-2 and OMI measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2014-06-27

    Inverse modeling using satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns has been extensively used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provide independent global NO2 column measurements on a nearly daily basis at around 9:30 and 13:30 local time across the equator, respectively. Anthropogenic NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI) methods to these two sets of measurements show substantial differences. We improve the DI method by conducting model simulation, satellite retrieval, and inverse modeling sequentially on a daily basis. After each inversion, we update anthropogenic NOx emissions in the model simulation with the newly obtained a posteriori results. Consequently, the inversion-optimized emissions are used to compute the a priori NO2 profiles for satellite retrievals. As such, the a priori profiles used in satellite retrievals are now coupled to inverse modeling results. The improved procedure was applied to GOME-2 and OMI NO2 measurements in 2011. The new daily retrieval-inversion (DRI) method estimates an average NOx emission of 6.9 Tg N/yr over China, and the difference between using GOME-2 and OMI measurements is 0.4 Tg N/yr, which is significantly smaller than the difference of 1.3 Tg N/yr using the previous DI method. Using the more consistent DRI inversion results, we find that anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to be higher in winter and summer than spring (and possibly fall) and the weekday-to-weekend emission ratio tends to increase with NOx emission in China.

  5. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment...

  6. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future A low precious metal loading ammonia-slip catalyst was developed that is able to oxidize the ammonia that...

  7. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Preliminary Report: Integrated NOx Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; McKelvey, K.; Montgomery, C.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Gilman, D.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-08-29

    should include the cumulative savings estimates from all projects projected through 2020 for both the annual and Ozone Season Day (OSD) NOx reductions. The NOx emissions reduction from all these programs were calculated using estimated emissions factors...

  8. Near-Zero NOx Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utzinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    emissions, and conserve natural resources. Recently the company announced the development of a technology that dramatically reduces the nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in the exhaust gas of gas-fired steam boilers to below 1ppm (at O2=0% equivalent...

  9. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  10. Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldajani, Mansour A.

    Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M; accepted 14 April 2007 Available online 24 June 2007 Abstract NOx formation during the combustion process occurs mainly through the oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and through oxidation

  11. Effect of reductive treatments on Pt behavior and NOx storage in lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xianqin; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Chong M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-01

    Lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts represent a promising approach to meet increasingly stringent NOx emission regulations on diesel and other lean-burn engines. Pt material properties, including dispersion and particle size, are known to be important factors in determining NOx uptake performance, since Pt provides active sites for NO oxidation to NO2 necessary for storing NOx as nitrates, and for the reduction of nitrates to N2. In this work, the physicochemical properties of Pt in Pt-BaO/Al2O3 LNT catalysts, such as the Pt accessible surface area and particle size, were investigated by using various tools, such as irreversible volumetric H2 chemisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), following successive reductive treatments at elevated temperatures. NOx uptake activities were also measured to establish a relationship between the properties of Pt and NOx storage following identical high-temperature reductive treatments. We find that the reductive treatments of Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts at temperatures up to 500 şC promote a significant increase in NOx uptake explained, in part, by an induced close interaction between Pt and BaO phases in the catalyst, thus enabling facilitation of the NOx storage process.

  12. Formation of ozone and oxidation of methane in a direct current corona discharge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tangirala, Umashanker

    1976-01-01

    if they are not deliberately maintained below toxic levels. This kind of air pollution problem is quite different from that of industrial emissions as it calls for the removal of mere traces of contaminant from large volumes of gas. For this purpose, conventional treatment... current corona discharge reactor, over a wide range of experimental conditions. The experi- mental variables were corona current, voltage, reactor radius ratio (Ri/R2), gas flow rate and temperature. Generally, more ozone was produced in the negative...

  13. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxides at Harvard Forest NOx deposition is important to both the biosphere and the atmosphere: the form of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cycling of NO-NO2, and does not contribute to net NOx flux. Net deposition velocity of NOx [Aneja et al., 2001]. NO is rapidly converted to NO2 via reaction with O3 (Reaction 3.1), with typical.2), regenerating O3 by the reaction of O(3 P) with molecular oxygen (R3.3): NO + O3 NO2 + O2 (R3.1) NO2 + h NO + O

  14. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  15. Ceramatec NOx Sensor and NOx Catalyst Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Active Soot Filter Regeneration...

  16. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  17. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  18. THE ROLE OF SOOT PARTICLES AND NOx IN THE OXIDATION OF SO2 IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION: KINETICS, MECHANISM, AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    kinetic data for the catalytic oxidation of S02 by variousdata indicate that catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon

  19. Methodology to Calculate NOx Emissions Reductions from the Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.

    2004-01-01

    (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions in energy...

  20. NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction Plan (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions...

  1. Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitacre, S. D.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the impact of lubricant formulation on the performance of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Adsorber Catalysts, including background/motivation for study, experimental design, and results.

  2. Novel Catalysts for Nox Reduction with Reductants Produced in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ID:9130) Project ID:18519 Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  4. NOx Reduction with Natural Gas for Lean Large-Bore Engine Applications Using Lean NOx Trap Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, JE

    2005-02-11

    Large-bore natural gas engines are used for distributed energy and gas compression since natural gas fuel offers a convenient and reliable fuel source via the natural gas pipeline and distribution infrastructure. Lean engines enable better fuel efficiency and lower operating costs; however, NOx emissions from lean engines are difficult to control. Technologies that reduce NOx in lean exhaust are desired to enable broader use of efficient lean engines. Lean NOx trap catalysts have demonstrated greater than 90% NOx reduction in lean exhaust from engines operating with gasoline, diesel, and natural gas fuels. In addition to the clean nature of the technology, lean NOx traps reduce NOx with the fuel source of the engine thereby eliminating the requirement for storage and handling of secondary fuels or reducing agents. A study of lean NOx trap catalysts for lean natural gas engines is presented here. Testing was performed on a Cummins C8.3G (CG-280) engine on a motor dynamometer. Lean NOx trap catalysts were tested for NOx reduction performance under various engine operating conditions, and the utilization of natural gas as the reductant fuel source was characterized. Engine test results show that temperature greatly affects the catalytic processes involved, specifically methane oxidation and NOx storage on the lean NOx trap. Additional studies on a bench flow reactor demonstrate the effect of precious metal loading (a primary cost factor) on lean NOx trap performance at different temperatures. Results and issues related to the potential of the lean NOx trap technology for large-bore engine applications will be discussed.

  5. The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest also acts as an antioxidant within a plant, reacting and neutralizing ozone and peroxides, though , and reacts photochemically in the presence of NOx to produce tropospheric ozone. The Model of Emissions

  6. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees; Feinerman, Alan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  7. A study of the effect of ozone and antioxidants on ozone-sensitive loblolly pine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, Karen Lashea

    1995-01-01

    Ozone, a phytotoxic air pollutant, is formed from photochemical reactions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the troposphere. Ozone is taken into the plant through the stomata, and quickly broken down into hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl...

  8. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  9. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxides at Harvard Forest NOx deposition is important to both the biosphere and the atmosphere: the form of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current estimates indicate that fossil fuel combustion and soil microbial emissions are the largest by smaller contributions from biomass burning, lightning, ammonia oxidation, the ocean, and the stratosphere. Oxidation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions produces intermediate products

  10. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina: Part 1. Plasma assisted NOx reduction over NaY and Al2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Ilsop S.; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    The role of plasma processing on NOx reduction over gammma-alumina and a basic zeolite, NaY was examined. During the plasma treatment NO is oxidized to NO2 and propylene is partially oxidized to CO, CO2, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum NOx conversion was 70% between 180 and 230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. For both catalysts a simultaneous decrease in NOx and aldehydes concentrations was observed, which suggests that aldehyde may be important components for NOx reduction in plasma-treated exhaust.

  11. Update on microkinetic modeling of lean NOx trap chemistry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Richard S.; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Choi, Jae-Soon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Chakravarthy, V, Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-04-01

    Our previously developed microkinetic model for lean NOx trap (LNT) storage and regeneration has been updated to address some longstanding issues, in particular the formation of N2O during the regeneration phase at low temperatures. To this finalized mechanism has been added a relatively simple (12-step) scheme that accounts semi-quantitatively for the main features observed during sulfation and desulfation experiments, namely (a) the essentially complete trapping of SO2 at normal LNT operating temperatures, (b) the plug-like sulfation of both barium oxide (NOx storage) and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites, (c) the degradation of NOx storage behavior arising from sulfation, (d) the evolution of H2S and SO2 during high temperature desulfation (temperature programmed reduction) under H2, and (e) the complete restoration of NOx storage capacity achievable through the chosen desulfation procedure.

  12. CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

  13. Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines.

  14. Argus NOx/SCR report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document reports on NOx units at more than 350 coal and gas-fired power plants in the USA. Formerly known as the Argus SCR Report, the data are now expanded to include other forms of NOx control, including selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), low NOx burners and overfire air.

  15. Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee, Linda J. Nunnermacker,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    parameter to consider when evaluating impacts from NOx emission sources. We present calculational), NOx (NO + NO2), and sunlight. Control of O3 is accomplished by reducing emissions of NOx and/or VOCs as the number of molecules of oxidant (O3 + NO2) produced photochemically when a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2

  16. Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Junsang

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

  17. The effect of variability in industrial emissions on ozone formation in Houston, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort David

    2007-01-01

    Ambient observations have indicated that high concentrations of ozone observed in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx, from industrial facilities. Ambient ...

  18. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro, Fabio; Delgass, Nick; Gounder, Rajmani; Schneider, William F.; Miller, Jeff; Yezerets, Aleksey; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken

    2014-12-09

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compounds contribute to acid rain and photochemical smog and have been linked to respiratory ailments. NOx emissions regulations continue to tighten, driving the need for high performance, robust control strategies. The goal of this project is to develop a deep, molecular level understanding of the function of Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34 materials that catalyze the SCR of NOx with NH3.

  19. Reactivity of Pt/BaO/Al?O? for NOx Storage/Reduction: Effects of Pt and Ba Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Szailer, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF

    2005-02-01

    The control of NOx (NO and NO?) emissions from combustion processes, including vehicle engines, remains a challenge particularly for systems operating at high air-to-fuel ratios (so-called ‘lean’ combustion). The current “3-way”, precious metal-based catalytic converters are unable to selectively reduce NOx with reductants (e.g., CO and residual unburned hydrocarbon) in the presence of excess O?. In the last few years, worldwide environmental regulations regarding NOx emissions from diesel engines (inherently operated ‘lean’) have become significantly more stringent resulting in considerable research efforts to reduce NOx under the highly oxidizing engine operation conditions. Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction have been explored as possible technologies. In recent years, alkaline and alkaline earth oxide-based NOx storage/reduction catalysts (especially BaO/Al?O?) have been developed, and have shown promising activities for lean-NOx reduction [1,2].

  20. IV CESPC, August 21 -25, 2011, Zlatibor, Serbia LIMITATIONS OF NOX REMOVAL BY PULSED CORONA REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebert, Ute

    ]. Together with other design rules this ensures proper EMC (electro-magnetic compatibility) [4]. The NOx]) concentration can be reduced to a few ppm. Nitric acids are formed as main oxidation products. To reduce, NOx production and removal at a low level of NO concentration in air in a pulsed corona reactor

  1. On the temperature dependence of organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides, ozone production, and the impact of emission controls in San Joaquin Valley, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pusede, S. E.

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) experiences some of the worst ozone air quality in the US, frequently exceeding the California 8 h standard of 70.4 ppb. To improve our understanding of trends in the number of ozone violations ...

  2. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Streets, D. G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Foy, B. [Saint Louis Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341509922); Lamsal, L. N. [Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Duncan, B. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Xing, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.

