National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxides control technology

  1. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    including issues of technology and cost un- certainties, areon NO x Control Technologies and Cost Effectiveness forand other factors on technology cost trends (hence, the

  2. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

  3. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollution Control Costs for Coal-Fired Power Stations; IEAControl Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers; J.for NO x Control on Coal-Fired Boilers; U.S. Environmen- tal

  4. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    x Control. Volume 1: Utility Boiler Applications; ElectricCoal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers; J. Air & Waste Manage.for NO x Control on Coal-Fired Boilers; U.S. Environmen- tal

  5. Advanced regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology for air toxics control - selected case histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiwert, J.J. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced design regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) systems have been developed and are in commercial scale use for control of process emissions containing air toxics (HAPs) and VOCs. High operating temperatures coupled with high thermal energy recovery efficiencies inherent with RTO technology provide for high destruction efficiencies while minimizing formation of objectionable combustion byproducts. These results are achieved with low system operating costs. This paper covers development of advanced design commercial RTO systems for control of air emissions from several important commercial processes: total reduced sulfur (TRS) and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pulp mill processes. Chlorinated organics and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The data presented represent the first commercial scale application of RTO technology to abate emissions from these processes. Particular design features required for each specific process, in order to provide reliable, safe and effective systems, are reviewed. Emissions abatement performance, as well as operational data, are presented for the systems.

  6. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  7. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  8. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  9. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

    2007-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control, Prepared byReduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)NOx removal technologies. Volume 1. Selective catalytic reduction.

  10. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

  11. Environmental Control Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-10

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) study was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. On September 13, 1996, the ECTC completed an independent test block for a third-party company, Air Purification Inc. (API). For this testing, the ECTC's staff (O&M and Testing) were contracted to conduct performance and validation testing across a new, integrated emissions control device, the Rotorfilter{trademark}. This testing was conducted for a thirty (30) day period simultaneously with the B&W/CHX test block. The HAP testing resumed as this third-party test block was completed. Testing in September at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI's overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury control; (4) Catalytic methods for converting elemental mercury to oxidized mercury; and (5) Electrostatic charging of particulate material in the FGD inlet flue gas stream.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust...

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  16. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  17. DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments 2005deerandreoni.pdf More Documents & Publications Cleaning Up Diesel Engines...

  18. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Larry Chick/Mike Rinker Energy Materials Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 30, 2010 #12;2 2 SOFC Technology Development at PNNL PNNL has been active in SOFC development since 1987. Major participant in SECA Core Technology

  1. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

  2. Portal monitoring technology control process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Portal monitors are an important part of the material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) programs in Russia and the US. Although portal monitors are only a part of an integrated MPC and A system, they are an effective means of controlling the unauthorized movement of special nuclear material (SNM). Russian technical experts have gained experience in the use of SNM portal monitors from US experts ad this has allowed them to use the monitors more effectively. Several Russian institutes and companies are designing and manufacturing SNM portal monitors in Russia. Interactions between Russian and US experts have resulted in improvements to the instruments. SNM portal monitor technology has been effectively transferred from the US to Russia and should be a permanent part of the Russian MPC and A Program. Progress in the implementation of the monitors and improvements to how they are used are discussed.

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Biao

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control Biao Huang Yutong Qi Monjur: This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), from perspective of dynamic. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Control Relevant Model, Model Predictive Control 1. INTRODUCTION Today

  4. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 * September 2005 Industrial Technologies Program Furnace Pressure Controllers Furnace draft, or negative pres- sure, is created in fuel-fired furnaces when high temperature gases...

  5. CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 8. Technology Control Plans (TCPs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 8. Technology Control Plans (TCPs) This Section addresses and data from foreign nationals for whom the item is controlled, and would otherwise require an export; physical controls (laboratory security); IT controls (data file/computer access security); deemed export

  6. Customizing a VOC control technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enneking, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    An extremely important but very difficult element in applying an emission control device to an exhaust stream is to chose the proper technology. Once it has been determined that recovery, rather than destruction, is appropriate, there are still several process choices available. The type of process is generally dictated by the VOC concentration and total air flow rate. Adsorption is usually chosen for low concentrations and high flow rates while refrigeration is usually best for high concentrations and low flow rates. This paper describes six applications. Adsorption was applied to two of them and condensation to the other four. Solvent vapors from a tape coating operation are recovered in an activated carbon adsorption process and reused. VOC`s from soil vapor extraction operations are captured by activated carbon which is regenerated by a mobile unit. VOC`s displaced from filling tank cars at a refinery are condensed at low temperatures in a high pressure system which uses a pressure swing dryer to remove water. Two different processes were installed to prevent VOC emissions from pharmaceutical processing plants. They both use a thermal swing dryer to remove moisture and low temperature condensation to recover the solvent. With very high concentrations of solvent in an inert gas stream, indirect condensation is used to purify the nitrogen and recover the solvent for reuse. Process flow diagrams and operating results are presented.

  7. Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    TECHNOLOGY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENT J. ROBERT HART, MANAGER, EPRI PULP & PAPER OFFICE, ATLANTA, GA ABSTRACT The composition of effluent from various pulping processes can exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical parameters. The dissolved solids... and had the necessary accessories to monitor gas and liquid flows, injection and sampling points, and off-gas detection. The ozone was generated with a Griffin Technics HC-l.O ozone generator. This unit is air-cooled and contains two dielectrics...

  8. IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas. We present a model-based control analysis and design

  9. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL); Bandaru, Ramarao V. (Greer, SC)

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  10. Electrothermal controlled-exposure technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, John Mapes

    2006-01-01

    A technology is presented for exposing the contents of microfabricated cavities in a substrate. These contents are hermetically sealed until exposure is triggered by an electronic signal. The exposure mechanism uses ...

  11. CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 15. Technology Commercialization and Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 15. Technology Commercialization and Transfer This section addresses the export control requirements associated with CUNY's Technology Commercialization Transfer Agreements trigger export control requirements, CUNY's Technology Commercialization Office (TCO) shall work directly

  12. Performance Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    technology for controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The development strategies for coal-fired power plants. Details of the IECM's copper oxide process, power plant air preheater via the power plant air preheater. The net chemical reactions occurring in the absorber are: CuO (s

  13. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  14. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  15. Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Technology and Regulations Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation:...

  16. Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emission Control Technology Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Corning Inc. 2002deerjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  17. Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  18. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

  19. Control of regioselectivity:oxidation and deprotection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Palladium is a highly versatile metal, capable of catalysing oxidations, reductions and a myriad of organic transformations. The inorganic chemistry of palladium, and the relation of this to the catalytic activity of the metal, is briefly discussed...

  20. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  1. Technological modifications in the nitrogen oxides tradable permit program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, J.

    2008-07-01

    Tradable permit programs allow firms greater flexibility in reducing emissions than command-and-control regulations and encourage firms to use low cost abatement options, including small-scale modifications to capital equipment. This paper shows that firms have extensively modified capital equipment in the Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program, which covers power plants in the eastern United States. The empirical strategy uses geographic and temporal features of the program to estimate counterfactual emissions, finding that modifications have reduced emission rates by approximately 10-15 percent. The modifications would not have occurred under command-and-control regulation and have reduced regulatory costs.

  2. NREL's Controllable Grid Interface for Testing Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgian, V.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of NREL's Controllable Grid Interface capabilities for testing renewable energy technologies.

  3. Technology Control Plan Certification Page 1 of 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Jiancheng

    Technology Control Plan Certification v092014 Page 1 of 8 EXPORT CONTROLS OFFICE OF RESEARCH COMPLIANCE Technology Control Plan (TCP) Template Federal Regulations Projects/activities involving the use authority for Technology Control Plans (TCPs). The Export Controls Officer in the Office of Research

  4. Coal-fired power generation: Proven technologies and pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M. [University of Mah, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the reduction of emissions from coal-fired power generating plants. New technologies include better understanding of the fundamentals of the formation and destruction of criteria pollutants in combustion processes (low nitrogen oxides burners) and improved methods for separating criteria pollutants from stack gases (FGD technology), as well as efficiency improvements in power plants (clean coal technologies). Future demand for more environmentally benign electric power, however, will lead to even more stringent controls of pollutants (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

  5. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  6. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA:...

  7. Software Tools for Technology Transfer Software Monitoring with Controllable Overhead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zadok, Erez

    Software Tools for Technology Transfer Software Monitoring with Controllable Overhead Xiaowan Huang Stony Brook University Appears in the Proceedings of Software Tools for Technology Transfer Abstract. We

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop...

  9. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

  10. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling...

  11. Recent progress in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singhal, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    The tubular design of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and the materials used therein have been validated by successful, continuous electrical testing over 69,000 h of early technology cells built on a calcia-stabilized zirconia porous support tube (PST). In the latest technology cells, the PST has been eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube. These air electrode supported (AES) cells have shown a power density increase of about 33% with a significantly improved performance stability over the previously used PST type cells. These cells have also demonstrated the ability to thermally cycle over 100 times without any mechanical damage or performance loss. In addition, recent changes in processes used to fabricate these cells have resulted in significant cost reduction. This paper reviews the fabrication and performance of the state-of-the-art AES tubular cells. It also describes the materials and processing studies that are underway to further reduce the cell cost, and summarizes the recently built power generation systems that employed state-of-the-art AES cells.

  12. CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 9. Information Technology (IT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 9. Information Technology (IT) This Section addresses the process for protecting export controlled proprietary technical data and when these protections are required, including Export Control policies & procedures. EAR and ITAR identified assets will be controlled strictly

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of...

  14. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Controllable Tuning Plasmonic Coupling with Nanoscale Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Tao; Sigle, Daniel; Zhang, Liwu; Mertens, Jan; de Nijs, Bart; Baumberg, Jeremy

    2015-05-15

    .; Aizpurua, J.; et al, Controlling Subnanometer Gaps in Plasmonic Dimers Using Graphene. Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 5033-5038. (19) Hu, M.; Ghoshal, A.; Marquez, M.; Kik, P. G., Single Particle Spectroscopy Study of Metal- Film-Induced Tuning of Silver... .; Tserkezis, C.; Aizpurua, J.; Baumberg, J. J., Monitoring Morphological Changes in 2D Monolayer Semiconductors Using Atom-Thick Plasmonic Nanocavities. ACS Nano 2015, 9, 825-830. (23) Saif, M. T. A.; Zhang, S.; Haque, A.; Hsia, K. J., Effect of Native Al2O...

  16. Manganese Based Oxidative Technologies For Water/Wastewater Treatment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2013-08-27

    is yet to be fully developed. This research work explores the reactivity of manganese oxide to degrade OP in aqueous systems. The rate equation has been determined by conducting experiments at various conditions of oxide and organic loading as well...

  17. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that <0.5 ppm sulfur can be achieved. Removal of HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

  18. CFD Modeling for Mercury Control Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, J.I.

    2006-12-01

    Compliance with the Clean Air Mercury Rule will require implementation of dedicated mercury control solutions at a significant portion of the U.S. coal-fired utility fleet. Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) upstream of a particulate control device (ESP or baghouse) remains one of the most promising near-term mercury control technologies. The DOE/NETL field testing program has advanced the understanding of mercury control by ACI, but a persistent need remains to develop predictive models that may improve the understanding and practical implementation of this technology. This presentation describes the development of an advanced model of in-flight mercury capture based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model makes detailed predictions of the induct spatial distribution and residence time of sorbent, as well as predictions of mercury capture efficiency for particular sorbent flow rates and injection grid configurations. Hence, CFD enables cost efficient optimization of sorbent injection systems for mercury control to a degree that would otherwise be impractical both for new and existing plants. In this way, modeling tools may directly address the main cost component of operating an ACI system – the sorbent expense. A typical 300 MW system is expected to require between $1 and $2 million of sorbent per year, and so even modest reductions (say 10-20%) in necessary sorbent feed injection rates will quickly make any optimization effort very worthwhile. There are few existing models of mercury capture, and these typically make gross assumptions of plug gas flow, zero velocity slip between particle and gas phase, and uniform sorbent dispersion. All of these assumptions are overcome with the current model, which is based on first principles and includes mass transfer processes occurring at multiple scales, ranging from the large-scale transport in the duct to transport within the porous structure of a sorbent particle. In principle any single one of these processes could limit the overall capture of mercury. For example, capture may be severely limited in situations where the dispersion of sorbent is poor, or where adsorption rates are low because of relatively high temperatures. Application examples taken from the DOE/NETL field test program were considered. The sites considered include Brayton Point, Meramec, Monroe, and Yates. Some general lessons learned concerning the impact of turbulence and flow stratification on dispersion and capture will be presented.

  19. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  20. Thermal oxidation technology ready for tougher paint finishing regs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.

    1995-04-01

    There is good news and bad news in the air for commercial paint finishers. The bad news is that future local and federal clean-air regulations are almost certain to require control of volatile organic compound emissions from spray booths and drying ovens. The good news is that one of the most effective systems for meeting such requirements also can help cut operations and maintenance costs. There are as many solutions to VOC emissions problems in paint finishing as there are types of paint-spraying facilities. However, despite the range of choices, regenerative thermal oxidation systems are gaining favor among plant managers, for whom performance and maximum application flexibility are key considerations. Compared to other VOC-destruction approaches, RTO systems are more forgiving and reliable. Although RTO systems involve somewhat higher capital investments than alternative approaches, such costs typically are offset by lower long-term fuel and maintenance requirements. In addition, RTO systems can convert pollutants into usable energy sources, helping minimize operating costs of abatement equipment.

  1. Emerging NO sub x /SO sub x control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Markussen, J.M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The development of advanced flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) technologies fro the control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions continues to be a very active area of research and development, both in this country and abroad. This activity is driven both by legislation (such as the recent revisions to the Clean Air Act) and by the desire to develop technologies that surpass current options in terms of performance, costs, operability, and waste/by-product properties. New issues, such as concern over global climate changes and the health effects of toxic air emissions ( air toxics''), are also helping to shape and prioritize the development programs. This paper provides a status report on a number of integrated FGC systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been rested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. While some information that was presented at the 1991 CIBO NO{sub x} IV Control Conference is repeated for the sake of completeness, we have updated each section to reflect the most recent reported developments. Although a wide variety of technologies is discussed, it should be noted that there are a number of other integrated approaches, such as slagging combustors, fluidized-bed combustion, gasification/combined-cycle systems, and various processes combining low-NO{sub x} burners with SO{sub 2}-sorbent injection in the furnace. These other approaches also offer features that should not be overlooked when evaluating alternatives for a specific application.

  2. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

    2007-01-01

    oxides (NO x ) from coal-fired electric power plants. InFGD Installations on Coal-Fired Plants, IEA Coal Research,control modeling of coal-fired power systems’, Journal of

  3. MEMS technology for timing and frequency control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, CTC

    2007-01-01

    regard, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology,focus upon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and include

  4. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

  5. Impact of new pollution control technologies on all emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of new pollution control technologies on all emissions: the specific problem of high ratio of NO2 at tail pipe downstream of certain pollution control devices Impact of new...

  6. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  7. Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. MUTURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CALLIS,RW; CARY,WP; CHU,S; LOANE,JL; ELLIS,RA; FELCH,K; GORELOV,YA; GRUNLOH,HJ; HOSEA,J; KAJIWARA,K; LOHR,J; LUCE,TC; PEAVY,JJ; PINSKER,RI; PONCE,D; PRATER,R; SHAPIRO,M; TEMKIN,RJ; TOOKER,JF

    2002-09-01

    OAK A271 MUTURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL. Understanding of the physics of internal transport barriers (ITBs) is being furthered by analysis and comparisons of experimental data from many different tokamaks worldwide. An international database consisting of scalar and 2-D profile data for ITB plasmas is being developed to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs and to perform tests of theory-based transport models in an effort to improve the predictive capability of the models. Analysis using the database indicates that: (a) the power required to form ITBs decreases with increased negative magnetic shear of the target plasma, and: (b) the E x B flow shear rate is close to the linear growth rate of the ITG modes at the time of barrier formation when compared for several fusion devices. Tests of several transport models (JETTO, Weiland model) using the 2-D profile data indicate that there is only limited agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results for the range of plasma conditions examined for the different devices (DIII-D, JET, JT-60U). Gyrokinetic stability analysis (using the GKS code) of the ITB discharges from these devices indicates that the ITG/TEM growth rates decrease with increased negative magnetic shear and that the E x B shear rate is comparable to the linear growth rates at the location of the ITB.