  3. NOx reduction aftertreatment system using nitrogen nonthermal plasma desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okubo, M.; Inoue, M.; Kuroki, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2005-08-01

    In the flue emission from an internal combustion system using diffusing combustion such as coal or oil fuel boiler, incinerator, or diesel engine, around 10% oxygen is usually included. It is difficult to reduce the NOx in the emission completely using catalysts or plasma alone because part of the NO is oxidized under an O{sub 2}-rich environment. In order to overcome these difficulties, we propose a new aftertreatment system of NOx included in the exhaust gas of the combustion system using nonthermal plasma (NTP) desorption and reduction. In this system, exchangeable adsorbent columns are equipped. As an initial step to realize such kind of aftertreatment system, the basic characteristics of the N{sub 2} NTP desorption and NOx reduction were examined experimentally using a pulse corona NTP reactor. After several adsorption/desorption processes, the amount of NOx adsorbed becomes equal to that of the NOx desorbed, that is, all the NO, was desorbed in a single desorption process. It is confirmed that the NOx complete reduction using N{sub 2} NTP desorption is possible not only for a simulated exhaust gas but for a real diesel engine gas. The effective specific energy density can be decreased down to 22 Wh/m{sup 3}.

  4. Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National...

  5. Flexible NOx Abatement from Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Integrated Global System Model. Through this integrated model, the Program seeks to: discover new quality management strategies for NOx emissions from electric generating units. Results from a modelFlexible NOx Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States* Lin Sun, Mort Webster, Gary

  6. Interpreting Remote Sensing NOx Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Interpreting Remote Sensing NOx Measurements Robert Slott, Consultant, Donald Stedman and Saj tailpipe emissions (HC, CO, NOx) are changing with time hUse remote sensing hMeasurements in at least 4 of the year at each location hUniform QC/QA and data reporting Paper # 2001-01-3640 #12;Remote Sensing

  7. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO,more »and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the NOx limited regime is assessed except for the morning hours (8 a.m. to 12 p.m. local standard time), but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) production that is not routinely constrained by observations. These unconstrained OVOCs can cause higher-than-expected OH loss rates (missing OH reactivity) and secondary organic aerosol formation. The series of modeling experiments constrained by observations strongly urge observational constraint of the radical pool to enable precise understanding of regional photochemical pollution problems in the East Asian megacity region.« less

  8. Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua ELINOR M. RAVESI, JOSEPH J. L1CCIARDELLO and LINDA D. RACICOT Introduction The strong oxidizing nature of ozone, known since its discovery in 1840 (1977) cited in a review article numerous reports of the successful use of ozone to I) control microbial

  9. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x} gate stack on germanium substrate fabricated by in situ cycling ozone oxidation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xu; Zeng, Zhen-Hua [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Sheng-Kai, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn; Sun, Bing; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Hu-Dong; Liu, Honggang, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Xiong, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x}/Ge gate stack fabricated by an in situ cycling ozone oxidation (COO) method in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) system at low temperature is systematically investigated. Excellent electrical characteristics such as minimum interface trap density as low as 1.9?×?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?2?}eV{sup ?1} have been obtained by COO treatment. The impact of COO treatment against the band alignment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to Ge is studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Based on both XPS and SE studies, the origin of gate leakage in the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the sub-gap states, which may be correlated to the OH-related groups in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network. It is demonstrated that the COO method is effective in repairing the OH-related defects in high-k dielectrics as well as forming superior high-k/Ge interface for high performance Ge MOS devices.

  10. Reactive based NOx sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliou, Christophoros Christou

    2006-01-01

    Diesel engines exhibit better fuel economy and emit fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline engines. Modern diesel technology has virtually eliminated carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur oxide emissions have ...

  11. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Saewung; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Meehye; Shim, Heeyoun; Wolfe, Glenn; Guenther, Alex B.; He, Amy; Hong, Youdeog; Han, Jinseok

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Gangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical concentrations, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational dataset of CO, NOX, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh BVOC emissions. With the dataset, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated with the University of Washington Chemical Box Model (UWCM v 2.1). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that 1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOX distributions especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times) and 2) radical destruction (HO2+HO2 or HO2+RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (HO2+NO) especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone-VOC-NOX sensitivity and oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the VOC limited regime in ozone photochemistry is predicted but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with OVOCs production that is not routinely constrained by observations. These unconstrained OVOCs can cause higher than expected OH loss rates (missing OH reactivity) and secondary organic aerosol formation. The series of modeling experiments constrained by observations strongly urge observational constraint of the radical pool to enable precise understanding of regional photochemical pollution problems in the East Asian megacity region.

  12. GMMA 106 20142015 1 / 27 Emission de NOx lors la combustion d'un moteur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribatet, Mathieu

    GMMA 106 2014­2015 ­ 1 / 27 ´Emission de NOx lors la combustion d'un moteur (r´egression semi air/ethanol ConcentrationdeNOx Figure 1: ´Emission d'oxide nitrique (NO) et de dioxide de nitrog NOx C E 1 3.741 12.0 0.907 2 2.295 12.0 0.761 3 1.498 12.0 1.108 . . 86 0.370 15.0 0.562 87 0.530 18

  13. Improved Model of Isoprene Emissions in Africa using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Observations of Formaldehyde: Implications for Oxidants and Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D.; Guenther, Alex B.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Murphy, J. G.; Reeves, C. E.; Pye, H.

    2014-08-01

    We use a 2005-2009 record of isoprene emissions over Africa derived from OMI satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) to better understand the factors controlling isoprene emission on the scale of the continent and evaluate the impact of isoprene emissions on atmospheric composition in Africa. OMI-derived isoprene emissions show large seasonality over savannas driven by temperature and leaf area index (LAI), and much weaker seasonality over equatorial forests driven by temperature. The commonly used MEGAN (version 2.1) global 31 isoprene emission model reproduces this seasonality but is biased high, particularly for 32 equatorial forests, when compared to OMI and relaxed-eddy accumulation measurements. 33 Isoprene emissions in MEGAN are computed as the product of an emission factor Eo, LAI, and 34 activity factors dependent on environmental variables. We use the OMI-derived emissions to 35 provide improved estimates of Eo that are in good agreement with direct leaf measurements from 36 field campaigns (r = 0.55, bias = -19%). The largest downward corrections to MEGAN Eo values are for equatorial forests and semi-arid environments, and this is consistent with latitudinal transects of isoprene over West Africa from the AMMA aircraft campaign. Total emission of isoprene in Africa is estimated to be 77 Tg C a-1, compared to 104 Tg C a-1 in MEGAN. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem oxidant-aerosol model suggest that isoprene emissions increase mean surface ozone in West Africa by up to 8 ppbv, and particulate matter by up to 1.5 42 ?g m-3, due to coupling with anthropogenic influences.

  14. Control of NOx by combustion process modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

  15. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  16. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  17. Ambient Measurements of the NOx Reservoir Species N2O5 using Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geidosch, Justine Nicole

    2012-10-19

    to the occurrence of asthma. Ozone is formed through reactions of oxidized volatile organic compounds with nitrogen oxides, and the accurate modeling of the process is necessary for smart and effective regulations. Ambient measurements are important to understanding...

  18. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, J. Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Faulkner, Stephen A. (Stamford, GB); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  19. The sensitivity of modeled ozone to the temporal distribution of point, area, and mobile source emissions in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    February 2009 Received in revised form 12 May 2009 Accepted 22 May 2009 Keywords: Modeling Air pollution Emissions Ozone a b s t r a c t Ozone remains one of the most recalcitrant air pollution problems in the US the emissions of NOx from day to night, for example in electric powered vehicles recharged at night, could have

  20. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  1. Calculation of NOx Emission Reduction from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, W. D.; Yazdani, B.; Im, P.; Verdict, M.; Bryant, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2003-01-01

    OF NOx EMISSIONS REDUCTION FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2000 IECC/IRC CONSERVATION CODE IN TEXAS Jeff S. Haberl Ph.D., P.E Professor/ Assc. Director Charles Culp Ph.D., P.E. Assc. Director Bahman Yazdani P.E. Assc. Director Tom Fitzpatrick... and passed Senate Bill 5 to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state2. An important part of this legislation is the State?s energy efficiency program, which includes...

  2. Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, E.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

  3. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications. Briefly, impedancemetric operation has shown the potential to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches, including higher sensitivity towards NO{sub x}, better long-term stability, potential for subtracting out background interferences, total NO{sub x} measurement, and lower cost materials and operation. Past LLNL research and development efforts have focused on characterizing different sensor materials and understanding complex sensing mechanisms. Continued effort has led to improved prototypes with better performance, including increased sensitivity (to less than 5 ppm) and long-term stability, with more appropriate designs for mass fabrication, including incorporation of an alumina substrate with an imbedded heater. Efforts in the last year to further improve sensor robustness have led to successful engine dynamometer testing with prototypes mounted directly in the engine manifold. Previous attempts had required exhaust gases to be routed into a separate furnace for testing due to mechanical failure of the sensor from engine vibrations. A more extensive cross-sensitivity study was also undertaken this last year to examine major noise factors including fluctuations in water, oxygen, and temperature. The quantitative data were then used to develop a strategy using numerical algorithms to improve sensor accuracy. The ultimate goal is the transfer of this technology to a supplier for commercialization. Due to the recent economic downturn, suppliers are demanding more comprehensive data and increased performance analysis before committing their resources to take the technology to market. Therefore, our NO{sub x} sensor work requires a level of technology development more thorough and extensive than ever before. The objectives are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) exhaust gas monitoring; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements and designs and manufacturing metho

  4. Improved performance of NOx reduction by H2 and CO over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst at low temperatures under lean-burn conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    pollutants that are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels. The NOx emitted by vehicles contributes to the formation of smog, ozone, and acid rain, causing serious environmental pollution. Vehicles that run on light and produce fewer pollutants by using a rel- atively high air-to-fuel ratio as compared to gasoline- powered

  5. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development...

  6. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01

    time of 30 days. 34 10 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized samples. 37 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized plus ozonated samples. 12 Effect... of solids retention time on nonadsorbable COD, with and without ozonation. 39 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Biochemical and chemical oxygen demand data. COD removal and ozone consumption data 21 26 iVon-adsorbable COD data for bio-oxidized effluent. . 3O...

  7. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Global and zonal total ozone variations estimated fromon multidecadal total ozone simulations, J. Geophys. Res. ,and J. A. Logan (2007), Ozone climatolo- gical profiles for

  8. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  9. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  10. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  11. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2005-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  12. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  13. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  14. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  15. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances., Reader, M. C. and Jonsson, A. I. (2010) Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10. pp. 8803

  16. Separating the Influence of Halogen and Climate Changes on Ozone Recovery in the Upper Stratosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    causes ozone destruction by enhancing production of water vapor via methane oxidation. Additionally. Including potential climate-induced stratospheric water vapor increases, the ozone change relative to 1980 depletion chemistry, and therefore indirectly leading to more ozone. Increases in methane directly affect

  17. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  18. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides by Methane over Pd(110) S. M. Vesecky, J. Paul, and D. W. Goodman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    the reduction of NOx species and the oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) produced in mobile involves the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or NOx with NH3 4 Although this process is efficient concern. If too much methane is oxidized to CO2, the efficiency of the NOx reduction process will suffer

  19. Laboratory evaluation of a reactive baffle approach to NOx control. Final technical report, February-April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.; Van Stone, D.A.; Little, R.C.; Peterson, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    Vermiculite, vermiculite coated with magnesia, and activated carbon sorbents have successfully removed NOx (and carbon monoxide and particles) from combustion exhausts in a subscale drone jet engine test cell (JETC), but back pressure so generated elevated the temperature of the JETC and of the engine. The objective of this effort was to explore the feasibility of locating the sorbents in the face of the duct or of baffles parallel to the direction of flow within the ducts. Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are stationary sources of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), soot, and unburned or partially oxidized carbon compounds that form as byproducts of imperfect combustion. Regulation of NOx emissions is being considered for implementation under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Several principles have been examined as candidate methods to control NOx emissions from JETCs.

  20. Catalysis by Confinement: Enthalpic Stabilization of NO Oxidation Transition States by Micropororous and Mesoporous Siliceous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    . INTRODUCTION The homogeneous oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with O2 as the oxidant transformation in selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR) by NH3 on metal- exchanged zeolites7-11 and in NOxCatalysis by Confinement: Enthalpic Stabilization of NO Oxidation Transition States

  1. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, William

    2014-08-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  2. Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

  3. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mode Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  4. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mode Lean DI Engines Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Lean DI Engines Presentation from the...

  5. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor...

  6. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

  7. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  8. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company...

  9. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  10. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence...

  11. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty...

  12. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  13. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Development...

  14. Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions...

  15. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx...

  16. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. 2002deerslone.pdf More...

  17. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions...

  18. Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst...

  19. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on CuChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding NOx SCR...

  20. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  1. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  2. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  3. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging...

  4. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

  5. Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Fuel Effects on...

  6. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  7. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Poster presentation at...

  8. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning...

  9. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the ...

  10. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) is available at no charge to help the petroleum refining and chemicals industries develop a cost-effective, plant-wide strategy for NOx reduction and energy efficiency improvements.

  11. Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (EPRI); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

    2008-05-01

    A lean-premixed advanced vortex combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx /CO/unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions corrected to 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated marked acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions, which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean-premixed combustion approaches. In addition, the measured 1.75% pressure drop is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors, which could translate into an overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvement. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drop achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  12. Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon 1. Model formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    for NOx (21 Tg N yr-1 from fossil fuel combustion, 12 Tg N yr-1 from biomass burning, 6 Tg N yr-1 from yr-1 from biomass burning, 15 Tg C yr-1 from vegetation, and 12 Tg C yr-1 from oxidation of propane

  13. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  14. (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290320 nm). NOx emission decreased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290­320 nm). NOx emission decreased from shoots, and the compensation point was estimated to be around 1 p.p.b. As ultraviolet radiation induces NOx emission from P exposure to ultraviolet light and NOx emission, and between the ambient con- centration of NOx and its

  15. EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower’s Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NOx control technologies.

  16. Influence of Ceria on the NOx Storage/Reduction Behavior of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yaying; Choi, Jae-Soon; Toops, Todd J; Crocker, Dr. Mark; Naseri, Mojghan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of La2O3-stabilized ceria incorporation on the functioning of fully formulated lean NOx trap catalysts was investigated. Monolithic catalysts were prepared, corresponding to loadings of 0, 50 and 100 g CeO2/L, together with a catalyst containing 100 g/L of ceria-zirconia (Ce0.7Zr0.3O2). Loadings of the other main components (Pt, Rh and BaO) were held constant. Catalyst evaluation was performed on a bench flow reactor under simulated diesel exhaust conditions, employing NOx storage/reduction cycles. NOx storage efficiency in the temperature range 150-350 C was observed to increase with ceria loading, resulting in higher NOx conversion levels. At 150 C, high rich phase NOx slip was observed for all of the catalysts, resulting from an imbalance in the rates of nitrate decomposition and NOx reduction. Optimal NOx conversion was obtained in the range 250-350 C for all the catalysts, while at 450 C high rich phase NOx slip from the most highly loaded ceria-containing catalyst resulted in lower NOx conversion than for the ceria-free formulation. N2O was the major NOx reduction product at 150 C over all of the catalysts, although low NOx conversion levels limited the N2O yield. At higher temperatures N2 was the main product of NOx reduction, although NH3 formation was also observed. Selectivity to NH3 decreased with increasing ceria loading, indicating that NH3 is consumed by reaction with stored oxygen in the rear of the catalyst.

  17. Excellent activity and selectivity of Cu-SSZ-13 in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2010-10-21

    Superior activity and selectivity of a Cu ion-exchanged SSZ-13 zeolite in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 were observed, in comparison to Cu-beta and Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites. Cu-SSZ-13 was not only more active in the NOx SCR reaction over the entire temperature range studied (up to 550 °C), but also more selective toward nitrogen formation, resulting in significantly lower amounts of NOx by-products (i.e., NO2 and N2O) than the other two zeolites. In addition, Cu-SSZ-13 demonstrated the highest activity and N2 formation selectivity in the oxidation of NH3. The results of this study strongly suggest that Cu-SSZ-13 is a promising candidate as a catalyst for NOx SCR with great potential in after-treatment systems for either mobile or stationary sources.

  18. ARM - Ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related LinksOxides of Nitrogen Outreach

  19. NOx Formation in a Premixed Syngas Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, S.L. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Givi, P. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Strakey, P.; Casleton, K.

    2006-11-01

    Reduction of NOx is a subject of significant current interest in stationary gas turbines. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of turbulence on non-thermal NOx formation in a syngas flame. This is archived by a detailed parametric study via PDF simulations of a partially stirred reactor and a dumped axisymmetric premixed flame. Several different detailed and reduced kinetics schemes are considered. The simulated results demonstrate the strong dependence of combustion process on turbulence. It is shown that the amount of NOx formation is significantly influenced by the inlet conditions. That is, the turbulence intensity can be tweaked to attain optimal ultra-low NOx emissions at a given temperature.

  20. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Richard G. Herman

    2004-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 30, 2004 time period.

  1. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Song Wu; Richard G. Herman

    2004-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the April 1 to June 30, 2004 time period.

  2. Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs

  3. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-09-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the July 1 to September 30, 2005 time period.

  4. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08

    and petrochemical industries to ozone formation in the atmosphere. Source-oriented emissions needed to drive the model were generated using a revised Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model version 2.4. VOC/NOx ratios are found to be a critical factor...

  5. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  6. Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that future NOx and PM emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion methodology with an aftertreatment technology will be required. In this study, NOx reduction, fuel efficiency, and regeneration performance of lean NOx trap (LNT) were evaluated for four operating conditions. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without EGR, two exhaust enrichment methods (post injection and delayed injection), and one advanced combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine was operated under five conditions, which represent key interest points for light-duty diesel operation. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable. HECC was also reached under more moderate loads and the exhaust temperatures were high enough to enable even further NOx reductions by the LNT. At high loads HECC becomes difficult but the LNT performance improves and acceptable regeneration can be met with enrichment methodologies.

  7. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  9. The Ozone Hole Some perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    The Ozone Hole · Some perspective · The British Antarctic Survey · The "Ozone Hole" · International of the predicted ozone losses! This was quite a controversy. Ultimately, ozone losses started appearing in the late 1980s (see Figure below), but by then, there was already a credibility issue for ozone scientists. #12

  10. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  11. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  12. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted...

  13. The use of rice hulls for sustainable control of NOx emissions in deep space missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable Control of NOx Emissions in Deep Space Missionsfrom rice hulls to control NOx emissions for the future deepon the control of NOx emissions. The approach involves the

  14. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment October 2005. [1] Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289­339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique

  15. 6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 7427­7469, 2006 Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  16. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  17. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  18. Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Perovskite-based lean NOx catalysts shown to achieve comparable NOx reduction...

  19. Validation of operational ozone profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Validation of operational ozone profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument M. Kroon,1 J. F. de we present the validation results of the operational vertical ozone profiles retrieved from the nadir observations by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura

  20. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

  1. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

  2. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  3. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  5. Influence of recent Asian SO? and Asian NOx? emissions change (2001 to 2010) on particulate matter : shifts in Asian sulfate enhancement over US surface, major production pathway, and lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model with coupled oxidant-aerosol chemistry (GEOSChem) is used to analyze the influence of recent (2001 to 2010) growth in Asian NOx and Asian SO 2 emission on transpacific transport of Asian ...

  6. NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vi NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prepared as a NARSTO initiative, this tropospheric O3 in the accompanying Textbox, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment contains two product components. The first of these is a set aspects of tropospheric ozone pollution. The second component, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment Document

  7. Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence David Stevenson aircraft NOx emissions in January, April, July and October of the 1st year. Figure 1 shows perturbations that the initial NOx anomaly mirrors the aircraft emissions distribution, with only limited transport and mixing

  8. Nitrogen Isotopes as Indicators of NOx Source Contributions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO4 2-, or NO3 - concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U

  9. Tropospheric Ozone ATOC/CHEM 5151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ) ( production! #12;18 Ozone production CO + OH CO2 + H loss · Photolysis (1.4 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) · Oxidation of CO (3.5 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) 4. Chemical production #12;23 Formaldehyde chemistry CH2O + h H + HCO H + O2 + M HO2 + M HCO + O2 CO + HO2 2x [HO2

  10. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  11. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  12. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  13. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  14. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  15. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.

  16. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  17. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  18. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    is attained in a post-catalyst homogeneous combustion zone.This process leads to substantial reduction of NOxIntroduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is of great importance in practical emissions (typically NOx is produced exclusively from the gaseous (homogeneous) reaction path

  19. Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: Evidence from long-term continuous measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: Evidence from and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands 1. Introduction Ozone is considered one of the most dangerous oxidant molecules for plants (UNECE, 2004; EPA, 2007). Ozone concentra- tion

  20. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulverized Coal Jet Flame -Effect of Oxygen Concentration on NOx formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2014-11-13

    . The results are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels and widely distributed all over the world. However, the emission inten- sities of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulfur oxide (SOx) by using coal are generally larger than... those by using other fossil fuels [1]. It is therefore important to develop clean coal technology for pulverized coal fired power plants, in order to con- trol such emissions and to reduce the environmental impact. ct of CO2, carbon a key technology, l...

  2. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jae-Soon; Daw, C Stuart; Parks, II, James E; Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

  3. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+? by ozone and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 C to 380...

  4. Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    2009-05-15

    Microorganisms that cause plant disease have been isolated in recirculated irrigation water and increase the risks of disease incidence in horticultural operations. Ozone is an effective oxidizer used to disinfect drinking ...

  5. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  6. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

    2003-08-24

    Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

  7. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  8. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  9. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    models include a nearly complete set of chemical species and reactions that affect ozone, but are costly to Earth System

  10. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of oxide electrodes * Decision point: Down select to metal or electronically- conducting oxide electrodes Electrochemical NO x Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions 17 Plans for...

  11. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  12. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F Wetlandsof EnergyGap Analysis |Monitoring theCatalysts

  13. Effects of Potassium loading and thermal aging on K/Pt/Al2O3 high-temperature lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    The effects of K loading and thermal aging on the structural properties and high temperature performance of Pt/K/Al2O3 lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts were investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed decomposition/desorption of NOx (NOx-TPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), NO oxidation and NOx storage tests. In situ XRD results demonstrate that KNO3 becomes extremely mobile on the Al2O3 surface, and experiences complex transformations between orthorhombic and rhombohedral structures, accompanied by sintering, melting and thermal decomposition upon heating. NOx storage results show an optimum K loading around 10% for the best performance at high temperatures. At lower K loadings where the majority of KNO3 stays as a surface layer, the strong interaction between KNO3 and Al2O3 promotes KNO3 decomposition and deteriorates high-temperature performance. At K loadings higher than 10%, the performance drop is not caused by NOx diffusion limitations as for the case of barium-based LNTs, but rather from the blocking of Pt sites by K species, which adversely affects NO oxidation. Thermal aging at 800 şC severely deactivates the Pt/K/Al2O3 catalysts due to Pt sintering. However, in the presence of potassium, some Pt remains in a dispersed and oxidized form. These Pt species interact strongly with K and, therefore, do not sinter. After a reduction treatment, these Pt species remain finely dispersed, contributing to a partial recovery of NOx storage performance.