  9. Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Marion; Dave O'Neill; Kevin Taugher; Shin Kang; Mark Johnson; Gerald Pargac; Jane Luedecke; Randy Gardiner; Mike Silvertooth; Jim Hicks; Carl Edberg; Ray Cournoyer; Stanley Bohdanowicz; Ken Peterson; Kurt Johnson; Steve Benson; Richard Schulz; Don McCollor; Mike Wuitshick

    2008-06-01

    Alstom Power Inc. has completed a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. De-FC26-07NT42776) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. The Mer-Cure{trademark}system utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. The Mer-Cure{trademark} system is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. The full-scale demonstration program originally included test campaigns at two host sites: LCRA's 480-MW{sub e} Fayette Unit No.3 and Reliant Energy's 190-MW{sub e} Shawville Unit No.3. The only demonstration tests actually done were the short-term tests at LCRA due to budget constraints. This report gives a summary of the demonstration testing at Fayette Unit No.3. The goals for this Mercury Round 3 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 90% at a cost significantly less than 50% of the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90% based on uncontrolled stack emissions. The estimated costs for 90% mercury control, at a sorbent cost of $0.75 to $2.00/lb respectively, were $13,400 to $18,700/lb Hg removed. In summary, the results from demonstration testing show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were met during this test program. The goal of 90% mercury reduction was achieved. Estimated mercury removal costs were 69-78% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed, significantly less than 50% of the baseline removal cost.

  10. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  11. TECHNOLOGY-RELATED FIXED ASSET INVENTORY CONTROL PROCEDURES New Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchens, John

    TECHNOLOGY-RELATED FIXED ASSET INVENTORY CONTROL PROCEDURES New Purchases When a new computer the new equipment shall be submitted to Information Technology Services (ITS) with the ITS Job Request a computer, printer, projector or other technology-related fixed asset to a new University department

  12. Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

    1998-01-01

    and Air Conditioners: Energy Savers or Energy Wasters? ,”controllers marketed as energy savers are in the range of $cost effectiveness of commercial energy saver controllers is

  13. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  14. Compressed Air System Control Strategies; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Understand your system require- ments by developing a pressure and a demand profile before investing in...

  15. MEMS technology for timing and frequency control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, CTC

    2007-01-01

    Y. Kim, “Noise in microelectromechanical system resonators,”regard, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology,focus upon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and include

  16. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  17. Controlling the photoconductivity: Graphene oxide and polyaniline self assembled intercalation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vempati, Sesha; Ozcan, Sefika; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-02-02

    We report on controlling the optoelectronic properties of self-assembled intercalating compound of graphene oxide (GO) and HCl doped polyaniline (PANI). Optical emission and X-ray diffraction studies revealed a secondary doping phenomenon of PANI with –OH and –COOH groups of GO, which essentially arbitrate the intercalation. A control on the polarity and the magnitude of the photoresponse (PR) is harnessed by manipulating the weight ratios of PANI to GO (viz., 1:1.5 and 1:2.2 are abbreviated as PG1.5 and PG2.2, respectively), where ±PR?=?100(R{sub Dark} – R{sub UV-Vis})/R{sub Dark} and R corresponds to the resistance of the device in dark or UV-Vis illumination. To be precise, the PR from GO, PANI, PG1.5, and PG2.2 are +34%, ?111%, ?51%, and +58%, respectively.

  18. Building Technologies Office (BTO) Sensors and Controls Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department of EnergyEmerging TechnologiesBuildingStandards(BTO)

  19. Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ft007_sluder_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Fuels and LubricantsPresenter: Scott SluderPresenting Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)Presentation date: Thursday, May 16,...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Lab at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about investigation...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  2. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  3. Nanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    made from metal oxides -- work that could lead to a technique for precisely conNanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes Science their diameter and length. Based on metal oxides in combination with silicon and germanium, such single

  4. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  5. Mr. William E. Mott, Acting Director Environmental Control Technology...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    7, I979 Mr. William E. Mott, Acting Director Environmental Control Technology Division Department of Energy Washington, D. C. 2Q545 Dear Mr. Mott: In response to your March 13,...

  6. Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Review Review of light- and heavy-duty diesel emission regulations and state-of-the-art emission control technologies and strategies to meet them. deer08johnson.pdf More...

  7. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Sub-50 HP Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sub-50 HP Engines with Low Exhaust Temperature Profiles Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Sub-50 HP Engines with Low Exhaust Temperature Profiles A new type of emission...

  8. Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ft07sluder.pdf More Documents & Publications Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels:...

  9. New Technology Provides Cost-Effective Emissions Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Technology Provides Cost- Effective Emissions Control Solution for CHP Applications Renewable are the most cost-effective CHP technology less than three MW in size. With a cost effective) applications less than three megawatts (MW). Because they are relatively low cost and have high

  10. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  11. Export Control Regulations Michigan Technological University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control (OFAC) Department of Justice Department of Energy Nuclear Regulatory Commission Department is not a protected individual. Green card = permanent resident. Student visa = not permanent resident. #12;22 CFR

  12. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

    1980-01-01

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

  13. Innovative technology for contamination control in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    The causes and contributing factors to wafer contamination during plasma processing are discussed in the context of future technologies for controlling particle contamination by tool and process design and by the development of wafer dry cleaning technology. The importance of these developments is linked with the history of technological innovation and with the continuing evolution of the cleanroom from a highly developed facility for reducing ambient particle levels to an integrated, synergistic approach involving facilities and tooling for impeding the formation and transport of particles while also actively removing particles from sensitive surfaces. The methods, strategy and requirements for innovation in contamination control for plasma processing is discussed from a diachronic viewpoint.

  14. The Controller Synthesis of Metastable Oxides Utilizing Epitaxy and Epitaxial Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlom, Darrell

    2003-12-02

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has achieved unparalleled control in the integration of semiconductors at the nanometer. These advances were made through the use of epitaxy, epitaxial stabilization, and a combination of composition-control techniques including adsorption-controlled growth and RHEED-based composition control that we have developed, understood, and utilized for the growth of oxides. Also key was extensive characterization (utilizing RHEED, four-circle x-ray diffraction, AFM, TEM, and electrical characterization techniques) in order to study growth modes, optimize growth conditions, and probe the structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the materials grown. The materials that we have successfully engineered include titanates (PbTiO3, Bi4Ti3O12), tantalates (SrBi2Ta2O9), and niobates (SrBi2Nb2O9); layered combinations of these perovskite-related materials (Bi4Ti3O12-SrTiO3 and Bi4Ti3O12-PbTiO3 Aurivillius phases and metastable PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices), and new metastable phases (Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases). The films were grown by reactive MBE and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Many of these materials are either new or have been synthesized with the highest perfection ever reported. The controlled synthesis of such layered oxide heterostructures offers great potential for tailoring the superconducting, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of these materials. These properties are important for energy technologies.

  15. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  16. Remote-Controlled Home Automation Systems with Different Network Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, John N.

    Remote-Controlled Home Automation Systems with Different Network Technologies Armando Roy Delgado into the potential for remote controlled operation of home automation systems. It considers problems, 2002) which certainly requires a careful study before developing any suitable Home Automation System

  17. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  18. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  19. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; Songgeng Li

    2006-04-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility were completed. The riser, primary cyclone and secondary cyclone of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Combustor have been erected. Second, the Mercury Control Workshop and the Grand Opening of Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET) were successfully held on February 22 and 23, 2006, respectively. Third, effects of hydrogen chlorine (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on mercury oxidation were studied in a drop tube reactor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  20. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  1. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  2. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li

    2006-01-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is nearly completed. The erection of the CFBC facility is expected to start in the second week of February, 2006. Second, effect of flue gas components on mercury oxidation was investigated in a drop tube reactor. As a first step, experiment for mercury oxidation by chlorine was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  3. DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Barone, Teresa L; Curran, Scott; Cho, Kukwon; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

  4. Control of differential strain during heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2007-12-25

    Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side and a permeate side, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the oxidant feed side and the permeate side by varying either or both of the oxygen partial pressure and the total gas pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane while changing the temperature of the membrane from a first temperature to a second temperature.

  5. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for a typical 16,000 square-foot office building, with a payback period of less than 3 years.

  6. Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority in the fuel cell anode and (ii) the temperature of the catalytic partial oxidation reactor during transient

  7. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe Borhan M. Sanandaji, Tyrone L. Vincent, Andrew Colclasure, and Robert J. Kee Colorado Fuel Cell Center (CFCC) Division of Engineering Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (MIMO) Systems Are... fuel

  8. Breakthrough Technologies Automated Update, Revision, and Quality Control of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yandell, Mark

    Breakthrough Technologies Automated Update, Revision, and Quality Control of the Maize Genome that the approximately 2.3-Gb genome of the maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73, a major contributor to much of the germplasm used for U.S. grain production, would be sequenced using a bacterial artificial chromo- some (BAC

  9. Cooperative Efforts to Introduce New Environmental Control Technologies to Industry- A Case Study for Brayton Cycle Heat Pump Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enneking, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    TO INTRODUCE NEW ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES TO INDUSTRY - A CASE STUDY FOR BRAYTON CYCLE HEAT PUMP TECHNOLOGY JOSEPH C. ENNEKING Vice President NUCON International, Inc. Columbus, ABSTRACT New environmental control technologies are rare... it entered the expander. Relatively clean air was returned to an oven used to evaporate solvents from a tape coating operation. 123 COOPERATIVE EFFORTS TO INTRODUCE NEW ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES TO INDUSTRY A CASE STUDY FOR BRAYTON CYCLE HEAT...

  10. Information-technology approach to quantum feedback control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao-Yi Dong; Chen-Bin Zhang; Zong-Hai Chen

    2005-03-01

    Quantum control theory is profitably reexamined from the perspective of quantum information, two results on the role of quantum information technology in quantum feedback control are presented and two quantum feedback control schemes, teleportation-based distant quantum feedback control and quantum feedback control with quantum cloning, are proposed. In the first feedback scheme, the output from the quantum system to be controlled is fed back into the distant actuator via teleportation to alter the dynamics of system. The result theoretically shows that it can accomplish some tasks such as distant feedback quantum control that Markovian or Bayesian quantum feedback can't complete. In the second feedback strategy, the design of quantum feedback control algorithms is separated into a state recognition step, which gives "on-off" signal to the actuator through recognizing some copies from the cloning machine, and a feedback (control) step using another copies of cloning machine. A compromise between information acquisition and measurement disturbance is established, and this strategy can perform some quantum control tasks with coherent feedback.

  11. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  12. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  13. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

  14. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore »when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  15. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement, (2) Hg oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers, (3) enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts, and (4) testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter insert.

  16. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  17. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

    2006-04-30

    Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 20% lower than a comparable wired system for a typical 16,000 square-foot office building, with a payback period of less than 3 years. At 30% market penetration saturation, a cumulative 695 Billion kWh of energy could be saved through 2025, a cost savings of $52 Billion.

  18. A review of NO[sub x] control technologies for stationary sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudt, J.E. (Research-Cottrell Cos., Branchburg, NJ (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, regulated federally since 1970 under CAA's new source performance standards, are subject to increased regulation under the CAA Amendments. Title 1 of the Amendments, the non-attainment provisions, establishes guidance for controlling numerous pollutants, including VOCs and NOx, both ozone precursors. Under Title 1, states must promulgate reasonably available control technology (RACT) standards, based on EPA guidelines, to make progress toward achieving required air quality standards. Title 1 regulations are expected to be stringent, and all major emissions sources will be subject to regulation. EPA in 1990 estimated that electric utilities account for 60% of stationary-source NOx emissions, while the industrial sector is responsible for 27%. To date, regulations proposed by regional authorities set emissions limits below new source performance standards and the Amendments' Title IV standards.

  19. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Sebastian Skardal; Alex Arenas

    2015-07-09

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies we study here control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions--a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. Interestingly, the amount of control, i.e., number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself.

  20. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Fourth quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staehle, G.; Talaber, C.; Stull, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report includes information concerning: the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation; the nuclear inspections in Iraq, lessons for verification; detection technologies needed for each step of nuclear weapon development; nuclear proliferation problems; strengthening the nuclear reactor fuel cycle against proliferation; monitoring using unattended remote nondestructive assay; seismic monitoring in a proliferation environment; forensic science center, remote infrared spectrometry for nonproliferation applications; and acoustic instrument for identifying chemical munitions.

  1. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DST) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks and environmental effects associated with air toxic emissions (primarily mercury) from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. EPRI has sponsored research on environmental mercury since 1983 to determine the factors that may influence human health, and to determine the role of electric power generating stations in contributing to those factors. Over the last four years, EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) has conducted EPRI and DOE sponsored testing to develop and demonstrate appropriate measurement methods and control technologies for power plant atmospheric mercury emissions. Building upon the experience and expertise of the EPRI ECTC, a test program was initiated at the Center in July to further evaluate dry sorbent-based injection technologies upstream of a cold-side ESP for mercury control, and to determine the effects of such sorbents on ESP performance. The results from this program will be compared to the results from previous DOE/EPRI demonstrations, and to other ongoing programs. The primary objectives of this test program are to: (1) Determine the levels of mercury removal achievable by dry sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The process parameters to be investigated include sorbent residence time, sorbent type, sorbent size, sorbent loading, and flue gas temperature. (2) Determine the impact of sorbent injection on ESP performance.

  2. Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOC containing Pt only p-23curan.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and...

  3. Improved hydrocracker temperature control: Mobil quench zone technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarli, M.S.; McGovern, S.J. (Mobil Research and Development, Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Lewis, D.W.; Snyder, P.W. (Mobil Research and Development, Princeton, NJ (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Hydrocracking is a well established process in the oil refining industry. There are over 2.7 million barrels of installed capacity world-wide. The hydrocracking process comprises several families of highly exothermic reactions and the total adiabatic temperature rise can easily exceed 200 F. Reactor temperature control is therefore very important. Hydrocracking reactors are typically constructed with multiple catalyst beds in series. Cold recycle gas is usually injected between the catalyst beds to quench the reactions, thereby controlling overall temperature rise. The design of this quench zone is the key to good reactor temperature control, particularly when processing poorer quality, i.e., higher heat release, feeds. Mobil Research and Development Corporation (MRDC) has developed a robust and very effective quench zone technology (QZT) package, which is now being licensed to the industry for hydrocracking applications.

  4. Site and Oxidation-State Specificity Yielding Dimensional Control in Perovskite Ruthenates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Site and Oxidation-State Specificity Yielding Dimensional Control in Perovskite Ruthenates Job T perovskite, Sr3CaRu2O9. Ruthenium's unusual ability to readily adopt both IV(d4) and V(d3) oxidation states-sites of the perovskite lattice (Figure 1). Similarly ordered materials based on Nb5+ or Ta5+ are known and serve as good

  5. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  6. Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kume, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Iida, K.; Murakami, M.; Akishino, K.; Ando, H.

    1996-09-01

    Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting upright straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electromagnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke. Since air cooling by the latent heat of vaporization increases volumetric efficiency and reduces the octane number requirement, a high compression ratio of 12 to 1 can be adopted. As a result, engines utilizing these types of control technologies show a 10% increase in improved performance over conventional port injection engines.

  7. Control of Emergent Properties at a Correlated Oxide Interface with You Zhou,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transitions.1-3 Electrolyte gating utilizes the electric- double layer (EDL) that forms at the liquid-solid 02138, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Electrolyte gating of complex oxides enables of electrolyte gated VO2 devices can be deterministically controlled by inserting a monolayer of graphene

  8. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27- Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe...