  14. 5, 59575985, 2005 European ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction explain the trends in European ozone levels? J. E. Jonson 1 , D. Simpson 1 , H. Fagerli 1 , and S. Solberg License. 5957 #12;ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract

  15. 6, 56715709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Hemispheric ozone variability indices derived from satellite observations.erbertseder@dlr.de) 5671 #12;ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page

  16. 4, 32853332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa B. Sauvage et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa: regional aspects from the MOZAIC data B Correspondence to: B. Sauvage (saub@aero.obs-mip.fr) 3285 #12;ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over

  17. 2, 339356, 2002 Surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 339­356, 2002 Surface ozone depletion episodes D. W. Tarasick and J. W. Bottenheim Title ozone depletion episodes in the Arctic and Antarctic from historical ozonesonde records D. W. Tarasick.tarasick@ec.gc.ca) 339 #12;ACPD 2, 339­356, 2002 Surface ozone depletion episodes D. W. Tarasick and J. W. Bottenheim

  18. 5, 38113845, 2005 Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al. Title Page Discussions Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion G. E. Bodeker 1 , H. Shiona 1 , and H. Eskes 2 1 National Commons License. 3811 #12;ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al

  19. Assimilation of Aura ozone data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assimilation of Aura ozone data I. Stajner, H. Hayashi, K. Wargan, L.-P. Chang, and S. Pawson Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) NASA/Goddard AGU Fall meeting December 2004 #12;2 Ozone assimilation at GMAO · Total ozone columns and stratospheric profiles from SBUV/2 instrument are assimilated

  20. 2, 921942, 2002 Global ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone forecasting H. J. Eskes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geophysical Society 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global ozone forecasting based on ERS-2 July 2002 Correspondence to: H. J. Eskes (eskes@knmi.nl) 921 #12;ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone

  1. 6, 51375162, 2006 Oceanic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W. Fairall et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean C. W. Fairall1 , D. Helmig2 , L. Fairall (chris.fairall@noaa.gov) 5137 #12;ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W

  2. Effects of NOx on the volatility of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene photooxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lu; Kollman, Matthew S.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Ng, L. N.

    2014-01-28

    The effects of NOx on the volatility of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from isoprene photooxidation are investigated in environmental chamber experiments. Two types of experiments are performed. In HO2-dominant experiments, organic peroxy radicals (RO2) primarily react with HO2. In mixed experiments, RO2 reacts through multiple pathways. The volatility and oxidation state of isoprene SOA is sensitive to and displays a non-linear dependence on NOx levels. When initial NO/isoprene ratio is approximately 3 (ppbv:ppbv), SOA are shown to be most oxidized and least volatile, associated with the highest SOA yield. A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is applied to characterize the key chemical properties of aerosols. While the composition of SOA in mixed experiments does not change substantially over time, SOA become less volatile and more oxidized as oxidation progresses in HO2-dominant experiments. Analysis of the SOA composition suggests that the further reactions of organic peroxides and alcohols may produce carboxylic acids, which might play a strong role in SOA aging.

  3. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA:...

  4. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

  5. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  6. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis...

  7. Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company Development of Materials Analysis Tools...

  8. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase...

  9. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. and Johnson-Matthey 2004deerli.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Desulfurization Fuel Filter...

  10. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx...

  11. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

  12. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN)...

  13. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Govt, Systems Integrator, Transportation, Tribal Government, Utility Abatement of Air Pollution: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Ozone Season...

  15. Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oxides (Nox): formed in combustion; appear as yellowish-brown clouds; can irritate lungs, cause lung diseases, lead to formation of ozone (harmful in the lower atmosphere, but...

  16. Ozone decomposition in water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Cecil Grayson

    1969-01-01

    OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...

  17. Aminoguanidine inhibits aortic hydrogen peroxide production, VSMC NOX activity and hypercontractility in diabetic mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Ji-Youn; Cai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    likely via a reduction in NOX-linked hypercontractility.signif- icant reduction in VSMC NOX activity remains to beNOX-derived O 2•- in diabetic VSMC might underlie AG reduction

  18. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...

  19. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  20. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

  1. APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  2. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project...

  3. Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  4. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  5. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  6. ModelingAtmosphericChemistryand Transport with Dynamic Adaptive Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    (O3) in the presence of high nitrogen oxides (NOX), and a reduction in the effectiveness of the NOX and coarse. They con- cluded that increasing the grid size leads to a reduction of the sup- pression of ozone

  7. ModelingAtmosphericChemistryand Transport with Dynamic Adaptive Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    nitrogen oxides (NOX), and a reduction in the effectiveness of the NOX inhibition effect. In one that increasing the grid size leads to a reduction of the sup- pression of ozone (O3) in the presence of high

  8. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  9. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  10. Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Lean DI Engines Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model...

  11. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  12. Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and...

  13. High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  14. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  15. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  16. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models. (2010) Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models Chemistry and Physics Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery

  17. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Efficiency evaluation of ozonated water for control diseases in typical Brazilian crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Efficiency evaluation of ozonated water for control diseases., Violleau, F., 2013. Ozonated water as a potential biological control agent: Pruning wound protection is used for many years for water treatment. This powerful oxidant permits destruction of #12

  18. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  19. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  20. Mechanism and Site Requirements for Ethanol Oxidation on Vanadium Oxide Domains Beata Kilos, Alexis T. Bell,* and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    to formaldehyde,7 ammoxidation of aromatic com- pounds,8 and selective NOx reduction.9 There have been a number reduction-oxidation catalytic sequences. Turnover rates ultimately decreased at higher surface densities are present at near saturation coverages on fully oxidized VOx domains that undergo reduction-oxidation cycles

  1. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  2. Photodissociation Dynamics of Halogen Oxide Species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Kristin S.

    2010-07-14

    The focus of this dissertation is the study of the photodissociation dynamics of halogen oxide species (XO, X = Cl, Br, I). These radical species are known to be important in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion ...

  3. Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOE HDBK-1113-2008Broadband PlanInitialRealPHEV

  4. Hydroxyl radical oxidation of phospholipid-coated NaCl particles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dilbeck, Christopher W; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Chem. Chem. Phys. , 2013, Hydroxyl radical oxidation ofsuch as ozone and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Laboratory studiescalculated concentration of hydroxyl radicals, generated by

  5. 6, 66276694, 2006 linearized ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry.mccormack@nrl.navy.mil) 6627 #12;ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al

  6. Intra-channel mass and heat-transfer modeling in diesel oxidation catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    for oxidation catalyts with typical diesel exhaust feed. Such devices have been used for many years to oxidize or selective catalytic NOx reduction reactors). Hence, accurate models for the oxidation cata- lysts (in02FCC-140 Intra-channel mass and heat-transfer modeling in diesel oxidation catalysts Kalyana

  7. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    1 Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

  8. Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using combinatorial methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using the commercialization of such engines [1]. In principle, NOx reduction could be achieved by either decomposition of NOx for NOx reduction. These efforts were spurred by the discoveries that NO can selectively be reduced over

  9. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions- Fact Sheet, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx Burner Technology to Meet Emissions Standards and Improve System Efficiency

  10. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  11. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan L. Szymanski; R. Glickert

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  13. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace026peden2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials...

  14. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  15. Ultra-Low NOx Premixed Industrial Burner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology licensed to Maxon Corporation and sold as the M-PAKT burner. Over 1408 burners estimated to reduce NOx by over 1.550 million pounds in 2011. Applications Can be...

  16. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dephi Corporation 2002deerdou.pdf More Documents & Publications Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient...

  17. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  18. Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants By: Ben Bernardo #12;Main Control2 2 H2S + SO2 2 H2O + 3 S The elemental sulfur is then sold and the emissions of SO2 and H2S 2 CaSO3 + CO2 + H2O CaCO3 + SO2 CaSO3 + CO2 #12;Main Control Technologies for NOx Combustion

  19. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27- Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe...

  20. Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uggini, Hari

    2012-07-16

    by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously...

  1. Impacts of HOx regeneration and recycling in the oxidation of isoprene: Consequences for the composition of past, present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % in the preindustrial. Critically the size of the change in methane lifetime depends on the VOC/NOx emission ratio in the photooxidation of isoprene. The impact is explored subject to presentday, preindustrial and future climate/emission of ozone increases by 25­36 Tg (8­18%), depending on the climate/emissions scenario, whilst the changes

  2. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  3. Oceanic alkyl nitrates as a natural source of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Lawler, Michael J; Prather, Michael J; Saltzman, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001ozonesondes, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer columns,behaviour of tropospheric ozone precursors in a global 3-D

  4. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    by and influencing ozone in unpolluted tropospheric air,R. C. , et al. (2004), Ozone production in transpacificplumes and implications for ozone air quality in California,

  5. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  6. Reactive nitrogen, ozone and ozone production in the Arctic troposphere and the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Part I: NO x , PAN and Ozone Relationships, J. Atmos.Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arcticto springtime tropospheric ozone maxima using TOPSE measure-

  7. Chemical Consequences of Heme Distortion and the Role of Heme Distortion in Signal Transduction of H-NOX Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olea, Jr., Charles

    2010-01-01

    T. tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX), the reduction potential wasdesign of Tt H-NOX to broaden the reduction potential rangewith Tt H-NOX show that the reduction potential is

  8. What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California’s NOx Trading Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Holland, Stephen P.; Mansur, Erin T

    2009-01-01

    RECLAIM Figure 3: Total NOx Emissions in RECLAIM and in theof California. Change in NOx Emissions from Period 1 (tons)Summary Statistics of NOx Emissions. Period Period 1 Period

  9. An Analysis of the health impacts from PM and NOx emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda Corridor, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

    2010-01-01

    health impacts of PM and NOx emissions resulting from trainhealth impacts of PM and NOx emissions from train operationsreduce locomotive PM and NOx emissions by as much as 90% and

  10. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  11. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Light-Duty Passenger Car Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomazic, D; Tatur, M; Thornton, M

    2003-08-24

    A 1.9L turbo direct injection (TDI) diesel engine was modified to achieve the upcoming Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standard in combination with a NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary objective for developing this test bed is to investigating the effects of different fuel sulfur contents on the performance of an advanced emission control system (ECS) in a light-duty application. During the development process, the engine-out emissions were minimized by applying a state-of-the-art combustion system in combination with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The subsequent calibration effort resulted in emission levels requiring 80-90 percent nitrogen-oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) conversion rates by the corresponding ECS. The strategy development included ean/rich modulation for NAC regeneration, as well as, the desulfurization of the NAC and the regeneration of the DPF. Two slightly different ECS were investigated and calibrated. The initial vehicle results in an Audi A4 station wagon over the federal test procedure (FTP), US 06, and the highway fuel economy test (HFET) cycle indicate the potential of these configuration to meet the future Tier 2 emission standard.

  12. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  13. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+? by ozone and vacuum annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+? thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 °C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 °C to 380 °C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on themore »same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.« less

  14. Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    via catalytic cycle: Under cold conditions, dimers ClO OCl form which are unstable in light. #3; Once concentration of ozone drops, reservoir reactions dominate and HCl and ClONO 2 reformed. #3; In antarctic spring

  15. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions -...

  16. Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Focus is the heavy duty, US dynamometer...

  17. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand...

  18. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost

  19. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising...

  20. Climate impact of aviation NOx? emissions : radiative forcing, temperature, and temporal heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Lawrence Man Kit

    2014-01-01

    Aviation NOx emissions are byproducts of combustion in the presence of molecular nitrogen. In the upper troposphere, NOx emissions result in the formation of O? but also reduce the lifetime of CH4 , causing an indirect ...

  1. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car...

  2. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  3. NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures Jeffrey M-NOx reactions is used to estimate maximum attainable formaldehyde (and methanol) yields

  4. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

  5. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation...

  6. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea...

  7. APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  8. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Lawless; C. Clark

    2008-09-01

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NO{sub x} sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NO{sub x} from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5-$10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NO{sub x}. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650-700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NO{sub x} sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NO{sub x} sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NO{sub x} and oxygen sensors yields the NO{sub x} content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  10. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Problem 15 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole" The figure below shows typical observations of the total amount of ozone in a layer of air 8 km thick between 12 and 20 km over the South Pole (recall that we like to express the `thickness of ozone

  11. N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone" Search done of Ozone by G. C. Carnahan and O. A. DeCelle; Chemical Engineering program, 1914 Call No. Thesis 543.2 C22 Press releases issued by Illinois Institute of Technology, 1940-1968 that include the word "ozone

  12. Climatology of UTLS ozone and the ratio of ozone and potential vorticity over northern Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkwood, Sheila

    Climatology of UTLS ozone and the ratio of ozone and potential vorticity over northern Europe T variations of ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region have been studied using of ozone exhibits a prominent annual cycle in the UTLS region. The observed change in the phase

  13. Effects of a modular two-step ozone-water and annealing process on silicon carbide graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.webb@cantab.net; Lundstedt, Anna; Grennberg, Helena [Department of Chemistry—BMC, Uppsala University, Box 576, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Polley, Craig; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Dirscherl, Kai [DFM—Danish Fundamental Metrology, Matematiktorvet 307, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Burwell, Gregory; Guy, Owen J. [College of Engineering, Faraday Tower, Singleton Park, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Palmgren, Pĺl [VG Scienta Scientific AB, Box 15120, Vallongatan 1, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-25

    By combining ozone and water, the effect of exposing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide to an aggressive wet-chemical process has been evaluated after high temperature annealing in ultra high vacuum. The decomposition of ozone in water produces a number of oxidizing species, however, despite long exposure times to the aqueous-ozone environment, no graphene oxide was observed after the two-step process. The systems were comprehensively characterized before and after processing using Raman spectroscopy, core level photoemission spectroscopy, and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy together with low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In spite of the chemical potential of the aqueous-ozone reaction environment, the graphene domains were largely unaffected raising the prospect of employing such simple chemical and annealing protocols to clean or prepare epitaxial graphene surfaces.

  14. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 37 (2002) 2735 NOx reduction by urea under lean conditions over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    2002-01-01

    Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 37 (2002) 27­35 NOx reduction by urea under lean conditions over using a single step sol­gel process (designated as 2% Pt-SG) and tested its activity for NOx reduction and hydrothermally stable in the range of 150­500 C in the reduction of NOx by hy- drocarbons or oxygenated

  15. REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 0121 NOx(g/gal) Truck Number Highway Arterial Comparison of Trucks: Fuel-Based NO Emission Rates NOx emissions are substantially lower than Truck 5715. 1999 2005 2007 2009 2010 Fuel-Based Emission

  16. Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source contributions to landscape nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    NOx emission sources. d15 N values in dry and wet fractions are highest at the westernmost sites and lowest at the easternmost sites, and stationary source NOx emissions (e.g., power plants and incinerators values in winter than summer. Seasonal variations in stationary source NOx emissions appear

  17. Constraints on surface NOx emissions by assimilating satellite observations of multiple species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constraints on surface NOx emissions by assimilating satellite observations of multiple species; published 6 September 2013. [1] Surface NOx emissions are estimated by a combined assimilation of satellite for species other than NO2 provides additional constraints on the NOx emissions by adjusting

  18. The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow CH CH4/air premixed flames on the extinction limits and the characteristics of NOx emission and NOx emission characteristics in ultra-lean pre- mixed flames. The extinction characteristics

  19. NOx emissions in n-heptane/air partially premixed flames Hongshe Xue, Suresh K. Aggarwal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    NOx emissions in n-heptane/air partially premixed flames Hongshe Xue, Suresh K. Aggarwal; accepted 6 November 2002 Abstract NOx emissions in n-heptane/air partially premixed flames (PPFs) and equivalence ratio ( ) on NOx emissions are characterized for conditions in which the flame contains two

  20. Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data Yuxuan X. Wang to constrain estimates of Asian emissions of CO and NOx. A priori emissions are based on a detailed bottom emissions of CO and NOx, respectively, distributed heterogeneously, with the largest adjustments required

  1. Intercontinental influence of NOx and CO emissions on particulate matter air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    Intercontinental influence of NOx and CO emissions on particulate matter air quality Eric M emissions and hence already high levels of PM. US NOx and CO emissions increase annual mean PM in northern in China it is mostly as nitrate. East Asian NOx and CO emissions have a weaker intercontinental influence

  2. Effect of propene on the remediation of NOx from engine exhausts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    exhausts has been investigated in recent years due to its potential for remediating NOx in emissions. INTRODUCTION Increasingly stringent regulations on the emission levels of NOx in automotive exhausts has led99FL-472 Effect of propene on the remediation of NOx from engine exhausts Rajesh Dorai Department

  3. Late summer changes in burning conditions in the boreal regions and their implications for NOx and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honrath, Richard E.

    in August-September (2.8 Â 10Ŕ3 mol molŔ1 ), indicating that NOx/CO emission ratios declined significantly. Emissions of CO and NOx from North American boreal fires were estimated using the Boreal Wildland Fire in the boreal regions and their implications for NOx and CO emissions from boreal fires, J. Geophys. Res., 113

  4. Hydrogen peroxide-producing NADH oxidase (nox-1) from Lactococcus lactis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen peroxide-producing NADH oxidase (nox-1) from Lactococcus lactis Rongrong Jiang and Andreas applied the sequence comparison-based approach to develop a novel hydrogen peroxide-forming NADH oxidase (nox-1) from Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The nox-1 gene

  5. Simultaneous SO2, SO3 and NOx removal by the EBA Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, S.; Aoki, S.; Izutsu, M.; Yuki, Y.

    1999-07-01

    The system for electron beam flue gas treatment, the EBA (Electron Beam with Ammonia) Process is an innovative, dry, air pollution control technology that, by ammonia injection and electron beam irradiation, can efficiently remove sulfur oxides, (SOx, i.e., SO2 and SO3), from partially humidified flue gas. This is accompanied by simultaneous nitrogen oxides, (NOx), emission reduction in an amount that is determined, optionally, by site-specific system design. The process operation converts these pollutants as well as gasborne hydrogen chloride into a dry by-product solids consisting principally of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride that can be used, worldwide, as a plant nutrient stock in large-scale agriculture. Commercial application of the Process has now been achieved, utilizing engineering data gained over many years of experience in operation of pilot plant facilities (including a process development unit that was field installed in the 1980s under sponsorship by US DOE at a coal-fired powerplant of Indianapolis Power and Light Company). With the co-operation of the Chinese government, EBARA Corporation has in 1997 completed the first commercial EBA Process installation, which is sited at the coal-fired Chengdu Power Station in China. This retrofit facility as a whole in addition to its performance in this high-sulfur bituminous coal service, including the targeted SOx removal efficiency, incidental NOx abatement and the usability of the by-product, were assessed and fully accepted contractually by a diversely structured, Examination Committee established by Chinese government authorities and assisted by an Expert Group. Criteria and considerations of the Chinese officials, in evaluating adequacy of the technology for further commercial application in China, all assessed positively, encompassed design, installation, operation, performance, reliability, environmental impact, cost effectiveness and by-product utilization/marketing. To illustrate attractive process economics for SOx removal in high-sulfur service with only incidental NOx removal, i.e. FGD (flue gas desulfurization) only, evaluation of cost-effectiveness of the Chengdu facility (at its moderate design SO2 removal efficiency) is presented.

  6. 7, 1009710129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 7, 10097­10129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes 1 , R. M Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  7. 5, 243286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone column content during SOLVE II J. M. Livingston et al and Physics Discussions Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during Aerospace Center), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany 243 #12;ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

  8. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  9. 6, 43254340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Long-memory processes in global ozone and temperature variations C #12;ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title

  10. 7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

  11. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  12. 8, 50075060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone trends from g-b FTIR observations C. Vigouroux et al.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 5007 #12;ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

  13. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  14. 6, 84578483, 2006 Low ozone over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone over the UK M. Keil et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions The January 2006 low ozone event over the UK M. Keil, D. R. Jackson, and M. C. Hort Met Office 2006 Correspondence to: M. Keil (mike.keil@metoffice.gov.uk) 8457 #12;ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone

  15. 5, 96419668, 2005 The origin of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9641­9668, 2005 The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions-5-9641 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions The origin of ozone V. Grewe The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  16. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  17. 3, 187223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone anomaly X. Liu et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy 2003 Correspondence to: X. Liu (xliu@nsstc.uah.edu) 187 #12;ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

  18. 3, 10811107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 3, 1081­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page-dimensional model study of long-term mid-high latitude lower stratosphere ozone changes M. P. Chipperfield School­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page Abstract Introduction

  19. 4, 21672238, 2004 Ozone loss and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991­2003 S Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone loss and chlorine activation Correspondence to: S. Tilmes (simone.tilmes@t-online.de) 2167 #12;ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine

  20. Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiteboul, Serge

    Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ? Tirthankar Lahiri 1 , Serge Abiteboul 2 language, and we implement our extensions in a system called Ozone. In our approach, structured data may full knowledge of structure. Ozone also enhances both ODMG/OQL and OEM/Lorel by virtue

  1. Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2003) Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies. Geophysical Research persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto

  2. The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Richard

    2001-08-05

    This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

  3. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  4. The development of Comprehensive Community NOx Emissions Reduction Toolkit (CCNERT) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yong Hoon

    2004-11-15

    -17 Residential Sector?s Total Energy............................................................................. 131 Table 5-18 Comparison of Annual Electric Sales vs. Estimated Electricity Use........................ 133 Table 5-19 2001 College Station... successfully reduce the production of NOx emissions by adopting electricity efficiency programs in its buildings, another community might be equally successful by changing the mix of fuel sources used to generate electricity, which is consumed...

  5. Modeling of NOx formation in circular laminar jet flames 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siwatch, Vivek

    2007-04-25

    of air entrainment by jet depends upon the Sc number of fuel. The higher the Sc number, the higher is the air entrained which lowers the flame temperature and hence NOx formation. With increasing Sc number, flame volume increases which leads...

  6. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

    2012-12-31

    Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

  8. Simultaneous Removal of Particulates and NOx Using Catalyst Impregnated Fibrous Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.I.; Mun, S.H.; Kim, S.T.; Hong, M.S.; Lee, J.C.

    2002-09-19

    The research is focused on the development and commercialization of high efficiency, cost effective air pollution control system, which can replace in part air pollution control devices currently in use. In many industrial processes, hot exhaust gases are cooled down to recover heat and to remove air pollutants in exhaust gases. Conventional air pollution control devices such as bag filters, E.P. and adsorption towers withstand operating temperatures up to 300 C. Also, reheating is sometimes necessary to meet temperature windows for S.C.R. Since Oxidation reactions of acid gases such as SO{sub 2}, and HCl with lime are enhanced at high temperatures, catalyst impregnated ceramic filters can be candidate for efficient and cost effective air pollution control devices. As shown on Fig. 1., catalytic ceramic filters remove particulates on exterior surface of filters and acid gases are oxidized to salts reacting with limes injected in upstream ducts. Oxidation reactions are enhanced in the cake formed on exterior of filters. Finally, injected reducing gas such as NH{sub 3} react with NOx to form N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O interior of filters in particulate-free environment. Operation and maintenance technology is similar to conventional bag filters except that systems are exposed to relatively high temperatures ranging 300-500 C.

  9. Biogenic 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol increases regional ozone and HOx sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    similar daily maxima of about 5 mg mŔ2 hrŔ1 . MBO oxidation causes an increase in ozone, formaldehyde, acetone and consequently hydrogen radical production (PHOx). The addition of MBO increases the daily in the Central Valley. Formaldehyde concentrations increase by as much as 1 ppb (40%) over the Sierra Nevada

  10. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  11. Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Catalyst Qiang Wang,*, Jiahua NOx through the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) process. However, its NSR performance in the presence of sulfur has not been investigated. In this article, the sulfur poisoning of the NOx storage-reduction

  12. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  13. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is above sulfur oxide dew point interference.

  14. Low NOx system for gas turbines in cogen being developed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-19

    A catalytic combustion system that reduces NOx emissions from natural-gas turbines used to generate electricity is being developed for cogeneration systems built by AES Manufacturing Services Inc., Broken Arrow, OK. Each compact unit is mounted on an enclosed semi-trailer and contains two Kawasaki turbines with shaft-driven generators and a single heat-recovery boiler. Its net output is 3 MW of electricity and more than 28,000 lb/hr of high-pressure steam. At an industrial or commercial site where electrical capacity needs exceed 3 MW, several units may be installed in parallel. Currently, AES units can control NOx to about 25 ppm with traditional steam-injection technology. The paper describes conventional firing, testing that is under way, and the companies involved.