  9. Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: A new detection technology Joseph R. Lakowicz*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: A new detection technology Joseph R. Lakowicz*a , Mustafa H fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. This change will be based to control the decay rates, location and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to this technology

  10. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (SDA) and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) - Carbon Injection System. Investigations also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit, while the 1.0 MW Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode as monthly inspections were conducted. Pilot Testing Highlights Testing efforts in June were focused on the HAP test block and the Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block. Both programs were conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and PJFF unit. The HAP test block was temporarily concluded in June to further review the test data. This program began in March as part of the DOE Advanced Power Systems Program; the mission of this program is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The 1996 HAP test block focuses on three research areas, including: Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. The TER test block is part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions.

  11. Emerging NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The development of advanced flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) technologies fro the control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions continues to be a very active area of research and development, both in this country and abroad. This activity is driven both by legislation (such as the recent revisions to the Clean Air Act) and by the desire to develop technologies that surpass current options in terms of performance, costs, operability, and waste/by-product properties. New issues, such as concern over global climate changes and the health effects of toxic air emissions (``air toxics``), are also helping to shape and prioritize the development programs. This paper provides a status report on a number of integrated FGC systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been rested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. While some information that was presented at the 1991 CIBO NO{sub x} IV Control Conference is repeated for the sake of completeness, we have updated each section to reflect the most recent reported developments. Although a wide variety of technologies is discussed, it should be noted that there are a number of other integrated approaches, such as slagging combustors, fluidized-bed combustion, gasification/combined-cycle systems, and various processes combining low-NO{sub x} burners with SO{sub 2}-sorbent injection in the furnace. These other approaches also offer features that should not be overlooked when evaluating alternatives for a specific application.

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY 1 Feed-Forward Control of Open Channel Flow Using Differential Flatness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] or simplified versions of these equations to describe 1-D hydraulic systems. Water level regulation and controlIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY 1 Feed-Forward Control of Open Channel Flow Using--This brief derives a method for open-loop control of open channel flow, based on the Hayami model

  13. Project Information Form Project Title Using Connected Vehicle Technology for Advanced Signal Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Using Connected Vehicle Technology for Advanced Signal information. The introduction of Connected Vehicle (CV) technology can potentially address these limitations Control Strategies University UC Riverside Principal Investigator Matthew Barth PI Contact Information

  14. Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.

    1986-04-15

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use. 12 figs.

  15. Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use.

  16. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration technology for smal diesel engines

  17. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

    2007-01-01

    2004) ‘Experience curves for power plant emission controlLtd. Experience curves for power plant emission controlInc. Experience curves for power plant emission control

  18. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mappedchoice of DR and energy efficiency strategy is limited byDemonstration of Energy Management Control Strategies for

  19. Trends Affecting Building Control System Development: Trends in Energy Management Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Ted; Parker, Steven A.; Webster, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Peak Demand with Energy Management Control Systems. ” WCDSR-of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) isBCS) Development Trends in energy management technology

  20. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5750E The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California was sponsored in part by the Demand Response Research Center which is funded

  1. Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCount, Robert B. (403 Arbor Ct., Waynesburg, PA 15370)

    1993-01-01

    A furnace with two hot zones holds multiple analysis tubes. Each tube has a separable sample-packing section positioned in the first hot zone and a catalyst-packing section positioned in the second hot zone. A mass flow controller is connected to an inlet of each sample tube, and gas is supplied to the mass flow controller. Oxygen is supplied through a mass flow controller to each tube to either or both of an inlet of the first tube and an intermediate portion between the tube sections to intermingle with and oxidize the entrained gases evolved from the sample. Oxidation of those gases is completed in the catalyst in each second tube section. A thermocouple within a sample reduces furnace temperature when an exothermic condition is sensed within the sample. Oxidized gases flow from outlets of the tubes to individual gas cells. The cells are sequentially aligned with an infrared detector, which senses the composition and quantities of the gas components. Each elongated cell is tapered inward toward the center from cell windows at the ends. Volume is reduced from a conventional cell, while permitting maximum interaction of gas with the light beam. Reduced volume and angulation of the cell inlets provide rapid purgings of the cell, providing shorter cycles between detections. For coal and other high molecular weight samples, from 50% to 100% oxygen is introduced to the tubes.

  2. Venturi/vortex technology for controlling chromium electroplating emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, K.J.; Northrup, J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Labs., Champaign, IL (United States); Heck, S.R. [MSE-HKM, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new technology has been developed to control air emissions from hexavalent chromium electroplating tanks. The venturi/vortex scrubber uses a patented drain assembly to pull plating solution, air with toxic particulates above the solution, and unpopped bubbles of generated gases down with a gravity generated vortex effect. The recirculated plating solution acts as the scrubbing liquid and air agitation is eliminated. Separated gases are passed through a condenser/filter to remove any remaining fumes. The device is almost entirely constructed of CPVC. This device offers several advantages over conventional end-of-pipe systems including significantly lower cost, no wastewater, no extensive ventilation system, and emissions are recycled. The system can be is easily retrofitted to existing tanks, however, a loose fitting tank lid is recommended. A pilot demonstration has been performed at Benet Laboratory, Watervliet, NY (US Army) with a 1,500 gallon chromic acid electroplating tank and 1,500 Amps of applied current. Overall chromium emissions results were 0.00002 mg/Amp-hr, surpassing the stringent California State requirement of 0.006 mg/Amp-hr. Emission prevention by capturing unpopped bubbles is the method in which this system reduces the most emissions. The system met current ambient worker safety standards. Two major improvements are recommended: an increase in gas flow rate through the system and a solution to the system`s sensitivity to the plating solution level.

  3. CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M. Sanandaji, Tyrone L. Vincent, Andrew Colclasure, and Robert J. Kee Colorado Fuel Cell Center Engineering dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we

  4. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

  5. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  6. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  7. Overview of the Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT): mechanistic chamber studies on the oxidation of biogenic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Crounse, J. D.; Schwantes, R. H.; Teng, A. P.; Bates, K. H.; Zhang, X.; St. Clair, J. M.; Brune, W. H.; Tyndall, G. S.; Keutsch, F. N.; et al

    2014-12-19

    The Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT) was a collaborative atmospheric chamber campaign that occurred during January 2014. FIXCIT is the laboratory component of a synergistic field and laboratory effort aimed toward (1) better understanding the chemical details behind ambient observations relevant to the southeastern United States, (2) advancing the knowledge of atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of important biogenic hydrocarbons, and (3) characterizing the behavior of field instrumentation using authentic standards. Approximately 20 principal scientists from 14 academic and government institutions performed parallel measurements at a forested site in Alabama and at the atmospheric chambers at Caltech.more »During the 4 week campaign period, a series of chamber experiments was conducted to investigate the dark- and photo-induced oxidation of isoprene, ?-pinene, methacrolein, pinonaldehyde, acylperoxy nitrates, isoprene hydroxy nitrates (ISOPN), isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH), and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in a highly controlled and atmospherically relevant manner. Pinonaldehyde and isomer-specific standards of ISOPN, ISOPOOH, and IEPOX were synthesized and contributed by campaign participants, which enabled explicit exploration into the oxidation mechanisms and instrument responses for these important atmospheric compounds. The present overview describes the goals, experimental design, instrumental techniques, and preliminary observations from the campaign. This work provides context for forthcoming publications affiliated with the FIXCIT campaign. Insights from FIXCIT are anticipated to aid significantly in interpretation of field data and the revision of mechanisms currently implemented in regional and global atmospheric models.« less

  8. Overview of the Focused Isoprene eXperiments at California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT): mechanistic chamber studies on the oxidation of biogenic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Crounse, J. D.; Schwantes, R. H.; Teng, A. P.; Bates, K. H.; Zhang, X.; St. Clair, J. M.; Brune, W. H.; Tyndall, G. S.; Keutsch, F. N.; et al

    2014-08-25

    The Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT) was a collaborative atmospheric chamber campaign that occurred during January 2014. FIXCIT was the laboratory component of a synergistic field and laboratory effort aimed toward (1) better understanding the chemical details behind ambient observations relevant to the Southeastern United States, (2) advancing the knowledge of atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of important biogenic hydrocarbons, and (3) characterizing the behavior of field instrumentation using authentic standards. Approximately 20 principal scientists from 14 academic and government institutions performed parallel measurements at a forested site in Alabama and at the atmospheric chambers at Caltech.more »During the four-week campaign period, a series of chamber experiments was conducted to investigate the dark- and photo-induced oxidation of isoprene, ?-pinene, methacrolein, pinonaldehyde, acylperoxy nitrates, isoprene hydroxy nitrates (ISOPN), isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH), and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in a highly-controlled and atmospherically-relevant manner. Pinonaldehyde and isomer-specific standards of ISOPN, ISOPOOH, and IEPOX were synthesized and contributed by campaign participants, which enabled explicit exploration into the oxidation mechanisms and instrument responses for these important atmospheric compounds. The present overview describes the goals, experimental design, instrumental techniques, and preliminary observations from the campaign. Insights from FIXCIT are anticipated to significantly aid in interpretation of field data and the revision of mechanisms currently implemented in regional and global atmospheric models.« less

  9. NOx control technology requirements under the United States 1990 Clean Air Act amendments compared to those in selected pacific rim countries. Report for September 1993-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.A.; Hall, R.E.; Stern, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The paper compares nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology requirements under the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) with those in selected Pacific Rim countries. The CAAAs require reduction of NOx emissions under Titles I (requiring control of NOx from all source types for the purpose of attaining ambient air quality standards for NOx and ozone) and IV (requiring control of NOx from coal-fired utility boilers for the reduction of acid rain precursors). Title IV sets national emission standards for dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired boilers based on low NOx burner technology, defined by EPA to include separated overfire air. Emission standards for other boiler types are to be promulgated by 1997. Title I controls, based on reductions necessary to reduce local and regional ambient levels of NOx and ozone, involve Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) as defined by EPA`s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards; however, emission levels are set by the states according to local conditions. Technologies defined as RACT include low NOx burner technology, selective non-catalytic modifications, and selective catalytic reduction. These and other combustion modifications and flue gas treatment technologies are described.

  10. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  11. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  12. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

    2007-01-01

    technologies applicable to power plant gas streams) and thecapacity of power plants whose flue gases are treated withat some power plants burning oil or natural gas, including

  13. Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ft007sluder2011...

  14. Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ft007sluder2010...

  15. The regenerable trap oxidizer-An emission control technique for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.; Loose, G.

    1985-01-01

    Daimler-Benz made an early start with the development of systems for the aftertreatment of the exhaust gas emitted by diesel engines. The more important limiting conditions could best be met by the provision of a ceramic, selfcleaning trap oxidizer (TO). In such filters, self-regeneration is effected continuously while driving without any external control. Either partial or complete regeneration is effected, depending on the temperature, oxygen content and rate of flow of the exhaust gas, the amount of soot in the filter and the period for which a given operating condition is maintained. Such a trap oxidizer was developed for a 3.0 liter turbocharged diesel engine to the extent necessary for series production and has been fitted to type 300 SD and 300 D turbocharged diesel of model year 1985 in California.

  16. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review of Advanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Informationpdf Trends in Energy Management TechnologyAlgorithms Trends in Energy Management Technology Fault

  17. Ideas and Technology of Control Systems NSF Workshop for Middle School and High School Students and Teachers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    Ideas and Technology of Control Systems NSF Workshop for Middle School and High School Students on Control Education strives to bring control system concepts and technologies to the awareness of high-disciplinary nature of control and systems technology. To help meet these objectives, a workshop was held at the 42nd

  18. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li; John T. Riley

    2005-10-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building was completed. The experimental facilities have been moved into the CFB Combustor Building. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is in the final stage and is expected to be completed before November 30, 2005. Third, the drop tube reactor has been remodeled and installed to meet the specific requirements for the investigation of the effects of flue gas composition on mercury oxidation. This study will start in the next quarter. Fourth, the effect of sulfur dioxide on molecular chlorine via the Deacon reaction was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  19. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  20. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  1. Intelligent Information, Monitoring, and Control Technology of Industrial Process Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    -based reasoning, on-line learning, automated process optimization and model identification, robust control and increasingly massive information overload. The automation of AEM within an information and control, enhance safety, and improve product quality. An integrated control and AEM system involves several sub

  2. Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  3. Evaluation of innovative volatile organic compound and hazardous air-pollutant-control technologies for U. S. Air Force paint spray booths. Final report, Aug 88-Aug 89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritts, D.H.; Garretson, C.; Hyde, C.; Lorelli, J.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1990-10-01

    Significant quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants are released into the atmosphere during USAF maintenance operations. Painting operations conducted in paint spray booths are major sources of these pollutants. Solvent based epoxy primers and solvent-based polyurethane coatings are typically used by the Air Force for painting aircraft and associated equipment. Solvents used in these paints include methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, lacquer thinner, and other solvents involved in painting and component cleaning. In this report, carbon paper adsorption/catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) were evaluated as control technologies to destroy VOC emissions from paint spray booths. Simultaneous testing of pilot-scale units was performed to evaluate the technical performance of both technologies. Results showed that each technology maintained greater than 99 percent Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs). Particulate emissions from both pilot-scale units were less than 0.08 grains/dry standard cubic foot. Emissions of the criteria pollutants--sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide--were also below general regulatory standards for incinerators. Economic evaluations were based on a compilation of manufacturer-supplied data and energy consuption data gathered during the pilot scale testing. CPACM and FBCI technologies are less expensive than standard VOC control technologies when net present costs for a 15-year equipment life are compared.

  4. DOE and Industry Showcase New Control Systems Security Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    based on open-source specifications that enables secured interoperability among energy control systems devices. This interoperable capability was also demonstrated in a...

  5. DOE and Industry Showcase New Control Systems Security Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and security management to enable energy asset owners to design a secure, networked control systems architecture. The project is led by Siemens Corporate Research in partnership...

  6. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Wubo [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Zongbin, E-mail: zbzhao@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hu, Han [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gogotsi, Yury [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded.

  7. New Signal Processing Methods and Information Technologies for the Real Time Control of JET Reactor Relevant Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Signal Processing Methods and Information Technologies for the Real Time Control of JET Reactor Relevant Plasmas

  8. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Final Report 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin

    2013-01-01

    The Situational Awareness project is a comprehensive undertaking of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in an effort to produce technologies capable of defending the country’s energy sector infrastructure from cyber attack. INL has addressed this challenge through research and development of an interoperable suite of tools that safeguard critical energy sector infrastructure. The technologies in this project include the Sophia Tool, Mesh Mapper (MM) Tool, Intelligent Cyber Sensor (ICS) Tool, and Data Fusion Tool (DFT). Each is designed to function effectively on its own, or they can be integrated in a variety of customized configurations based on the end user’s risk profile and security needs.

  9. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-15

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

  10. Development of venturi/vortex scrubber technology for controlling chromium electroplating hazardous air emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, K.J.; Qi, S.; Northrup, J.I.; Heck, S.R.

    1998-07-01

    Chromium has a combination of qualities that give chromium electroplating an important role in coating military hardware and armament. However, chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing operations create hazardous air pollutants in the form of hexavalent chromium. Conventional technologies for controlling this pollutant are expensive, noisy, and use a lot of energy and water. Consequently, an air pollution problem is turned into a water pollution problem that also requires treatment. There is a need for an economical control option that pollutes less than conventional technologies. This project developed control technologies to effectively and economically control hazardous air emissions from Army chromium electroplating and anodizing operations, primarily focusing on the development of the Venturi/Vortex Scrubber technology (VVST).

  11. THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49947 THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND? ..................................... 8 What are the seasonal aspects of electric peak demand?............................ 9 What because of the California electricity crisis (Borenstein 2001). Uncertainties surrounding the reliability

  12. Trends Affecting Building Control System Development: Trends in Energy Management Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Ted; Parker, Steven A.; Webster, Tom

    2002-01-01

    technologies on energy management systems and products. Therelative to energy management systems design, specification,and Control System Energy Management System F E D E R A L E

  13. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Boring, Ronald; Joe, Jeffrey; Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about fuel and...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel and...

  16. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

    2007-01-01

    1/2, 2004 Experience curves for power plant emission controlcoal-fired electric power plants. In particular, we focus on2004) ‘Experience curves for power plant emission control

  17. Boiler MACT 35000FT: Maximum Achievable Control Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2013-01-01

    burning coal, oil, biomass, natural gas, other solid, liquid, gaseous non-waste materials ? Boilers or Process Heaters Not Affected ? Electric Utility Generating Unit (EGU) ?Waste Heat, hot water heaters, NESHAP control devices, R&D, Recovery Boilers...

  18. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 2. Environmental control technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.; Hill, J.

    1980-07-01

    Environmental control technologies are essential elements to be included in the overall design of Imperial Valley geothermal power systems. Environmental controls applicable to abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions, cooling tower drift, noise, liquid and solid wastes, and induced subsidence and seismicity are assessed here. For optimum abatement of H{sub 2}S under a variety of plant operating conditions, removal of H{sub 2}S upstream of the steam turbine is recommended. The environmental impact of cooling tower drift will be closely tied to the quality of cooling water supplies. Conventional noise abatement procedures can be applied and no special research and development are needed. Injection technology constitutes the primary and most essential environmental control and liquid waste disposal technology for Imperial Velley geothermal operations. Subsurface injection of fluids is the primary control for managing induced subsidence. Careful maintenance of injection pressure is expected to control induced seismicity. (MHR)

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced...

  1. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  2. Hafnium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films for future CMOS technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiang

    2007-04-25

    A novel high-k gate dielectric material, i.e., hafnium-doped tantalum oxide (Hf-doped TaOx), has been studied for the application of the future generation metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). The film's electrical, chemical...

  3. Non-point source pollution control: an economic analysis of input taxes and alternative production technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as nitrate-nitrogen leached from croplands, cannot be controlled with residuals charges or standards since emissions of individual polluters cannot be measured. Using theoretical and empirical techniques, this study examines the economic properties of two methods that reduce pollution-generating input use: (1) input taxes (2) alternative production technologies. Allocation rules from a model of a Pareto optimum in the presence of a public goods externality are derived and compared to the behavior of individual profit-maximizing firms under the two control strategies. Firm behavior under input taxes can lead to an optimum and they retain the economic attributes of charges since increased prices for pollution-generating inputs affects the value of pollution output. However, voluntary or mandatory adoption of residual-input conserving technologies alone cannot lead firms to internalize an externality, even though a technology control changes input ratios since the quanity of inputs used is still determined by input and output prices. Additionally, higher input prices will induce firms to adopt more efficient technologies, rendering technology controls unnecessary. Thus, a Best Management Practices program based on alternative production technologies will not control pollution at least cost to society. These hypotheses are tested for nitrate-nitrogen leaching with a linear programming model of cropping activites in the Lower Tule Irrigation District of Tulare County, California. The findings support the hypothesis that a residuals charge on nitrates and input taxes on water and fertilizer can equivalently reduce pollution.

  4. Preliminary survey report: control technology for gallium arsenide processing at Morgan Semiconductor Division, Garland, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenihan, K.L.

    1987-03-01

    The report covers a walk through survey made of the Morgan Semiconductor Facility in Garland, Texas, to evaluate control technology for gallium-arsenide dust in the semiconductor industry. Engineering controls included the synthesis of gallium-arsenide outside the crystal pullers to reduce arsenic residues in the pullers, also reducing worker exposure to arsenic during cleaning of the crystal pullers.

  5. WirelessHART: Applying Wireless Technology in Real-Time Industrial Process Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    a WirelessHART protocol stack. 1 Introduction Wireless process control has been a popular topic re- centlyWirelessHART: Applying Wireless Technology in Real-Time Industrial Process Control Jianping Song.nixon}@emerson.com Wally Pratt HART Communication Foundation 9390 Research Blvd., Suite I-350 Austin, TX 78759, USA wallyp

  6. Six DOF vibration control using magnetorheological technology Memet Unsal*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    -active, vibration control, hexapod. 1. INTRODUCTION Parallel platform mechanisms have received a lot of attention to provide vibration isolation at the same time. Structures and mechanical systems should be designedSix DOF vibration control using magnetorheological technology Memet Unsal*a , Christopher

  7. Electrical Control of Broadband Terahertz Wave Transmission with Two-Terminal Graphene Oxide Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seungwoo; Lee, Won Jun; Park, Byung Cheol; Kang, Byungsoo; Hwang, Euyheon; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have proved to be efficient building blocks for active optoelectronic devices. Especially, the exotic properties of crystalline graphene, such as a linear/gapless energy dispersion, offer a generic route to the development of active photonic modulator at the infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) regime with large modulation depth. Here, we show that graphene oxide (GO), an oxygenated derivative of graphene with randomly distributed molecular defects (e.g., adsorbed water molecules and punched holes), can provide a different way to effectively control broadband THz transmission amplitude, when incorporated into two-terminal electrode devices. Electrically trapped charge carriers within localized impurity states (LIS) of GO, which originate from fully randomized defective structure of GO, results in a large modulation of transmission amplitude (~30%) for broadband THz waves (0.3 ~ 2.0 THz) even at room temperature. Interesting hysteretic behavior observed i...

  8. Optimal Control Dr. Gabriele De Chiara (Quantum Technology Group)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    of liquid that has to be moved from A to B in the shortest time possible. One strategy is to go at constant. Moreover, there is the danger to spill it during the process. Another strategy is to accelerate first in an energy potential which is moved from A to B. Aims The aim of the project is the study of optimal control

  9. Systems and Controls Analysis and Testing; Harvesting More Wind Energy with Advanced Controls Technology (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the systems and controls analysis and testing that takes place at the NWTC on the Controls Advanced Research Turbines.

  10. Developing Effluent Analysis Technologies to Support Nonproliferation Initiatives, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, S A; Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M [eds.] [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue provides an overview of the Effluent Research Program of the DOE Office of Research and Development, highlighting a number of representative projects within this program in support of nonproliferation initiatives. Technologies reported include portable instruments for on-site inspections, standoff detectors, fieldable, real-time instruments, field collection techniques, and ultrasensitive laboratory techniques.

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 567 Centrifugal Compressor Surge and Speed Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 567 Centrifugal of the compressor. First a low-order centrifugal compressor model is presented where the states are mass flow] showed that it is also applicable to centrifugal compressors. The model has two states, normalized mass

  12. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  13. Development of Feedforward Control Strategies for Wave Energy Conversion Technologies

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

      The future of wave energy will depend on developing a new generation of wave energy converters (WECs) that maximize energy extraction and mitigate critical loads while reducing costs. Today’s WECs are relatively inefficient compared to their theoretical upper limit and lack the ability to concurrently maximize power capture and minimize structural loads.  The majority of existing WECs consist of fixed geometrical bodies relying predominantly on control of the power...

  14. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermally Stable Ultra-Low Temperature Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermally stable ultra-low...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Prospects and Challenges of Nickel-rich Layered Oxide Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U of Texas at Austin at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about prospects and challenges...

  17. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL); Mensah-Biney, R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases.

  18. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  19. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  20. Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-Poly(hexyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    with ceramic precursors in sol-gel processes to obtain arrays of nanocomposite morphologies. These composites#12;Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide, lamellae, and organic cylinders in an inorganic matrix, are obtained confirmed by a combination of small

  1. Nuclear technology and the export control laws. [Nuclear technical data military items and classified information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundy, A.S.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Munroe, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriate federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Group (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology.

  2. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-08-30

    Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

  3. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Alex; Banta, Larry; Tucker, David; Gemmen, Randall

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  4. High-pressure coiled-tubing technology solves resin-sand-control problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Operators of high-pressure offshore gas wells (> 5,000 psi) have had few options for controlling sand production. Sand-control (SC) processes can be economically prohibitive when they involve extensive mobilization, demobilization, and rig-up cost of the conventional offshore rig or hydraulic workover unit. Bullheading SC chemicals from the surface can damage the formation and prohibit production. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology now allows an offshore operator to remove extensive cement residue effectively from the wellbore and place chemical SC treatments in a high-pressure-gas environment. An example from the Gulf of Mexico illustrates the technology.

  5. Alternative flue gas treatment technologies for integrated SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Livengood, D.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue gas cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  6. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  7. Tailoring the energy level alignment at the Co/Alq{sub 3} interface by controlled cobalt oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, Norman; Steil, Sabine; Großmann, Nicolas; Fetzer, Roman; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin

    2013-12-16

    We have studied the influence of oxygen exposure at the prototypical interface between cobalt and the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (III) (Alq{sub 3}) by photoemission spectroscopy. We find that oxidation of the cobalt leads to a gradual suppression of hybrid interface states, to a progressive change in the work function and to a continuous energetic shift of the molecular orbitals towards higher binding energies. Based on these observations, we propose controlled oxidation of the ferromagnetic electrode as an easy and effective possibility to tune the performance of organic spintronics devices.

  8. Controllable atomistic graphene oxide model and its application in hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Liangliang; Gubbins, Keith E., E-mail: keg@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J. [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York 10031 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York 10031 (United States); Duin, Adri C. T. van [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States); Lu, Xiaohua [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-11-21

    The determination of an atomistic graphene oxide (GO) model has been challenging due to the structural dependence on different synthesis methods. In this work we combine temperature-programmed molecular dynamics simulation techniques and the ReaxFF reactive force field to generate realistic atomistic GO structures. By grafting a mixture of epoxy and hydroxyl groups to the basal graphene surface and fine-tuning their initial concentrations, we produce in a controllable manner the GO structures with different functional groups and defects. The models agree with structural experimental data and with other ab initio quantum calculations. Using the generated atomistic models, we perform reactive adsorption calculations for H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}S mixtures on GO materials and compare the results with experiment. We find that H{sub 2}S molecules dissociate on the carbonyl functional groups, and H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO molecules are released as reaction products from the GO surface. The calculation reveals that for the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}S mixtures, H{sub 2}O molecules are preferentially adsorbed to the carbonyl sites and block the potential active sites for H{sub 2}S decomposition. The calculation agrees well with the experiments. The methodology and the procedure applied in this work open a new door to the theoretical studies of GO and can be extended to the research on other amorphous materials.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

  11. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    gross N 2 O production and consumption rates). Regressionmeasure gross N 2 O production and consumption rates withoutIII. Nitrous oxide production and consumption in a drained

  12. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions.

  13. Control of a Robotic Arm Through Facial Expressions: An Exploration of EEG Technology in Prosthetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    Control of a Robotic Arm Through Facial Expressions: An Exploration of EEG Technology substitutes an arm or leg is just on the horizon. However, there are still practicality issues was obtained, and both the arm and headset were connected wirelessly via Bluetooth and USB receiver

  14. An Open Ocean Trial of Controlled Upwelling Using Wave Pump Technology ANGELICQUE WHITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Angelicque

    An Open Ocean Trial of Controlled Upwelling Using Wave Pump Technology ANGELICQUE WHITE College) ABSTRACT In 1976, John D. Isaacs proposed to use wave energy to invert the density structure of the ocean of deep water to the surface ocean. Although Isaacs's wave-powered pump has taken many forms, from energy

  15. The Navigation and Control technology inside the AR.Drone micro UAV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Navigation and Control technology inside the AR.Drone micro UAV Pierre-Jean Bristeau François- mercialized micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the AR.Drone, which cost and performance are unprecedented company started a project named AR.Drone aiming at producing a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

  16. To appear in Proceedings of the 7 International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is on dimethyl ether (DME). Its high cetane number makes DME a suitable candidate fuel for compression ignition. The tradeoffs that make simultaneous NOx and PM control difficult for diesel fuel do not exist for DME Technologies (Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5-9 September 2004) TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM COAL WITH LOW CO2 EMISSIONS

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. Y, MONTH 2012 1 Motion Control of the CyberCarpet Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. Y, MONTH 2012 1 Motion Control", Roma, Italy; MPI for Biological Cybernetics, T¨ubingen, Germany; # Institute for Applied Mechanics, Tech- nical University of Munich, M¨unchen, Germany; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Z

  18. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  19. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, Carlee; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  20. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  1. Microbiological Controls on Geochemical Kinetics 2: Case Study on Microbial Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    acid mine/acid rock drainage (referred to hereafter simply as acid mine drainage or AMD; see Table 9 AMD Acid mine drainage DIR Dissimilatory iron oxide reduction DIRM(s) Dissimilatory iron oxide of sulfuric acid and metals, such as Co, Cu, Au, Ni, and Zn that are present either as discrete sulfide phases

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  3. Best available control technology (BACT) equivalent for the control of volatile organic emissions from paint dipping operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankenship, W.R.; Pugh, C.W. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides details of a study conducted to demonstrate an equivalent method of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) compliance for volatile organic emissions from dip coating of certain miscellaneous metal parts. The study was proposed to show that the total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from 3.8 lb of VOC/gallon coating formulations were no greater than the total VOC emissions from 3.5 lb/gallon formulations used under the same conditions for coating steel joists. The presumptive BACT standard enforced by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for dip coating of steel joists is 3.5 lb/gallon. The requirement of 3.5 lb/gallon was derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency Guideline Series Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources--Volume 6: Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products. On June 5, 1998 the source completed a 12 month, full scale comparison study under a consent order with the Virginia DEQ. During the study period, the source made daily measurements of product produced, paint used, and emissions from the control and test paint tanks, and reported data to EPA and the DEQ every two months. The study concluded that a 26 percent reduction in paint usage and a 20 percent reduction in emissions was achieved in the test tanks using a 3.8 lb/gal coating compared to the control tanks using a 3.5 lb/gal coating. This study enables the source to achieve greater emission reductions than the presumptive BACT level and at the same time reduce painting costs by 34%. This study provides positive results for the environment, the steel joist industry, and the construction industry. This study could impact EPA's current Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule development for Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products and national VOC rules for this source category under Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act.

  4. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  6. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VII, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1 Eric M. Fleming Ian A. Hiskens Department-- The paper presents a model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack operating at relatively low pressures regulates the DC-bus voltage along with the fuel cell current. A control strategy is proposed

  7. Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivakumar, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

  8. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    Method Method 15 N tracer 15N tracer 15 N O pool dilution15N2O pool diltion Acetylene inhibition Acetylene inhibitionthe 15 N-nitrous oxide (N 2 O) pool dilution technique in a

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17

    Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning ...

  10. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.: Yarbro, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. Suitability of Agent Technology for Military Command and Control in the Future Combat System Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potok, TE

    2003-02-13

    The U.S. Army is faced with the challenge of dramatically improving its war fighting capability through advanced technologies. Any new technology must provide significant improvement over existing technologies, yet be reliable enough to provide a fielded system. The focus of this paper is to assess the novelty and maturity of agent technology for use in the Future Combat System (FCS). The FCS concept represents the U.S. Army's ''mounted'' form of the Objective Force. This concept of vehicles, communications, and weaponry is viewed as a ''system of systems'' which includes net-centric command and control (C{sup 2}) capabilities. This networked C{sup 2} is an important transformation from the historically centralized, or platform-based, C{sup 2} function since a centralized command architecture may become a decision-making and execution bottleneck, particularly as the pace of war accelerates. A mechanism to ensure an effective network-centric C{sup 2} capacity (combining intelligence gathering and analysis available at lower levels in the military hierarchy) is needed. Achieving a networked C{sup 2} capability will require breakthroughs in current software technology. Many have proposed the use of agent technology as a potential solution. Agents are an emerging technology, and it is not yet clear whether it is suitable for addressing the networked C{sup 2} challenge, particularly in satisfying battlespace scalability, mobility, and security expectations. We have developed a set of software requirements for FCS based on military requirements for this system. We have then evaluated these software requirements against current computer science technology. This analysis provides a set of limitations in the current technology when applied to the FCS challenge. Agent technology is compared against this set of limitations to provide a means of assessing the novelty of agent technology in an FCS environment. From this analysis we find that existing technologies will not likely be sufficient to meet the networked C{sup 2} requirements of FCS due to limitations in scalability, mobility, and security. Agent technology provides a number of advantages in these areas, mainly through much stronger messaging and coordination models. These models theoretically allow for significant improvements in many areas, including scalability, mobility, and security. However, the demonstration of such capabilities in an FCS environment does not currently exist, although a number of strong agent-based systems have been deployed in related areas. Additionally, there are challenges in FCS that neither current technology nor agent technology are particularly well suited, such as information fusion and decision support. In summary, we believe that agent technology has the capability to support most of the networked C{sup 2} requirements of FCS. However, we would recommend proof of principle experiments to verify the theoretical advantages of this technology in an FCS environment.

  13. Clean-up of Contaminated Indoor Air Using Photocatalytic Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, S.; Greist, H.; Goswami, T.; Goswami, Y.

    2000-01-01

    to be completely effective. Dark control experiments were performed for each condition to confirm the validity of each experiment. The photocatalytic technology tested in these experiments was demonstrated to completely oxidize acetone at normal indoor air...

  14. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  15. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  16. Model-based Control Design of a Diesel Oxidation Olivier Lepreux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controlled using the presented Smith predictor. Keywords: Automotive exhaust aftertreatment systems, Diesel

  17. Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technology Development Roadmap in Support of Grid Appropriate Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kisner, Roger A [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Hara, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Quinn, Edward L. [Longenecker & Associates] [Longenecker & Associates; Miller, Don W. [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

    2009-01-01

    Grid Appropriate Reactors (GARs) are a component of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. GARs have smaller output power (<~600 MWe), than those intended for deployment on large, tightly coupled grids. This smaller size is important in avoiding grid destabilization, which can result from having a large fraction of a grid s electrical generation supplied by a single source. GARs are envisioned to be deployed worldwide often in locations without extensive nuclear power experience. DOE recently sponsored the creation of an Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technology development roadmap emphasizing the specific characteristics of GARs [1]. This roadmapping effort builds upon and focuses the recently developed, more general nuclear energy ICHMI technology development roadmap [2]. The combination of the smaller plant size, smaller grids, and deployment in locations without extensive prior nuclear power experience presents particular infrastructure, regulation, design, operational, and safeguards challenges for effective GAR deployment. ICHMI technologies are central to efficient GAR operation and as such are a dimension of each of these challenges. Further, while the particular ICHMI technologies to be developed would be useful at larger power plants, they are not high-priority development items at the larger plants. For example, grid transient resilience would be a useful feature for any reactor/grid combination and indeed would have limited some recent blackout events. However, most large reactors have limited passive cooling features. Large plants with active safety response features will likely preserve trip preferential grid transient response. This contrasts sharply with GARs featuring passive shutdown cooling, which can safely support grid stability during large grid transients. ICHMI technologies ranging from alternative control algorithms to simplified human-interface system designs are key to enabling GARs to respond properly and thereby stabilize the grid during transients.

  18. Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Deposition Tian Jian Lu Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, United Kingdom (typically yttria- stabilized zirconia (YSZ)), an oxidation protection metallic sub- layer, and a thermally depend upon engine design details. Usually, a lower k enables higher engine gas temperature and reduced

  19. CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  20. Technolog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focuses on multi-scale, multiphysics approaches to understanding natural systems, "engineering the earth" with sensing and drilling technologies and characterizing geomaterials...

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  2. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  3. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  4. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-01-01

    Graphene oxide is electrochemically reduced which is called electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ER-G). ER-G is characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The oxygen content is significantly decreased and the sp 2 carbon is restored after electrochemical reduction. ER-G exhibits much higher electrochemical capacitance and cycling durability than carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chemically reduced graphene; the specific capacitance measured with cyclic voltammetry (20 mV/s) is ~165 F/g, ~86 F/g, and ~100 F/g for ER-G, CNTs, and chemically reduced graphene,1 respectively. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced on ER-G electrodes as compared with CNTs. ER-G has shown a good potential for applications in energy storage, biosensors, and electrocatalysis.

  5. Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2014-07-01

    We show that the NiO{sub 6} crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO{sub 4} Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO]{sup 1+} and neutral [AO]{sup 0} planes to inductively tune the Ni–O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO{sub 4} and LaBaNiO{sub 4} with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e{sub g} orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides.

  6. Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

    2012-09-25

    Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

  7. Summary tables of six commercially available entry control and contraband detection technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, John Anthony

    2005-07-01

    Existing contraband detection and entry control devices such as metal detectors, X-ray machines, and radiation monitors were investigated for their capability to operate in an automated environment. In addition, a limited number of new devices for detection of explosives, chemicals, and biological agents were investigated for their feasibility for inclusion in future physical security systems. The tables in this document resulted from this investigation, which was part of a conceptual design upgrade for the United States Mints. This summary of commercially available technologies was written to provide a reference for physical security upgrades at other sites.

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume II. Final report, Appendix A: selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. The purpose of this survey and identification of DSG technologies is to present an understanding of the special characteristics of each of these technologies in sufficient detail so that the physical principles of their operation and the internal control of each technology are evident. In this way, a better appreciation can be obtained of the monitoring and control requirements for these DSGs from a remote distribution dispatch center. A consistent approach is being sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. From this study it appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

  10. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Onar, Omer C; DeVault, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems, sensors, and communication technologies for demand response and load factor control applications

  11. Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

  12. Method and system for controlling a gasification or partial oxidation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rozelle, Peter L; Der, Victor K

    2015-02-10

    A method and system for controlling a fuel gasification system includes optimizing a conversion of solid components in the fuel to gaseous fuel components, controlling the flux of solids entrained in the product gas through equipment downstream of the gasifier, and maximizing the overall efficiencies of processes utilizing gasification. A combination of models, when utilized together, can be integrated with existing plant control systems and operating procedures and employed to develop new control systems and operating procedures. Such an approach is further applicable to gasification systems that utilize both dry feed and slurry feed.

  13. Venturi/vortex scrubber technology for controlling/recycling chromium electroplating emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, K.J.; Qi, S.; Holden, B.; Helgeson, N.; Fraser, M.E.

    1999-03-01

    Chromium electroplating is an essential DOD process. Chromium has a combination of qualities that are very difficult to substitute, however, the process itself is inefficient, resulting in the production of byproduct gases that rise and create a mist of chromic acid (strongly regulated as an air pollutant) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution`s surface. This project demonstrated the Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology at the Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) in Albany, GA. This study concluded that the PLRS was able to reduce the flow rate of the current conventional ventilation system at the one tank chromium electroplating facility at MCLB Albany by 63 percent. If new ventilation and control equipment were to be installed at MCLB Albany, this system would offer a 25 percent reduction in capital costs and a 48 percent reduction in annual costs, representing 36 percent in life-cycle cost savings. This study also presented a strong case for the use of Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for monitoring real-time chromium emissions above a chromium electroplating tank.

  14. Maximizing Energy Savings with New Technologies in Lighting and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Promising Technologies * Today's Lighting Controls * Why Controls? * New Technologies - Wireless Solutions * New Technologies - Advanced Controls * LEDs - How to control? 1...

  15. Abstract. The problem of controlled nuclear fusion (CNF) is a colossal scientific and technological challenge on a global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract. The problem of controlled nuclear fusion (CNF) is a colossal scientific and technological044n08ABEH001068 The initial period in the history of nuclear fusion research at the Kurchatov Institute1 V D Shafranov 1. Introduction The first period of research into controlled nuclear fusion (CNF

  16. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  17. Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J. P.; Confer, K.

    2012-09-11

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

  18. Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar Fuel ProductionRecoverable15/2008Technologies Technologies

  19. Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnology /newsroom/_assets/images/s-icon.png Technology

  20. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

  1. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

  2. Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Jaebum

    Rational control over the morphology and the functional properties of inorganic nanostructures has been a long-standing goal in the development of bottom-up device fabrication processes. We report that the geometry of ...

  3. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

  4. Controlled Synthesis of Uniform Cobalt Phosphide Hyperbranched Nanocrystals Using Tri-n-octylphosphine Oxide as a Phosphorus Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Hovden, Robert; Fitting Kourkoutis, Lena; Robinson, Richard D.

    2011-01-12

    A new method to produce hyperbranched Co{sub 2}P nanocrystals that are uniform in size, shape, and symmetry was developed. In this reaction tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as both a solvent and a phosphorus source. The reaction exhibits a novel monomer-saturation-dependent tunability between Co metal nanoparticle (NP) and Co{sub 2}P NP products. The morphology of Co{sub 2}P can be controlled from sheaflike structures to hexagonal symmetric structures by varying the concentration of the surfactant. This unique product differs significantly from other reported hyperbranched nanocrystals in that the highly anisotropic shapes can be stabilized as the majority shape (>84%). This is the first known use of TOPO as a reagent as well as a coordinating background solvent in NP synthesis.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Characterization of Voltage Fade in Lithium-ion Cells with Layered Oxides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about characterization...

  6. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  7. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    1975, p. 48. "Clean Energy from Coal Technology," Office ofClean Ways to Burn Coal Estimated Busbar Power Costs for Coal-Electric TechnologiesClean Fuels from Coal," Cochran, N. P. , Office of Science and Technology,

  8. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  9. Porous acicular mullite obtained by controlled oxidation of waste molybdenum disilicide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu?evac, Dušan, E-mail: bucevac@vinca.rs [Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia); Dap?evi?, Aleksandra [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Maksimovi?, Vesna [Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Waste MoSi{sub 2} heating elements were used as starting material for fabrication of porous acicular mullite. • Calcined MoSi{sub 2} powder was source of SiO{sub 2} and pore former at the same time. • Porous acicular mullite is promising material for filtration of diesel engine exhaust. • Samples with decent mechanical integrity and porosity of more than 60% were fabricated. - Abstract: Porous acicular mullite was fabricated by using waste MoSi{sub 2} heating element and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Careful calcination of the pulverized heating element led to the formation of a mixture of MoO{sub 3} and amorphous SiO{sub 2}. This mixture was employed as both SiO{sub 2} precursor and pore former. The oxidation of MoSi{sub 2} and mullite formation were studied. The effect of fabrication temperature on phase composition, porosity, grain morphology, and compressive strength of sintered mullite was examined. Pure mullite with porosity of more than 60% and compressive strength of ?20 MPa was obtained at temperature as low as 1300 °C. The microstructure consisted of elongated, rectangular, prism-like grains which are known to be effective in filtration of diesel engine exhaust. The increase in sintering temperature caused the change of grain morphology and reduction in compressive strength.

  10. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  11. Catalytic oxidation of VOC`s and air toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassen, M.A.; Chu, W. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Catalytic oxidation for VOC control of stationary sources has been in use since the 1940`s for energy recovery and odor control. Widespread use of catalytic oxidation, as a means for controlling emissions began in earnest in the early 1970`s with the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970. Since that time, catalytic technology has undergone many improvements and advancements. Some of these include higher destruction efficiencies at lower temperatures, poison resistance, enhanced durability and the ability to effectively control halogenated hydrocarbon compounds. This is particularly important for meeting the Title III requirements, since many of the air toxics regulated under Title III are halogenated VOC`s. This paper will describe catalytic oxidation, how it works, its benefits and limitations, its cost relative to thermal, and describe recent technology advances.

  12. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  13. Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexico IndependentMatter and Technologies R&D

  14. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-04-03

    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a Ď?-complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term â??ring-walkingâ?ť, and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent stereoregularity and molecular weight distributions with polydispersities that are consistent with a living polymerization sequence. Another important objective of this program concerned the use of these new catalysts and improved mechanistic insight for the synthesis of specific polymeric materials with prespecified properties.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic

  16. Vice Provost for Research Statement on Export Controls Although federal laws governing and limiting exports of technology and information have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Vice Provost for Research Statement on Export Controls Although federal laws governing and limiting exports of technology and information have existed for many decades, companies and universities are coming to complying with all applicable laws, regulations, and policies related to such exports. While most

  17. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2006 1513 Modal Control in Semiconductor Optical Waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    to the case when the core material is a semiconductor with optical gain. A number of devices are discussedJOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2006 1513 Modal Control in Semiconductor-layer optical waveguide on the polarization properties of propagating radiation. Particular attention is paid

  18. 502 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 4, JULY 1999 Multivariable Nonlinear Predictive Control of Cement Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastin, Georges

    Nonlinear Predictive Control of Cement Mills Lalo Magni, Georges Bastin, and Vincent Wertz Abstract--A new multivariable controller for cement milling circuits is presented, which is based on a nonlinear model: a change of hardness of the raw material. Index Terms--Cement industry, multivariable control systems

  19. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 15, NO. 3, MARCH 2007 403 Special Issue on Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    powerplants (such as fuel cells), to issues in transmission, driveline, and integrated pow- ertrain control exhaust gas emis- sion regulations. This has sparked research in several direc

  2. 860 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 12, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2004 Stability Guaranteed Control: Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    model, we define "vir- tual input energy," which is a virtual source of energy for control, and "real output energy" that is physically transferred to a plant to allow the concept of passivity to be used] induction motor control [10], [19], [20], power electronics [26], and many other applications. However

  3. 74 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 1997 Robust Wide-Range Control of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    -6536(97)02249-5. government regulations on the emission standard and intense competition by independent power producers-Range Control of Steam-Electric Power Plants Chen-Kuo Weng and Asok Ray, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract-range robust control of commercial-scale steam-electric power plants. In the proposed methodology

  4. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rittman, P.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  5. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about emissions...

  8. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Electric Generation Technology Conventional Coal-Fired PowerPlants Advanced Coal-Electric Plants OperatingCharacteristics for Conventional Coal- Fired Power

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Powertrain Controls Optimization for Heavy Duty Line Haul Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about powertrain...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Powertrain Controls Optimization for Heavy Duty Line Haul Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about powertrain...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Joint Development and Coordination of Emissions Control Data and Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about joint...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle Communications and Charging Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about vehicle...

  14. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Technology Conventional Coal-Fired Power Plants AdvancedOperating Characteristics for Conventional Coal- Fired Powerfor a summary. "Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants: a

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric...

  17. Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for pollution control and waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the most advanced equipment and processes for pollution control and waste treatment according to the guidelines set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Citations discuss biological, thermal, physical, and chemical prosesses for the technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Standards and regulations for gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution are included. Also discussed are water pollution control, food and pharmaceutical wastes, effluent treatment, and materials recovery. (Contains a minimum of 184 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  19. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  20. Survey of historical incidences with Controls-Structures Interaction and recommended technology improvements needed to put hardware in space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketner, G.L.

    1989-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey for the Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center. The purpose of the survey was to collect information documenting past incidences of problems with CSI during design, analysis, ground development, test and/or flight operation of space systems in industry. The survey was conducted to also compile recommended improvements in technology to support future needs for putting hardware into space. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALTMANN, JURGEN

    2000-07-01

    For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using tags, seals, and locks, important objects and installations can be safeguarded better. With modern data processing and communication systems, more information can be available, and it can be more speedily processed. Together with navigation and transport equipment, action can be taken faster and at greater range. Particular considerations are presented for cargo control at roads, seaports, and airports, for monitoring designated lines, and for the control of legal arms. By starting at a modest level, costs can be kept low, which would aid developing countries. From the menu of technologies available, systems need to be designed for the intended application and with an understanding of the local conditions. It is recommended that states start with short-term steps, such as acquiring more and better radio transceivers, vehicles, small aircraft, and personal computers. For the medium term, states should begin with experiments and field testing of technologies such as tags, sensors, and digital communication equipment.

  2. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    November 2000. Trends in Energy Management TechnologyTrends in Energy Management Technology FEMP/NTDP Technicalin Energy Management Technology - Enabling Technologies",

  3. An Adaptive Control Technology for Safety of a GTM-like Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    An adaptive control architecture for safe performance of a transport aircraft subject to various adverse conditions is proposed and verified herein. This architecture combines a nominal controller based on an LQR with ...

  4. 34 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 16, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 Coordinate Control of Energy Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    increasingly widespread: is it possible to reduce the energy usage while keeping the desired control of Energy Saving Programmable Valves Song Liu and Bin Yao, Member, IEEE Abstract--As applications of electro and significant energy saving schemes gets stronger and stronger. The recently developed energy-saving pro

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 16, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 1265 Sensor Fusion for Improved Control of Piezoelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    for Improved Control of Piezoelectric Tube Scanners Andrew J. Fleming, Member, IEEE, Adrian G. Wills, and S. O. Reza Moheimani, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In nanopositioning applications, capacitive or in is required. In this study, a capacitive displacement sensor is used with a piezoelectric strain voltage

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 19, NO. 3, MAY 2011 567 Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Hydraulic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Robust Control of Hydraulic Manipulators With Accurate Parameter Estimates Amit Mohanty, Student Member. In this paper, we consider the trajectory tracking of a robotic manipulator driven by electro-hydraulic actu of the hydraulic system. The online parameter estimates are obtained through a parameter adaptation algorithm

  7. 606 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 Damage Mitigating Controller Design for Structural Durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    Mitigating Controller Design for Structural Durability Ravindra Patankar and Asok Ray Abstract-- Synthesis for the design of a conventional output feedback con- troller. In this context, this brief paper establishes on crack growth rate (e.g., crack retardation and sequence effects). It is shown that predicted structural

  8. 524 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 3, MAY 2001 Optimal Control Techniques for Assessing Feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    control study. The case study treated in the paper deals with a turbocharger power assist system (TPAS manifold ambient pressure density in intake manifold density in exhaust manifold turbocharger speed engine volumetric efficiency turbine isentropic efficiency compressor isentropic efficiency turbocharger mechanical

  9. Applying IT governance principles of control, coordination, and communication in a shared services technology group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, Wendy-Kay (Wendy-Kay Ruth)

    2011-01-01

    IT governance focuses on how leadership can be effective and efficient in guiding an organization's use of technology to meet business needs. Over the past decade, IT governance has become a key issue of concern for senior ...

  10. Top hole drilling with dual gradient technology to control shallow hazards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elieff, Brandee Anastacia Marie

    2006-10-30

    , shallow gas and shallow water flows. These negative aspects of "Pump and Dump" are in addition to the environmental impact, high drilling fluid (mud) costs and limited mud options. Dual gradient technology offers a closed system, which improves drilling...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, Self-Diagnosing SmartCatalyst Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about NOx control ...

  12. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

  13. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Presentation from the...

  14. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  15. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Jonathan Koomey* andData to Improve Electricity Demand Forecasts–Final Report.further research. Electricity demand varies constantly. At

  16. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow...

  17. Something for Nothing: Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gururangan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    A. (2001). Materials for fuel cell technologies. Nature,Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in Hydrocarbon-Airin solid-oxide fuel cell. Letters to Nature,404. Retrieved

  18. CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

    2012-05-14

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

  19. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  20. RM12-2703 Advanced Rooftop Unit Control Retrofit Kit Field Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebber, I.; Dean, J.; Dominick, J.; Holland, G.

    2014-03-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This was one of several demonstrations of new and underutilized commercial energy efficiency technologies. The consistent year-round demand for air conditioning and dehumidification in Hawaii provides an advantageous demonstration location for advanced rooftop control (ARC) retrofit kits to packaged rooftop units (RTUs). This report summarizes the field demonstration of ARCs installed on nine RTUs serving a 70,000-ft2 exchange store (large retail) and two RTUs, each serving small office buildings located on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH).

  1. SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Water from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (Effluents from In-Situ Oil Shale Processing," in ProceedingsControl Technology for Oil Shale Retort Water," August 1978.

  2. INTERNATIONAL COMMAND AND CONTROL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM ADAPTING C2 FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laskey, Kathryn Blackmond

    D is pressing for rapid adoption of the Global Information Grid (GIG), a centerpiece of its transformation towards network-centric operations. Among the enabling technologies being leveraged by GIG-related efforts consumers and providers of information and data processing resources. However, implementing SOA in the GIG

  3. Nox control technology data base for gas-fueled prime movers: Phase 1. Topical report, March 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thring, R.H.; Hull, R.W.; Ingalls, M.; Urban, C.; Ariga, S.

    1988-04-01

    Phase 1 of a study to expand the performance and life-cycle cost data base for NOx control of gas-fueled prime movers has been accomplished through experimental evaluations of fuel effects, technical literature reviews of Japanese and domestic approaches to NOx control and through direct contacts with manufacturers and users in the United States and Japan. Engine tests confirm literature findings that natural gas and methanol provide an advantage over petroleum fuels in limiting NOx formation. For lean-burn engines (e.g., two-cycle and gas turbine engines), selective catalytic reduction offers the greatest amount of NOx control. Installation, operating and maintenance costs are very high; the method has received moderate acceptance in Japan but limited use in the United States. For rich-burn engines, nonselective catalytic reduction is gaining acceptance for NOx control. This method is basically the adaption of automotive three-way catalyst technology. Further RandD is recommended for alternative methods of NOx control which include combustion-cycle modifications and noncatalytic exhaust aftertreatment.

  4. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01

    of the great quantities of dilute gas in EDC-VCN and PVC plants, the combustion system cannot be self-supported and therefore additional fuel is necessary, resulting in a waste of combustibles and heat. 3. Due to the flame, flares need to be located away...CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OF VINYL CHLORIDE IN EDC-VCM AND PVC PLANTS AT MAIN SOURCE POINTS AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS A Thesis by DARIO ANTONIO PARRA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  5. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review of Advanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    pdf Trends in Energy Management TechnologyTrends in Energy Management Technology Fault Detection andTrends in Energy Management Technology FEMP/NTDP Technical

  6. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    estimate the needed technologies and costs for achieving aexamples due to higher technology costs. To be published inwe find that at current technology costs, the nursing home

  7. CONTROL TESTING OF THE UK NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY'S RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-23

    The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. To date, the RadBall has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK. The trials have demonstrated the successful ability of the RadBall technology to be deployed and retrieved from active areas. The positive results from these initial deployment trials and the anticipated future potential of RadBall have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further underpin and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. RadBall consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. It has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach places. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly less transparent, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation maps provides information on the spatial distribution and strength of the sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. This study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of this part of the testing was to characterize a hot cell with unknown radiation sources. The RadBall calibration experiments and hot cell deployment completed at SRNL were successful in that for each trial, the technology was able to locate the radiation sources. The NNL believe that the ability of RadBall to be remotely deployed with no electrical supplies into difficult to access areas of plant and locate and quantify radiation hazards is a unique radiation mapping service. The NNL consider there to be significant business potential associated with this innovative technology.

  8. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  9. Filtration technology for the control of solid hazardous air pollutants in paint booth operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolle, M.

    1997-12-31

    In October of 1996, the EPA released the draft Aerospace NESHAP regulation that targets hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from aerospace manufacturing and rework operations. One of the key provisions focuses on the control of inorganic HAPs released from application operations involving hexavalent chromium based primers. The NESHAP regulation mandates that coating facilities which release inorganic HAPS meet specific particulate emission control efficiencies or requirements, and further specifies different control requirements for new and existing facilities. The provisions pertaining to inorganic HAP emissions from coating operations were developed through the efforts of many individuals from the industrial, military, manufacturing, and regulatory sectors, and were the subject of intense discussion that spanned a period of years. Throughout this process, a topic of major debate was the development of dry filter particulate control efficiency requirements that would achieve an appropriate level of emission control, and could reasonably met by manufacturers and filter suppliers alike. The control requirements that are the topic of this paper mandate specific collection efficiencies for various particle size ranges. Recent studies on particle size characteristics of overspray generated by hexavalent chrome primer applications indicate that the NESHAP standard may not achieve the level of emission control that was initially intended. This paper presents the results of a detailed, third party analysis that focuses on the actual control efficiencies for chromate-based priming operations that will be achieved by the new standard. Following a general filtration efficiency discussion, an overview of the procedure employed to evaluate the overall efficiencies that will be achieved by NESHAP compliant filters is provided. The data upon which the evaluation was derived are presented.

  10. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, Chengliang.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof will lead to identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  11. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  12. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surfaces reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of the pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The product as well as their structure, the mechanism and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc., are directed at identifying the cause and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  13. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies: Rapid, controllable growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-12-27

    NREL scientists have discovered a unique way to quickly grow epitaxial Si using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), which holds the potential to greatly decrease costs within the manufacturing of Si substrates.  With NREL’s HWCVD technology, Si material use and costs are dramatically reduced with scalable manufacturing and lower deposition temperatures.  NREL’s unique HWCVD technique can easily be integrated into existing manufacturing processes, allowing...

  14. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controls, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Most of Chicago’s older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. The cost of heat is typically absorbed into the owner’s operating cost and is then passed to tenants. Central boilers typically have long service lifetimes; the incentive for retrofit system efficiency upgrades is greater than equipment replacement for the efficiency-minded owner. System improvements as the “low-hanging fruit” are familiar, from improved pipe insulation to aftermarket controls such as outdoor temperature reset (OTR) or lead/lag controllers for sites with multiple boilers. Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. In this project, the Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) installed and monitored an ALM aftermarket controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at two Chicago area multifamily buildings with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are oversized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also, savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, oversized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less oversized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  16. Control relevant modeling and nonlinear state estimation applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Control relevant modeling and nonlinear state estimation applied to SOFC-GT power systems #12;ii #12;iii Rambabu Kandepu Control relevant modeling and nonlin- ear state estimation applied to SOFC- GT of the most promising fuel cell technologies is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), due to its solid state

  17. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  18. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  19. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, S.; Piette, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-15-06-13.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7608 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IE-15-06-13.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Demand Response & Peak Load... additional generation resources • Hurdles to adding additional resources Why Demand Response Exists ESL-IE-15-06-13 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 What are my Options? • Efficiency...

  20. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 4, JULY 2012 1011 Brief Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA (e-mail: benshap@eng.umd.edu). Digital Object for a nonlinear transformation of the control vector so that the magnetic force can be freely assigned, application of the nonlinear transformation converts the original problem to the much easier problem of linear

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  3. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. Total Facility Control - Applying New Intelligent Technologies to Energy Efficient Green Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency through intelligent control is a core element of any "Green Building". We need smarter, more efficient ways of managing the energy consuming elements within a building. But what we think of as "the building" is only a small piece...

  5. Technical report on "BES Early Career. Control Graphene Electronic Structure for Energy Technology"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng

    2015-07-11

    Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon, exhibits incredible structural flexibility, electrical transport, and optical responses. And remarkably, the graphene electronic structure can be varied through interlayer coupling, nanoscale patterning, and electrical gating. In this project we made significant contribution to better understand and control physical properties of graphene and other novel two-dimensional layered materials.

  6. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM EET 433 CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    be lost. The Figure shows a simplified block diagram for a closed-loop bionic arm. For simplicity we amplifier, control motor and mechanic load. There are two time constants, that are associated response for the whole system for 3 cases of KB in its range of stability (chose one value in the lower end

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    1 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric options is an important step in formulating a cohesive strategy to abate U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG

  8. Application of Software Enabled Control Technologies to a Full-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric N.

    to accommodate a selection of modern control al- gorithms on a full-scale rotary-wing, unmanned aerial vehicle and other research organizations now own and operate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in- cluding unmanned Aerial Vehicle, a derivative of the Robinson R22. The aircraft successfully switched from a conventional

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  10. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, p. 209, Elsevier, NewI. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal

  11. Simulation and control of a HD diesel engine equipped with new EGR technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-09-01

    A dynamic model of a Heavy Duty (HD) turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was developed. The engine was equipped with high pressure diesel injection, a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) and an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. This engine was targeted at meeting EURO4 emission requirements. The final emission results were 2.4 g/k Wh NO{sub x} and 0.107 g/kWh particulates for the European 13 mode test. Better than 3.0 g/k Wh NO{sub x} and 0.10 g/k Wh particulates are expected to be characteristic EURO4 emission requirements (approximate year of implementation is 2004). In the design of the EGR system the model provided initial assessments of the properties of this system. Associated engine and turbocharger behavior as well as optimal control strategies were predicted. A transient engine control algorithm was developed using the dynamic engine model. The VGT is closed loop controlled and EGR is shut off during a short time after a load increase. The simulation results were confirmed by actual measurements, demonstrating acceptable transient behavior.

  12. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  13. Controlled growth and multi-photon luminescence of hexagonal arrays of Au nanoparticles on anodic aluminum oxide templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jianbo; Yu Ying; Peng Xiaoniu; Yang Zhongjian; Zhou Li; Zhou Zhangkai

    2012-06-15

    Au nanoparticles were deposited onto anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates by using a rotating sputtering technique. Interestingly, hexagonal arrays of Au nanoparticles were obtained at an appropriate rotating rate and deposition time. Strong three-photon luminescence was observed from the hexagonally arrayed Au nanoparticles, which is attributed to the strong enhancements of local electromagnetic fields at both excitation and emission wavelengths. Our findings provide a new method to prepare Au nanoparticle arrays with large field enhancements and could have prospective applications in plasmonic nanodevices, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates, and biosensors.

  14. Pyroprocessing Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    of pyrochemical processes for the recycle of oxide, carbide and other advanced fuels and laid the foundationPyroprocessing Technologies RECYCLING USED NUCLEAR FUEL FOR A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE #12;32 Storing Used Nuclear Fuel is a Real Waste Nuclear power is the most environmentally friendly way

  15. Reactor Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Technology Advanced Reactor Concepts Advanced Instrumentation & Controls Light Water Reactor Sustainability Safety and Regulatory Technology Small Modular Reactors Nuclear...

  16. Product Selectivity Control and Organic Oxygenate Pathways from Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    alternative is to convert the natural gas into an organic liquid, such as methanol, at the production site toward oxygen dissociation under these conditions. Introduction Natural gas is looked upon as a desirable technology is an energy-intensive two-step process that might not be economical when the natural gas

  17. Achieving Novel Magnetic States in Perovskite Oxides through Heteroepitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Virat

    2012-01-01

    and A. Barthelemy, Oxide spintronics, IEEE Transactions onof current technology. Spintronics [2], one highly toutednew technologies relying on spintronics are already being

  18. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Technology Assessment | Measurements, Communications, and Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulk to 13.1 -Chapter 3Controls

  19. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, March 1996. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with various impinger capture solutions. Also, the installation of the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit was completed in March. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD Unit and were utilized in the HAP test configuration this month. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold- standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, February 1996. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System and the Trace Element Removal test blocks. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with impinger capture solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) was utilized in the TER test configuration this month. The B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit is being installed utilizing the Mini Pilot Flue Gas System. The 1.0 MW Cold- Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  1. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, N.; Sawhney, P.

    1998-10-01

    The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.

  2. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  3. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    November 2000. Trends in Energy Management Technologywww.tridium.com Trends in Energy Management Technology FEMP/T. L. , "Trends in Energy Management Technology - Enabling

  4. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  5. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  7. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling primarily because of their high ash contents, but the potential was highest for the Colombian coal. Of the three coals tested, the Colombian would be the least desirable.

  8. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

  9. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Technology Control Center, report to the Steering committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    This report describes test for air pollution control of flue gas and mercury as a result of coal combustion. The NYSEG Kintigh Station provided flue gas to the Center 100% of the time during this performance period. As the Kintigh Station operated with a variety of coals, fluctuations in the Center`s inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations were experienced. Safety training for the month was conducted by the O&M Superintendent, Maintenance Supervisor and Shift Supervisors. {open_quotes}Personal Protective Equipment{close_quotes} was the topic of the month. Inspections of the ECTC Facility and safety equipment (SCR air-packs, fire extinguishers, etc.) were completed and recorded this month. All systems were found to be in good condition. By continuing to emphasize safe work habits at the Center, we have raised the total number of days without a lost time injury to 1426 as of 4/30/96. The monthly safety meeting with the NYSEG Kintigh Station was held on April 30, 1996 with both NYSEG and ECTC representatives. The topics of discussion included an overview of NYSEG`s upcoming alternate fuel burn, an update on plant staffing changes, and a discussion of future safety training activities.

  10. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofare provided to the fuel cell, electrons are constantly

  11. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

  12. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNL/FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Cummins-ORNL...

  16. United States Export Control Laws Current export laws control both hardware and information regarding a wide range of technologies in a way that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Export Control Laws Current export laws control both hardware and information Information and Guidelines: United States Export Control Laws, on the CSU Export Control website (http://web.research.colostate.edu/OSP/export.aspx). 1. What are Export Controls? The United States government has a vested interest in protecting

  17. New Technologies For Animal Waste Pollution Control Large concentrations of dairies in Central Texas have led to concerns about high levels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    New Technologies For Animal Waste Pollution Control Large concentrations of dairies in Central from dairy wastes, as well as cost effectiveness, treatment efficiency, and ease of adoption. Each document for operators will also be developed. Collaborators · Texas Water Resources Institute · Brazos

  18. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California Industrial Refrigerated Facilities Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Doug

    2014-01-01

    and Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedDemand Response .. ..Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California

  19. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  20. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  1. Physiology and Diversity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Torre, José R.

    -oxidizing archaea (AOA), now generally recog- nized to exert primary control over ammonia oxidation in terrestrial, the unusually high affinity of marine and terrestrial AOA for ammonia indicates that this group may determine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Kinetics and Stoichiometry of Ammonia Oxidation

  2. Continuous Digester Control Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The pulp digester is known as the bottleneck unit in the pulp mill flow sheet because it can require 5% to 50% of typical on-line operation time, making this component of the pulping process very...

  3. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  4. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation. As an initial step in accomplishing this effort, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies was held March 20–21, 2009, in Columbus, Ohio, to enable industry stakeholders and researchers in identification of the nuclear industry’s needs in the areas of future I&C technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. Approaches for collaboration to bridge or fill the technology gaps were presented and R&D activities and priorities recommended. This report documents the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for the plan under development to achieve the goals of the I&C research pathway.

  5. Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like indium oxide: Controllable synthesis and application as H{sub 2}S cataluminescence sensing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Pingyang, E-mail: cpyxx@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Bai, Wei, E-mail: weibaiscu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Zhang, Lichun, E-mail: lichun0203@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Song, Hongjie, E-mail: aurora811005@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Su, Yingying, E-mail: suyinging@scu.edu.cn [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Lv, Yi, E-mail: lvy@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controllable fabricated through a novel and simple hydrothermal process, and the former showed superior cataluminescence sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. Highlights: ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere were prepared via a hydrothermal route. ? The growth process of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere has been investigated. ? The sensor based on prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows good sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. -- Abstract: In the present work, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like microstructure were achieved controllably by a hydrothermal process in the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) system. XRD, SEM, HRTEM and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements were used to characterize the as-prepared indium oxide materials and the possible mechanism for the microstructures formation was briefly discussed. The cataluminescence gas sensor based on the as-prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was utilized to detect H{sub 2}S concentrations in flowing air. Comparative gas sensing results revealed that the sensor based on hierarchical hollow microsphere exhibited much higher sensing sensitivity in detecting H{sub 2}S gas than the sensor based on flower-like microstructure. The present gas sensor had a fast response time of 5 s and a recovery time of less than 25 s, furthermore, the cataluminescence intensity vs. H{sub 2}S concentration was linear in range of 2–20 ?g mL{sup ?1} with a detection limit of 0.5 ?g mL{sup ?1}. The present highly sensitive, fast-responding, and low-cost In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gas sensor for H{sub 2}S would have many practical applications.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 21, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 229 Mixed Observer-Based LPV Control of a Hydraulic Engine Cam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jongeun

    control techniques are applied to the air path of turbocharged diesel engines to control the transient identification technique is applied to a nonlinear turbocharged diesel engine to obtain an LPV model suitable

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle Level Model and Control Development and Validation Under Various Thermal Conditions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about vehicle level...

  8. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    of PV panels, solar thermal equipment, and storage systems.chiller, energy storage, or solar-based technologies areexpensive solar-based equipment and energy storage Intercept

  9. 654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2010 Model-Based Electrochemical Estimation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Based Electrochemical Estimation and Constraint Management for Pulse Operation of Lithium Ion Batteries Kandler A. Smith Technologies, Graduate Automotive Technology Education Pro- gram. This work was performed at the Pennsylvania-mail: kandlers@hotmail.com; kandler_smith@nrel.gov). C. D. Rahn and C.-Y. Wang are with the Department

  10. In situ derivation of sulfur activated TiO{sub 2} nano porous layers through pulse-micro arc oxidation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran ; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran ; Molaei, Roya

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} S-TiO{sub 2} layers were grown by MAO technique under pulse current for the first time. {yields} Effect of growth parameters on chemical composition, topography, and morphology of the layers was studied. {yields} A correlation between photocatalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. -- Abstract: Micro arc oxidation technique, as a facile and efficient process, was employed to grow sulfur doped titania porous layers. This research sheds light on the photocatalytic performance of the micro arc oxidized S-TiO{sub 2} nano-porous layers fabricated under pulse current. Morphological and topographical studies, performed by SEM and AFM techniques, revealed that increasing the frequency and/or decreasing the duty cycle resulted in formation of finer pores and smoother surfaces. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase and rutile phases whose fraction was observed to change depending on the synthesis conditions. The highest anatase relative content was obtained at the frequency of 500 Hz and the duty cycle of 5%. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of the layers was examined by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under both ultraviolet and visible photo irradiations. Maximum photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-grown S-TiO{sub 2} layers were respectively measured as 0.0202 and 0.0110 min{sup -1} for ultraviolet and visible irradiations.

  11. Diesel Emission Control Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications

  12. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low Temperature Emission Control to Enable Fuel-Efficient Engine Commercialization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low temperature...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Dilution Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct-Injection (SGDI) Combustion Control Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-dilution...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Temperature Emission Control to Enable Fuel-Efficient Engine Commercialization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low temperature...

  16. Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  17. Using soil sensing technology to examine interactions and controls between ectomycorrhizal growth and environmental factors on soil CO2 dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Niles J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Allen, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Plant Soil (2010) 331:17–29 DOI 10.1007/s11104-y REGULAR ARTICLE Using soil sensing technology to examineand environmental factors on soil CO 2 dynamics Niles J.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Heavy-Duty Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced heavy...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Dilution Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct-Injection (SGDI) Combustion Control Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-dilution...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Joint Development and Coordination of Emissions Control Data and Models (CLEERS Analysis and Coordination)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the joint...

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULY 2013 1207 A Model-Free Approach to Wind Farm Control Using Game Theoretic Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, Jason R.

    -Free Approach to Wind Farm Control Using Game Theoretic Methods Jason R. Marden, Member, IEEE, Shalom D. Ruben provably maximize energy production in wind farms without explicitly modeling the aerodynamic interaction amongst the turbines. Index Terms--Cooperative systems, networked control systems, wind farms. I

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 5 Passivity-Based Stability and Control of Hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Kirsten

    -Based Stability and Control of Hysteresis in Smart Actuators Robert B. Gorbet, Kirsten A. Morris, Member, IEEE, and David W. L. Wang, Member, IEEE Abstract--The past decade has seen an increase in the use of smart or vibration-controlled buildings. Materials such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), piezo- ceramics

  3. High Catalytic Activity of Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) Controlled by the Nature of the Mixed Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Ma, S; Liu, P; Nambu, A; Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-metal oxides play a very important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, materials science, and geochemistry. Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding phenomena associated with the deposition of oxide nanoparticles on the surface of a second (host) oxide. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density-functional calculations are used to study the behavior of ceria nanoparticles deposited on a TiO2(110) surface. The titania substrate imposes nontypical coordination modes on the ceria nanoparticles. In the CeOx/TiO2(110) systems, the Ce cations adopt an structural geometry and an oxidation state (+3) that are quite different from those seen in bulk ceria or for ceria nanoparticles deposited on metal substrates. The increase in the stability of the Ce3+ oxidation state leads to an enhancement in the chemical and catalytic activity of the ceria nanoparticles. The codeposition of ceria and gold nanoparticles on a TiO2(110) substrate generates catalysts with an extremely high activity for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO ? H2 + CO2) or for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O2 ? 2CO2). The enhanced stability of the Ce3+ state is an example of structural promotion in catalysis described here on the atomic level. The exploration of mixed-metal oxides at the nanometer level may open avenues for optimizing catalysts through stabilization of unconventional surface structures with special chemical activity.

  4. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  6. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

  8. The Control of NOx Emissions from Combustion and Incinerators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heap, M. P.; Chen, S. L.; Seeker, W. R.; Pershing, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    staged combustion and reburning, for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired combustors is most often limited by problems due to carbon burnout or flame impingement. This paper presents new data on the use of selective reducing agents.... The major focus has been on minimizing emissions of potentially toxic organics and trace metals. There is growing concern over emissions of NO x from these facilities as well. However, traditional NO x control technologies such as staged combustion...

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. X, NO. Y, MONTH-Z 2003, REVISION 1 Actor-Oriented Control System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by separating the data-centric computational components (a.k.a. actors) and the control- flow-centric scheduling and activation mechanisms (a.k.a. frameworks). Semantically different frameworks are composed hierarchically

  10. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development...

  11. Are Wireless Sensors and Controls Ready for the Building Automation Industry? Selected Case Studies and Technology Development Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Brambley, Michael R.

    2006-09-13

    This paper discusses whether or not today’s wireless sensors are ready for building controls and energy efficiency monitoring applications.

  12. Chapter 5.5 Tystar5 MOS Oxidation Atmospheric Furnace (4",6", 8")

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    Instruction Manual (copy in Office). 4.2 Dry and wet Oxide Growth Charts, Semiconductor Technology Handbook

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  14. Subject: Export Controls and Trade Sanctions While federal regulations restricting the export of goods and technologies related to national

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Subject: Export Controls and Trade Sanctions While federal regulations restricting the export that the University of Delaware must comply with all U.S. government export control regulations. While the vast majority of the work carried out on our campuses falls within the several exemptions to export licensing

  15. Integrating Newer Technology Software Systems into the SLAC Legacy Control System - Two Case Histories and New CMLOG Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Chen; M. Laznovsky; R. MacKenzie

    2001-11-27

    It has been the goal of SLAC Controls Software to offload processing from the aging Alpha/VMS based control system onto machines that are more widely accepted and used. An additional goal has been to provide more modern software tools to our user community. This paper presents two software products which satisfy those goals.

  16. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  17. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  18. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  19. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  20. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies and costs for achieving a ZC building or microgrid.

  1. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2004-07-21

    Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

  2. Assessment of solid-waste characteristics and control technology for oil-shale retorting. Final report for September 1983-February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, A.K.

    1986-05-01

    The report presents information on oil-shale deposits in the eastern and western parts of the United States, their geological subdivisions, locations, tonnage, and physical and chemical characteristics. Characteristics of solid and liquid wastes produced from various oil-shale-processing technologies and control methods are presented. Also included are results from an experimental study to construct liners and covers for disposal of spent shale. A compilation of available data on the auto-ignition potential of raw and spent shales indicates a similarity between raw-shale fines and bituminous coals.

  3. Chemical System Decontamination at PWR Power Stations Biblis A and B by Advanced System Decontamination by Oxidizing Chemistry (ASDOC-D) Process Technology - 13081

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeb, Andreas; Runge, Hartmut; Stanke, Dieter; Bertholdt, Horst-Otto; Adams, Andreas; Impertro, Michael; Roesch, Josef

    2013-07-01

    For chemical decontamination of PWR primary systems the so called ASDOC-D process has been developed and qualified at the German PWR power station Biblis. In comparison to other chemical decontamination processes ASDOC-D offers a number of advantages: - ASDOC-D does not require separate process equipment but is completely operated and controlled by the nuclear site installations. Feeding of chemical concentrates into the primary system is done by means of the site's dosing systems. Process control is performed by standard site instrumentation and analytics. - ASDOC-D safely prevents any formation and precipitation of insoluble constituents - Since ASDOC-D is operated without external equipment there is no need for installation of such equipment in high radioactive radiation surrounding. The radioactive exposure rate during process implementation and process performance may therefore be neglected in comparison to other chemical decontamination processes. - ASDOC-D does not require auxiliary hose connections which usually bear high leakage risk. The above mentioned technical advantages of ASDOC-D together with its cost-effectiveness gave rise to Biblis Power station to agree on testing ASDOC-D at the volume control system of PWR Biblis unit A. By involving the licensing authorities as well as expert examiners into this test ASDOC-D received the official qualification for primary system decontamination in German PWR. As a main outcome of the achieved results NIS received contracts for full primary system decontamination of both units Biblis A and B (each 1.200 MW) by end of 2012. (authors)

  4. Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Controls (Agreement Number 13425)/NPBF Effects on PM Oxidation/NPBF Effects on EGR System Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  5. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew B. Loomis

    2004-05-01

    This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

  6. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  7. Integrated modeling and control of a load-connected SOFC-GT autonomous power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Integrated modeling and control of a load-connected SOFC-GT autonomous power system Rambabu Kandepu-relevant models of all the components of the SOFC-GT hybrid system which is connected to a load through a bus bar reliability. One of the most promising fuel cell technologies is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), due to its

  8. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  9. At the end of the secure period, Technology Transfer (for patent works) or the Office of Research and Creative Activities (Export Controls) will be contacted to verify that the work can be released.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    At the end of the secure period, Technology Transfer (for patent works) or the Office of Research a patent, OR 2. Works with Export Control restrictions. Graduate Studies 105 FPH, Provo, UT, 84602 Tel@byu.edu patent OR export control restrictions #12;

  10. CALIFORNIA LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY CENTER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS CLTC.UCDAVIS.EDU New requirements for lighting controls constitute one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    -construction standards for both lighting power density (LPD) and controls. The only exceptions are buildings with fewer% of full-rated power. WHAT'S NEW IN THE 2013 CODE?Changes to mandatory Title 24 lighting requirements automatically reduce lighting power by 50% in these areas when they are unoccupied: · Corridors and stairwells

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 53, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2004 1847 A Fault-Tolerant Control Architecture for Induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . This is the clear case of home and civil appliances, such as, for example, air conditioning/heat pumps, engine vehicle (EV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In the proposed control scheme, the developed system takes such as an electrical vehicle (EV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), where even limp-back operation is preferred

  12. 602 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. 4, JULY 2006 Fluidic Operational Amplifier for Mock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paden, Brad

    gear pump. With pressure being the analog of voltage, design with the fluidic op-amp is analogous to electrical op-amp circuit design. Initial computer and hardware simulation results demonstrate sources (the ventricles) or passive networks (hemodynamic loads). Index Terms--Feedback-controlled gear

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 19, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2011 1433 Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jongeun

    dispersion, while the other is an intake port injector. The dual-fuel system introduces one additional degree-injec- tion and ethanol DI dual-fuel system to substantially increase gasoline engine efficiency is described-in-the-Loop Simulation of Robust Gain-Scheduling Control of Port-Fuel-Injection Processes Andrew White, Student Member

  14. 898 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 12, JUNE 15, 2007 10-Gb/s Wavelength Transparent Optically Controlled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Transparent Optically Controlled Buffer Using Photonic-Crystal-Fiber-Based Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror C. C they are stored in the memory for 2;4;. . . ; and 12 round-trips. Indepen- dent bit-error-rate (BER) measurements is wavelength transparent. For data packets stored in the C-band, the maximum power penalty after the data

  15. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  16. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  17. Technology Assessment TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Technology Assessment 10/14/2004 1 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STRATEGIC PLAN MISSION STATEMENT Support the Mission of Texas Tech University and the TTU Information Technology Division by providing timely and relevant information and assistance in current and emerging technologies and their practical applications

  18. Bioscience Technology Bioscience Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    Bioscience Technology Bioscience Technology Advantage Business Media 100 Enterprise Drive Rockaway, co-director of George Washington University's Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications-by-point. Manufacturers have stampeded to offer the new technology. Applied Biosystems got out in front in 2004 when

  19. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  20. May 19-21, 2003 Ris International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 19-21, 2003 Risř International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel #12;May 19-21, 2003 Risř International Energy Conference No 3 IntroductionIntroduction · "Fuel cells few moving parts" · "Solid oxide technology may prove to be the most reliable of fuel cell power

  1. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  2. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2°C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2°C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 2030–2050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  3. Walk-through survey report: Control technology for metal reclamation industries at East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc. , Lyon Station, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.M.

    1994-08-12

    A walk through survey was conducted at the East Penn Manufacturing Company (SIC-3341), Lyon Station, Pennsylvania to identify and evaluate potentially effective controls and work practices in the lead (7439921) reclamation industry. The facility was a secondary lead smelter which operated 7 days a week, and recycled about 20,000 batteries a day, primarily automobile batteries. The company employed automation, local exhaust ventilation, partial enclosures, and enclosed ventilation systems in the reverberatory furnace operations, blast furnace operations, and casting and refinery area to reduce employee exposure to lead. The arsenic (7440382) personal exposure time weighted averages ranged from 0.10 to 1.14 microg/cubic m in the industrial battery breaking area and ranged from nondetected to 6.16 microg/cubic m in the alloying/pots area.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low-Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Filter Sensing Technologies, Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low-Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Filter Sensing Technologies, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development...

  6. Export Control | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Export Control SHARE Export Control ORNL's Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division Export Control Team promotes the U.S. nonproliferation agenda by providing policy...

  7. Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    oxide fuel cells are of technological interest as they offer high efficiency for energy conversion to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologyOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights

  8. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s funds distribution and control system at the Federal Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    In Fiscal Year 1998, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) was responsible for managing about $723 million in budgetary resources. The objective of this audit was to determine if FETC had a funds distribution and control system to ensure appropriated funds were managed in accordance with congressional intent and applicable policies and procedures. Improvements are needed in FETC`s administration of budgetary and accounting transactions. FETC did not have a comprehensive system to allocate indirect costs to funding programs and work-for-others projects. In addition, FETC did not completely adhere to Headquarters Clean Coal budget direction. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) reached its conclusions despite a scope impairment. Written documentation was not always available, and the audit team did not have ready access to key personnel who could explain certain transactions and management practices and procedures. In order to strengthen the FETC financial management system, the OIG recommended (1) the development of policies, procedures, and practices to accurately collect and allocate indirect costs and (2) improvements in internal control procedures. The OIG also recommended that the Chief Financial Officer conduct a detailed for cause review of the financial management practices at FETC and work with the Office of Field Management to develop a schedule for reviewing the financial management systems of all Departmental elements.

  9. In-depth survey report: control technology for falling solids at Cincinnati Paint and Varnish, Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitbrink, W.A.

    1988-04-01

    A visit was made to the Cincinnati Paint and Varnish Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, to determine the effectiveness of control measures used to contain dust generated during the manufacturing of custom coatings. Dust arose when 50 pound bags of different powdered materials, titanium dioxide, talc, and crystalline silica, were emptied into 600-gallon mixing tanks by a worker. The worker slit the bags with a knife, lifted the bag, poured the contents into the mixer, and returned the empty bags to the floor. Exterior surfaces of the bags were dusty; handling them released some dust into the atmosphere. A slot hood was used to capture dust generated during the operation. Air velocity toward th slot hood along the lip of the tank where the bags were emptied ranged from 50 to 100 feet per minute. The total dust concentrations determined for crystalline silica during this operation averaged 3.0mg/cum. During a revisit to the site this worker's exposure was below 0.15mg/cum for a time-weighted average of less than 0.004 mg/m/sup 3/. The difference in liquid level in the tank at the time each powdered ingredient was added may have significantly affected the amount of dust released. Measurements of the actual process indicated that the silica had to fall almost 1 meter before reaching any liquid in the mixing tank whereas the talc had to fall only 25 centimeters.

  10. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  11. Patterning by area selective oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Kamcev, Jovan; Black, Charles T.; Grubbs, Robert

    2015-12-29

    Technologies are described for methods for producing a pattern of a material on a substrate. The methods may comprise receiving a patterned block copolymer on a substrate. The patterned block copolymer may include a first polymer block domain and a second polymer block domain. The method may comprise exposing the patterned block copolymer to a light effective to oxidize the first polymer block domain in the patterned block copolymer. The method may comprise applying a precursor to the block copolymer. The precursor may infuse into the oxidized first polymer block domain and generate the material. The method may comprise applying a removal agent to the block copolymer. The removal agent may be effective to remove the first polymer block domain and the second polymer block domain from the substrate, and may not be effective to remove the material in the oxidized first polymer block domain.

  12. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DEA-AC09-96SR18500 and is an account of work performed under that contract. Neither the...

  13. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaics »Tankless WaterEnergyJanuary28-982 DOE HydrogenTank 48H

  14. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  15. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King Pacific Northwest National...

  16. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of...

  17. Innovative Separations Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  18. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Julia (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA)

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  19. Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

  20. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    and Technology THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OFof California. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OFg los~ S(IV) in aqueous fly ash slurries :n;- and 0 , and SO

  1. Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hautier, Geoffroy

    The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their ...

  2. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  3. Proton-coupled electron transfer at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex controls the rate of ubihydroquinone oxidation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crofts, Antony R.

    1 Proton-coupled electron transfer at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex controls the rate transfer; proton transfer; bc1 complex; Qo-site; Marcus theory; ES-complex Abbreviations: bc1 complex of the transmembrane proton gradient is positive or negative, respectively; PDB#, Protein Data Bank identifier; Q

  4. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline...

  5. ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ammonia, and Terephthalic Acid, December 2007 ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Ethylene, Caustic-Chlorine, Ethylene Oxide, Ammonia, and...

  6. Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Lessons Learned from SOFCSOEC Development Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes...

  7. A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed to create 4.1-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed to create 4.1-in. diagonal backplanes organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Mixed oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFT

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 3, Appendices O--T. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Volume 3 contains the following appendices: Appendix O, Second Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix P, Third Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix Q, ABB Analysis of Air Preheaters-Final Report; Appendix R, ABB Corrosion Analysis Study; Appendix S, SRI Waste Stream Impacts Study; and Appendix T, Economic Evaluation.

  9. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  10. Faience Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    by Joanne Hodges. Faience Technology, Nicholson, UEE 2009Egyptian materials and technology, ed. Paul T. Nicholson,Nicholson, 2009, Faience Technology. UEE. Full Citation:

  11. Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanyam, Guru, E-mail: gsubramanyam1@udayton.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Cole, M. W., E-mail: melanie.w.cole.civ@mail.mil [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Sun, Nian X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Kalkur, Thottam S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Sbrockey, Nick M.; Tompa, Gary S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Guo, Xiaomei [Boston Applied Technologies, Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts 01801 (United States); Chen, Chonglin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Alpay, S. P.; Rossetti, G. A. [Institute of Materials Science and Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Dayal, Kaushik [Mechanics, Materials and Computing, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chen, Long-Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Schlom, Darrell G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstrated in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.

  12. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  13. 6.43.28 Hybrid Control Systems1 Karl Henrik Johansson, Dept. of Signals, Sensors & Systems, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    6.43.28 Hybrid Control Systems1 Karl Henrik Johansson, Dept. of Signals, Sensors & Systems, Royal-time system; Dynamical system; Control theory; Embedded soft- ware; Hierarchical control; Computer-controlled system; Discrete-event systems; Hybrid automata; Discontinuous control; Switched system; Supervisory

  14. Building Technologies Program Planning Summary

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of commercially available but underutilized technologies, lighting controls, expert lighting design, and integrated systems. * Through the EnergySmart Schools subprogram, BTP...

  15. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers...

  16. Development of Methodologies for Technology Deployment for Advanced Outage Control Centers that Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution and Outage Risk Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn St. Germain; Ronald Farris; Heather Medeman

    2013-09-01

    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The long term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the U.S. will depend upon maintaining high capacity factors, avoiding nuclear safety issues and reducing operating costs. The slow progress in the construction on new nuclear power plants has placed in increased importance on maintaining the output of the current fleet of nuclear power plants. Recently expanded natural gas production has placed increased economic pressure on nuclear power plants due to lower cost competition. Until recently, power uprate projects had steadily increased the total output of the U.S. nuclear fleet. Errors made during power plant upgrade projects have now removed three nuclear power plants from the U.S. fleet and economic considerations have caused the permanent shutdown of a fourth plant. Additionally, several utilities have cancelled power uprate projects citing economic concerns. For the past several years net electrical generation from U.S. nuclear power plants has been declining. One of few remaining areas where significant improvements in plant capacity factors can be made is in minimizing the duration of refueling outages. Managing nuclear power plant outages is a complex and difficult task. Due to the large number of complex tasks and the uncertainty that accompanies them, outage durations routinely exceed the planned duration. The ability to complete an outage on or near schedule depends upon the performance of the outage management organization. During an outage, the outage control center (OCC) is the temporary command center for outage managers and provides several critical functions for the successful execution of the outage schedule. Essentially, the OCC functions to facilitate information inflow, assist outage management in processing information and to facilitate the dissemination of information to stakeholders. Currently, outage management activities primarily rely on telephone communication, face to face reports of status and periodic briefings in the OCC. Much of the information displayed in OCCs is static and out of date requiring an evaluation to determine if it is still valid. Several advanced communication and collaboration technologies have shown promise for facilitating the information flow into, across and out of the OCC. Additionally, advances in the areas of mobile worker technologies, computer based procedures and electronic work packages can be leveraged to improve the availability of real time status to outage managers.

  17. UV/oxidation providers shed technical problems, fight cost perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapaport, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Systems combining ultraviolet light and oxidation (UV/oxidation) to remove contaminants from water were introduced in the early 1980s. Since then, improvements in the technology, a wide array of applications, educational efforts by companies offering the systems and changes in environmental regulations have accelerated acceptance of UV/oxidation technology. From the standpoint of regulatory officials, the major advantage of UV/oxidation is that it creates no secondary pollutants to treat or haul away. It is a self-contained, in situ treatment technology. This benefit has gained importance as regulations have become more stringent regarding disposal of secondary pollutants, such as saturated carbon, and concentration levels of air emissions created by air stripping. Such regulations have increased the costs of monitoring and disposal, while the costs of using UV/oxidation were decreasing.

  18. Mapping Technology Space by Normalizing Technology Relatedness Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstott, Jeff; Yan, Bowen; Luo, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Technology is a complex system, with technologies relating to each other in a space that can be mapped as a network. The technology relatedness network's structure can reveal properties of technologies and of human behavior, if it can be mapped accurately. Technology networks have been made from patent data, using several measures of relatedness. These measures, however, are influenced by factors of the patenting system that do not reflect technologies or their relatedness. We created technology networks that precisely controlled for these impinging factors and normalized them out, using data from 3.9 million patents. The normalized technology relatedness networks were sparse, with only ~20% of technology domain pairs more related than would be expected by chance. Different measures of technology relatedness became more correlated with each other after normalization, approaching a single dimension of technology relatedness. The normalized network corresponded with human behavior: we analyzed the patenting his...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Demonstration/Development of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Vehicle Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  20. Development of Black Silicon Antireflection Control and Passivation Technology for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-475

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H. C.

    2014-06-01

    The work involves the development of a commercial manufacturing process for both multicrystalline and monocrystalline solar cells that combines Natcore's patent pending passivation technology.

  1. Putting Science to Work OUR TECHNOLOGIES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies developed at ORNL's Germanium beads on a zinc oxide nanowire. 2 Putting Science to Work in a large fermenter and "fed" with a starting mixture of selected metal...

  2. Stratospheric sulfur oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 in the atmosphere is believed to involve the reaction of SO3 with water. It is commonly assumed that this is an important step leading to homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol particles. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid aerosols regulate much of the ozone photochemistry in the lower stratosphere and are also believed to have significant effect on the climate. Understanding aerosol loading requires a detailed knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, including its oxidation kinetics. Here we present results of a laboratory project studying a key step in the oxidation process, the homogeneous reaction between SO3 and H2O vapor. Kinetic measurements are performed in a high-pressure turbulent fast-flow reactor (fabricated at MIT) which minimizes heterogeneous loss of SO3 on reactorwalls. The rate of decay of SO3 and the appearance of H2SO4 is monitored in the presence of excess water vapor. Gas phase reactants and products are detected via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer which is coupled to the exit of the flow reactor. Sulfuric acid nucleation studies can also be performed using the turbulent flow reactor. Initial measurements using a particle detector (based on Mie scattering) showed that aerosol formation and particle size distribution are controlled by varying the SO3/H2O gas ratio and the reactor temperature. Results for the reaction SO3J+ H2O show a second order dependence in water vapor density and a strong negative temperature dependence. The results, measured in the range -30C to +95C, imply that an SO3.H2O adduct and/or a water dimer species is likely involved in the reaction mechanism. Results of recent theoretical calculations on the SO3 + H2O system also support the finding that two water molecules are involved. Implications for the gas phase production of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  3. Cupric oxide inclusions in cuprous oxide crystals grown by the floating zone method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frazer, Laszlo; Chang, Kelvin B.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Ketterson, John B.

    2015-05-08

    Phase-pure cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystals are difficult to grow since cupric oxide can form within the crystal as the crystal is cooled to ambient conditions. Vacancies are the solute which causes precipitation of macroscopic defects. Therefore, even when a mostly phase-pure single crystal is used as a feed rod, cupric oxide inclusions persist in the recrystallized solid. Control of the thermal profile during crystal growth, however, can improve phase-purity; a slow counter-rotation rate of the feed and seed rods results in fewer inclusions. Cupric oxide can be removed by annealing, which produces a factor of 540 ± 70 increase inmore »phase-purity.« less

  4. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  5. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  6. Candidate anode materials for iron production by molten oxide electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paramore, James D

    2010-01-01

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) has been identified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) as one of four possible breakthrough technologies to alleviate the environmental impact of iron and steel production. This ...

  7. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : business administration, energy management, wind farm management, automation and controls, aircraft, construction, healthcare, education, and technical services or sales. The BSET curriculum offers four

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn Introduction to Multiscale Engineering With the continually increasing demand of fuel in modern times and the long-term goal of sustainability, fuel cell technology has become important and vital to further advancement in energy production. Solid oxide fuel cells

  9. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program?s fourth solicitation.

  10. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  11. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  12. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Chourey, Aashish

    2010-08-01

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  13. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  14. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about fuel effects on...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the fuel effects...

  17. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  18. Sixth clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 2: Technical papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference focused on the ability of clean coal technologies (CCTs) to meet increasingly demanding environmental requirements while simultaneously remaining competitive in both international and domestic markets. Conference speakers assessed environmental, economic, and technical issues and identified approaches that will help enable CCTs to be deployed in an era of competing, interrelated demands for energy, economic growth, and environmental protection. Recognition was given to the dynamic changes that will result from increasing competition in electricity and fuel markets and industry restructuring, both domestically and internationally. Volume 2 contains 28 papers related to fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification for combined cycle power plants, the Liquid Phase Methanol Process, use of coal in iron making, air pollution control of nitrogen oxides, coke making, and hot gas cleanup.

  19. Combined SO sub 2 /NO sub x reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Markussen, J.M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments and passage of state legislation leading to more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) regulations have fueled research and development efforts on technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  20. Near-Zero NOx Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utzinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    emissions, and conserve natural resources. Recently the company announced the development of a technology that dramatically reduces the nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in the exhaust gas of gas-fired steam boilers to below 1ppm (at O2=0% equivalent...