  15. Group effects on fuel NOx emissisons from coal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadakkath, Anand Anakkara

    1991-01-01

    are significant, especially in the context of a steadily increasing energy consumption. Such explosive growth brings fresh urgency to the search for clean coal technologies that could help resolve the historical conflict between the environmental protection... coal: The control of NOx using low nitrogen fuels does not seem to be the right solution to the problem in the context of the vast amounts of coal reserves available. But methods like coal clean-up are fast developing as viable alternatives. New...

  16. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  17. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmieg, Steven J.; Oh, Se H.; Kim, Chang H.; Brown, David B.; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

    2012-04-30

    Multiple catalytic functions (NOx conversion, NO and NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage) of a commercial Cu-zeolite urea/NH3-SCR catalyst were assessed in a laboratory fixed-bed flow reactor system after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging. Catalysts were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), 27Al solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) / energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to develop an understanding of the degradation mechanisms during catalyst aging. The catalytic reaction measurements of laboratory-aged catalysts were performed, which allows us to obtain a universal curve for predicting the degree of catalyst performance deterioration as a function of time at each aging temperature. Results show that as the aging temperature becomes higher, the zeolite structure collapses in a shorter period of time after an induction period. The decrease in SCR performance was explained by zeolite structure destruction and/or Cu agglomeration, as detected by XRD/27Al NMR and by TEM/EDX, respectively. Destruction of the zeolite structure and agglomeration of the active phase also results in a decrease in the NO/NH3 oxidation activity and the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst. Selected laboratory aging conditions (16 h at 800oC) compare well with a 135,000 mile vehicle-aged catalyst for both performance and characterization criteria.

  18. Theory of nitride oxide adsorption on transition metal (111) surfaces: a first-principles investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    In this work, we report a density functional theory study of nitric oxide (NO) adsorption on close of NO adsorption on TM(111) surfaces in the submonolayer regime. 1. Introduction The catalytic reduction of NOxTheory of nitride oxide adsorption on transition metal (111) surfaces: a first

  19. Modeling the Oxidative Capacity of the Atmosphere of the South Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    of the complex chemistry involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx ) nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2))(1).O3 productionisinitiatedbyreactionsthatgenerate HOx radicals Air Basin of California (SoCAB). P(O3) indicates the rapid nature of O3 formation under peak

  20. Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 2 Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter spectrometers using convergence behaviour diagnostics Abstract The Ozone Profile Algorithm (OPERA), developed at KNMI, retrieves the vertical ozone distribution from nadir spectral satellite measurements of back scattered sunlight

  1. oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students Log in to ozone.ou.edu. Click the Advising tab. Please lecture schedule CRN ­ Course Reference Number In oZONE the Registration Add Errors will display one

  2. Controls over ozone deposition to a high elevation subalpine forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turnipseed, AA; Burns, SP; Moore, DJP; Hu, J; Guenther, AB; Monson, RK

    2009-01-01

    D.L. , Fehsenfeld, F.C. , 1986b. Background ozone andanthropogenic ozone enhancement at Niwot Ridge, Colorado.Day-time variations of ozone eddy ?uxes to maize. Boundary-

  3. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2012-01-01

    carbon filters for the control of ozone, sulfur dioxide, andMendell (2008). "Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  4. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01

    particles produced by ozone/limonene reactions in indoor airgas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds underNazaroff, W.W. , 2008. Ozone levels in passenger cabins of

  5. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Shuojun Wang

    2011-01-01

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  6. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Leeuw, Jan; Wang, Shuojun

    2007-01-01

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  7. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  8. Expression of Genes Linked to NOx Detoxification in Aerobic Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cua, Lynnie

    2010-01-01

    ecology of nitrifying bacteria. In: Biology of the Nitrogennitrogen metabolism in bacteria. Current Opinion in Chemicalin ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Incomplete oxidation of NH 2

  9. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  10. 5, 58415874, 2005 Ozone/tracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et al. Title Page Discussions Impact of mixing and chemical change on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller 1 Commons License. 5841 #12;ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et

  11. 17 October 2014 Antarctic Ozone Bulletin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    17 October 2014 Antarctic Ozone Bulletin No 4/2014 Global Atmosphere Watch 0 5 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 Ushuaia 2014-10-10 Total ozone = 180 DU 14-21 km column = 39 DU 12-20 km column = 53 DU Ozone Temperature ECMWF analysis of PV at 475 K on 2014-10-10 at 12h -65.0 -59.5 -54.0 -48

  12. A fast stratospheric ozone chemistry schemeA fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme Michel Bourqui1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    A fast stratospheric ozone chemistry schemeA fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme Michel a computationally efficient chemical scheme, the FAst STratospheric Ozone Chemistry (FASTOC) scheme, which has advantages over many existing fast methods, as it does not rely on relaxation to assumed conditions, does

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  14. Sensors and Actuators B 118 (2006) 135141 Low temperature indium oxide gas sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Available online 30 May 2006 Abstract InOx thin films were grown by dc magnetron sputtering. Structural size variation that determines the sensitivity of InOx films against ozone. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Metal oxide thin films; InOx; Gas sensors; Ozone 1. Introduction The interest

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution and Personal Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ://www.nctcog.org/trans/air/ozone/formation.gif #12;Health Effects · Chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion · Wheezing and difficulty

  16. Chemical characterization of ozone formation in the Houston-Galveston area: A chemical transport model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the basis of the current emission inventory. Doubling AVOC emissions leads to the NOx sensitive chemistryŔ1 for the daytime ground NOx levels of 5­30 ppb. The NOx turnaround value (i.e., the NOx) and the coexistence of abundant AVOCs and NOx in this area are responsible for the high O3 production rates

  17. The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    iii ABSTRACT The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination with other instruments tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) can be derived. In this study, the trajectory

  18. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  19. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01

    to determine deposition velocity, reaction probability, orOzone level, deposition velocity, reaction probability wereOzone level, deposition velocity, reaction probability were

  20. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California...

  1. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance over model catalysts. Novel reaction protocol designed to decouple effects of thermal deactivation and incomplete desulfation.

  2. NOx Uptake Mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szailer, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-11-01

    The NOx adsorption mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 catalysts was investigated by performing NOx storage/reduction cycles, NO2 adsorption and NO + O2 adsorption on 2%Pt/(x)BaO/Al2O3 (x = 2, 8 and 20 wt%) catalysts. NOx uptake profiles on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 at 523 K show complete uptake behavior for almost 5 min, and then the NOx level starts gradually increasing with time and it reaches 75% of the inlet NOx concentration after 30 min time-on-stream. Although this catalyst shows fairly high NOx conversion at 523 K, only ~ 2.4 wt% out of 20 wt% BaO is converted to Ba(NO3)2. Adsorption studies by using NO2 and NO + O2 suggest two different NOx adsorption mechanisms. The NO2 uptake profile on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 shows the absence of a complete NOx uptake period at the beginning of adsorption and the overall NOx uptake is controlled by the gas-solid equilibrium between NO2 and BaO/Ba(NO3)2 phase. When we use NO + O2, complete initial NOx uptake occurs and the time it takes to convert ~ 4 % of BaO to Ba(NO3)2 is independent of the NO concentration. These NOx uptake characteristics suggest that the NO + O2 reaction on the surface of Pt particles produces NO2 that is subsequently transferred to the neighboring BaO phase by spill over. At the beginning of the NOx uptake, this spill-over process is very fast and so it is able to provide complete NOx storage. However, the NOx uptake by this mechanism slows down as BaO in the vicinity of Pt particles are converted to Ba(NO3)2. The formation of Ba(NO3)2 around the Pt particles results in the development of a diffusion barrier for NO2, and increases the probability of NO2 desorption and consequently, the beginning of NOx slip. As NOx uptake by NO2 spill-over mechanism slows down due to the diffusion barrier formation, the rate and extent of NO2 uptake are determined by the diffusion rate of nitrate ions into the BaO bulk, which, in turn, is determined by the gas phase NO2 concentration.

  3. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  4. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) can help petroleum refining and chemical plants improve energy efficiency.

  5. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deer08ardanese.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low...

  6. Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced engines using HCCI or HCCI-like combustion can provide both high efficiencies and very low emissions of NOX and PM

  7. Sulfur tolerance of selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2 in a plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B; Brusasco, R M; Merritt, B T; Vogtlin, G E

    1999-08-24

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO2 to achieve efficient reduction of NOx and particulates in diesel exhaust. These technologies include the use of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons, NOx adsorption, and continuously regenerated particulate trapping. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO2 is also active in converting SO2 to SO3 . The SO3 leads t o increase in particulates and/or poison active sites on the catalyst. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2 in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO2 without oxidizing SO2 to SO3 .

  8. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  9. Defensive Investments and the Demand for Air Quality: Evidence from the NOx Budget Program and Ozone Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschęnes, Olivier

    Willingness to pay for air quality is a function of health and the costly defensive investments that contribute to health, but there is little research assessing the empirical importance of defensive investments. The setting ...

  10. Defensive Investments and the Demand for Air Quality: Evidence from the NOx Budget Program and Ozone Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschęnes, Olivier

    2012-07-15

    The economic costs of environmental regulations have been widely debated since the U.S. began to restrict pollution emissions more than four decades ago. Using detailed production data from nearly 1.2 million plant ...

  11. Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mincy, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    )( /' ppm NO x"0 > 60 2: 60 o )( 20 z ::'! / o 400 z / 0- )( 40 10 @; "--- 20 /0 z o-f'---.,...--.,...--,...---,....--+ o20 o 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR) 0t---"T""'---,----,.---..,--"'"""'" Normalized... z 20 50 O~--...,..---.,......--.....,...---.f_ o o 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR) Figures (, and 7 Excellent NO x reduction was achlcvcd in petrochemical wastc incinerator under many conditions When NOxOUT was applied...

  12. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  13. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  14. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  15. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  16. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Coraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  17. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Caraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  18. Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs |ChartPresentations:UlJmately , the1 DOE Hydrogen andO2/NOx

  19. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    burners limit the availability of oxygen to nitrogen in the fuel and have been employed in many EGU boilers. However, low NOx burners do not necessarily reduce NOx emissions sufficiently to meet stringent

  20. Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Patsky O.

    2010-01-16

    The low NOx burner (LNB) is the most cost effective technology used in coal-fired power plants to reduce NOx. Conventional (unstaged) burners use primary air for transporting particles and swirling secondary air to create recirculation of hot gases...

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cvoro, Valentina

    Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has ...

  2. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  3. Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Peden, Charles HF

    2007-03-07

    Exposure of NO2-saturated BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials to H2O vapour results in the conversion of surface nitrates to Ba(NO3)2 crystallites, causing dramatic morphological changes in the Ba-containing phase, demonstrating a role for water in affecting the NOx storage/reduction properties of these materials.

  4. Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R,; Staedter, M.

    2008-01-01

    -1 Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain Robert Benz Marcel Staedter President Project Manager... / Low Carbon, Ultra Low NOx through Efficiency Gain where y denotes the mole fraction of excess oxygen. The presence of nitrogen and excess oxygen radicals in this hot combustion environment promotes the formation...

  5. Inversion of surface NOx anthropogenic emission fluxes in the Paris area during the ESQUIF campaign.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    1 Inversion of surface NOx anthropogenic emission fluxes in the Paris area during the ESQUIF OF SURFACE EMISSIONS #12;2 Abstract. An inverse modeling approach has been developed to optimize urban NOx emission fluxes. Based on the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE and its adjoint, the new methodology

  6. Numerical Study of NOx Emissions from n-Heptane and 1-Heptene Counterflow Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Numerical Study of NOx Emissions from n-Heptane and 1-Heptene Counterflow Flames Xiao Fu, Stephen that the emissions of CO, NOx, and particulate matter are measurably reduced from biodiesel combustion compared and process used to make the fuel. Consequently, their atomization, combustion, and emission characteristics

  7. Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques L.M. Strijbosch April 25 to the process of ozone profile retrieval, a method for retrieving a global ozone distribution from satellite Machines are selected to replace the forward model, which is the slowest part of ozone profile retrieval

  8. Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone Wenshou Tian,1,2 Martyn in both the troposphere and stratosphere. The modeled total column ozone agrees well with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer observations. Modeled ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

  9. Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Raymond L.

    Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky Raymond L. Lee, Jr.,1, * Wolfgang Meyer absorption at longer wavelengths by ozone's Chappuis bands. Because stratospheric ozone is greatly depleted correlations between ozone concentration and twilight colors. We also used a spectroradiometer at a midlatitude

  10. Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Observed by Data Assimilation Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange of ozone at tropopause folds is an important process in the atmosphere. Reconstruction of the evolution of ozone at a tropopause fold by conventional means requires synoptic ozone

  11. Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest Jacqueline Costello1, Farren: Tropospheric ozone is difficult to retrieve from satellites because of the abundance of ozone in the stratosphere. Tropospheric ozone has become a significant environmental issue and can be exacerbated by UT

  12. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  13. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion.

  14. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Stand-alone urea SCR system was developed for marine diesel engines and showed a 50-percent reduction in NOx.

  15. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  16. Advances in potassium catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.; Linares-Solano, A.; de Lecea, C.S.M. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    The research work conducted in our group concerning the study of the potassium-catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials is presented. The importance of the different variables affecting the NOx-carbon reactions is discussed, e.g. carbon porosity, coal rank, potassium loading, influence of the binder used, and effect of the gas composition. The catalyst loading is the main feature affecting the selectivity for NOx reduction against O{sub 2} combustion. The NOx reduction without important combustion in O{sub 2} occurs between 350 and 475{sup o}C in the presence of the catalyst. The presence of H{sub 2}O in the gas mixture enhances NOx reduction at low carbon conversions, but as the reaction proceeds, it decreases as the selectivity does. The presence of CO{sub 2} diminishes the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. SO{sub 2} completely inhibits the catalytic activity of potassium due to sulfate formation.

  17. Economics of pollution trading for SO{sub 2} and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans; Alan Krupnick; Karen Palmer; Russell Toth

    2005-03-15

    For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major US programs for SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides. These programs are evaluated along measures of performance including cost savings, environmental integrity, and incentives for technological innovation. The authors offer lessons for the design of future programs including, most importantly, those reducing carbon dioxide. 128 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , coming into force in September 2014, set a 56 % reduction of NOx emissions compared to Euro stage V (80 trap technology, also called NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR), was first developed by Toyota in 199411 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

  19. Non-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffre, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) processes can be improved for NOx reduction by a Non- Thermal Plasma. European norm (standard specification) EURO 6 im- poses a reduction of 50% on automotive NOx emissionsNon-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffr´e, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual Ecole Centrale de

  20. Anthropogenic NOx emissions alter the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) for Quercus cerris stands under Mediterranean climate conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Anthropogenic NOx emissions alter the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) for Quercus cerris Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, United Kingdom NOx emissions enhance WUEi for a Mediterranean tree species rings for assessing changes in WUEi; while the influence of climate and NOx emission was explored

  1. Inverse modeling of NOx emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation of the second-order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Inverse modeling of NOx emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation time distribution of NOx emissions is robust. Citation: Que´lo, D., V. Mallet, and B. Sportisse (2005), Inverse modeling of NOx emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation

  2. Ozone Climatologies Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/m(a), percentage change in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Ozone Climatologies (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/mł(a), percentage change in ozone for the perturbed runs; tropopause region (b), whole stratosphere (c). Determining the impact of lower stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Hemisphere climate Sarah P.E. Keeley and Nathan

  3. Effects of 20002050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Effects of 2000­2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone in the United States Shiliang Wu,1 Loretta J. Mickley,1 Daniel J. Jacob,1 David Rind) on the global tropospheric ozone budget and on the policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone in the United States

  4. Microarray-based analysis of survival of soil microbial community during ozonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    3 ] in Ozonation time (h) Ozone BTC TSEM content was used to1. Ozone breakthrough curve (BTC) and TSEM removal during

  5. Exposure to Particulate Matter and Ozone of Outdoor Origin in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Chen, Ailu; Chang, Victor; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    ulate matter (PM) or ozone, at concentration increments of ~SL, Samet JM, Dominici F. Ozone and short-term mortality inthe penetration of ambient ozone into residential buildings.

  6. LARGE MULTICONFIGURATION SELF-CONSISTENT-FIELD WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR THE OZONE MOLECULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer III., Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    theory comparable to that employed here for ozone. HoweverB (cyclopentadiyl) > B (ozone) > B (methylene), based onfor the its state of ozone near geometry. Coefficients of

  7. Modeling Ozone Removal to Indoor Materials, Including the Effects of Porosity, Pore Diameter, and Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    of healthy young volunteers to ozone causes cardiovasculareffects of five common ozone-initiated terpene reactiondecay rates, and removal of ozone and their relation to

  8. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    2008. Learning about ozone depletion. Climatic Change 89(1–and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone. San Diego, CA: AcademicPhotochemical behavior of the ozone layer. Report Number

  9. Ozone photochemical production in urban Shanghai, China: Analysis based on ground level observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    of aerosols on surface ozone concentration in Tianjin,W. P. L. (1994), Development of ozone reactivity scales forand M. M. Fox (1953), Ozone formation in photochemical

  10. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  11. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine certified to 2002 MY Federal heavy-duty and 2002 MY California medium-duty emission standards. The stock vehicle included cooled air charge (CAC), turbocharger (TC), direct fuel injection (DFI), oxidation catalyst (OC), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

  13. Effect of K loadings on nitrate formation/decomposition and on NOx storage performance of K-based NOx storage-reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Haiyang; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-10-25

    We have investigated nitrate formation and decomposition processes, and measured NOx storage performance on Pt-K2O/Al2O3 catalysts as a function of potassium loading. After NO2 adsorption at room temperature, ionic and bidentate nitrates were observed by fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The ratio of the former to the latter species increased with increasing potassium loading up to 10 wt%, and then stayed almost constant with additional K, demonstrating a clear dependence of loading on the morphology of the K species. Although both K2O(10)/Al2O3 and K2O(20)/Al2O3 samples have similar nitrate species after NO2 adsorption, the latter has more thermally stable nitrate species as evidenced by FTIR and NO2 temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results. With regard to NOx storage performance, the temperature of maximum NOx uptake (Tmax) is 573 K up to a potassium loading of 10 wt%. As the potassium loading increases from 10 wt% to 20 wt%, Tmax shifted from 573 K to 723 K. Moreover, the amount of NO uptake (38 cm3 NOx/g catal) at Tmax increased more than three times, indicating that efficiency of K in storing NOx is enhanced significantly at higher temperature, in good agreement with the NO2 TPD and FTIR results. Thus, a combination of characterization and NOx storage performance results demonstrates an unexpected effect of potassium loading on nitrate formation and decomposition processes; results important for developing Pt-K2O/Al2O3 for potential applications as high temperature NOx storage-reduction catalysts.

  14. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine program’s goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  15. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  16. Global NOx Measurements in Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-03-01

    Turbulent hydrogen diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen are currently being studied to assess their ability to achieve the DOE Turbine Program’s aggressive emissions goal of 2 ppm NOx in a hydrogen-fueled IGCC gas turbine combustor. Since the unstrained adiabatic flame temperatures of these diluted flames are not low enough to eliminate thermal NOx formation the focus of the current work is to study how the effects of flame residence time and global flame strain can be used to help achieve the stated NOx emissions goal. Dry NOx measurements are presented as a function of jet diameter nitrogen dilution and jet velocity for a turbulent hydrogen/nitrogen jet issuing from a thin-lipped tube in an atmospheric pressure combustor. The NOx emission indices from these experiments are normalized by the flame residence time to ascertain the effects of global flame strain and fuel Lewis Number on the NOx emissions. In addition dilute hydrogen diffusion flame experiments were performed in a high-pressure combustor at 2 4 and 8 atm. The NOx emission data from these experiments are discussed as well as the results from a Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling effort currently underway to help explain the experimental data.

  17. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  18. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-06-30

    The primary focus for the project during the quarter was shakedown testing of the large-scale coal preheater prototype in the CBTF with non-caking PRB coal. Additional pilot-scale tests were conducted in the PSCF in support of developing a preheating system design suitable for use with caking coals. Thirty-two additional pilot tests were conducted during the quarter with caking coal. These tests further evaluated the use of the air-bleed and indirect air-cooled liner designs to reduce or eliminate combustor plugging with caking coal. The air-bleed configurations tested used air injection holes perpendicular to the liner's longitudinal axis with the number, size and air flow though the air-bleed holes varied to determine the effect on combustor plugging. The indirect cooling configurations tested included a stainless steel liner with spiral fins in the annular space between the liner and the combustor wall, and a silicon carbide liner without fins. Continuous pilot operation was maintained for up to 30 minutes at a coal feed rate of 50 lb/h with the air-bleed liner. The best result achieved was for the stainless steel indirect air-cooled liner with 20 minutes of continuous operation at 126 lb/h of coal followed by an additional 20 minutes at 150 lb/h. The NOx results from these continue to indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with caking coal than with the PRB coal tested. The installation of the large-scale prototype coal preheater for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and shakedown testing with natural gas and PRB coal started during the quarter. Stable operation of the coal system, combustor and burner were achieved at coal feed rates up to 6000 lb/h (50 MMBtu/h).

  19. 5, 90039038, 2005 Ozone in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that extensive forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula, resulting from the drought and heat, contributed to the peak ozone values observed in15 North Europe in August. Additionally, forest fires in Siberia probably

  20. Ozone determination in different copying centers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chen-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Photocopying machines have been in existence for forty years: however, few people recognize their potential to create a human health hazard by ozone emission. This study was designed to determine the photocopier's emission rate and evaluate tile...

  1. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovemberIron Find

  2. NOx reduction technology for natural-gas-industry prime movers. Special report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, C.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability, performance, and costs are summarized for state-of-the-art NOx emission controls for prime movers used by the natural gas industry to drive pipeline compressors. Nearly 7700 prime movers of 300 hp or greater are in operation at compressor stations. NOx control technologies for application to reciprocating engines are catalytic reduction, engine modification, exhaust gas recirculation, and pre-stratified charge. Technologies discussed for application to gas turbines are catalytic reduction, water or steam injection, and low-NOx combustors.

  3. Nitrous oxide (N?O) isotopic composition in the troposphere : instrumentation, observations at Mace Head, Ireland, and regional modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Katherine Ellison

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N?O) is a significant greenhouse gas and main contributor to stratospheric ozone destruction. Surface measurements of N?O mole fractions have been used to attribute source and sink strengths, but large ...

  4. Current-biased potentiometric NOx sensor for vehicle emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Louis Peter (Castro Valley, CA); Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA)

    2006-12-26

    A nitrogen oxide sensor system for measuring the amount of nitrogen oxide in a gas. A first electrode is exposed to the gas. An electrolyte is positioned in contact with the first electrode. A second electrode is positioned in contact with the electrolyte. A means for applying a fixed current between the first electrode and the second electrode and monitoring the voltage required to maintain the fixed current provides a measurement of the amount of nitrogen oxide in the gas.

  5. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun (Jensen); Fisk, William J.

    2011-05-01

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives, rather than ozonolysis, is the main formaldehyde source in those filters. Emission rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not found to be large enough to substantially increase indoor concentrations in typical building scenarios. Nevertheless, ozone reactions on HVAC filters cannot be ignored as a source of low levels of indoor irritants.

  6. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University Hospital, AOUS, Siena (Italy); Bocci, Velio [Department of Physiology, University of Siena (Italy); Acquaviva, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Belmonte, Giuseppe [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Gardi, Concetta [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Virgili, Fabio [INRAN, Rome (Italy); Ciccoli, Lucia [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Valacchi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.valacchi@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 ?g/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ? Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ? This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ? 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ? Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ? Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  7. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

  8. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant

  9. Understanding Automotive Exhaust Catalysts Using a Surface Science Approach: Model NOx Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Yi, Cheol-Woo W.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2013-11-01

    The structure-reactivity relationships of model BaO-based NOx storage/reduction catalysts were investigated under well controlled experimental conditions using surface science analysis techniques. The reactivity of BaO toward NO2, CO2, and H2O was studied as a function of BaO layer thickness [0\\hBaO\\30 monolayer (ML)], sample temperature, reactant partial pressure, and the nature of the substrate the NOx storage material was deposited onto. Most of the efforts focused on understanding the mechanism of NO2 storage either on pure BaO, or on BaO exposed to CO2 or H2O prior to NO2 exposure. The interaction of NO2 with a pure BaO film results in the initial formation of nitrite/nitrate ion pairs by a cooperative adsorption mechanism predicted by prior theoretical calculations. The nitrites are then further oxidized to nitrates to produce a fully nitrated surface. The mechanism of NO2 uptake on thin BaO films (\\4 ML), BaO clusters (\\1 ML) and mixed BaO/Al2O3 layers are fundamentally different: in these systems initially nitrites are formed only, and then converted to nitrates at longer NO2 exposure times. These results clarify the contradicting mechanisms presented in prior studies in the literature. After the formation of a nitrate layer the further conversion of the underlying BaO is slow, and strongly depends on both the sample temperature and the NO2 partial pressure. At 300 K sample temperature amorphous Ba(NO3)2 forms that then can be converted to crystalline nitrates at elevated temperatures. The reaction between BaO and H2O is facile, a series of Ba(OH)2 phases form under the temperature and H2O partial pressure regimes studied. Both amorphous and crystalline Ba(OH)2 phases react with NO2, and initially form nitrites only that can be converted to nitrates. The NO2 adsorption capacities of BaO and Ba(OH)2 are identical, i.e., both of these phases can completely be converted to Ba(NO3)2. In contrast, the interaction of CO2 with pure BaO results in the formation of a BaCO3 layer that prevents to complete carbonation of the entire BaO film under the experimental conditions applied in these studies. However, these ‘‘carbonated’’ BaO layers readily react with NO2, and at elevated sample temperature even the carbonate layer is converted to nitrates. The importance of the metal oxide/metal interface in the chemistry on NOx storage-reduction catalysts was studied on BaO(\\1 ML)/Pt(111) reverse model catalysts. In comparison to the clean Pt(111), new oxygen adsorption phases were identified on the BaO/Pt(111) surface that can be associated with oxygen atoms strongly adsorbed on Pt atoms at the peripheries of BaO particles. A simple kinetic model developed helped explain the observed thermal desorption results. The role of the oxide/metal interface in the reduction of Ba(NO3)2 was also substantiated in experiments where Ba(NO3)2/O/Pt(111) samples were exposed to CO at elevated sample temperature. The catalytic decomposition of the nitrate phase occurred as soon as metal sites opened up by the removal of interfacial oxygen via CO oxidation from the O/Pt(111) surface. The temperature for catalytic nitrate reduction was found to be significantly lower than the onset temperature of thermal nitrate decomposition. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  10. Calculation of NOx Emissions Reductions From Energy Efficient Residential Building Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.

    2006-05-23

    . These areas face severe sanctions if attainment is not reached by 2007. This paper provides an overview of the procedures that have been developed and used to calculate the electricity savings and NOx reductions from code-compliant residential construction...

  11. Climate Co-benefits of Tighter SO2 and NOx Regulations in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Kyung-Min

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution has been recognized as a significant problem in China. In its Twelfth Five Year Plan (FYP), China proposes to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions significantly, and here we investigate the cost of achieving those ...

  12. Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-02-01

    Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

  13. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOxĚł automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  14. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research to identify most promising catalytic formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx

  15. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-ŤOBC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for Retrofit of In-Use Trucks Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for...

  16. Procedure to Calculate NOx Reductions Using the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (E-Grid) Spreadsheet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Verdict, M.; Turner, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this report a detailed description of the procedure to calculate NOx reductions from energy savings due to the 2000 IECC code implementation in single family residences using the United States Environmental Protect Agency's (USEPA's) Emissions...

  17. Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

  18. Reduction of NOx Emissions in Alamo Area Council of Government Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Zhu, Y.; Im, P.

    2004-01-01

    This reports summarizes the electricity, natural gas and NOx emissions reductions from retrofit measures reported as part of the AACOG emissions reduction effort. The electricity and natural gas savings were collected by ...

  19. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    presented in part I (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 13339). A weak feature at the SO3 mass channel (80 amu to SO3 facilitated by condensed-phase vanadium oxides as catalysts are suggested. I. Introduction for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

  20. Ozone-induced increases in substance P and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha in the airways of human subjects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazbun, M.E.; Hamilton, R.; Holian, A.; Eschenbacher, W.L. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01

    We are interested in the mechanisms of ozone-induced lung effects after short-term exposure and the relationship with subsequent pulmonary inflammation and disease. Our hypothesis is that ozone, as a powerful oxidant, will diminish the activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in the airways of humans with resulting increased concentrations of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP). We have exposed seven (two women, five men) healthy, nonsmoking individuals (22 to 30 yr of age) to filtered air and ozone (0.25 ppm) for 1 h in an environmental chamber during heavy exercise. Bronchoscopy with airway lavage (AL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed immediately after ozone exposure. The lavage samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for SP and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2 alpha) (a marker for oxidative free radical reaction) and by radioimmunoassay for complement fragments. FEV1 had declined 12.4 +/- 1.9% (mean +/- SEM) as a result of ozone exposure. The AL concentration for SP and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha and BAL concentration of C3a after ozone exposure were significantly higher than after the filtered air exposure (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between SP and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha concentrations in the AL fluid (r2 = 0.89 and P < 0.05). There were no changes in C5a in either compartment or any of the mediators in the plasma samples. These results extend previous results from animal studies suggesting that ozone's mechanism of action is through an oxidative reaction resulting in a decreased activity of NEP in the airways with a subsequent increase in the concentration and activity of SP.

  1. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-09-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx results with caking coal are promising, with NOx as low as 150 ppmv at exit oxygen levels of 4% and higher. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design is nearing completion. Design of the caking coal version of the unit continues with additional pilot testing in support of this design expected. GTI and RPI are expediting the fabrication of the 100 MMBtu/h PRB unit in order to start testing in early- to mid-December. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) is nearing completion. As of mid-September, this activity was 95% complete.

  2. KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Man-Chung

    -type rate model, is found to capture the effect of power input, NOx composition, and residence time. An N for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite its a mathematical model that captures transport and reac- tion rates. Such a model is needed to develop new

  3. Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standridge, Brad Lee

    1994-01-01

    The addition of cyanuric acid to hot exhaust flows has been shown in the past to selectively remove much of the nitric oxide (NO) emitted from combustion sources. Known as the RapreNOx process, this approach to pollution control does not require a...

  4. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

  5. Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widen, Donald Allen

    1966-01-01

    Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

  6. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  7. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    combustion with excess oxygen that is typical of gas turbinescombustion processes. 14 Automobile engines, gas turbines,

  8. Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  9. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    and Japan. 8 Volkswagen 2009 TDIl-TDI-Motor von Volkswagen für niedrigste Abgasgrenzwerte –l-TDI-Motor von Volkswagen für niedrigste Abgasgrenzwerte –

  10. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    Chou, Steve Dai, Ramesh Koripella, Manny Oliver, Daniel Sadler, PaulChou, Steve Dai, Ramesh Koripella, Manny Oliver, Daniel Sadler, Paul

  11. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD: a structural,Paul C. McIntyre, "Atomic Layer Deposition of Y 2 O 3 /ZrO 2rate-determining step Atomic layer Deposition Ammonium

  12. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    material has refractory properties that make it also useful for kiln furniture and for thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine

  13. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    shrinkage of approximately 45% after sintering. 4.1 Introduction Since the inception of the tape-casting

  14. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    Serge, Electrochemistry of Zirconia Gas Sensors, New York:and A. C. Young, "Gelcast Zirconia-Alumina Composites", 15thand A. C. Young, "Gelcast Zirconia-Alumina Composites", 15th

  15. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    James, "Study of solid electrolyte polarization by a complexThe NO 2 response of solid electrolyte sensors made usingTechnologies using Solid Electrolytes in Measuring Gas

  16. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    Low Temperature Electrodes for SOFC’s”, EPRI /GRI / DOE FuelSm 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 as SOFC cathode", Sol. Stat. Ion. ,Low Temperature Electrodes for SOFC’s”, EPRI /GRI / DOE Fuel

  17. U.S. NO2 trends (2005–2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO2 levels have decreased by 30-40% in the last decade. We quantify NO2 trends (2005-2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO2 algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore »and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO2 concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO2 standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO2 reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO2 VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model-simulated trends in VCDs strongly correlate with those estimated from surface concentrations (r -- 0.83, N -- 355). We then explore the observed correspondence of trends estimated from OMI and AQS data. We find a significant, but slightly weaker, correspondence (i.e., r -- 0.68, N -- 208) than predicted by the model and discuss some of the important factors affecting the relationship, including known problems (e.g., NOz interferents) associated with the AQS data. This significant correspondence gives confidence in trend and surface concentration estimates from OMI VCDs for locations, such as the majority of the U.S. and globe, that are not covered by surface monitoring networks. Using our improved trend model and our enhanced OMI data product, we find that both OMI and AQS data show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 38% for each over the U.S. The annual reduction rates inferred from OMI and AQS measurements are larger (#3;-4.8 ± 1.9%/yr, #3;-3.7 ± 1.5%/yr) from 2005 to 2008 than 2010 to 2013 (-#3;1.2 ± 1.2%/yr, #3;-2.1 ± 1.4%/yr). We quantify NO2 trends for major U.S. cities and power plants; the latter suggest larger negative trend (#3;-4.0 ± 1.5%/yr) between 2005 and 2008 and smaller or insignificant changes (-#3;0.5 ± 1.2%/yr) during 2010-2013.« less

  18. U.S. NO? trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO?) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO? levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO? trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO? vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO? algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore »and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO? concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO? standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO? reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO? VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model-simulated trends in VCDs strongly correlate with those estimated from surface concentrations (r = 0.83, N = 355). We then explore the observed correspondence of trends estimated from OMI and AQS data. We find a significant, but slightly weaker, correspondence (i.e., r = 0.68, N = 208) than predicted by the model and discuss some of the important factors affecting the relationship, including known problems (e.g., NOz interferents) associated with the AQS data. This significant correspondence gives confidence in trend and surface concentration estimates from OMI VCDs for locations, such as the majority of the U.S. and globe, that are not covered by surface monitoring networks. Using our improved trend model and our enhanced OMI data product, we find that both OMI and AQS data show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 38% for each over the U.S. The annual reduction rates inferred from OMI and AQS measurements are larger (–4.8 ± 1.9%/yr, –3.7 ± 1.5%/yr) from 2005 to 2008 than 2010 to 2013 (–1.2 ± 1.2%/yr, –2.1 ± 1.4%/yr). We quantify NO? trends for major U.S. cities and power plants; the latter suggest larger negative trend (–4.0 ± 1.5%/yr) between 2005 and 2008 and smaller or insignificant changes (–0.5 ± 1.2%/yr) during 2010-2013.« less

  19. What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found in the strato-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found it represents only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, ozone is crucial for life on Earth. Ozone--acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. With- out ozone, the Sun

  20. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong-Hoo Park a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong Received in revised form 26 May 2010 Accepted 2 June 2010 Keywords: Ozone fluxes Citrus Tropospheric ozone climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed