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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

x Abatement and Control. IEA Coal Research: London, UnitedM. Air Pollution Control Costs for Coal-Fired PowerStations; IEA Coal Research: London, UK, 1995. 25. Arrow, K.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

4

LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young Unit 2 and TXU Monticello Unit 3. The work involves establishing Hg oxidation levels upstream of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with those removal rates, investigating the possibility of the APCD acting as a multipollutant control device, quantifying the balance of plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization.

Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control, Prepared byReduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)NOx removal technologies. Volume 1. Selective catalytic reduction.

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

8

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Molecular beam deposition of LaAlO3 on silicon for sub-22nm CMOS technological nodes: Towards a perfect control of the oxide/silicon heterointerface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work reports on the development of thin amorphous LaAlO"3 (LAO) layers on Si(001) for their integration as gate oxide in sub-22nm CMOS technologies. The crucial influence of the Si surface preparation is highlighted and an optimized surface preparation ... Keywords: Amorphous high-? dielectrics, Interfacial layer, LaAlO3, Molecular beam epitaxy, Surface preparation

S. Pelloquin; L. Becerra; G. Saint-Girons; C. Plossu; N. Baboux; D. Albertini; G. Grenet; G. Hollinger

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Technology for the control of particulates and sulfur oxides by electrostatic techniques. Final report, Aug 85-Jul 90  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report summarizes research performed by Southern Research Institute on several aspects of the E-SOx Process, invented by EPA to jointly control particulate matter and SO2 in coal-fired boiler emissions by retrofitting an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP), formerly used only for particulate removal. The report covers research on potential ESP sites for process application, process economics, characterization of process solid waste collected in the ESP, measurement and modeling of prechargers in the retrofitted ESP, and effectiveness of the process with respect to SO2 removal. Experiment results described in the report confirm original EPA laboratory work and were influential in the decision to proceed with a large pilot evaluation of E-SOx. Research emphasis was on ESP performance, under E-SOx conditions, to verify that this essential equipment process component could retain its primary function of particle removal at a level equal to removal prior to modifications necessary for E-SOx. Further research is suggested.

Dismukes, E.B.; Gooch, J.P.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications News Release Release Date: July 23, 2013 National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies SOFC Solid oxide fuel cells are among the...

13

FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System October 7, 2013 - 9:12am Addthis This composite photo shows technicians observing operation at the monitoring station and making subsequent fine adjustments on combustion system controls Technical staff are making boiler adjustments with the control and monitoring system. Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. Technology Description A novel combustion control system, along with gas sensors, sets the opening of fuel and air inlets based on flue-gas concentrations. Continuous feedback from measurements of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide concentrations enable the control system

14

Available Technologies: Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink  

Renewable Energy; Environmental Technologies. Monitoring and Imaging; Remediation; ... indium tin oxide while offering comparable optical and electronic properties.

15

Mercury Control Technology Selection Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, and various other organizations have undertaken extensive RD programs over the past decade to develop cost-effective methods for reducing mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. The field tests sponsored by these organizations have produced a significant amount of pilot and full-scale mercury control data for a variety of technologies at power plant sites with different boiler types, firing different coals, and equipped with various air emiss...

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

2006 Mercury Control Technology Conference Proceedings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Technology Conference Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2006 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Introduction Sorbent Injection By-Product Characterization/Management Mercury Oxidation and Co-Removal with FGD Systems Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussions Posters New 2006 Phase III Mercury Field Testing Projects Sorbent Injection Pretreatment of Coal Oxidation of Mercury Environmental Studies on Mercury Mercury in CUBs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

17

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies July 23, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling option, please visit: The NETL Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program Webpage Solid oxide fuel cells are among the cleanest, most efficient power-generating technologies now being developed. They provide excellent electrical efficiencies and are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels, from coal and natural gas to landfill waste and hydrogen. And with continued advancements, solid oxide fuel cells can provide clean

18

Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensors and Controls Sensors and Controls Research to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Water Heating Research Lighting Research

19

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Wet Air Oxidation.

20

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies National Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Scaling-Up Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Technology for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Scaling-Up Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Technology for Magnesium Production. Author(s), Soobhankar Pati, Adam Powell, Steve ...

22

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Integrated Approach to Mercury Control This project will demonstrate a novel multi-pollutant control technology for coal-fired power plants that can reduce...

23

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

24

Multipollutant Emission Control Technology Options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the nation's land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the agency’s center for investigation of technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health and the environment. The focus of the laboratory's research program is on methods for the prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources, protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites and groundwater; and prevention and control of indoor air pollution. The goal of this research effort is to catalyze development and implementation of innovative, cost-effective environmental technologies; develop scientific and engineering information needed by EPA to support regulatory and policy decisions; and provide technical support and information transfer to ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations and strategies. This publication has been produced as part of the laboratory's strategic long-term research plan. It is published and made available by EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist the user community and to link researchers with their clients.

For Coal-fired Power Plants Foreword; Sally Gutierrez Director

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Intelligent Actuation Control Using Model-Free Adaptive Control Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intelligent Actuation Control Using Intelligent Actuation Control Using Model-Free Adaptive Control Technology Background The Advanced Research Sensors and Controls Program is leading the effort to develop sensing and control technologies and methods to achieve seamlessly integrated and intelligent power systems. The program is led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and is implemented

26

Advanced Controls Technologies and Strategies Linking Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Controls Technologies and Strategies Linking Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Speaker(s): Sila Kiliccote Date: October 6, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Reliable...

27

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using SCR and SNCR NOx Control Technologies Determination of the Speciated Mercury Inventory at Four Coal-Fired Boilers Using Continuous Hg Monitors Longer-Term Testing of...

28

Available Technologies Nano Structure Control and ...  

Available Technologies Nano Structure Control and Selectivity of Hydrogen Release from Hydrogen Storage Materials SuMMARy Researchers at PNNL have ...

29

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Non-Thermal Plasma...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Thermal Plasma Based Removal of Mercury Project Summary Powerspan Corp. will pilot test a multi-pollutant technology that converts mercury into mercuric oxide, nitrogen oxide...

30

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

31

Texture Control in Cerium Oxide Films (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conclusions are: (1) Texture control is possible in cerium oxide by epitaxial growth or adjusting the substrate angle; (2) Biaxial (111) texture emerges with inclined angle depositions on glass; and (3) Biaxial (200) texture emerges by epitaxial growth on YSZ.

van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Leenheer, A. J.; Perkins, J. D.; Teplin, C. W.; Ginley, D. S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D Emission Control R&D The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned hydrocarbons Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Particulate matter The energy required for emission control often reduces vehicle fuel economy and increases vehicle cost. VTO's Emission Control R&D focuses on developing efficient, durable, low-cost emission control systems that complement new combustion strategies while minimizing efficiency losses. VTO often leverages the national laboratories' unique capabilities and facilities to conduct this research.

33

Electrothermal controlled-exposure technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A technology is presented for exposing the contents of microfabricated cavities in a substrate. These contents are hermetically sealed until exposure is triggered by an electronic signal. The exposure mechanism uses ...

Maloney, John Mapes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Available Technologies: Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts  

The technology is stable and composed of abundant materials suitable for scalable manufacturing. ... Chemical Communications. Vol. 46: 2920-2922. 2010.

35

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode ...  

They are highly fuel-efficient and almost non-polluting, making them an attractive alternative for energy generation. ... Energy Innovation Portal Technologies.

36

Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents  

SciTech Connect

This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

NETL: News Release - Novel Pollution Control Technology Recognized  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 17, 2005 November 17, 2005 Novel Pollution Control Technology Recognized NETL-funded Technology Honored for Chemical Engineering Achievement PITTSBURGH, PA - Praxair Inc.'s Oxygen Enhanced Combustion (OEC) system for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was recently recognized as one of five 2005 finalists for Chemical Engineering magazine's prestigious Kirkpatrick Award for Chemical Engineering Achievement. The system was developed under the National Energy Technology Laboratory's Innovations for Existing Plants program, which advances technologies to improve the environmental performance of America's existing coal-fired power plants. MORE INFO Read June 26, 2002 TechLine Chemical Engineering magazine, published by Chemical Week Associates, grants the Kirkpatrick Award biennially to honor the most outstanding

38

Available Technologies: Spatially Controlled Surface ...  

This spatial control of functionality is very difficult to achieve with non-grafting techniques currently in use such as direct copolymerization, ...

39

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

control technologies at the pilot scale that show promise for application at plants burning Gulf Coast lignite, or a blend with subbituminous coal. Gulf Coast lignite is one of...

40

Program on Technology Innovation: Future Control Centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project reviews the functions and architectures of control centers: their past, present, and likely future. The evolving changes in power system operational needs require a distributed control center that is decentralized, integrated, flexible, and open. Present-day control centers are moving in that direction with varying degrees of success. Technologies employed in today's control centers enabling them to be distributed are briefly reviewed. With the rise of the Internet age, the trend in informat...

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas. We present a model-based control analysis and design

Peng, Huei

42

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technology Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its most common configuration, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses an oxygen ion conducting ceramic electrolyte membrane, perovskite cathode and nickel cermet anode electrode. Cells operate in the 600-1000 C temperature range and utilize metallic or ceramic current collectors for cell-to-cell interconnection. Recent development in engineered electrode architectures, component materials chemistry, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes have led to significant improvement in the electrical performance and performance stability as well as reduction in the operating temperature of such cells. Large kW-size power generation systems have been designed and field demonstrated. This paper reviews the status of SOFC power generation systems with emphasis on cell and stack component materials, electrode reactions, materials reactions and corrosion processes

Singh, Prabhakar; Minh, Nguyen Q.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Testing of Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama Subcontractor- ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller The overall goal of this project is to test the effectiveness of calcium-based sorbents and oxidizing agents for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plant boilers. ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, with EPA support, has developed calcium-based sorbents to remove SO2 and mercury simultaneously. The sorbents consist of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and an added oxidant and a silica-modified calcium (CaSiO3) with an added oxidant. The mercury capacity in ug Hg/g sorbent for the two sorbents is 20 and 110-150, respectively, verses a mercury capacity for the current standard sorbent, activated carbon, of 70-100. The advantages of a lime based sorbent verses carbon is lower cost, simultaneous removal of sulfur, and allowance of ash to be utilized for a cement additive.

44

Evaluation of Lighting and Lighting Control Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficient lighting and lighting controls have been a means to significant energy savings for many facilities around the world. Advances in lighting sources often allow for the conservation of quality of light while providing more flexibility in the control of light. Additionally, advances in core technologies within the lighting marketplace regularly lead to the introduction of new lamps, fixtures and controls.  With the rapid introduction of new products and designs, it is important to ...

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Control and System Integration to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies...

46

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control R&D The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All...

47

The nuclear materials control technology briefing book  

SciTech Connect

As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems CONSOL is evaluating the mercury removal co-benefits achieved by SCR-FGD combi nations. Specific issues that will be addressed include the effects of SCR, catalyst degradation, and load changes on mercury oxidation and capture. This objective will be achieved by measuring mercury removal achieved by SCR-FGD combinations at ten plants with such equipment configurations. These plants include five with wet limestone, three wet lime, and two with dry scrubbing. Material balance will be conducted. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - April 2006 [PDF-377KB] Topical Report # 11 - January 2006 [PDF-19MB] Topical Report # 9 - January 2006 [PDF-6MB]

49

DOE and Industry Showcase New Control Systems Security Technologies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity Advisory Committee Technology Development Transmission Planning Smart Grid Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity Control Systems Security News Archive Control...

50

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Preliminary Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications General Electric – Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a new technology that reduces the cost of mercury removal from flue gas by combining it with carbon reduction in a burnout system and simultaneously controlling nitrogen oxides emissions. Data on mercury removal at Western Kentucky Electric’s Green Station will be obtained and used to assess options to improve the efficiency of mercury removal. These options will be further investigated in pilot-scale testing on a 300 kW combustor. Related Papers and Publications: Preliminary Field Evaluation of Hg Control Using Combustion Modifications [PDF-732KB] - Presented at the 2004 Electric Utilities Environmental Conference, Tucson, AZ - January 19-22, 2004.

51

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Second Generation Advanced Reburning Second Generation Advanced Reburning General Electric - Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) is carrying out a two Phase research program to develop novel Advanced Reburning (AR) concepts for high efficiency and low cost NOx control from coal-fired utility boilers. AR technologies are based on combination of basic reburning and N-agent/promoter injections. Phase I of the project was successfully completed and EER was selected to continue to develop AR technology during Phase II. Phase I demonstrated that AR technologies are able to provide effective NOx control for coal-fired combustors. Three technologies were originally envisioned for development: AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and Multiple Injection AR (MIAR). Along with these, three additional technologies were identified during the project: reburning plus promoted SNCR; AR-Lean plus promoted SNCR; and AR-Rich plus promoted SNCR. The promoters are sodium salts, in particular sodium carbonate. These AR technologies have different optimum reburn heat input levels and furnace temperature requirements. For full scale application, an optimum technology can be selected on a boiler-specific basis depending on furnace temperature profile and regions of injector access.

52

Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensors and Controls Research Sensors and Controls Research The Emerging Technologies team conducts research into technologies related to building sensors and controls. They work with building systems-such as a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems-to analyze energy use and help occupants manage energy costs. Building controls have the potential to reduce building energy consumption by monitoring variables and other inputs, and then automatically responding in a predetermined fashion. Research between the Department of Energy, industry, and laboratories focuses on: Sensors Photo of a ceiling-mounted fire sprinkler. Sensors are designed to help building owners and operators better manage their energy use through automation. Sensors measure predefined variables, such as the amount of natural light coming in through an office window, and then feed this data into a building's control system. The control can then respond by adjusting the various building systems. For example, sensors may note when a person leaves a room and let controls know to turn off the lights, or can ensure that faucets only release water if someone's hand is waved.

53

NETL: Control Technology: Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Under DOE-NETL sponsorship, the University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) has developed a new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Otter Tail Power Company. The AHPC utilizes both electrostatic collection and filtration in a unique geometric configuration that achieves ultrahigh particle collection with much less collection area than conventional particulate control devices. The primary technologies for state-of-the-art particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A major limitation of ESPs is that the fractional penetration of 0.1- to 1.0-µm particles is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than for 10-µm particles, so a situation exists where the particles that are of greatest health concern are collected with the lowest efficiency. Fabric filters are currently considered to be the best available control technology for fine particles, but emissions are dependent on ash properties and typically increase if the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio is increased. In addition, many fabrics cannot withstand the rigors of high-SO2 flue gases, which are typical for bituminous fuels. Fabric filters may also have problems with bag cleanability and high pressure drop, which has resulted in conservatively designed, large, costly baghouses.

54

Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Control and System Integration The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the...

55

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA for Cyclone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers The primary goal of this project was to evaluate a technology called advanced layered technology application (ALTA) as a means to achieve NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MMBtu in a cyclone boiler. Reaction Engineering International (REI) conducted field testing and combustion modeling to refine the process design, define the optimum technology parameters, and assess system performance. The ALTA NOx control technology combines deep staging from overfire air, rich reagent injection (RRI), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Field testing was conducted during May-June 2005 at AmerenUE's Sioux Station Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone boiler unit that typically burns an 80/20 blend of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. Parametric testing was also conducted with 60/40 and 0/100 blends. The testing also evaluated process impacts on balance-of-plant issues such as the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, slag tapping, waterwall corrosion, ammonia slip, and heat distribution.

56

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

57

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Westinghouse Savannah River Company LLC Westinghouse Savannah River Company LLC Savannah River Site Aiken, SC 29808 LWO-SPT-2007-00247 Rev. 1 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) For Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) November, 2007 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) LWO-SPT-2007-00247 Rev. 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared by Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DEA-AC09-96SR18500 and is an account of work performed under that contract. Neither the United States Department of Energy, nor WSRC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

58

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D to Emission Control R&D to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Emission Control R&D

62

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power plant emission control technologies Historical growthpower plant emission control technologies The environmental policy initiatives responsible for the substantial growthfired power plants. E.S. Rubin et al. Historical growth in

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

NETL: Control Technology - Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Mercury Control URS Corporation will demonstrate the use of an additive in wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to prevent oxidized mercury that...

64

FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System October 7, 2013 - 9:12am Addthis This composite photo shows...

65

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Solicitation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet...

66

Status and Performance of Best Available Control Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is intended to provide a better understanding of the best available control technology (BACT) as required today in permits issued for new coal-fired power plants and to document the actual emissions performance of the emission control technologies on new units. The study focused on controls technologies, data reporting, initial test results, and permitting trends.

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Controlled Synthesis of Highly Ordered Hafnium Oxide Nanotube ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide is of interest because it has high thermal, chemical and mechanical ... energy storage, solar energy conversion and sensors, through better control over ... Agricultural-Waste Biomass for Hydrogen Adsorption via Nano-Particle ...

68

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that <0.5 ppm sulfur can be achieved. Removal of HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Brominated Sorbents...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ESPs, and Fly Ash Use in Concrete Sorbent Technology will test two technologies for mercury removal from flue gas. Their concrete safe brominated sorbent will be tested at...

71

Program on Technology Innovation: Next Generation Monitoring, Assessment, and Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power system operation technologies such as computerized one-line diagram visualization, state estimation, contingency analysis, and distance relay were developed upwards of 50 years ago, However, technological advances in communication, computing, and algorithms have made it possible to reexamine methods for performing real-time monitoring, assessment, and control. This report describes the vision, infrastructure, and technology roadmap for future smart control centers.

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

Recent progress in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The tubular design of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and the materials used therein have been validated by successful, continuous electrical testing over 69,000 h of early technology cells built on a calcia-stabilized zirconia porous support tube (PST). In the latest technology cells, the PST has been eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube. These air electrode supported (AES) cells have shown a power density increase of about 33% with a significantly improved performance stability over the previously used PST type cells. These cells have also demonstrated the ability to thermally cycle over 100 times without any mechanical damage or performance loss. In addition, recent changes in processes used to fabricate these cells have resulted in significant cost reduction. This paper reviews the fabrication and performance of the state-of-the-art AES tubular cells. It also describes the materials and processing studies that are underway to further reduce the cell cost, and summarizes the recently built power generation systems that employed state-of-the-art AES cells.

Singhal, S.C.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Integration of building envelope and services via control technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last decade offered the foundation of several seminal concepts, which although natively composite and complex, amply demonstrate the potential of 21st century technology to affect important societal trends. Among notable candidates, the convergence ... Keywords: A/V ratio, EIB- KONNEX technology, bioclimatic architecture, bits, building envelope, building facades, bytes, communication protocols, control technologies, data telegram, integration, power line technology, services

Chris J. Koinakis; John K. Sakellaris

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Open-Standard Wireless Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on

75

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EstablishmEnt EstablishmEnt of an EnvironmEntal Control tEChnology laboratory with a CirCulating fluidizEd-bEd Combustion systEm Description In response to President Bush's Clear Skies Initiative in 2002-a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and mercury (Hg) from power plants-the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified four high- priority research needs for controlling emissions from fossil-fueled power plants: multipollutant control, improved sorbents and catalysts, mercury monitoring and capture, and an improved understanding of the underlying combustion chemistry.

77

Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

None

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control In this project, The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center...

79

Building Technologies Office: Advanced, Integrated Control for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buildings News Building Technologies Office Announces 3 Million to Advance Building Automation Software Solutions in Small to Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings March 29,...

80

Building Technologies Office: Sensors and Controls Characteristics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buildings News Building Technologies Office Announces 3 Million to Advance Building Automation Software Solutions in Small to Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings March 29,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Available Technologies: Controlled Assembly of Nanocrystal ...  

See More Nano & Micro Technologies. Contact Us. Receive Customized Tech Alerts. Tech Transfer Site Map. Last updated: 09/17/2009.

82

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama PowerÂ’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRIÂ’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

83

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Larry ChickMike Rinker Energy Materials Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 30, 2010 2 2 SOFC Technology Development at...

84

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Development of Comprehensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection DOE has identified technologies (based on past DOE and other R&D organizations' mercury measurement and control achievements) that are expected to be important in developing possible strategies on mercury control for the coal-fired electric utility industry. To address critical questions related to cost and efficiency of these mercury control technologies, DOE has funded the first of a kind large-scale initiative aimed at testing and evaluating large-scale mercury control technologies for coal-based power systems. These tests will collect cost and performance data with parametric and long term field experiments at power plants with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) utilized to control other pollutants as well as mercury in hopes of providing the cheapest control options for the utility industry in mid-term application (5 to 10 years).

85

Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

Bruce Hallbert

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Available Technologies: Electronic Control of Friction on ...  

... motor vehicles, and tools. Existing methods of friction control involve permanently modifying surfaces by adding lubricant layers and hard ...

87

Available Technologies Grid Friendly Appliance™ Controller  

The Grid Friendly Appliance controller developed at PNNL senses grid conditions ... » Smart Grid Devices potential industry Applications » Computers ...

88

Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

Sayer, J.H.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials - Available Technologies ...  

Researchers at PNNL have developed a new class of nickel-free anode materials, consisting of a composite of doped cerium oxide and doped strontium ...

90

Noise-control needs in the developing energy technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The noise characteristics of existing energy conversion technologies, e.g., from obtaining and processing fossil fuels to power plants operations, and of developing energy technologies (wind, geothermal sources, solar energy or fusion systems) are discussed in terms of the effects of noise on humans, animals, structures, and equipment and methods for noise control. Regulations for noise control are described. Recommendations are made for further research on noise control and noise effects. (LCL)

Keast, D.N.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

DOE and Industry Showcase New Control Systems Security Technologies at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Development » Energy Delivery Systems Technology Development » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity » Control Systems Security News Archive » DOE and Industry Showcase New Control Systems Security Technologies at DistribuTECH DOE and Industry Showcase New Control Systems Security Technologies at DistribuTECH DistribuTECH Conference Tuesday-Thursday, March 23-25, 2010 Tampa Convention Center Booth #231 Tampa, FL Join the Department of Energy and its industry partners as they showcase six new products and technologies designed to secure the nation's energy infrastructure from cyber attack on Tuesday through Thursday, March 23-25. Visit Booth #231 at the DistribuTECH 2010 Conference & Exhibition in Tampa, FL, to see first-hand demonstrations of several newly commercialized control systems security products-each developed through a

92

Available Technologies: Ventilation Controller for Improved Indoor ...  

Iain Walker and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a dynamic control system for whole-house ventilation fans that provides maximal air quality while reducing ...

93

Available Technologies: Controlling Metabolic Pathways Using ...  

Biofuels and biofuel precursors; Secondary metabolite ... the transcription factors are inserted at strategic spots to control target metabolic pathways of yeast ...

94

Grid Friendly™ Charger Controller - Available Technologies ...  

Daily battery charging is fully automatic with the Grid Friendly ... Reduced electricity costs for consumers—the Grid Friendly Charger Controller ...

95

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Modifications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Jointly funded by DOE and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), this project's purpose is to investigate novel approaches of capturing elemental and...

96

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

product. The FFR concept solves this problem. The technology increases the efficiency of NOx reduction in coal reburning and decreases carbon-in ash. FFR can achieve the same...

97

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Healthful LipidsChapter 22 Emulsion Technologies to Produce Oxidative Stable Emulsions Containing n-3 FA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 22 Emulsion Technologies to Produce Oxidative Stable Emulsions Containing n-3 FA Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of

100

Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited  

SciTech Connect

This report covers an assessment of two brands of energy management controllers that are currently being offered that utilize the principle of duty cycling to purportedly save energy for unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, gas furnaces, and gas fired boilers. The results of an extensive review of past research on this subject as well as a review of vendor sponsored field testing of these controllers compares these newer controllers to those of the past. Included also is a discussion of how the duty cycling principle is prone to misinterpretation as to its potential to save energy.

Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

102

Demonstration of Demand Control Ventilation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) is one of the control strategies that can be used modulate the amount of ventilation air for space conditioning in commercial buildings. DCV modulates the amount of ventilation air introduced into the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system based on carbon dioxide levels sensed in the areas served. The carbon dioxide level is a proxy for the number of people within the space, from which the required quantity of ventilation air is determined. By using this ...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

Steinberg, M.; Albanese, A.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Mercury...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Speciation from NOx Control University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) is addressing the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR),...

105

NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overall objective of this project was to develop a technology platform for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system at elevated temperatures (500-1,000 F) and gasifier pressures to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants, including H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCl, Hg, and As. This technology development effort involved progressive development and testing of sorbent/catalytic materials and associated processes through laboratory, bench, pilot, and demonstration testing phases, coupled with a comprehensive systems analysis at various stages of development. The development of the regenerable RTI-3 desulfurization sorbent - a highly attrition-resistant, supported ZnO-based material - was the key discovery in this project. RTI-3's high attrition resistance, coupled with its high reactivity, effectively allowed its application in a high-velocity transport reactor system. Production of the RTI-3 sorbent was successfully scaled up to an 8,000-lb batch by Sued-Chemie. In October 2005, RTI obtained U.S Patent 6,951,635 to protect the RTI-3 sorbent technology and won the 2004 R&D 100 Award for development of this material. The RTI-3 sorbent formed the basis for the development of the High-Temperature Desulfurization System (HTDS), a dual-loop transport reactor system for removing the reduced sulfur species from syngas. An 83-foot-tall, pilot HTDS unit was constructed and commissioned first at ChevronTexaco's gasification site and later at Eastman's gasification plant. At Eastman, the HTDS technology was successfully operated with coal-derived syngas for a total of 3,017 hrs over a 12-month period and consistently reduced the sulfur level to <10 ppmv. The sorbent attrition rate averaged {approx}31 lb/MM lb of circulation. To complement the HTDS technology, which extracts the sulfur from syngas as SO{sub 2}, RTI developed the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP, operating at high pressure and high temperature, uses a small slipstream of syngas to catalytically reduce the SO{sub 2} produced in the warm syngas desulfurization process to elemental sulfur. To demonstrate this process at Eastman, RTI constructed and commissioned a skid-mounted pilot DSRP unit. During its 117-h operation, the DSRP system achieved 90% to 98% removal of the inlet sulfur. The DSRP catalyst proved very robust, demonstrating consistent reaction rates in multiple experiments over a 3-year period. Sorbent materials for removing trace NH{sub 3}, Hg, and As impurities from syngas at high temperature and high pressure were developed and tested with real syngas. A Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} sorbent for removal of CO{sub 2} from syngas at high temperature was also developed and tested. The Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} material demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} removal, but its regeneration was found to be technically challenging. Additionally, reverse-selective polymer membrane materials were investigated for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from syngas. These materials exhibited adequate separation at ambient conditions for these acid gases. Field testing of these membrane modules with real syngas demonstrated potential use for acid-gas separation from syngas. The HTDS/DSRP technologies are estimated to have a significant economic advantage over conventional gas cleanup technologies such as Selexol{trademark} and Rectisol. From a number of system studies, use of HTDS/DSRP is expected to give a 2-3 percentage point increase in the overall IGCC thermal efficiency and a significant reduction in capital cost. Thus, there is significant economic incentive for adaptation of these warm gas cleanup technologies due to significantly increased thermal efficiency and reduction in capital and operating costs. RTI and Eastman are currently in discussions with a number of companies to commercialize this technology.

B. S. Turk; R. P. Gupta; S. Gangwal; L. G. Toy; J. R. Albritton; G. Henningsen; P. Presler-Jur; J. Trembly

2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

106

Nexus of technologies : international safeguards, physical protection and arms control.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New technologies have been, and are continuing to be, developed for Safeguards, Arms Control, and Physical Protection. Application spaces and technical requirements are evolving - Overlaps are developing. Lessons learned from IAEA's extensive experience could benefit other communities. Technologies developed for other applications may benefit Safeguards - Inherent cost benefits and improvements in procurement security processes.

Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Blair, Dianna Sue; Smartt, Heidi Anne

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Multi-Pollutant Control Technology and Cost Sensitivity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current emissions control systems used by the U.S. generating fleet typically reduce emission rates of only one pollutant. This requires installation in series of various combinations of emission control systems to remove multiple pollutants. Technologies for simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants are now moving toward commercialization. These integrated systems have the potential to require less capital investment and to offer lower operating costs than traditional technologies. This report investi...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

108

Export Control Regulations Michigan Technological University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regulations (EAR) Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) Commercial or dual-use items Control (OFAC) Department of Justice Department of Energy Nuclear Regulatory Commission Department of Homeland Security Boarder and Transportation Security U.S. Customs #12;15 CFR 730.5; 22 CFR 120.17 Export

109

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Utility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation, will test an advanced halgenated activated carbon to determine the mercury removal performance and relative costs of sorbent injection for advanced sorbent materials in large-scale field trials of a variety of combinations of coal-type and utility plant-configuration. These include one site (Detroit Edison's St. Clair Station) with a cold-side ESP using subbituminous coal, or blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal, and one site (Duke Energy's Buck Plant) with a hot-side ESP which burns a bituminous coal. Related Papers and Publications: Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period April 1 - October 31, 2004 [PDF-2275KB] Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period of October 2003 - March 2004 [PDF-1108KB]

110

Rotating preventers; Technology for better well control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs.

Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R. (Signa Engineering Corp. (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR The overall objective of this project is to assess the potential for significant mercury control, between 50 and 90% above baseline, by sorbent injection for the challenging technical process configuration at Public Service of New Hampshire Company Merrimack Station Unit No. 2. The primary emphasis of this project is to evaluate the performance of mercury sorbent injection, but the effect of co-benefits from SO3 mitigation on mercury control will also be explored. Also in this program the performance capabilities of mercury measurement techniques in challenging flue-gas environment will be assessed and the impact of activated carbon injection on fly ash disposal options will be investigated.

112

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the burner design is to achieve homogeneity of the combustion products in the boiler. Not only does this create ideal conditions for combustion-related NOx control, it...

113

NETL: Control Technology: ElectroCore Separator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ElectroCore Separator ElectroCore Separator LSR Technologies and its subcontractors designed and installed a 8,500 m3/hr (5,000 acfm) Advanced ElectroCore system and a dry sulfur scrubber to test it using an exhaust gas slipstream at Alabama Power Company's Gaston Steam Plant. Shakedown is scheduled for August 15, 2001. The exhaust gas will be from Unit #4 of a 270 MWe sub-critical, pulverized coal boiler burning a low-sulfur bituminous coal. The Advanced ElectroCore system will consist of a conventional upstream ESP, a dry SO2 scrubber, a particle precharger and an Advanced ElectroCore separator. Particle concentrations and size distributions will be measured at the ESP inlet, at the dry scrubber outlet and at the ElectroCore outlet. The concentration of 12 common HAPs will be measured at these locations as well. For purposes of project organization and monitoring, the work will be divided into nine (9) tasks described below.

114

Assessment of Alternative Post-Combustion NOx Controls Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As emission control requirements continually become stricter, power producers need new, efficient, cost-effective approaches to reduce NOx and other atmospheric pollutants. This report focuses on alternative emerging and commercial post-combustion NOx controls applications other than the industry standard selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Assessment of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference 39463-02 Report to: DOE FETC October 1999 EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 2 Table of Contents 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1...

116

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at PNNL PNNL has been active in SOFC development since 1987. Major participant in SECA Core Technology coatings to prevent Cr volatility from SS Glycine ­ nitrate powder synthesis of La0.7Ca0.31CrO3 #12;3 PNNL 700-2300 watts, 9 kg, 2.5 L · Transferred SOFC technology to Delphi starting in 1999. · PNNL now

117

INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Mercury Control For Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD URS Group, Inc., in collaboration with EPRI, Apogee Scientific, AEP, Texas Genco, and TXU Power, ADA-ES, will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control in an 85/15 blend Texas lignite/PRB derived flue gas, upstream of a cold-side ESP – wet FGD combination. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted with various sorbents and combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices (APCD) have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. For example, sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite, which represent approximately 10% of the annual U.S. power plant mercury emissions. The low and variable chloride content of Texas lignite may pose a challenge to achieving high levels of mercury removal with sorbent injection. Furthermore, activated carbon injection may render the fly ash unsuitable for sale, posing an economic liability to Texas lignite utilities. Alternatives to standard activated carbon, such as non-carbon sorbents and alternate injection locations (Toxecon II), have not been fully explored. Toxecon II involves sorbent injection in the middle field(s) of an ESP, thus preserving the integrity of the fly ash in the first fields.

119

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Low-Cost Options for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control ADA- Environmental Solutions will test two new technologies for mercury control. The TOXECON II(tm) technology injects activated carbon directly into the downstream collecting fields of an electrostatic precipitator. The benefit of this technology is that the majority of the fly ash is collected in the upstream collecting fields which results in only a small portion of carbon-contaminated ash. Additionally, the TOXECON II(tm) technology requires minimal capital investment as only minor retrofits to the electrostatic precipitator are needed. The second technology is injection of novel sorbents for mercury removal on units with hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Mercury removal from hot-side electrostatic precipitators is difficult as their high operating temperature range keeps the mercury in the vapor phase and prevents the mercury from adsorbing onto sorbents. The TOXECON II(tm) technology will be tested at Entergy's Independence Station which burns PRB coal. The novel sorbents for hot-side ESPs technology will be tested at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center and MidAmerican's Louisa Station, both of which burn PRB coal. Additional project partners include EPRI, MidAmerican, Entergy, Alliant, ATCO Power, DTE Energy, Oglethorpe Power, Norit Americas Inc., Xcel Energy, Southern Company, Arch Coal, and EPCOR.

120

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Options and Integration Control Options and Integration Reaction Engineering International (REI) is optimizing the performance of, and reduce the technical risks associated with the combined application of low-NOx firing systems (LNFS) and post combustion controls through modeling, bench-scale testing, and field verification. Teaming with REI are the University of Utah and Brown University. During this two-year effort, REI will assess real-time monitoring equipment to evaluate waterwall wastage, soot formation, and burner stoichiometry, demonstrate analysis techniques to improve LNFS in combination with reburning/SNCR, assess selective catalytic reduction catalyst life, and develop UBC/fly ash separation processes. The REI program will be applicable to coal-fired boilers currently in use in the United States, including corner-, wall-, turbo-, and cyclone-fired units. However, the primary target of the research will be cyclone boilers, which are high NOx producing units and represent about 20% of the U.S. generating capacity. The results will also be applicable to all U.S. coals. The research will be divided into four key components:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

123

Program on Technology Innovation: Oxide Growth and Exfoliation on Alloys Exposed to Steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exfoliation of oxide scales from the steam-touched surfaces of superheater and reheater tubes results in short-term overheating boiler tube failures (BTF) and solid particle erosion of the inlet stages of the steam turbine. This report provides the state-of-knowledge of oxide growth and exfoliation, which will eventually help power plant operators control the damage mechanisms.

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

125

Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Control and System Integration Thermal Control and System Integration The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies. Thermal control is a critical element to enable power density, cost, and reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines (PEEM). Current hybrid electric vehicle systems typically use a dedicated 65°C coolant loop to cool the electronics and electric machines. A primary research focus is to develop cooling technologies that will enable the use of coolant temperatures of up to 105°C. Enabling the higher-temperature coolant would reduce system cost by using a single loop to cool the PEEM, internal combustion engine or fuel cell. Several candidate cooling technologies are being investigated along with the potential to reduce material and component costs through the use of more aggressive cooling. Advanced component modeling, fabrication, and manufacturing techniques are also being investigated.

126

Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P [eds.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Advanced Controls Technologies and Strategies Linking Energy Efficiency and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Controls Technologies and Strategies Linking Energy Efficiency and Advanced Controls Technologies and Strategies Linking Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Speaker(s): Sila Kiliccote Date: October 6, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Reliable supply of affordable electricity has been in the spotlight since the blackouts in California, the grid shutdown events in New England and the terrorist threats nationwide. While the array of generation technologies and transmission safety issues have been widely discussed, capacity requirements and demand side management issues have also been revisited. This presentation will concentrate on a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status will be outlined.

128

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full- Scale Testing of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD The goal of this project is to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The two specific objectives of this project are 1) ninety percent (90%) total mercury removal and 2) costs below 1/4 to 1/2 of today's commercially available activated carbon mercury removal technologies. Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc's (B&W/MTI's) will demonstrate their wet scrubbing mercury removal technology (which uses very small amounts of a liquid reagent to achieve increased mercury removal) at two locations burning high-sulfur Ohio bituminous coal: 1) Michigan South Central Power Agency's (MSCPA) 55 MWe Endicott Station located in Litchfield, Michigan and 2) Cinergy's 1300 MWe Zimmer Station located near Cincinnati, Ohio.

129

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions from Multi-Burners Emissions from Multi-Burners The University of Utah working with Reaction Engineering International and Brigham Young University is investigating a project that consists of integrated experimental, theoretical and computational modeling efforts. The primary objective is to evaluate NOx formation/destruction processes as they occur in multi-burner arrays, a geometry almost always utilized in utility practice. Most controlled experimental work examining NOx has been conducted on single burners. The range of potential intra-burner interactions are likely to provide added degrees of freedom for reducing NOx. The resultant findings may allow existing utilities to arrange fuel and air distribution to minimize NOx. In new applications, orientation of individual burners within an array may also be altered to reduce NOx. Comprehensive combustion codes will be modified to incorporate the latest submodels of nitrogen release and heterogeneous chemistry. Comparison of pilot scale experiments and simulations will be utilized to validate/develop theory.

130

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCNR Field  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNCR Field Demonstration SNCR Field Demonstration American Electric Power (AEP), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, FuelTech, the Ohio Coal Development Office, and fourteen EPRI member utilities, performed a full-scale demonstration of a urea-based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system at Cardinal Unit 1. Cardinal Unit 1 is a 600MWe opposed-wall dry bottom pulverized coal-fired boiler that began service in 1967. This unit burns eastern bituminous high-sulfur coal, (3.72%S). This unit was retrofitted with low NOx burners (LNB's) during its scheduled fall 1998 outage and the SNCR system was installed concurrently. SNCR is a post-combustion NOx control process developed to reduce NOx emissions from fossil-fuel combustion systems. SNCR processes involve the injection of a chemical containing nitrogen into the combustion products, where the temperature is in the range of 1600°F - 2200°F (870°C - 1205°C). In this temperature range, the chemical reacts selectively with NOx in the presence of oxygen, forming primarily nitrogen and water. Although a number of chemicals have been investigated and implemented for SNCR NOx reduction, urea and ammonia have been most widely used for full-scale applications.

131

Effects of Chlorine and Other Flue Gas Parameters on Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology for Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologythe technology of choice for meeting stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission limits for coal-fired electric generating plantshas potential for oxidizing mercury, which would provide enhanced removal in downstream systems. Catalyst behavior is relatively well understood for deNOx and SO2 oxidation, but less is known about mercury oxidation behavior. This test program was designed to determine general behavior of typical SCR catalysts on mercury oxidation and ...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Advanced Data Processing and Computing Technologies at Control Centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control center operation is becoming more complex as new and often-conflicting reliability, economics, and public policy issues emerge. To manage the complexity, control center operators need prompt, comprehensive information about their own systems and neighboring systems. Computer simulations analyze system data and what-if-scenarios to derive succinct information for operators to make more informed decisions. This report reviews the applicability of new technologies and some solution methods for addre...

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Simulator demonstration of the interphase power controller technology  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports on a simulator demonstration of the Interphase Power Controller (IPC) technology. The simulator models developed and the testing methodology are described. The main results confirm the basic attributes of the IPC (robust power flow control characteristic, fault current limitation and decoupling of the interconnected networks) and that the IPC can be built from conventional equipment. Random testing performed on the simulator proved to be useful in assessing the maximum stresses on the equipment.

Sybille, G.; Haj-Maharsi, Y. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)] [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Morin, G.; Beauregard, F.; Brochu, J.; Lemay, J.; Pelletier, P. [Centre d`Innovation sur le Transport d`Energie du Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)] [Centre d`Innovation sur le Transport d`Energie du Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility were completed. The riser, primary cyclone and secondary cyclone of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Combustor have been erected. Second, the Mercury Control Workshop and the Grand Opening of Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET) were successfully held on February 22 and 23, 2006, respectively. Third, effects of hydrogen chlorine (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on mercury oxidation were studied in a drop tube reactor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; Songgeng Li

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Selective Oxidation of Organic Substrates to Partially Oxidized Products  

controlled rate of catalysis, utilizing ozone for oxidation of alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, is made possible with this environmentally friendly and versatile technology.

136

Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for a typical 16,000 square-foot office building, with a payback period of less than 3 years.

Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Program on Technology Innovation: Network Management Technology Applied to Power Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generic solutions developed for the information technology and telecommunications (IT-Telco) fields can benefit power plants willing to modernize instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment and maintenance tasks to take advantage of the expanded functionality of new technologies. This report investigates the applicability of generic network management products to help streamline power plant I&C and maintenance practices. Because of the competitive pressures of a large and expanding marketplace, such gene...

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

138

Economic Evaluation of Particulate Control Technologies: Volume 1: New Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baghouses (reverse-gas, shake-deflate, and pulse-jet) and electrostatic precipitators are the principal options for controlling particulate emissions at coal-fired power plants. This report provides the latest cost information and cost models for determining the capital and O&M costs of the two technologies for various design conditions in new units.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have demonstrated in this work (1) that methane is readily activated at mild conditions (100[degree]C, 1 torr) over a relatively noble metal, Pd. This was observed using a stepped and kinked Pd(679) crystal (1), and other crystal faces are now being investigated to establish whether the cracking of the C-H bond of methane on Pd is structure sensitive or structure insensitive. Oxygen chemisorption is extremely structure sensitive: weakly bonded, highly reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(100) surface (2), while strongly bonded, moderately reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(111) and Pd(679). Reaction of the weakly bonded oxygen with surface carbide gives rise to CO[sub 2] over clean Pd(100) but to CO over halogen-doped Pd(100) (3--5). The effect of halogens is primarily ensemble-controlling, or oxygen-supply restricting, but long range influence of surface Cl on the strength of the Pd-O bond has also been observed (3). Because the overall chemistry of methane activation with the subsequent oxidation gives rise to the very important oxidative reforming CH[sub 4] + 1/2 O[sub 2] [yields][sub Pd/Cl] CO + 2 H[sub 2], Pd/Cl we plan to continue our study of this reaction in detail over Pd(100) (completed), Pd(111) (initiated), Pd(311) (initiated), Pd(110) (to be initiated), and Pd(679) (completed), without and with the halogen modifiers.

Klier, K.; Simmons, G.W.; Herman, R.G.; Miller, A.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control - Energy Innovation ...  

Energy Innovation Portal Technologies. ... Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels;

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

NETL: Conference Proceedings - 2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference 2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2007 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Overview Sorbent Injection Panel Discussion #1: Sorbents for Mercury Control Mercury Oxidaton and Co-Removal with FGD Systems By-Product Characterization/Management Panel Discussion #2: Mercury Measurements / CEMS Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussion #3: Non-Sorbent Mercury Control Poster Presentations Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

142

Is it time to rethink SO{sub 2} control technology selection?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article traces the history of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in power plants in the USA following the 1990 Clean Air Act which divided boilers into Phase I (larger SO{sub 2} emitters) and Phase II units. The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) will soon require emission control on smaller boilers burning low and medium-sulfur coal. Today the systems of choice are dry FGD systems for low sulfur coals and greater than wet LSFO. (limestone forced oxidation systems) for coal with sulfur content about 2%. Demand for wet FGD coupled with tighter regulations has led to significant cost increases in LSFO. technology. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Dickerman, J.; Swell, M. [Chemical Lime (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration of Mer-Cure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control ALSTOM Power, Inc. – U.S. Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM-PPL) proposes herein a consortium-based program to demonstrate ALSTOM-PPL's Mer-Cure™ technology – a novel, sorbent-based (Mer-Clean™ ) mercury control technology in coal-fired boilers. The program objective is (i) to demonstrate at a full scale greater than 90% mercury capture based on baseline mercury level (ii) at a cost significantly less than 50% of the $60,000/lb of mercury removed. The proposed full-scale demonstration program is to perform two- to six-month test campaigns in three independent host sites with various boiler configurations over a two-year period. The demonstration program will include a two- to four-week short-term field test followed by two- to six-month long-term demonstration for each of the three selected sites.

145

Information-technology approach to quantum feedback control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum control theory is profitably reexamined from the perspective of quantum information, two results on the role of quantum information technology in quantum feedback control are presented and two quantum feedback control schemes, teleportation-based distant quantum feedback control and quantum feedback control with quantum cloning, are proposed. In the first feedback scheme, the output from the quantum system to be controlled is fed back into the distant actuator via teleportation to alter the dynamics of system. The result theoretically shows that it can accomplish some tasks such as distant feedback quantum control that Markovian or Bayesian quantum feedback can't complete. In the second feedback strategy, the design of quantum feedback control algorithms is separated into a state recognition step, which gives "on-off" signal to the actuator through recognizing some copies from the cloning machine, and a feedback (control) step using another copies of cloning machine. A compromise between information acquisition and measurement disturbance is established, and this strategy can perform some quantum control tasks with coherent feedback.

Dao-Yi Dong; Chen-Bin Zhang; Zong-Hai Chen

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

147

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

148

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is nearly completed. The erection of the CFBC facility is expected to start in the second week of February, 2006. Second, effect of flue gas components on mercury oxidation was investigated in a drop tube reactor. As a first step, experiment for mercury oxidation by chlorine was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Stationary Power Application Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were to: (1) Develop a reliable, cost-effective, and production-friendly technique to apply the power-enhancing layer at the interface of the air electrode and electrolyte of the Siemens SOFC; (2) Design, build, install, and operate in the field two 5 kWe SOFC systems fabricated with the state-of-the-art cylindrical, tubular cell and bundle technology and incorporating advanced module design features. Siemens successfully demonstrated, first in a number of single cell tests and subsequently in a 48-cell bundle test, a significant power enhancement by employing a power-enhancing composite interlayer at the interface between the air electrode and electrolyte. While successful from a cell power enhancement perspective, the interlayer application process was not suitable for mass manufacturing. The application process was of inconsistent quality, labor intensive, and did not have an acceptable yield. This program evaluated the technical feasibility of four interlayer application techniques. The candidate techniques were selected based on their potential to achieve the technical requirements of the interlayer, to minimize costs (both labor and material), and suitably for large-scale manufacturing. Preliminary screening, utilizing lessons learned in manufacturing tubular cells, narrowed the candidate processes to two, ink-roller coating (IRC) and dip coating (DC). Prototype fixtures were successfully built and utilized to further evaluate the two candidate processes for applying the interlayer to the high power density Delta8 cell geometry. The electrical performance of interlayer cells manufactured via the candidate processes was validated. Dip coating was eventually selected as the application technique of choice for applying the interlayer to the high power Delta8 cell. The technical readiness of the DC process and product quality was successfully and repeatedly demonstrated, and its throughput and cost are amenable to large scale manufacturing. Two 5 kWe-class SOFC power systems were built and installed for the purpose of testing and evaluating state-of-the-art tubular cell and bundle technologies, advanced generator and module design features, balance-of-plant components, and cost reduction measures. Installed at the Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, a system operated for more than 17,500 hrs, delivering electrical power to the on-site grid and thermal energy in form of hot water for onsite utilization. Operation was typically autonomous, requiring minimal operator intervention, and achieved an overall availability of greater than 85%. Outages were primarily due to an unstable local grid, two weather related outages were experienced, and very few reliability issues were encountered despite harsh operating conditions. No repairs to the stack, module, or balance-of-plant were required. A second system was designed, built, delivered, and installed at a Siemens facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. Operational issues associated with the balance-of-plant were encountered during startup and prevented the system from operating.

Joseph Pierre

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of North Dakota,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table Of Contents for Field Testing Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems Mercury Oxidation Upstream of an ESP and Wet FGD Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems The scope of the project consists of attempting to control mercury at four different power plants using two novel concepts. The first concept is using furnace additives that will enhance the sorbent effectiveness for mercury capture. The other concept involves using novel treated carbons to significantly increase sorbent reactivity and resultant capture of Hg. The furnace additives will be tested at Leland Olds Station and Antelope Valley Station while the novel sorbents will be tested at Stanton Station Units 1 &10. Related Papers and Publications:

151

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Demonstration of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ALSTOM will test their proprietary activated carbon-based sorbent which promotes oxidation and capture of mercury via preparation with chemical additives. ALSTOM proposes to test the sorbents at three utilities burning different coals, PacificCorpÂ’s Dave Johnston (PRB), Basin ElectricÂ’s Leland Olds (North Dakota Lignite) and Reliant EnergyÂ’s Portland Unit (bituminous). Other project partners include Energy and Environmental Research Center, North Dakota Industrial Commission and Minnkota Power who will be a non-host utility participant. Upon completion of this two year project, ALSTOM will demonstrate the capability of controlling mercury emissions from units equipped with electrostatic precipitators, a configuration representing approximately 75% of the existing units.

152

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Ultra Low-NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra Low NOx Integrated System Ultra Low NOx Integrated System TFS 2000(tm) Low NOx Firing System Project Summary: ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important,

153

Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing  

SciTech Connect

Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 20% lower than a comparable wired system for a typical 16,000 square-foot office building, with a payback period of less than 3 years. At 30% market penetration saturation, a cumulative 695 Billion kWh of energy could be saved through 2025, a cost savings of $52 Billion.

Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Amended Silicates for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Amended Silicates for Mercury Control Amended Silicates for Mercury Control The project is designed to implement a comprehensive demonstration of the use of Amended Silicates for mercury control on a commercial-scale generating unit. Miami Fort Unit 6 burns eastern bituminous coal, has a nominal output of 175 MW, and a flue gas volumetric flow of 535,000 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) at full load. The demonstration includes a baseline phase with no injection of mercury control sorbents, injection of carbon to develop a mercury-control technology baseline for sorbent performance comparison, and the injection of Amended Silicates at several rates. All sorbent will be injected upstream of the existing electro-static precipitators (ESPs) on the host unit, providing a nominal 1-second contact time before the gas flow enters an ESP. Mercury measurements will be made upstream of the sorbent injection and downstream of the first ESP to characterize the performance of the sorbent technologies. In addition, samples of coal and fly ash will be collected and analyzed to provide data for a mercury mass balance for the unit. The mercury measurements will be made with continuous emissions monitors as well as with Ontario-Hydro wet-chemistry sampling. Samples of fly ash plus sorbent from demonstration cases which include Amended Silicate sorbent injection will be collected from ESP hoppers for use in concrete testing to confirm the suitability of the material as a portland cement replacement.

155

The Controller Synthesis of Metastable Oxides Utilizing Epitaxy and Epitaxial Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has achieved unparalleled control in the integration of semiconductors at the nanometer. These advances were made through the use of epitaxy, epitaxial stabilization, and a combination of composition-control techniques including adsorption-controlled growth and RHEED-based composition control that we have developed, understood, and utilized for the growth of oxides. Also key was extensive characterization (utilizing RHEED, four-circle x-ray diffraction, AFM, TEM, and electrical characterization techniques) in order to study growth modes, optimize growth conditions, and probe the structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the materials grown. The materials that we have successfully engineered include titanates (PbTiO3, Bi4Ti3O12), tantalates (SrBi2Ta2O9), and niobates (SrBi2Nb2O9); layered combinations of these perovskite-related materials (Bi4Ti3O12-SrTiO3 and Bi4Ti3O12-PbTiO3 Aurivillius phases and metastable PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices), and new metastable phases (Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases). The films were grown by reactive MBE and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Many of these materials are either new or have been synthesized with the highest perfection ever reported. The controlled synthesis of such layered oxide heterostructures offers great potential for tailoring the superconducting, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of these materials. These properties are important for energy technologies.

Schlom, Darrell

2003-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

156

Networked control of distributed energy resources: application to solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a model-based networked control approach for managing Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) over communication networks. As a model system, we consider a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that communicates with the central controller ...

Yulei Sun; Sathyendra Ghantasala; Nael H. El-Farra

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Assessment of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur D. Little, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planar Solid Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur D. Little, Inc. Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference 39463-02 Report to: DOE FETC October 1999 EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 2 Table of Contents 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1 Project Objectives "Low Temperature" Planar SOFC Cost Analysis 2 Executive Summary EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 3 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1 Project Objectives "Low Temperature" Planar SOFC Cost Analysis 2 Executive Summary EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 4 Project Objectives DOE FETC Fuel Cell Program In support of the 21st Century Fuel Cell Concept Team, we have assessed planar architectures for SOFC technology. Tasks Tasks Tasks * Literature Review of Planar SOFC Programs * Interviews with Major Developers

158

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Assessment of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology: Comparison of Alternative Design Approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents a potential breakthrough in performance and cost in stationary power generation. SOFC developers, who are pursuing a variety of stack architectures and manufacturing methods, each claim their designs will lead to this low-cost / high-performance scenario. To put these claims in perspective, this report analyzes the differences in stack designs and their potential impact on the technical viability and prospective manufactured cost of each configuration.

2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

160

Significance of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Technology to Ion Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the research, history, and demonstration of pressurized solid oxide fuel cells (PSOFC)-gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems and compares and contrasts their evolution with ion transport membranes (ITM). There exists a wealth of available documentation on the PSOFC hybrid technology including multiple Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports documenting these systems. This report incorporates the findings of the EPRI reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Instrumentation and Control Technologies for Refueling the AHTR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process and mechanisms for refueling the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) are currently undergoing preconceptual design. The instrumentation and controls (I&C) required for the fuel transfer are simultaneously under design as part of this process. Overall, the AHTR's refueling system will consist of a fully automated, optically guided mechanical transfer system with operator intervention only required for exception handling. The refueling system design remains too immature to enable selection of particular instrumentation components. This paper provides an overview of the refueling process for the AHTR, the I&C requirements for the refueling, the current I&C design and technology status, and the envisioned process for developing and validating the required technology.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Carbon Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit with a Spray Drier and Fabric Filter The intent of DOE's Phase I and II field tests was to work with industry to evaluate the most promising mercury control technologies at full-scale in a variety of configurations. Although longer-term tests were conducted, the test period was not sufficient to answer many fundamental questions about long-term consistency of mercury removal and reliability of the system when integrated with plant processes. As the technologies move towards commercial implementation, it is critical to accurately define the mercury removal performance and costs so that power companies and policy makers can make informed decisions. Therefore, the overall objective of this Phase III project is to determine the mercury removal performance, long-term emissions variability, and associated O&M costs of activated carbon injection for >90% mercury control over a 10 to 12 month period on a unit that represents the combination of coal and emission control equipment that will be used for many new and existing power plants.

163

DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - On-Site Production of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact The detrimental health effects of mercury are well documented. Furthermore, it has been reported that U.S. coal-fired plants emit approximately 48 tons of mercury a year. To remedy this, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) on March 15, 2005. A promising method to achieve the mandated mercury reductions is activated carbon injection (ACI). While promising, the current cost of ACI for mercury capture is expensive, and ACI adversely impacts the use of the by-product fly-ash for concrete. Published prices for activated carbon are generally 0.5-1 $/lb and capital costs estimates are 2-55 $/KW. Because of the high costs of ACI, Praxair started feasibility studies on an alternative process to reduce the cost of mercury capture. The proposed process is composed of three steps. First, a hot oxidant mixture is created by using a proprietary Praxair burner. Next, the hot oxidant is allowed to react with pulverized coal and additives. The resulting sorbent product is separated from the resulting syngas. In a commercial installation, the resulting sorbent product would be injected between the air-preheater and the particulate control device.

166

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

167

FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Control technology appendices for pollution control technical manuals. Final report, June 1982-February 1983  

SciTech Connect

The document is one of six technical handbooks prepared by EPA to help government officials granting permits to build synfuels facilities, synfuels process developers, and other interested parties. They provide technical data on waste streams from synfuels facilities and technologies capable of controlling them. Process technologies covered in the manuals include coal gasification, coal liquefaction by direct and idirect processing, and the extraction of oil from shale. The manuals offer no regulatory guidance, allowing the industry flexibility in deciding how best to comply with environmental regulations.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

170

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Enhanced High Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and In-Situ Active Carbon Generation for Low Cost Mercury Capture Mercury oxidation phenomenon and the studies of this phenomenon have generally focused on lower temperatures, typically below 650°F. This has been based on the mercury vapor equilibrium speciation curve. The baseline extents of mercury oxidation as reported in the ICR dataset and observed during subsequent tests has shown a tremendous amount of scatter. The objective of this project is to examine, establish and demonstrate the effect of higher temperature kinetics on mercury oxidation rates. Further, it is the objective of this project to demonstrate how the inherent mercury oxidation kinetics can be influenced to dramatically increase the mercury oxidation.

171

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: NOx Reduction Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOx Reduction Technologies NOx reduction technologies can be grouped into two broad categories: combustion modifications and post-combustion processes. Some of the more important...

172

Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

W. E. Mott, Director, Division of Environmental Control Technology, HQ  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Eyergy Eyergy pak t??pEOperatlons dak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 December 12, 1977 W. E. Mott, Director, Division of Environmental Control Technology, HQ Germantown, M.S. E-201 REPORT OF FINDINGS: ALLIED CHEMICAL CORPORATION SITES AT NORTH CLAYMONT, DELAWARE; MARCUS HOOK, PENNSYLVANIA, AND BALTIMORE, MARYLAND The following information summarizes our findings and conclusions relative to the reassessment of the subject sites. Information supplied from files of the former Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Raw Materials, indicates the company was engaged during the 1950's in research and development and pilot scale operations on uranium recovery at North Claymont, Delaware, and possibly at other Allied Chemical sites at Marcus Hook, Pa., and Baltimore, Md. under

174

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. The effort in this quarter has concentrated on installing the CFBC Facility and for conducting cold fluidization operations tests in the CFBC facility. The assembly of the ash recirculation pipe duct from the cyclones back to the bed area of the combustor, including the upper and lower loop seals was completed. The electric bed pre-heater was installed to heat the fluidizing air as it enters the wind box. The induced draft fan along with its machine base and power supply was received and installed. The flue gas duct from secondary cyclone outlet to induced draft fan inlet was received and installed, as well as the induced fan flue gas discharge duct. Pressure testing from the forced draft fan to the outlet of the induced fan was completed. In related research a pilot-scale halogen addition test was conducted in the empty slipstream reactor (without (Selective Catalytic Reduction) SCR catalyst loading) and the SCR slipstream reactor with two commercial SCR catalysts. The greatest benefits of conducting slipstream tests can be flexible control and isolation of specific factors. This facility is currently used in full-scale utility and will be combined into 0.6MW CFBC in the future. This work attempts to first investigate performance of the SCR catalyst in the flue gas atmosphere when burning Powder River Basin (PRB), including the impact of PRB coal flue gas composition on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) under SCR conditions. Secondly, the impacts of hydrogen halogens (Hydrogen fluoride (HF), Hydrogen chloride (HCl), Hydrogen Bromide (HBr) and Hydrogen Iodine (HI)) on Hg(0) oxidation and their mechanisms can be explored.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tinmaterial systems such as indium oxide, gallium oxide and tinand Characterization A. Indium Oxide Nanowires Indium oxide

Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Testing of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX, will demonstrate at the pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project's pilot tests, conducted at electric generating plants using wet flue gas desulfurization systems and particulate collection systems, will be conducted for periods up to 14 months to provide data for future, full-scale designs. Mercury-oxidation potential will be measured periodically to provide long-term catalyst life data. The project is applicable to about 90,000 megawatts of generation capacity. Project partners are the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, which will co-manage and co-fund the pilot tests, and five utilities.

177

Engines - Emissions Control - cerium-oxide catalyst, diesel,...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Control Heavy duty diesel vehicles product particulate matter emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that heavy-duty diesel vehicles have...

178

MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS  

SciTech Connect

The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

Thomas K. Gale

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

Beitel, G.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from coal-fired electric powerReferences Soud, H.N. (1994) FGD Installations on Coal-FiredPlants, IEA Coal Research, London. Soud, H. (2001) Personal

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Assessment of Thermal Control Technologies for Cooling Electric Vehicle Power Electronics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL is assessing thermal control technologies to improve the thermal performance of power electronics devices for electric vehicles, while reducing the cost, weight, and volume of the system.

Kelly, K.; Abraham, T.; Bennion, K.; Bharathan, D.; Narumanchi, S.; O'Keefe, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Assessing potential for air cooling in power electronics is a critical factor in power electronics equipment. NREL aims to assess effective air cooling techniques for power electronics technologies.

Bharathan, D.

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

Development of nondestructive characterization technologies for process control of ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ceramic matrix composites using either continuous ceramic fibers or ceramic whiskers have been shown to have significantly higher fracture toughness than monolithic ceramics. High fracture toughness is necessary for ceramic applications in many advanced heat engines. Nondestructive characterization methods to measure different properties therefore are important for both types of materials. Mass production methods such as slip casting and injection molding, for composites or monolithics, require high reliability; thus, the development of nondestructive characterization methods for process control can have a high payoff. A method of producing continuous-fiber composites is by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). In this technology, production and process development requires knowledge of the as-infiltrated density distribution and the orientation of the fibers after infiltration. We have demonstrated on injection-molded Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 10--15 wt.% binder that by appropriate use of high-gradient-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and microfocus 3-D X-ray computed tomography (CT), the distribution of polymeric binders can be mapped to with {plus minus}0.5 wt.%. In the case of SiC/SiC CVI continuous-fiber composites made with 0,+, {minus}30 degree cloth layups, we have shown that density variations attributed to process conditions can be detected and that fiber orientations can be determined to better than {plus minus}2 degrees by 3-D X-ray microfocus CT data, together with advanced image processing. All data were acquired on NMR and X-ray CT machines designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Ellingson, W.A.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Luethi, T. (EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Control Technology - Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

185

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-scale Testing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrostatic precipitator for particulate control, and a wet FGD system for SO2 control. The FGD system has three modules, two of which are normally operated....

186

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has included (1) construction and installation of an ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer (UPS) with power supply and pumping system that has been added as an attachment to the SCIENTA ESCA-300 instrument, (2) modification of the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS) to produce a stable ultra high vacuum (UHV) environment for initial experiments with a Pd(311) single crystal, (3) construction of a separate high vacuum system for preparation of surface doped model catalysts by chemical vapor deposition and pretreatment of a Pd(100) single crystal in this system, (4) carried out detailed experiments of methane activation and oxidation on Pd(679) using a high pressure reaction cell contained in a third ultra high vacuum system, (5) completion of adsorption/desorption studies of H{sub 2}, CO, and O{sub 2} on Pd(679), (6) utilized angle-resolved XPS to probe the diffraction characteristics and structure of the Pd(100) surface, (7) determination of the electronic surface structure of Pd(100) using angle-resolved UPS, and (8) computational analysis of oxygen overlayers on the PD(100) surface. Each of these is discussed in further detail below.

Klier, K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WASTE-AS-FUEL PROCESSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stream char acterization for co-firing RDF and coal as perti nent to the progress of the study to date TECHNOLOGIES There are three primary thermal waste-as-fuel technologies described below: (1) co-firing of an RDF suit able for co-firing. In most instances there is little or no preprocessing associated

Columbia University

188

Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning is an in-furnace, combustion control technology for NOx reduction. Another environmental issue that needs to be addressed is the rapidly growing feedlot industry in the United States. The production of biomass from one or more animal species is in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered. It is expected to utilize biomass as a low-cost, substitute fuel and an agent to control emission. The successful development of this technology will create environment-friendly, low cost fuel source for the power industry, provide means for an alternate method of disposal of biomass, and generate a possible revenue source for feedlot operators. In the present study, the effect of coal, cattle manure or feedlot biomass, and blends of biomass with coal on the ability to reduce NOx were investigated in the Texas A&M University 29.31 kW (100,000 Btu/h) reburning facility. The facility used a mixture of propane and ammonia to generate the 600 ppm NOx in the primary zone. The reburn fuel was injected using air. The stoichiometry tested were 1.00 to 1.20 in the reburn zone. Two types of injectors, circular jet and fan spray injectors, which produce different types of mixing within the reburn zone, were studied to find their effect on NOx emissions reduction. The flat spray injector performed better in all cases. With the injection of biomass as reburn fuel with circular jet injector the maximum NOx reduction was 29.9 % and with flat spray injector was 62.2 %. The mixing time was estimated in model set up as 936 and 407 ms. The maximum NOx reduction observed with coal was 14.4 % and with biomass it was 62.2 % and the reduction with blends lay between that of coal and biomass.

Arumugam, Senthilvasan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

190

NETL: Control Technology: Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley...

191

Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

Moore, E.B.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Application of the interphase power controller technology for transmission line power flow control  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an application of the IPC technology for controlling power flows while maintaining the natural synchronizing capacity of transmission lines. The benefits for transmission systems are a substantial increase in steady-state transmission capability, lower losses and voltage support. An example based on the 500 kV Mead-Phoenix Project demonstrates the effectiveness of the IPC solution: the addition of a 370 Mvar capacitor in parallel with the two 500 kV phase-shifting transformers increases their maximum capability from 1,300 to 1,910 MW. The concepts presented are the results of the first phase of work leading to the development of an IPC using power electronics.

Brochu, J.; Beauregard, F.; Lemay, J.; Morin, G.; Pelletier, P. [Center d`Innovation sur le Transport d`Energie du Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)] [Center d`Innovation sur le Transport d`Energie du Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Thallam, R.S. [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States)] [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

MULTI-PHASE HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS AND PROGRESS IN CONTROLLED OXIDATION FOR FUNCTIONAL AND PROTECTIVE SURFACES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-phase strengthened Fe-base alloys for improved elevated temperature strength in fossil energy system components-temperature strength is a major issue for hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems-containing environments such as those encountered in advanced fossil energy steam plants. Controlled Oxidation for Near

194

INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Final Report 2013  

SciTech Connect

The Situational Awareness project is a comprehensive undertaking of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in an effort to produce technologies capable of defending the country’s energy sector infrastructure from cyber attack. INL has addressed this challenge through research and development of an interoperable suite of tools that safeguard critical energy sector infrastructure. The technologies in this project include the Sophia Tool, Mesh Mapper (MM) Tool, Intelligent Cyber Sensor (ICS) Tool, and Data Fusion Tool (DFT). Each is designed to function effectively on its own, or they can be integrated in a variety of customized configurations based on the end user’s risk profile and security needs.

Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-term Operation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Papers and Publications: Long-Term Evaluation of Activated Carbon Injection for Mercury Control Upstream of a COHPAC Fabric Filter PDF-298KB presented at Air Quality IV...

196

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Plant Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

well. The facility will be composed of an air preheater, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to collect fine particulates, and an alkaline-sorbent injection system to control...

197

Study of Lean NOx Technology for Diesel Emission Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel engines because of their reliability and efficiency are a popular mobile source. The diesel engine operates at higher compression ratios and with leaner fuel mixtures and produces lower carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. The oxygen-rich environment leads to higher nitrogen oxides in the form of NO. Catalysts selectively promoting the reduction of NOx by HCs in a lean environment have been termed lean NOx catalyst ''LNC''. The two groups that have shown most promise are, Copper exchanged zeolite Cu/ZSM5, and Platinum on alumina Pt/Al2O3.

Mital, R.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

198

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 15, NO. 3, MARCH 2007 403 Special Issue on Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, traction control, and active safety systems that have the potential to decrease the number and severity powerplants (such as fuel cells), to issues in transmission, driveline, and integrated pow- ertrain control researched alternative powerplant technology for automotive vehicles, which holds promise for positive

Brennan, Sean

199

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Sorbent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ADA Environmental Solutions will evaluate injection of activated carbon and other sorbents to remove mercury for a variety of coal and air pollution control equipment configurations. The scope of work is for 36 months and intended to gather operating data that will document actual performance levels and accurate cost information to assess the costs of controlling mercury from coal fired utilities. Testing will be conducted at four different host sites that represent a significant percentage of unit configurations. The subsequent cost analyses will include capital costs, by-product utilization issues, sorbent usage, any necessary enhancements, such as SO3 control or flue gas conditioning, balance of plant, manpower requirements and waste issues. The host sites are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station and American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Station.

200

Assessment of Emission Control Technologies for Distributed Resource Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed resources (DR) are projected to be an expanding part of the power generation mix in the future as the market shifts from a strong reliance on large, central power plants to greater use of smaller, more dispersed power generation sources located closer to load centers. This report assesses the current environmental regulatory situation for DR technologies and describes a range of combustion and post-combustion strategies to address environmental requirements. Such information will benefit ener...

1999-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Development and Demonstration of Mercury Control by Dry Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, with compliance slated for December 2007. It is thus very important for power producers to determine the amount of mercury emissions from their power plants, options for reducing mercury emissions, the cost-effectiveness of various removal technologies, and the potential impact on power plant operation and other air pollutant emissions.

2003-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

202

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/2, 2004 Experience curves for power plant emission controlcoal-fired electric power plants. In particular, we focus on2004) ‘Experience curves for power plant emission control

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use. 12 figs.

Ray, S.P.

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use.

Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hafnium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films for future CMOS technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel high-k gate dielectric material, i.e., hafnium-doped tantalum oxide (Hf-doped TaOx), has been studied for the application of the future generation metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). The film's electrical, chemical, and structural properties were investigated experimentally. The incorporation of Hf into TaOx impacted the electrical properties. The doping process improved the effective dielectric constant, reduced the fixed charge density, and increased the dielectric strength. The leakage current density also decreased with the Hf doping concentration. MOS capacitors with sub-2.0 nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) have been achieved with the lightly Hf-doped TaOx. The low leakage currents and high dielectric constants of the doped films were explained by their compositions and bond structures. The Hf-doped TaOx film is a potential high-k gate dielectric for future MOS transistors. A 5 �� tantalum nitride (TaNx) interface layer has been inserted between the Hf-doped TaOx films and the Si substrate to engineer the high-k/Si interface layer formation and properties. The electrical characterization result shows that the insertion of a 5 �� TaNx between the doped TaOx films and the Si substrate decreased the film's leakage current density and improved the effective dielectric constant (keffective) value. The improvement of these dielectric properties can be attributed to the formation of the TaOxNy interfacial layer after high temperature O2 annealing. The main drawback of the TaNx interface layer is the high interface density of states and hysteresis, which needs to be decreased. Advanced metal nitride gate electrodes, e.g., tantalum nitride, molybdenum nitride, and tungsten nitride, were investigated as the gate electrodes for atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO2 high-k dielectric material. Their physical and electrical properties were affected by the post metallization annealing (PMA) treatment conditions. Work functions of these three gate electrodes are suitable for NMOS applications after 800�°C PMA. Metal nitrides can be used as the gate electrode materials for the HfO2 high-k film. The novel high-k gate stack structures studied in this study are promising candidates to replace the traditional poly-Si-SiO2 gate stack structure for the future CMOS technology node.

Lu, Jiang

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Environmental-control-technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an annual identification and summarization of environmental control RD and D activities and associated funding conducted by DOE in conjunction with developing environmentally acceptable energy technologies. Environmental control technology is an integral part of the DOE energy technology R, D, and D effort. As the third in a series of annual reports on environmental control R, D, and D activities within DOE, this report may serve as a basis for evaluating program trends. The report presents background material that contributes to the capability to evaluate and assess the environmental control accomplishments, issues, gaps, and overlaps associated with energy development within DOE, in conjunction with other agencies, and in the private sector. A measure of the change in emphasis in the environmental control technology activities within DOE is also presented, indicating shifts, if any, in funding levels for each of the energy technologies. Total DOE FY 1979 budget outlay allocated to environmental control activities was $421,533,000, or 5.0% of the total FY 1979 DOE budget. This report summarizes the inputs received from the energy technology areas. These inputs were submitted in accordance with a description of environmental control related activities, which are those activities directed at research, development, and demonstration of processes, procedures, systems, subsystems, and strategies that directly or indirectly eliminate, minimize, or mitigate environmental impacts. 25 references, 10 figures, 40 tables.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Trends Affecting Building Control System Development: Trends in Energy Management Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies on energy management systems and products. Therelative to energy management systems design, specification,and Control System Energy Management System F E D E R A L E

Collins, Ted; Parker, Steven A.; Webster, Tom

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

03TB-45 Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck and vehicle test results for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck are reported in this paper. The design the benchmark vehicle. INTRODUCTION Hybrid powertrain is among the most visible transportation technology

Grizzle, Jessy W.

210

Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Gas Turbine/Combined-Cycle Emissions Control Technology and Regulatory Issues Handbook-2010 Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information pertaining to emissions from combustion turbines. Topics covered include low-NOx burner design and information on add-on control systems, including equipment used in practice as well as emerging technologies. Select air quality regulations that apply to new and existing combustion turbines are discussed, including requirements regarding best available control technology (BACT) (which also may represent the lowest-achievable emission rate or LAER) requirement. United State...

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The AEO2006 reference case assumes that States will comply with the requirements of the EPAs new CAMR regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

Information Center

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

213

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Abstract A variety of processes has been deployed at geothermalfields to inhibit or control siliceous scale deposition. It has beenknown for decades that the kinetics of silicic acid polymerizationis retarded when the pH of an aqueous solution is decreased.Therefore, a potential method for controlling siliceous scalingfrom geothermal brine is treatment with acid. Early attempts tocontrol siliceous scaling in geothermal brine-handling equipmentby retarding polymerization led to the belief that the pHhad to be reduced to < 4. Acidifying brine was discourageddue to corrosion concerns.

214

Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 2. Environmental control technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental control technologies are essential elements to be included in the overall design of Imperial Valley geothermal power systems. Environmental controls applicable to abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions, cooling tower drift, noise, liquid and solid wastes, and induced subsidence and seismicity are assessed here. For optimum abatement of H{sub 2}S under a variety of plant operating conditions, removal of H{sub 2}S upstream of the steam turbine is recommended. The environmental impact of cooling tower drift will be closely tied to the quality of cooling water supplies. Conventional noise abatement procedures can be applied and no special research and development are needed. Injection technology constitutes the primary and most essential environmental control and liquid waste disposal technology for Imperial Velley geothermal operations. Subsurface injection of fluids is the primary control for managing induced subsidence. Careful maintenance of injection pressure is expected to control induced seismicity. (MHR)

Morris, W.; Hill, J. (eds.)

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Environment, health, socioeconomics and environmental control technology. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the important findings of a two-volume report that deals with the potential impacts and environmental controls associated with the operation of geothermal power plants in California's Imperial Valley. The valley contains nearly a third of the nation's total energy potential for identified hot-water resources. Possible impacts of developing those resources include violation of air quality standards if emissions of hydrogen sulfide are not abated, negative ecological effects resulting from increased in the salinity of the Salton Sea, and damage to irrigation systems caused by land subsidence induced by the extraction of geothermal fluids. Other minor impacts concern occupational health and safety, socioeconomics, and hazardous wastes. Analyses of environmental impacts and the control measures for minimizing negative impacts are based primarily on a projected production of 3000 MW of electrical power by the year 2010.

Layton, D.W.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO{sub 2} and 85% for NO{sub x} were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO[sub 2] and 85% for NO[sub x] were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace with two hot zones holds multiple analysis tubes. Each tube has a separable sample-packing section positioned in the first hot zone and a catalyst-packing section positioned in the second hot zone. A mass flow controller is connected to an inlet of each sample tube, and gas is supplied to the mass flow controller. Oxygen is supplied through a mass flow controller to each tube to either or both of an inlet of the first tube and an intermediate portion between the tube sections to intermingle with and oxidize the entrained gases evolved from the sample. Oxidation of those gases is completed in the catalyst in each second tube section. A thermocouple within a sample reduces furnace temperature when an exothermic condition is sensed within the sample. Oxidized gases flow from outlets of the tubes to individual gas cells. The cells are sequentially aligned with an infrared detector, which senses the composition and quantities of the gas components. Each elongated cell is tapered inward toward the center from cell windows at the ends. Volume is reduced from a conventional cell, while permitting maximum interaction of gas with the light beam. Reduced volume and angulation of the cell inlets provide rapid purgings of the cell, providing shorter cycles between detections. For coal and other high molecular weight samples, from 50% to 100% oxygen is introduced to the tubes.

LaCount, Robert B. (403 Arbor Ct., Waynesburg, PA 15370)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

220

Energy utilization and environmental control technologies in the coal-electric cycle  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview and assessment of the currently commercial and possible future technologies in the United States that are a part of the coal-electric cycle. From coal production to residual emissions control at the power plant stack, this report includes a brief history, current status and future assessment of each technology. It also includes a discussion, helpful for policy making decisions, of the process operation, environmental emission characteristics, market constraints and detailed cost estimates for each of these technologies, with primary emphasis on coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions control systems.

Ferrell, G.C.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Systems and Controls Analysis and Testing; Harvesting More Wind Energy with Advanced Controls Technology (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet outlines the systems and controls analysis and testing that takes place at the NWTC on the Controls Advanced Research Turbines.

Not Available

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report  

SciTech Connect

Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

Control of attendance applied in higher education through mobile NFC technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an improved attendance control system, required for continuous evaluation which has become compulsory following the Bologna Process. It provides a solution based on NFC technology and is based on a real project developed and pilot ... Keywords: Check-in, Class attendance, EHEA, NFC, Presence control, QR codes, Roll call, Tap & Go

Marcos J. LóPez FernáNdez; Jorge GuzóN FernáNdez; Sergio RíOs Aguilar; Blanca Salazar Selvi; RubéN GonzáLez Crespo

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

NREL's National Wind Technology Center provides the world's only dedicated turbine controls testing platforms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NREL's National Wind Technology Center provides the world's only dedicated turbine controls testing platforms. Today's utility-scale wind turbine structures are more complex and their compo- nents more of algorithms to control the dynamic systems of wind turbines must account for multiple complex, nonlinear

226

FEMP/NTDP Technology Focus Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are designed and operated, and in the diversity of chiller products that are available to support innovativeFEMP/NTDP Technology Focus Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in Federal in recent years has been on optimization of set point and staging controls, improvements in chiller design

227

Study of storage yard PRIC key technologies based on modern measurement and control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pattern recognition and intelligent control (PRIC) based on modern measure and control is developing with the important challenge that machine how to percept external environment information. At the same time, storage yard automation guarantee the efficiency ... Keywords: PRIC technology, embedded system, fuzzy theory, image matching, storage yard

Changan Ji; Xiubin Zhang; Junhao Ying; Yi Wang; Guohui Zeng

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies • Second Quarter 1993I................................................................................................................................................................  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observers from the Department of Energy and the Defense Nuclear Agency watch as a tag/seal is applied to a uranium hexafluoride cylinder during the demonstration held at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In June 1993, the Department of Energy conducted a demonstration of the ability to tag and seal potential nuclear material containers appropriate for the U.S.-Russian conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to lowenrichment uranium (LEU). Begun in the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, the task was carried out after DOE's reorganization by the Qffice of Research and Development. Tags and seals that were previously developed at the DOE national laboratories and under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency were demonstrated on three possible containers: the Department of Transportation Specification 6M HEU container, the AT-400R HEU container, and the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride cylinder.

Thepurposeof Armscontroland

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues.

Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Jeppson, D.W.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Using Semantic Web Technologies to Develop Intrinsically Resilient Energy Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

To preserve critical energy control functions while under attack, it is necessary to perform comprehensive analysis on root causes and impacts of cyber intrusions without sacrificing the availability of energy delivery. We propose to design an intrinsically resilient energy control system where we extensively utilize Semantic Web technologies, which play critical roles in knowledge representation and acquisition. While our ultimate goal is to ensure availability/resiliency of energy delivery functions and the capability to assess root causes and impacts of cyber intrusions, the focus of this paper is to demonstrate a proof of concept of how Semantic Web technologies can significantly contribute to resilient energy control systems.

Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Huang, Jingshan [ORNL; Fetzer, Daniel T [ORNL; Morris, Thomas H [ORNL; Jonathan, Kirsch [Siemens Corporate Research; Goose, Stuart [Siemens Corporate Research; Wei, Dong [Siemens Corporate Research; Dang, Jiangbo [Siemens Corporate Research; Manz, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A Pilot Scale Evaluation of Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO) Technology: A Field Application at a Former Manu factured Gas Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites commonly contain areas where coal tar has been released, potentially existing in several phases including non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in portions of the subsurface site soils. This report describes a field-based pilot scale study of an in situ oxidation technology called Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO), which was developed by VeruTEK Technologies, Inc.BackgroundCoal tar can remain as ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

234

Advanced Control Technology Update: Multi-Loop Tuning and Model Predictive Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update provides information on two projects in the advanced control area. The first project is a study of control system tuning methods for multiple interacting proportional-integral-derivative PID control loops. The traditional method for tuning such systems, common on power plant boiler control systems, is to tune each loop in a specified sequence. An alternative method, in which all loops are tuned simultaneously, is being developed in this study and will be compared to the traditional ...

2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Methane de-NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

METHANE de-NOx® METHANE de-NOx® The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is teaming with the All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute and DB Riley to develop a pulverized-coal (PC)-combustion system that is an extension of IGT's METHANE de-NOx® technology. The technology is composed of a novel PC burner design using natural gas fired coal preheating developed and demonstrated in Russia, LNBs with internal combustion staging, and additional natural gas injection with overfire air. The coal is preheated at elevated temperatures (up to 1500oF) in oxygen deficient conditions prior to combustion. Coal preheat releases fuel-bound nitrogen together with volatiles present in the coal. These conditions promote the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen rather than to NOx.

236

Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Homeostatic control: economic integration of solar technologies into electric power operations and planning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic and technical interfaces between the electrical utility and the distributed, nondispatchable electric generation systems are only minimally understood at the present time. The economic issues associated with the interface of new energy technologies and the electric utility grid are discussed. Then the concept of Homeostatic Control is introduced and the use of such an economic concept applied to the introduction of nondispatchable technologies into the existing utility system is discussed. The transition and potential impact of a Homoeostatic Control system working with the existing electric utility system is discussed.

Tabors, R.D.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Integrated Emissions Control - Process Review: Multi-Pollutant Control Technology Descriptions and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A few air pollution control suppliers are developing processes that may reduce several pollutants simultaneously in a configuration that is lower in cost than the total cost of using existing devices for each pollutant. It would benefit the industry if an independent organization that is technically knowledgeable about all the components of such multi-pollutant controls evaluated the opportunities these processes offer.

2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

239

DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review July 14-15, 2004 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Program Review Overview Sorbent Injection Research Panel Discussion: Sorbent Injection for Hg Control Mercury Control Technology R&D I Poster Session Mercury Control Technology R&D II By-Product Characterization Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

240

Geothermal and geopressure blowout control. Phase I. Study of existing technology. Phase II. Program plan for geothermal and geopressure blowout control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four papers on existing technology and program planning for blowout control in geothermal and geopressured systems are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. (MHR)

Rehm, W.A.; Goins, W.C. Jr.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

DOE/NETL's Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions Control Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program LRC and Lignite Industry Meeting August 27-28, 2002 Bismarck, ND Thomas J. Feeley, III, Product Manager Innovations for Existing Plants LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Presentation Outline * About NETL * IEP Program * Hg Background * Hg and lignite coals * Hg Control R&D LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 About NETL LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Electric Power Using Coal Clean Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Production Environmental Control V21 Next Generation Carbon Sequestration Exploration & Production Refining &

242

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 MAY 1999 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between: The U.S. Department of Energy and * The Babcock & Wilcox Company * Energy and Environmental Research Corporation * New York State Electric & Gas Corporation MAY 1999 Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Cover image: Schematic of reburning technology Source: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Executive Summary ..................................................................................................

244

Evaluation of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Utility Applications in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of integrated solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine power plants indicates that these plants have the potential to maintain very high efficiencies over a broad range of load conditions. They may provide attractive utility applications for peaking, load following, and cogeneration if cost goals are achieved.

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

245

Radiation and Strain Effects in Silicon-Germanium Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work examines the effects of radiation and strain on silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) BiCMOS technology. First, aspects of the various SiGe HBT… (more)

Haugerud, Becca Mary

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Editorial and Introduction of the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short one page editorial to introduce the +30 peer reviewed papers contained within the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

Dooley, James J.; Benson, Sally M.; Karimjee, Anhar; Rubin, Edward S.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

NREL's National Wind Technology Center provides the world's only dedicated turbine controls testing platforms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NREL's National Wind Technology Center provides the world's only dedicated turbine controls testing platforms. Today's utility-scale wind turbine structures are more complex and their compo- nents more turbine designers is to capture the maximum amount of energy, with minimal structural loading, for minimal

248

Scoping Study: Surface Mount Technology and Applications in Power Electronics and Control Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electronics packaging industry has not seen a revolution of the magnitude of surface mount technology (SMT) since the development of the printed wiring board. This study examines the rapid shift toward SMT and provides an overview of SMT applications for power electronics and controls equipment manufacturers.

1996-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

249

Technology Reviews | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Reviews Technology Reviews Technology Reviews November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Selecting a distributed energy (DE) technology for a specific application depends on many factors. Considerations include the amount of power needed, the duty cycle, space constraints, thermal needs, emission regulations, fuel availability, utility prices, and interconnection issues. The following technology reviews include descriptions of a variety of DE and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies, providing (when available) such parameters as efficiency, size, and projected cost to install and maintain. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators During Load Changes, 38 pp, Feb. 2004 Catalogue of CHP Technologies, Dec. 2012 Cost Analysis of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Control Alternatives for

250

Technologies  

Technologies Materials. Aggregate Spray for Air Particulate; Actuators Made From Nanoporous Materials; Ceramic Filters; Energy Absorbing Material; Diode Arrays for ...

251

Technologies  

Technologies Energy. Advanced Carbon Aerogels for Energy Applications; Distributed Automated Demand Response; Electrostatic Generator/Motor; Modular Electromechanical ...

252

Technologies  

Technologies Energy, Utilities, & Power Systems. Advanced Carbon Aerogels for Energy Applications; Distributed Automated Demand Response; Electrostatic Generator/Motor

253

Technologies  

Technologies Research Tools. Cell-Free Assembly of NanoLipoprotein Particles; Chemical Prism; Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) ...

254

Technologies  

Science & Technology. Weapons & Complex Integration. News Center. News Center. Around the Lab. Contacts. For Reporters. Livermore Lab Report. ...

255

Environmental control technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This second in a series of annual reports on environmental control technology activities within DOE serves as a basis for evaluating program progress. The total DOE FY 1978 funding allocation related to environmenta control activities was $294 million, which corresponds to 3.3% of the total FY 1978 budget. Funding allocations for environmental control activities in the budget show fossil and nuclear energy technologies accounting for 90% of the total (26 and 64%, respectively). The majority of the fossil-energy-related activities were related to the coal program. Waste management activities demanded the majority of the nuclear energy funds. Conservation and geothermal made up 4 and 3%, respectively, of the total. The remaining portion of the total consisted of solar (2%), basic energy sciences (1%), and magnetic fusion energy (less than 1%). (MCW)

Not Available

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technology Development Roadmap in Support of Grid Appropriate Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grid Appropriate Reactors (GARs) are a component of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. GARs have smaller output power (Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technology development roadmap emphasizing the specific characteristics of GARs [1]. This roadmapping effort builds upon and focuses the recently developed, more general nuclear energy ICHMI technology development roadmap [2]. The combination of the smaller plant size, smaller grids, and deployment in locations without extensive prior nuclear power experience presents particular infrastructure, regulation, design, operational, and safeguards challenges for effective GAR deployment. ICHMI technologies are central to efficient GAR operation and as such are a dimension of each of these challenges. Further, while the particular ICHMI technologies to be developed would be useful at larger power plants, they are not high-priority development items at the larger plants. For example, grid transient resilience would be a useful feature for any reactor/grid combination and indeed would have limited some recent blackout events. However, most large reactors have limited passive cooling features. Large plants with active safety response features will likely preserve trip preferential grid transient response. This contrasts sharply with GARs featuring passive shutdown cooling, which can safely support grid stability during large grid transients. ICHMI technologies ranging from alternative control algorithms to simplified human-interface system designs are key to enabling GARs to respond properly and thereby stabilize the grid during transients.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; O'Hara, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Quinn, Edward L. [Longenecker & Associates; Miller, Don W. [Ohio State University

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

Not Available

1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

259

Communication to the 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT 10), Amsterdam, September 19-23, 2010.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Communication to the 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT 10 on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT-10, Amsterdam : Pays-Bas (2010)" #12;2. Historical context Total. The captured gas is compressed and transported for about 30km reusing an existing natural gas pipeline. The gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Technologies  

High Performance Computing (HPC) Technologies; Industrial Partnerships Office P.O. Box 808, L-795 Livermore, CA 94551 Phone: (925) 422-6416 Fax: (925) ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.

Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

262

Development and Improvement of Devices for Hydrogen Generation and Oxidation in Water Detritiation Facility Based on CECE Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Tritium Science and Technology - Tritium Science and Technology - Detritiation, Purification, and Isotope Separation

M. Rozenkevich et al.

263

Oil shale: potential environmental impacts and control technology. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio (IERL-Ci) has performed research related to oil shale processing and disposal since 1973. This research is in support of the Clean Air Act, The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Potential environmental impacts from oil shale development activities have been identified and potential control technologies are being evaluated through a combination of laboratory and field tests on actual oil shale waste streams. This paper discusses recent results from this program. Included are field test results on control of sulfur gases at Occidental Oil Shale's Logan Wash Site and Geokinetic's Kamp Kerogen Site, wastewater treatability studies on retort water and gas condensate at Logan Wash, and results of laboratory and field testing on raw and retorted oil shales.

Bates, E.R.; Liberick, W.W.; Burckle, J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Identification of environmental control technologies for geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Control technologies to manage environmental impacts from geothermal developments in California's Imperial Valley from development to 1985 are discussed. Included are descriptions of methods for managing land subsidence by fluid injection; for preventing undesirable induced seismicity or mitigating the effects of seismic events; for managing liquid wastes through pretreatment or subsurface injection; for controlling H/sub 2/S by dispersal, reinjection, and chemical treatment of effluents; and for minimizing the impact of noise from power plants by setting up buffer zones and exclusion areas.

Snoeberger, D.F.; Hill, J.H.

1978-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

265

Standards and Technology Adoption Case Study: Inter-Control Center Protocol (ICCP/TASE.2)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the story of the development and deployment of the Inter- Control Center Protocol (ICCP), later to be known as IEC 60870- 6, the Telecontrol Application Service Element 2 (TASE.2). The enthusiastic acceptance of this communications suite by the power industry is one of the most successful stories of standards and technology adoption in a business area that is notorious for its resistance to change. Nearly every Energy Management System (EMS) in use today provides an ICCP connection for exchanging...

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

266

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

David Holloway

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxice Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2000/1111 2000/1111 Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal- Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment August 1998 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Federal Energy Technology Center Morgantown, WV/Pittsburgh, PA 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or respon- sibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

268

Recent Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with government agencies, industries, and academic institutions to develop the technology and knowledge base for SOFC power generation systems capable of near term applications in small distributed generation, mobile auxiliary power and man portable units as well as long term applications in large centralized SOFC/turbine hybrid and reversible power plants operating on coal. R&D activities at PNNL include materials development, analysis of cell and stack performance degradation processes, cell/stack/system modeling and design optimization, and liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuel processing. Our technical activities address a wide range of challenges, such as long-term performance stability, cell/stack structural reliability, and low cost fabrication processes. Recent materials work has focused on the development of improved electrode materials and understanding of electrode poisoning processes in the presence of gas phase Cr, interconnect materials and electronically conductive corrosion-tolerant coatings capable of blocking Cr diffusion, and glass seal materials with improved structural properties. Modeling activities have emphasized improving the understanding of cell/stack degradation/failure mechanisms to assist development of larger active area cells and associated thermal management issues. Fuel processing activities include evaluation and optimization of on-cell reforming and related thermal management strategies in smaller and larger foot print stacks, and development of fuel desulphurization technology. In addition to performing R&D in a number of SOFC-related areas, PNNL is a co-leader (along with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative. This paper will summarize the status of current R&D activities at PNNL.

Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; McVay, Gary L.; Singh, Prabhakar

2006-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

269

Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Top hole drilling with dual gradient technology to control shallow hazards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently the "Pump and Dump" method employed by Exploration and Production (E&P) companies in deepwater is simply not enough to control increasingly dangerous and unpredictable shallow hazards. "Pump and Dump" requires a heavy dependence on accurate seismic data to avoid shallow gas zones; the kick detection methods are slow and unreliable, which results in a need for visual kick detection; and it does not offer dynamic well control methods of managing shallow hazards such as methane hydrates, shallow gas and shallow water flows. These negative aspects of "Pump and Dump" are in addition to the environmental impact, high drilling fluid (mud) costs and limited mud options. Dual gradient technology offers a closed system, which improves drilling simply because the mud within the system is recycled. The amount of required mud is reduced, the variety of acceptable mud types is increased and chemical additives to the mud become an option. This closed system also offers more accurate and faster kick detection methods in addition to those that are already used in the "Pump and Dump" method. This closed system has the potential to prevent the formation of hydrates by adding hydrate inhibitors to the drilling mud. And more significantly, this system successfully controls dissociating methane hydrates, over pressured shallow gas zones and shallow water flows. Dual gradient technology improves deepwater drilling operations by removing fluid constraints and offering proactive well control over dissociating hydrates, shallow water flows and over pressured shallow gas zones. There are several clear advantages for dual gradient technology: economic, technical and significantly improved safety, which is achieved through superior well control.

Elieff, Brandee Anastacia Marie

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Molten Salt Oxidation: A Thermal Technology for Waste Treatment and Demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

MSO is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes including obsolete explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit and in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. LLNL, under the direction and support of the Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) program, is currently building an integrated MSO plant for destroying explosives, explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated activated charcoal. In a parallel effort, LLNL also provides technical support to DOE for the implementation of the MSO technology at industrial scale at Richland, Washington. Over 30 waste streams have been demonstrated with LLNL-built MSO systems. In this paper we will present our latest experimental data, our operational experience with MSO and also discuss its process capabilities.

Hsu, P C; Watkins, B; Pruneda, C; Kwak, S

2001-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

272

Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technology Development Roadmap in Support of Grid Appropriate Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Grid Appropriate Reactors (GARs) are a component of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. GARs have smaller output power (<~600 MWe), than those intended for deployment on large, tightly coupled grids. This smaller size is important in avoiding grid destabilization, which can result from having a large fraction of a grid s electrical generation supplied by a single source. GARs are envisioned to be deployed worldwide often in locations without extensive nuclear power experience. DOE recently sponsored the creation of an Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technology development roadmap emphasizing the specific characteristics of GARs [1]. This roadmapping effort builds upon and focuses the recently developed, more general nuclear energy ICHMI technology development roadmap [2]. The combination of the smaller plant size, smaller grids, and deployment in locations without extensive prior nuclear power experience presents particular infrastructure, regulation, design, operational, and safeguards challenges for effective GAR deployment. ICHMI technologies are central to efficient GAR operation and as such are a dimension of each of these challenges. Further, while the particular ICHMI technologies to be developed would be useful at larger power plants, they are not high-priority development items at the larger plants. For example, grid transient resilience would be a useful feature for any reactor/grid combination and indeed would have limited some recent blackout events. However, most large reactors have limited passive cooling features. Large plants with active safety response features will likely preserve trip preferential grid transient response. This contrasts sharply with GARs featuring passive shutdown cooling, which can safely support grid stability during large grid transients. ICHMI technologies ranging from alternative control algorithms to simplified human-interface system designs are key to enabling GARs to respond properly and thereby stabilize the grid during transients.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; O'Hara, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Quinn, Edward L. [Longenecker & Associates; Miller, Don W. [Ohio State University

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Technolog  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research in Research in Science and Technolog y Sandia pushes frontiers of knowledge to meet the nation's needs, today and tomorrow Sandia National Laboratories' fundamental science and technology research leads to greater understanding of how and why things work and is intrinsic to technological advances. Basic research that challenges scientific assumptions enables the nation to push scientific boundaries. Innovations and breakthroughs produced at Sandia allow it to tackle critical issues, from maintaining the safety, security and effectiveness of the nation's nuclear weapons and preventing domestic and interna- tional terrorism to finding innovative clean energy solutions, develop- ing cutting-edge nanotechnology and moving the latest advances to the marketplace. Sandia's expertise includes:

274

Development and demonstration of advanced technologies for direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons (methanol, methane, propane)  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells use methanol directly as a fuel, rather than the reformate typically required by fuel cells, thus eliminating the reformer and fuel processing train. In this program, Giner, Inc. advanced development of two types of direct methanol fuel cells for military applications. Advancements in direct methanol proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (DMPEMFC) technology included developement of a Pt-Ru anode catalyst and an associated electrode structure which provided some of the highest DMPEMFC performance reported to date. Scale-up from a laboratory-scale single cell to a 5-cell stack of practical area, providing over 100 W of power, was also demonstrated. Stable stack performance was achieved in over 300 hours of daily on/off cycling. Direct methanol aqueous carbonate fuel cells were also advanced with development of an anode catalyst and successful operation at decreased pressure. Improved materials for the cell separator/matrix and the hardware were also identified.

Kosek, J.A.; LaConti, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Computers and the internet play an increasingly larger role in the lives of students. In this activity, students must use various web sites to locate specific pieces of...

276

Roadmap for Research, Development, and Demonstration of Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by a number of concerns. Although international implementation of evolutionary nuclear power plants and the progression toward new plants in the United States have spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, design and development programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for advanced reactor concepts, such as the Generation IV Program and Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), introduce different plant conditions and unique plant configurations that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve programmatic goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, there are challenges that need to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to effectively and efficiently complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of digital technology.

Miller, Don W.; Arndt, Steven A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Dudenhoeffer, Donald D.; Hallbert, Bruce P.; Holcomb, David E.; Wood, Richard T.; Naser, Joseph A.; O'Hara, John M.; Quinn, Edward L.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A role for arms control and technology in peace-keeping operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a potential role for arms control monitoring technology in peace-keeping operations. The basic idea is to utilize monitoring technology developed or suggested for treaty verification (primarily Conventional Forces Europe (CFE), but other treaties as well) to minimize the exposure of humans as part of ``peace-keeping`` forces in various trouble spots throughout the world. The impetus comes from the dangers and high costs of stationing peace-keeping of forces in areas such as Bosnia-Herzegovina. Aside from the costs associated with such efforts the loss of life has escalated recently from 743 peace keepers lost from 1948 to 1988, to 180 lives lost in 1993 alone. Some potential advantages to using technology for certain monitoring roles are discussed in the paper and include: minimizing exposure/risk to peace-keeping personnel from hostile fire, hostage taking, etc.; sharable technology will allow all parties to view results, assess violations or transgressions, etc.; can be applied to equipment, railways, roads, etc., to confirm human and other monitoring capabilities; and provides data to settle disputes on which side initiated hostilities.

Indusi, J.; Allentuck, J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

MW-class hybrid power system based on planar solid oxide stack technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scale-Up of Planar SOFC Stack Scale-Up of Planar SOFC Stack Technology for MW-Level Combined Cycle System Final Report TIAX LLC Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference: D0136 Submitted to NETL October 3, 2003 1 NETL-Hybrid Scale-UP/D0136/SS/V1 1 Executive Summary 2 Background, Objectives & Approach 3 SOFC Cell Geometry and Modeling 4 SOFC Power Scale-up 5 System Design and Costs 6 Conclusions & Recommendations A Appendix 2 NETL-Hybrid Scale-UP/D0136/SS/V1 Executive Summary SECA Strategy NETL wanted to understand if and how SECA-style anode-supported SOFC stacks could be scaled-up for use in MW-level combined cycle plants. * SECA strategy relies on the use of modular, mass produced, SOFC stacks in the 3 - 10 kW capacity range for a wide range of applications. * Technical feasibility small-scale applications has been evaluated by SECA:

279

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT enhancemenT aDDiTive TechnoLogy for mercury conTroL Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The combustion of subbituminous coals typically results in higher fractions of elemental mercury emissions than the combustion of bituminous coals. This complicates mercury capture efforts, particularly for technologies using powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection, because elemental mercury is not readily captured by PAC injection alone. In short, unmodified PACs are better suited for bituminous coals than for subbituminous coals. Various proprietary sorbent enhancement additives (SEA) have been developed to increase the mercury reactivity of PACs, and perhaps fly

280

Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI?s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. Also, several installation activities were initiated this month for the testing of a new EPRI/ADA Technologies sorbent sampling system in December. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.

None

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evaluation of H/sub 2/S control technology for geothermal energy sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was conducted to identify processes that are most applicable for control of H/sub 2/S from geothermal sources. Both vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated sources were considered within the electric power generation category. The source characteristics, H/sub 2/S control requirements, and applicable technologies are discussed for the two geothermal sources. An evaluation of the applicable control technology indicates that there are three major approaches for H/sub 2/S removal. These are (a) upstream cleaning (ahead of the power plant), (b) removal of H/sub 2/S from condenser vent emissions, and (c) H/sub 2/S removal from cooling water, including condensate. The most promising processes for these emission points, based on current information, are as follows: the EIC process for upstream cleaning of liquid-dominated sources. For condenser vent emissions, the Stretford process appears to be most applicable; for cooling tower emissions, the iron catalyst process, followed by the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ process, seems most appropriate.

Not Available

1978-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

284

Growth of SrTiO{sub 3}(110) film by oxide molecular beam epitaxy with feedback control  

SciTech Connect

By controlling the growth of complex oxide films with atomic precision, emergent phenomena and fascinating properties have been discovered, and even been manipulated. With oxide molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) we grow high-quality SrTiO{sub 3}(110) films by evaporating Sr and Ti metals with separate controls of the open/close timing of the shutters. The incident electron beam angle of the reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is adjusted to make the (01) beam sensitive to surface chemical concentration. By monitoring such an intensity, we tune the shutter timing to synchronize the evaporation amount of Sr and Ti in real-time. The intensity is further used as a feedback control signal for automatic growth optimization to fully compensate the possible fluctuation of the source flux rates upon extended growth. A 22 nm-thick film is obtained with the precision of metal cation stoichiometry better than 0.5%.

Feng Jiagui; Yang Fang; Yang Yang; Gu Lin; Guo Jiandong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed-Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhiming [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed-Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/134, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Zhang Jiandi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Assessment of H/sub 2/S control technologies for geothermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Techniques for controlling hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) from geothermal development are analyzed. Several technologies for controlling H/sub 2/S emissions from power plants are examined. The Hydrogen Peroxide Combination System, Stretford System and possibly EIC or Coury upstream controls appear capable of compliance with the emission limitations of 100 grams per hour per gross megawatt in 1980 (and 50 q/hr/(g) MW in 1985 or 1990) at the Geysers Dry stream field in Northern California. Unresolved problems still plague all these options. Well field operations result in H/sub 2/S releases from well drilling, well venting and steam stacking. Hydrogen peroxide reduces H/sub 2/S emissions during drilling and venting can be controlled with vent gathering (condensation/reinjection) systems. Steam stacking during power plant outages emit more H/sub 2/S over shorter periods than other field operations. Potential controls for stacking are: (1) upstream abatement, (2) automated well operation, (3) computerized wellfield operation (as of PG and E's Geysers Unit No. 15), and (4) further steamfield interconnection (cross-overs).

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems, sensors, and communication technologies for demand response and load factor control applications

Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Work function control at metal high-dielectric-constant gate oxide interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been difficulty in finding metals of sufficiently large or small effective work function to act as metal electrodes on high-dielectric-constant gate oxides. To understand the factors affecting the effective work function, we have calculated ... Keywords: High K oxides, Metal gates

K. Tse; J. Robertson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

Atomic scale control of catalytic process in oxidation of Pb thin films  

SciTech Connect

Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate that oxidation on Pb films is greatly enhanced by atomic Cs catalysts. With only a minute concentration of isolated Cs substitutional atoms in the surface layer (0.004 ML coverage), surface oxidation rates are greatly enhanced. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that a substitutional Cs atom strongly increases O2 binding on the surface. Then, with additional oxygen exposure this substitutional Cs-initiated oxidation process results in growth of PbO layers in an auto-catalytic manner. Furthermore, we investigate the role of temperature in the oxidation of the Pb films with and without Cs, and we explore the overall morphology of the resultant oxide layers.

Kim, Jisun [University of Texas, Austin; Khajetoorians, Alexander Ako [University of Texas, Austin; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ICQD, University of S& T, Hefei, China; Shih, Chih-Kang [University of Texas, Austin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

McClintock, Carlee [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Demonstration of Smart Building Controls to Manage Building Peak Loads: Innovative Non-Wires Technologies  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the non-wires solutions effort, BPA in partnership with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exploring the use of two distributed energy resources (DER) technologies in the City of Richland. In addition to demonstrating the usefulness of the two DER technologies in providing peak demand relief, evaluation of remote direct load control (DLC) is also one of the primary objectives of this demonstration. The concept of DLC, which is used to change the energy use profile during peak hours of the day, is not new. Many utilities have had success in reducing demand at peak times to avoid building new generation. It is not the need for increased generation that is driving the use of direct load control in the Northwest, but the desire to avoid building additional transmission capacity. The peak times at issue total between 50 and 100 hours a year. A transmission solution to the problem would cost tens of millions of dollars . And since a ?non wires? solution is just as effective and yet costs much less, the capital dollars for construction can be used elsewhere on the grid where building new transmission is the only alternative. If by using DLC, the electricity use can be curtailed, shifted to lower use time periods or supplemented through local generation, the existing system can be made more reliable and cost effective.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Hatley, Darrel D.

2004-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

293

Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume II. Final report, Appendix A: selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements  

SciTech Connect

A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. The purpose of this survey and identification of DSG technologies is to present an understanding of the special characteristics of each of these technologies in sufficient detail so that the physical principles of their operation and the internal control of each technology are evident. In this way, a better appreciation can be obtained of the monitoring and control requirements for these DSGs from a remote distribution dispatch center. A consistent approach is being sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. From this study it appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Total Facility Control - Applying New Intelligent Technologies to Energy Efficient Green Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy efficiency through intelligent control is a core element of any "Green Building". We need smarter, more efficient ways of managing the energy consuming elements within a building. But what we think of as "the building" is only a small piece of the puzzle. We have to think broader in order to gain the greater energy savings and efficiencies that are possible. "Total Facility Control" is a concept that we need to embrace and consider when we design, commission, and retrofit our facilities. Very often a single building is part of a larger campus or collection of buildings under a common management domain. Be it a university, public school district, office complex, or multiuse tenant space, there are often multiple "buildings" plus the connectivity between buildings: walkway lighting, signage, parking structures, and even the irrigation systems. We don't often think about the outdoor lighting, security, or irrigation as part of the building management plan, but it can be a significant contributing factor when looking at places to save on energy and improve operational efficiency. We must change the way we design our buildings, facilities, campuses, and enterprises in order to be more energy efficient and be green. A variety of technologies and design principles are available to ensure we move in a positive direction. We must make our systems and processes more visible and, hence, more accessible. At the core of this is the visibility and control of the systems within these environments. A majority of the building control systems in operation today are extremely limited in their ability to achieve higher efficiencies because there is no intelligent control or communication system available; and the amount of cross system interoperability is even scarcer. What does an interoperable system architecture look like? It's one in which a wide variety of energy consuming, intelligent devices can share their information and be controlled by an energy management system. Newer technologies use open systems, open protocols, and higher levels of interoperability, all of which have been proven to cost effectively provide competitive solutions. Better energy efficiency and improved operational costs start with better visibility and control of the myriad of systems within a facility. They must communicate together in a way that enables greater functionality and lower costs. Total Facility Control must be considered as we look at the entire building envelope as well as the rest of the facility systems. Included in the mix are HVAC, indoor lighting, security, access, sun shading, indoor air quality, sound masking and alarm annunciation, elevators/escalators, appliances, power conditioning, irrigation, energy metering, outdoor/parking lot lighting, street lighting, co-generation stations, and much more. This paper will discuss some of the basic concepts, architectures, and technologies that are being used today to implement a Total Facility Control model.

Bernstein, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Effects of battery technologies, driving patterns, and climate comfort control on the performance of electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A computer software package, EAGLES, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to analyze electric vehicle (EV) performance. In this paper, we present EAGLES predictions of EV driving range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption under various driving patterns, with different battery technologies, and with assumptions concerning use of air conditioners and/or heaters for climate comfort control. The specifications of a baseline, four-passenger EV for given design performance requirements are established, assuming urban driving conditions represented by the Los Angeles 92 (LA-92) driving cycle and using battery characteristics similar to those of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) midterm battery performance goals. To examine the impacts of driving patterns, energy consumption is simulated under three different driving cycles: the New York City Cycle, the Los Angeles 92 Cycle, and the ECE-15 Cycle. To test the impacts of battery technologies, performance attributes of an advanced lead-acid battery, the USABC midterm battery goals, and the USABC long-term battery goals are used. Finally, EV energy consumption from use of air conditioners and/or heaters under different climates is estimated and the associated driving range penalty for one European city (Paris) and two United States cities (Chicago and Los Angeles) is predicted. The results of this paper show the importance of considering various effects, such as battery technology, driving pattern, and climate comfort control, in the determination of EV performances. Electric vehicle energy consumption decreases more than 20% when a battery with characteristics similar to the USABC long-term goals is used instead of an advanced lead-acid battery.

Marr, W.W.; Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.

1994-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Oxides for Spintronics - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Oxides for Spintronics. Author(s) ...

297

Applications of Oxide Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discovery of the new family of copper-oxide superconductors has opened an area of exciting new materials science with enormous potential for practical developments in technology and engineering. Research was conducted to understand the basic physical properties and the materials characteristics of the high temperature superconductors that control their electrical and mechanical properties, and determine their potential usefulness. Material properties and current carrying capabilites of the new Bismut...

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

Sivakumar, Vikram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

SciTech Connect

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 75 Optimal Pulse Shaping for Plasma Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and control of next generation plasma process reactors must be explored. Standard operation of plasma reactors describes the bulk plasma region of a pure argon inductively coupled reactor and is developed using a zeroIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 75 Optimal Pulse

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

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301

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Controlled thermonuclear fusion research in Europe -- Competence in advanced physics and technologies  

SciTech Connect

Development of Fusion power is being pursued in all major industrial countries. The European Union, together with countries associated to the EURATOM-Framework Program undertakes an integrated RTD program for the development of magnetic fusion. The Key Action Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion has the objectives to develop the capacity to construct and operated a Next Step device for which the design is being pursued in international collaboration (ITER EDA, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Engineering Design Activities); to undertake structured activities for concept improvements for a fusion power station; to develop technologies needed in the longer term for a prototype fusion reactor. Work on the socio-economic aspects of fusion and a keep in touch activity coordinating national civil research activities in inertial confinement fusion complement the program.

Bruhns, H.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C. [eds.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the needs of much of the world that lacks highly stable, densely interconnected electrical grids. SMRs can present lower capital and operating costs than large reactors, allow incremental additions to power generation capacity that closely match load growth and support multiple energy applications (i.e., electricity and process heat). Taking advantage of their smaller size and modern design methodology, safety, security, and proliferation resistance may also be increased. Achieving the benefits of SMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management to address multi-unit, multi-product-stream generating stations. Realizing the goals of SMR deployment also depends on the resolution of technical challenges related to the unique characteristics of these reactor concepts. This paper discusses the primary issues related to SMR deployment that can be addressed through crosscutting research, development, and demonstration involving instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies.

Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the needs of much of the world that lacks highly stable, densely interconnected electrical grids. SMRs can present lower capital and operating costs than large reactors, allow incremental additions to power generation capacity that closely match load growth and support multiple energy applications (i.e., electricity and process heat). Taking advantage of their smaller size and modern design methodology, safety, security, and proliferation resistance may also be increased. Achieving the benefits of SMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management to address multi-unit, multi-product-stream generating stations. Realizing the goals of SMR deployment also depends on the resolution of technical challenges related to the unique characteristics of these reactor concepts. This paper discusses the primary issues related to SMR deployment that can be addressed through crosscutting research, development, and demonstration involving instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies.

Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions  

SciTech Connect

A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

How do operators monitor a complex, dynamic work domain? The impact of control room technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: cognitive engineering, control rooms, human-machine interface, monitoring, nuclear power plants, process control, supervisory control

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited from the GATE funding and produced journal articles and intellectual property as a result. The remainder of this document outlines the productivity resulting from GATE funds. The topics include the following: GATE Hybrid Vehicle Systems Related Courses; Students Supported; Publications; and Patents. A discussion regarding the HEVC accomplishments with respect to the GATE funding goals is provided in the conclusion.

Andrew Frank

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

Egidi, P.V.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

310

DOE-NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions from Coal Mercury Emissions from Coal 1 st International Experts' Workshop May 12-13, 2004 Glasgow, Scotland Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory TJ Feeley _Scotland_ 2004 Presentation Outline * Who is NETL * Why mercury control? * NETL mercury control R&D * NETL coal utilization by-products R&D TJ Feeley _Glasgow_May 2004 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory TJ Feeley Feb. 2004 * R&D Activities - Mercury control - NO x control - Particulate matter control - Air quality research - Coal utilization by-products - Water management Innovations for Existing Plants

311

CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

312

Kinetics, FTIR and controlled atmosphere EXAFS study of the effect of chlorine on Pt supported catalysts during oxidation reactions.  

SciTech Connect

The poisoning effect of Cl on the activity of Pt-supported catalysts for CO, methane, and ethane oxidation has been investigated by kinetic studies and in situ IR and controlled atmosphere EXAFS spectroscopies. Catalysts containing 1.5% Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by incipient wetness from H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} precursors. The reduced catalysts have similar dispersion (0.8) as estimated by H{sub 2} chemisorption. The Cl-free catalyst was 10 times more active than the Cl-containing catalyst during CO and ethane oxidation. Addition of HCl to the Cl-free catalyst rendered its activity identical to the catalyst prepared from Cl-containing precursors. The presence of Cl also affects the activity of 2% Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalysts, but to a lower extent. On the Cl-free oxidation catalyst, Pt-Pt and Pt-O bonds were detected using EXAFS, suggesting that the reduced metal particles are not fully oxidized under the reaction conditions. Additionally, chemisorption of CO by the oxidized catalyst indicates that a portion of the reduced Pt atoms is exposed to the reactants. On the Cl-containing catalyst, there are also Pt-Cl as well as Pt-Pt and Pt-O bonds. The later catalyst, however, does not chemisorb CO, indicating that there are no reduced surface Pt atoms. The effect of Cl poisoning on the oxidation activity of Pt supported on silica is similar to that on alumina. IR results show that chlorine significantly reduces the amount of CO adsorbed on metallic Pt sites. At low temperature there is little CO adsorbed on the Cl-containing Pt/silica catalyst, while at higher temperature the amount of adsorbed CO increases, likely due to reduction of the oxidized surface. The catalyst activities correlate well with the amount of reduced surface sites, and a model is proposed to explain the mechanism of chloride poisoning, which is shown to occur mainly by site blocking.

Gracia, F. J.; Wolf, E. E.; Miller, J. T.; Kropf, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Notre Dame; BP Research Center

2002-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

313

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications  

SciTech Connect

An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly.

Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Assessment of Distributed Resource Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the current status and prospects for future improvements of distributed resource (DR) technologies: microturbines, PEM fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, stirling engines, and energy storage devices. It also assesses the communications, interconnection, and control systems used by these devices.

1999-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

316

Coal Ash Carbon Removal Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Market resistance to the use of ash containing elevated levels of carbon and/or ammonia has become a major concern for coal-fired facilities in recent years as a result of increased use of nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction environmental control technologies. EPRI initiated this state of practice assessment to help power producers evaluate alternatives for ash beneficiation.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical Peak Demands in Commercial Buildings” Center for Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET), IEA/OECD Analyses

Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metering technology makes it possible to differentiate electricity usage patterns of buildings on an hourly or sub-

Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

322

Impacts of NOx Controls on Mercury Controllability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Past tests have led researchers and air pollution regulators to hypothesize that nitrogen oxides (NOx) controls can enhance mercury capture by particulate collection devices and sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers. This technology review presents results obtained to date from a comprehensive program designed to confirm, qualify, and quantify these hypotheses.

2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

Supervisory control using EIB - KONNEX technology: a sensor network protocol enabling a holistic and environmental approach in architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Firstly, the conceptual framework is described. This is the set of ideas and design approaches which it is believed to be fundamental to designing for sustainability in the built environment, and which will structure the value system for carrying out ... Keywords: EIB - KONNEX technology, architecture, built environment, ecology, energy management, heat pump, holistic approach, intelligent building, investment pay back period, sensor networks, supervisory control

John K. Sakellaris

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric Generation Technology Conventional Coal-Fired PowerPlants Advanced Coal-Electric Plants OperatingCharacteristics for Conventional Coal- Fired Power

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rational control over the morphology and the functional properties of inorganic nanostructures has been a long-standing goal in the development of bottom-up device fabrication processes. We report that the geometry of ...

Joo, Jaebum

328

Assessment of oil shale retort wastewater treatment and control technology: phases I and II. Final report, May 1979-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale retorting is a synthetic fuel production technology on the verge of commercialization in the United States. In order to ensure that the emerging oil shale industry will have minimal adverse effects upon surface and/or groundwater where recoverable reserves of oil shale are found, demonstrated technologies to upgrade oil shale wastewaters must be available to developers. To this end, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with Monsanto Research Corporation to conduct a three-year, five-phase study to: (1) summarize known information concerning oil shale retort wastewater sources and characteristics; (2) identify potentially applicable control technologies capable of treating the identified wastewater streams; and (3) design, construct, and operate pilot-plant facilities to evaluate the selected technologies. This report presents results of Phases I and II, in which literature and other information sources were surveyed to obtain relevant data about oil shale retorting technologies, wastewater sources and characteristics, potential wastewater uses, and potentially applicable treatment technologies. As a result of the study, data gaps were identified, and recommendations for bench-scale treatability studies were made.

Klieve, J.R.; Rawlinss, G.D.; Hoeflein, J.R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rittman, P.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 20, 1977--September 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of the subject program is to assess the potential options for controlling atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Accordingly, CO/sub 2/ control scenarios based on conventional technology and applied to the larger industrial emitters will be prepared. The studies will include preliminary cost estimates of selected processes, to identify fruitful areas for environmental control technology (ECT) programmatic development as related to CO/sub 2/ release control. BNL's prior experience in this area includes the development and evaluation of a number of processes for removing CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere for the purpose of producing synthetic carbonaceous fuels including methanol, gasoline, and methane. Background information from other DOE programs will be used to determine the limitations for the control studies. This progress report presents background information on: (1) the concentration levels of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere during the last one hundred years; (2) the possible effects of rising CO/sub 2/ levels; (3) the impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on overall worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions; (4) the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emissions; and (5) process considerations for controlling CO/sub 2/.

Steinberg, M.; Albanese, A.S.; Dang, V.D.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane. Technical progress report, June 15, 1990--December 14, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have demonstrated in this work (1) that methane is readily activated at mild conditions (100{degree}C, 1 torr) over a relatively noble metal, Pd. This was observed using a stepped and kinked Pd(679) crystal (1), and other crystal faces are now being investigated to establish whether the cracking of the C-H bond of methane on Pd is structure sensitive or structure insensitive. Oxygen chemisorption is extremely structure sensitive: weakly bonded, highly reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(100) surface (2), while strongly bonded, moderately reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(111) and Pd(679). Reaction of the weakly bonded oxygen with surface carbide gives rise to CO{sub 2} over clean Pd(100) but to CO over halogen-doped Pd(100) (3--5). The effect of halogens is primarily ensemble-controlling, or oxygen-supply restricting, but long range influence of surface Cl on the strength of the Pd-O bond has also been observed (3). Because the overall chemistry of methane activation with the subsequent oxidation gives rise to the very important oxidative reforming CH{sub 4} + 1/2 O{sub 2} {yields}{sub Pd/Cl} CO + 2 H{sub 2}, Pd/Cl we plan to continue our study of this reaction in detail over Pd(100) (completed), Pd(111) (initiated), Pd(311) (initiated), Pd(110) (to be initiated), and Pd(679) (completed), without and with the halogen modifiers.

Klier, K.; Simmons, G.W.; Herman, R.G.; Miller, A.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Proceedings: 2000 NOx Controls Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2000 EPRI workshop on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls for utility boilers provided a medium for member utilities to augment their knowledge of recent operating experience and developments on NOx control technologies. The event focused on improving methods of compliance with emission regulations mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 without jeopardizing efficiency and plant performance.

2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors  

SciTech Connect

Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

Noh, Joo Hyon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Noh, Jiyong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kreit, Eric [University of Cincinnati; Heikenfeld, Jason [University of Cincinnati; Rack, Philip D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

New Mercury Control Technology for the Ft. Dix Waste-to-Energy Plant Sid Nelson Jr.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature. Mercury chloride (HgCI2) tends to be found in incinerator flue gases and this species may be well mercury measurement with no interference from acidic gases, such as S02. Low-Temperature Sorbents After of the oxidized mercury species, such as mercury chloride. Then, the large surface area in the baghouse would

Columbia University

336

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has included (1) construction and installation of an ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer (UPS) with power supply and pumping system that has been added as an attachment to the SCIENTA ESCA-300 instrument, (2) modification of the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS) to produce a stable ultra high vacuum (UHV) environment for initial experiments with a Pd(311) single crystal, (3) construction of a separate high vacuum system for preparation of surface doped model catalysts by chemical vapor deposition and pretreatment of a Pd(100) single crystal in this system, (4) carried out detailed experiments of methane activation and oxidation on Pd(679) using a high pressure reaction cell contained in a third ultra high vacuum system, (5) completion of adsorption/desorption studies of H{sub 2}, CO, and O{sub 2} on Pd(679), (6) utilized angle-resolved XPS to probe the diffraction characteristics and structure of the Pd(100) surface, (7) determination of the electronic surface structure of Pd(100) using angle-resolved UPS, and (8) computational analysis of oxygen overlayers on the PD(100) surface. Each of these is discussed in further detail below.

Klier, K.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Applying IT governance principles of control, coordination, and communication in a shared services technology group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IT governance focuses on how leadership can be effective and efficient in guiding an organization's use of technology to meet business needs. Over the past decade, IT governance has become a key issue of concern for senior ...

Logan, Wendy-Kay (Wendy-Kay Ruth)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Rich Reagent Injection Technology for NOx Control in Cyclone-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes multiple demonstration projects that have led to commercial development of the Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) technology. RRI was developed by Reaction Engineering International (REI) with funding from EPRI and U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL). Prior to RRI, most NOx reduction efforts that focused on modifying combustion to reduce NOx formation in fossil-fuel-fired boilers and furnaces involved air or fuel staging. Even with significant levels of furnace stag...

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

339

Advanced Nuclear Technology: Quality Control of Concrete During Construction - Voids Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main type of degradation of concrete structures during the construction of nuclear power plants has been the existence of honeycombs and voids due to inadequate concrete design and placement. The detection of these honeycombs and voids in concrete structures has been attempted with nondestructive evaluation technologies with limited success. The addition of steel-concrete construction techniques further complicates the ability of these technologies to ...

2012-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

340

Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management.

Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

342

EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

343

Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers  

SciTech Connect

Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a Ď?-complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term â??ring-walkingâ?ť, and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent stereoregularity and molecular weight distributions with polydispersities that are consistent with a living polymerization sequence. Another important objective of this program concerned the use of these new catalysts and improved mechanistic insight for the synthesis of specific polymeric materials with prespecified properties.

Bazan, Guillermo C

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

344

Program on Technology Innovation: Readiness of Existing and New U.S. Reactors for Mixed-Oxide (MOX) Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expanding interest in nuclear power and advanced fuel cycles indicate that use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in the current and new U.S. reactor fleet could become an option for utilities in the coming decades. In light of this renewed interest, EPRI has reviewed the substantial knowledge base on MOX fuel irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs). The goal was to evaluate the technical feasibility of MOX fuel use in the U.S. reactor fleet for both existing and advanced LWR designs (Generation III/III+).

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

345

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program is being conducted by a team consisting of AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems & Equipment (ASE) (formerly AiResearch Los Angeles Division) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal 'above and beyond' the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166 000/lb Hg removed. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Andrew P. Jones; Jeffrey W. Hoffmann; Dennis N. Smith; Thomas J. Feeley III; James T. Murphy [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Chemical oxidizers treat wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Based on the inherent benefits of these original oxidation systems, a second generation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has emerged. These processes combine key features of the first generation technologies with more sophisticated advances in UV technology, such as the new pulsed plasma xenon flash lamp that emits high-energy, high-intensity UV light. Second generation systems can be equipped with a transmittance controller to prevent lamp fouling or scaling. The coupling of the first generation's technology with the new UV sources provides the rapid destruction of chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons and humic acids from contaminated water. It also is effective in the treatment of organic laden gases from soil vapor extraction systems. AOPs may promote the oxidation (and subsequent removal) of heavy metals in water, though few data are available to verify the claim. The success of AOPs, including ozonation with UV light, hydrogen peroxide with UV light and advanced photolysis, is linked with their creation of hydroxyl-free radicals (OH[center dot]) that are effective in eliminating contaminants such as formaldehyde, chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. Hydroxyl free-radicals are consumed in microsecond reactions and exhibit little substrate selectivity with the exception of halogenated alkanes such as chloroform. They can act as chain carriers. Given their power, hydroxyl free-radicals react with virtually all organic solutes more quickly (especially in water) than any other oxidants, except fluorine. There are projects that have found the combination of some AOPs to be the most efficient organic destruction techniques for the job. For example, one project successfully remediated groundwater contaminated with gasoline and Number 2 diesel through successive treatments of ozone and hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet light, followed by granular activated carbon. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Stephenson, F.A. (Dames Moore, Phoenix, AZ (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Jonathan Koomey* andData to Improve Electricity Demand Forecasts–Final Report.further research. Electricity demand varies constantly. At

Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NO x (63). ~ Control and Power Plant Thermal Efficiency.ELECTRIC COAL- FIRED POWER PLANT thermal efficiency (heatthe overall thermal efficiency of the power plant. Fuel-Gas

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Next Generation of Monitoring and Control Systems Using Synchronized Sampling Technology and Multifunctional IEDs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solution enables full use of field recorded IED data by various utility groups such as protection engineers deployment of the solution. 1. Introduction Digital substation technology has been first introduced Intelligent Electronic Device (IEDs) designs to implementation of integrated Substation Automation Systems

Kezunovic, Mladen

352

PERFORMANCE OF NOx CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES ON THREE CALIFORNIA WASTE-TO-ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. There is a sub stantial volume of literature available discussing NOx in the first three undergrate zones on the SERRF units. Preliminary indications were that some NOx reduction) to quantify the effect of FGR's contribution to NOx reduction during simultaneous FGRIThermal DeNOx use; (b

Columbia University

353

Development, Implementation, and Testing of Fault Detection Strategies on the National Wind Technology Center's Controls Advanced Research Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center dedicates two 600 kW turbines for advanced control systems research. A fault detection system for both turbines has been developed, analyzed, and improved across years of experiments to protect the turbines as each new controller is tested. Analysis of field data and ongoing fault detection strategy improvements have resulted in a system of sensors, fault definitions, and detection strategies that have thus far been effective at protecting the turbines. In this paper, we document this fault detection system and provide field data illustrating its operation while detecting a range of failures. In some cases, we discuss the refinement process over time as fault detection strategies were improved. The purpose of this article is to share field experience obtained during the development and field testing of the existing fault detection system, and to offer a possible baseline for comparison with more advanced turbine fault detection controllers.

Johnson, K. E.; Fleming, P. A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

The Research of Traction Motor Energy-Saving Regenerative Braking Control Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In all the motor braking control systems, regenerative braking is the only way of energy-saving braking control mode. It can convert dynamic energy which generate during braking period into electric energy, then return to the grid. In this paper, through ... Keywords: regenerative braking, traction motor, direct torque, stator flux, slip frequency

Yuhua Wang; Jianlin Miao; Yuanfang Wei

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

IEC61850 based operation, control and management of utility connected microgrid using wireless technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Communications for monitoring, control and management of microgrid are very important for smart operation. This paper analyzed the information of microgrid for monitoring, control and management purposes and maps them according to power system automation ... Keywords: IEC61850, Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX, distributed energy resources (DERs), microgrid, microgrid communication network (MCN)

Mojaharul Islam; Hong-Hee Lee

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Program on Technology Innovation: Controlled Recycling of Contaminated Materials for Nuclear Industry Uses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses opportunities to recycle materials in radioactive waste by decontamination and fabrication into new components for use in the nuclear industry. In particular, a novel approach called "controlled recycling" involves a procedure that controls the material during decontamination, metal processing and remanufacture into components for reuse in the nuclear industry.

2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection  

SciTech Connect

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases  

SciTech Connect

Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

Brent Marquis

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the influence of the impurity content, particularly coal/carbon content, on the electrochemical oxidation of pyrite surfaces was investigated. The studies demonstrate that the coal/carbon content in coal-pyrite has a determining effect on the surface reactivity of pyrite. The oxidation behavior of high carbon-content coal-pyrite is completely different from that of purer coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. The effects of flotation gases on the flotation behavior of coal and the surface hydrophobicity of various coal-pyrite were investigated. It was found from the lab-scale column flotation studies that among the various gases studied (air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide), carbon dioxide produced the best results with a combustible recovery of 90% and ash-content of less than 9 percent. Finally, the surface energetic studies revealed that the surfaces of pyrites and coals produced by wet grinding is more heterogenous than that prepared by dry grinding.

Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, C.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil.

Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 2000. Trends in Energy Management TechnologyTrends in Energy Management Technology FEMP/NTDP TechnicalT. L. , "Trends in Energy Management Technology - Enabling

Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review of Advanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ExcelSyus - Excel Energy Technologies, Ltd. http://pdf Trends in Energy Management TechnologyTrends in Energy Management Technology Fault Detection and

Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 2000. Trends in Energy Management TechnologyInc. Siemens Building Technologies Inc. Teletrol Systems,Trends in Energy Management Technology FEMP/NTDP Technical

Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Low Wind Speed Technology Phase I: Advanced Independent Pitch Control; Advanced Energy System, Inc.  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes a subcontract with Advanced Energy Systems, Inc. to conduct a conceptual study of independent blade pitch control and possible impact on loads and cost of energy (COE).

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

371

POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND GROWTH IN EMISSIONS PLUMES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nucleation and growth of particles in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle concentrations near source regions. Pollution-control technologies have been added to coal-fired… (more)

Lonsdale, Chantelle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Control Technology for Shale Oil Wastewaters,~~ inpyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referred towaters are co-produced with shale oil and separated from it

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (Effluents from In-Situ Oil Shale Processing," in ProceedingsControl Technology for Oil Shale Retort Water," August 1978.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Site-controlled Ag nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy-Towards plasmonic integration technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate site-controlled growth of epitaxial Ag nanocrystals on patterned GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with high degree of long-range uniformity. The alignment is based on lithographically defined holes in which position controlled InAs quantum dots are grown. The Ag nanocrystals self-align preferentially on top of the InAs quantum dots. No such ordering is observed in the absence of InAs quantum dots, proving that the ordering is strain-driven. The presented technique facilitates the placement of active plasmonic nanostructures at arbitrarily defined positions enabling their integration into complex devices and plasmonic circuits.

Urbanczyk, Adam [COBRA Research Institute on Communication Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Noetzel, Richard [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM), ETSI Telecommunication, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review ofAdvanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and InformationSystems  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the fourth in a series, we provide a review of advanced applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the Federal sector. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second article [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. The third article [3] evaluated several products that exemplify the current state of practice in EMCIS. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of articles provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Using Advanced Control and Power Technologies to Improve the Reliability and Energy Efficiency of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Manufacturing in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Full implementation of advanced control and power technologies could save U.S. refineries and petrochemical plants an estimated $7.14 billion/year. California refineries process 1,893,020 barrels of crude per day -- about 11% of the total U.S. crude. Implementation of advanced control and power technologies could provide California refineries and petrochemical plants significant savings from increased energy efficiency and productivity. This report identifies these savings opportunities for California re...

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

A Survey of UAS Technologies for Command, Control, and Communication (C3)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) presents many challenges including airworthiness certification. As an alternative to the time consuming process of modifying the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs), ... Keywords: Certification, Command, control, and communication (C3), Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS)

Richard S. Stansbury; Manan A. Vyas; Timothy A. Wilson

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY 1 Online Parameterization of Lumped Thermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

considered as an energy storage device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Thermal management is a critical issue for onboard lithium are with the Vehicle and Battery Controls Depart- ment, Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn

Stefanopoulou, Anna

379

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Eligibility Commercial...

380

Development of a sorbent-based technology for control of mercury in flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents results of research being, conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of elemental mercury in simulated flue gases by using dry sorbents. Experimental results from investigation of various sorbents and chemical additives for mercury control are reported. Of the sorbents investigated thus far, an activited-carbon-based sorbent impregnated with about 15% (by weight) of sulfur compound provided the best results. The key parameters affecting mercury control efficiency in a fixed-bed reactor, such as reactor loading, reactor temperature, sorbent size distribution, etc., were also studied, and the results ire presented. In addition to activated-carbon-based sorbents, a non-carbon-based sorbent that uses an inactive substrate treated with active chemicals is being developed. Preliminary, experimental results for mercury removal by this newly developed sorbent are presented.

Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, Hann S.; Livengood, C.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of MerCAP for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control URS Group and its test team will perform research to further develop the novel Mercury Control via Adsorption Process (MerCAP™). The general MerCAP™ concept is to place fixed structures into a flue gas stream to adsorb mercury and then periodically regenerate them and recover the captured mercury. EPRI has shown that gold-based sorbents can achieve high levels of mercury removal in scrubbed flue gases. URS is proposing tests at two power plants using gold MerCAP™, installed downstream of either a baghouse or wet scrubber, to evaluate mercury removal from flue gas over a period of 6 months. At Great River Energy’s Stanton Station, which burns North Dakota lignite, sorbent structures will be retrofitted into a single compartment in the Unit 10 baghouse enabling reaction with a 6 MWe equivalence of flue gas. At Southern Company Services’ Plant Yates, which burns Eastern bituminous coal, gold-coated plates will be configured as a mist eliminator (ME) located downstream of a 1 MWe pilot wet absorber , which receives flue gas from Unit 1.

382

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation ProductsChapter 14 Cholesterol Oxidation Products: Other Biological Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products Chapter 14 Cholesterol Oxidation Products: Other Biological Effects Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

383

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation ProductsChapter 13 Cholesterol Oxidation Products and Atherosclerosis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products Chapter 13 Cholesterol Oxidation Products and Atherosclerosis Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

384

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation ProductsChapter 1 Cholesterol Oxidation Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products Chapter 1 Cholesterol Oxidation Mechanisms Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   ...

385

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation ProductsChapter 6 Harmonization of Cholesterol Oxidation Product Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products Chapter 6 Harmonization of Cholesterol Oxidation Product Analysis Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

386

Technical and economic assessment of particle control technology for direct coal fueled turbines: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Gilbert/Commomwealth (1984) analyzed ten different concepts for high-temperature, high-pressure control of gas stream particulate matter in coal-fueled pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems. This paper analyzes the five higher ranking concepts of the Gilbert study at direct coal fueled turbine conditions which are even more severe than PFBC conditions. The five concepts are ceramic crossflow filter, ceramic bag filter, granular bed filter, and advanced cyclones. Five ranking factors were used: economic, design, operations complexity, materials/mechanical, and development status. (DLC)

DiBella, C.A.W.; Thomas, R.L.; Rubow, L.N.; Zaharchuk, R.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Development of Mercury Oxidation Catalyst for Enhanced Mercury Capture by Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes recent progress on a mercury control technology development program co-funded by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), and several EPRI-member companies. The mercury control process under development uses catalysts installed downstream of the air heater and particulate control device to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) ...

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

388

Pacific Northwest Laboratory report on controlled thermonuclear reactor technology, January 1975 - September 1975  

SciTech Connect

The PNL staff has been studying fusion technology in areas such as economics, fusion-fission hybrid concepts, materials, neutronics, environment and safety. These studies have been scoped to make efficient use of ERDA resources, and to complement and support efforts at other laboratories. The effect the plasma and associated radiation and emission will have upon the surfaces of the first wall are being studied. Neutron sputtering experiments were made on niobium and gold and the results were evaluated for absolute neutron yields. Molybdenum and vanadium were studied for effects of ion bombardment under various conditions of helium injection. Graphite cloth is being irradiated for examination of radiation effects because it is suggested for use in several CTR concepts as a shield between the plasma and the first wall. Helium effects are being studied to characterize degradation of structural metal properties. Work is progressing on absolute measurement of the electrical resistivity of insulators and the demonstration of the feasibility of producing insulating coatings by sputter deposition. (auth)

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

Trembly, J.P.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Advanced gas atomization production of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base superalloys through process and solidification control.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) method was utilized to produce precursor Ni-Cr-Y-Ti powder with a surface oxide and an internal rare earth (RE)-containing… (more)

Meyer, John

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1  

SciTech Connect

A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

As part of CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a MACT floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

Information Center

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. It was shown previously that these trace gases are intrinsically related to the biochemical reactions occurring and, therefore, offer promise for on-line process monitoring and control. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has significant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected. Monitoring of conventional process indicators (i.e., pH, VFA, gas production) and trace gas (H{sub 2} and CO) indicators was conducted using a matrix of nine different steady-state OLRs (4-23 kg COD/m{sup 3} -d) and system HRTs (0.5 to 2.5 days) was performed to determine any correlation among the indicators. Of OLR, HRT, and influent COD, only OLR had any significant influence on the process indicators examined. All parameters except methane increased with increases in OLR; methane decreased with increased OLR. The OLR and gas production rate (GP) were observed to be linearly correlated.

Liebowitz, B.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development: A status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the last progress report, a 500 acfm system treating a slip stream from a single cylinder CWS fuel diesel engine was designed, constructed and tested. The system, as installed in the engine test laboratory, is shown in Figure 1. The system consists of a 6 in. diameter pipe with a flow control valve which diverts up to 500 acfm of exhaust gas from the single cylinder engine exhaust manifold. A gravity feeder injects sorbent into the exhaust gas stream which flows into the filter. In addition, anhydrous ammonia is injected into the gas stream from a pressurized cylinder to control NO[sub x] emission. The gas enters the filter housing from the top. Turning vanes direct the flow downwards toward the filter elements. The gas leaves the filter from the side. A detailed drawing of the filter, a filter element and compressed air system for cleaning the filters elements are shown in Figure 2. The filter media elements are closely spaced to increase the surface area-to-cloth ratio and to meet the space constraints. The filter media is composed of fiber metal with 3-5 micron fibers exhibiting good filtration characteristics. The fiber metal elements are relatively light and are constructed of Iconel or 316 SS, and can operate in the exhaust gas environment. High removal efficiency of particulate matter and S0[sub 2] was achieved using the barrier filter. The NO[sub x] removal efficiency was somewhat lower than was achieved in the bench scale tests, yet more than 85 % reduction of NO[sub x] level could be achieved.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M; van Kleunen, W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development: A status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the last progress report, a 500 acfm system treating a slip stream from a single cylinder CWS fuel diesel engine was designed, constructed and tested. The system, as installed in the engine test laboratory, is shown in Figure 1. The system consists of a 6 in. diameter pipe with a flow control valve which diverts up to 500 acfm of exhaust gas from the single cylinder engine exhaust manifold. A gravity feeder injects sorbent into the exhaust gas stream which flows into the filter. In addition, anhydrous ammonia is injected into the gas stream from a pressurized cylinder to control NO{sub x} emission. The gas enters the filter housing from the top. Turning vanes direct the flow downwards toward the filter elements. The gas leaves the filter from the side. A detailed drawing of the filter, a filter element and compressed air system for cleaning the filters elements are shown in Figure 2. The filter media elements are closely spaced to increase the surface area-to-cloth ratio and to meet the space constraints. The filter media is composed of fiber metal with 3-5 micron fibers exhibiting good filtration characteristics. The fiber metal elements are relatively light and are constructed of Iconel or 316 SS, and can operate in the exhaust gas environment. High removal efficiency of particulate matter and S0{sub 2} was achieved using the barrier filter. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency was somewhat lower than was achieved in the bench scale tests, yet more than 85 % reduction of NO{sub x} level could be achieved.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M; van Kleunen, W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 Environmental Control Technologies - NOx Control Technologies Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology for the Control of NOx Emissions from High-Sulfur Coal-Fired Boilers - Project Brief [PDF-247KB] Southern Company Services, Pensacola, FL PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT) Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Emissions from High-Sulfur Coal-Fired Boilers Volume 1, Final Report [PDF-29MB] (Oct 1996) Volume 2, Appendices A-N [PDF-20.2MB] (Oct 1996) Volume 3, Appendices O-T [PDF-17.9MB] (Oct 1996) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports Demonstration Of Selective Catalytic Reduction For The Control Of NOx Emissions From High-Sulfur Coal-Fired Boilers, Project Performance Summary [PDF-1.1MB] (Nov 2002)

397

Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies Pub ID 38707 Title Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies Status Distributed Communication Type ORNL report ORNL Review? Scientific communication that requires ORNL review Information Category Protected CRADA Information ORNL Report Classification Final Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

Szybist, J.P.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

398

Available Technologies: Universal Electrochromic Smart Window ...  

Renewable Energy; Environmental Technologies. Monitoring and Imaging; ... nanocrystals of either tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) or aluminum-doped zinc oxide ...

399

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology  

SciTech Connect

The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.

Kamal, N.; Sawhney, P.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

test test Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research collaboration availability. If you can't find the technology you're interested in, please contact us at TTD@lbl.gov. Energy ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES Aerosol Sealing Aerosol Remote Sealing System Clog-free Atomizing and Spray Drying Nozzle Air-stable Nanomaterials for Efficient OLEDs Solvent Processed Nanotube Composites OLEDS with Air-stable Structured Electrodes APIs for Online Energy Saving Tools: Home Energy Saver and EnergyIQ Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost Dynamic Solar Glare Blocking System Electrochromic Device Controlled by Sunlight Electrochromic Windows with Multiple-Cavity Optical Bandpass Filter Electrochromic Window Technology Portfolio Universal Electrochromic Smart Window Coating

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-Scale Field Trial of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process CONSOL R&D, PPL, Lechler, and Martin Marietta propose to conduct a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process at Unit 1 of the PPL Martins Creek Station. LTMC has the ability to reduce mercury emissions by over 90% as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41181. The next step is to demonstrate the performance, operability, and economics on a full-scale utility boiler. In addition this project will demonstrate that magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 ) slurry injection into the flue gas reduces SO3 concentration sufficiently to avoid corrosion at the low-temperature conditions, and will demonstrate that water spray humidification can maintain ESP performance under low-SO3 conditions.

402

Partnering Today: Technology Transfer Highlights Reactive ...  

THE LLNL TECHNOLOGY COMPANY PRODUCT Partnering Today: Technology Transfer Highlights Reactive NanoTechnologies Inc.: Temperature-controlled Precision Bonding

403

Emission Control and Elimination Through The Use Of Condensation and Heat Recovery Technologies- A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing regulatory air requirements have created potential restrictions on current and future plant operations. Any process design that allows for the elimination of discharge points and the reduction of emissions at a major source can affect the strategic planning for the facility. This can provide critical flexibility, especially in fast-paced markets. Such a process design and implementation were undertaken at a ceramic capacitor manufacturing facility. This facility utilizes multiple small-scale solvent drying processes that emit volatile organic compounds (VOC's). These exhausts could be recirculated for the purposes of emission point elimination, heat recovery and solvent reuse. The aim was to create an environmental control process which would pay for itself within two to three years. An assessment of the alternatives was completed and standard HVAC-type condensation was selected. The unit operations for the proposed process consisted of a high efficiency air-to-air heat exchanger, cooling coil and a chiller. The air passing across the heat exchanger and coil would begin to dehumidify. In addition, solvents contained in the air stream would begin to condense to some equilibrium level and would be absorbed in the condensing water. Eventually, since there would be no addition of water in the process, the level of water in the condensate would fall off dramatically. A prototype unit capable of handling three ovens with a total air flow of 1200 ft3/min (cfm) was installed. The unit performed as expected with the exception that condensate concentrations remained low. Product testing was undertaken to ensure that returning air containing a low level of solvent would not adversely affect drying operations or product qualities. No adverse effects were found. Monitoring of the air stream verified solvent levels well below 5% of the lower explosive limit. Finally, a large-scale unit was constructed capable of handling up to 171 ovens at up to 68,000 cfm at a cost of $1.2M. At current levels of integration, cost avoidance (savings) performance is within 2% of predicted values. Projected payback is 18 months. Estimated volatile organic compound emission reduction is 100 tons per year.

Madewell, A. E.; Bullock, W. N.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Instrumentation and Control, Human System Interface, and Information Technology Requirements Project Plan for Nuclear Power Plant Lo ng-Term Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear power plant owners are looking to extend the operating life of their plants to 80 years and potentially longer. Instrumentation and control, human system interface, and information technologies have changed drastically since the plants were built and will change even more drastically before the plants reach the end of their operating life. A project plan to develop requirements for these technologies is defined here. These requirements will enable plants to better identify future solutions that w...

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

405

Dry Integrated Emissions Control Technology Options: EMO, DryFining, NeuStream-DR and DSI State-of-the-Art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical update provides a series of enhanced Level 1 analyses of multiple dry integrated emissions reduction technology options for use at coal-fired, utility-scale generating plants. The report also contains a section covering the current state-of-the-art for Duct Sorbent Injection systems (DSI). This document also includes an updated listing of the Integrated Emissions Control (IEC) technologies that have been proposed in the past for use at ...

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Technology Management Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Management Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Technology Management Inc Place Cleveland, Ohio Zip 44108 Product Ohio-based, developer of solid oxide fuel cell systems....

407

Ti-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films for Transparent Field-Effect Transistors: Control of Charge-Carrier Density and Crystalline Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are representative transparent conducting oxide media for organic light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and solar cell applications. Extending the utility of ITO films from passive electrodes to active channel layers in transparent field-effect transistors (FETs), however, has been largely limited because of the materials' high carrier density (>1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup 03}), wide band gap, and polycrystalline structure. Here, we demonstrate that control over the cation composition in ITO-based oxide films via solid doping of titanium (Ti) can optimize the carrier concentration and suppress film crystallization. On 120 nm thick SiO{sub 2}/Mo (200 nm)/glass substrates, transparent n-type FETs prepared with 4 at % Ti-doped ITO films and fabricated via the cosputtering of ITO and TiO{sub 2} exhibited high electron mobilities of 13.4 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, a low subthreshold gate swing of 0.25 V decade{sup -1}, and a high I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio of >1 x 10{sup 8}.

J Kim; K Ji; M Jang; H Yang; R Choi; J Jeong

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies » Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid, provides more effective chemical reactions and heat transfer. Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The technology burns fuel at temperatures of 1,400 to 1,700 degrees F, well below the threshold where nitrogen oxides form (at approximately 2,500 degrees F, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the

409

Multidisciplinary Modeling, Control, and Optimization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Power System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes a systematical study, including multidisciplinary modeling, simulation, control, and optimization, of a fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system that aims… (more)

Abbassi Baharanchi, Atid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

140 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 Fuzzy Damage-Mitigating Control of a Fossil Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these are nonstandard automatic control procedures suchas using attemperating sprays to generate steam

Ray, Asok

411

PNNL: Available Technologies: Electronics  

Current Control Technology for Quantum Cascade Laser and Other Applications; Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces;

412

PNNL: Available Technologies: Environmental  

Current Control Technology for Quantum Cascade Laser and Other Applications; Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid Unsaturated Flow ...

413

Lighting Group: Controls: Wireless Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wireless Controls Wireless Lighting Control System (with DUST Networks) Objective The project objectives are to: 1. Demonstrate that wireless technology can be cost-effectively...

414

Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation. As an initial step in accomplishing this effort, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies was held March 20–21, 2009, in Columbus, Ohio, to enable industry stakeholders and researchers in identification of the nuclear industry’s needs in the areas of future I&C technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. Approaches for collaboration to bridge or fill the technology gaps were presented and R&D activities and priorities recommended. This report documents the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for the plan under development to achieve the goals of the I&C research pathway.

Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Reprogramming of tRNA modifications controls the oxidative stress response by codon-biased translation of proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective translation of survival proteins is an important facet of the cellular stress response. We recently demonstrated that this translational control involves a stress-specific reprogramming of modified ribonucleosides ...

Chan, Clement T. Y.

416

Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PLAN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PLAN PREFACE ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United...

418

Author's copy. Final version published by Elsevier in Energy Procedia volume 1 number 1, pages 2809-2816, February 2009. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-2816, February 2009. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT in "Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 9, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas shortterm and long term risk assessments, descriptions of gas transport and injection technical solutions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Phase control in the synthesis of yttrium oxide nano and micro-particles by flame spray pyrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The project synthesizes phase pure Yttria particles using flame spray pyrolysis, and to experimentally determines the effect of various process parameters like residence time, adiabatic flame temperature and precursor droplet size on the phase of Yttria particles generated. Further, through experimentation and based on the understanding of the process, conditions that produce pure monoclinic Y2O3 particles were found. An ultrasonic atomization set-up was used to introduce precursor droplets (aqueous solution of yttrium nitrate hex hydrate) into the flame. A hydrogen-oxygen diffusion flame was used to realize the high temperature aerosol synthesis. The particles were collected on filters and analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Individual process parameters (flame temperature, residence time, precursor concentration, precursor droplet size) were varied in continuous trials, keeping the rest of the parameters constant. The effect of the varied parameter on the phase of the product Yttria particles was then analyzed. Pre-flame heating was undertaken using a nozzle heater at variable power. Precursor solution concentrations of 0.026 mol/L, 0.26 mol/L, and 0.65 mol/L were used. Residence time was varied by means of burner diameter (9.5 mm and 1.6 mm ID). Large precursor droplets were removed by means of an inertial impactor. The higher flame temperatures and precursor heating favor the formation of monoclinic yttrium oxide. The fraction of the cubic phase is closely related to the particle diameter. All particles larger than a critical size were of the cubic phase. Phase pure monoclinic yttrium oxide particles were successfully synthesized. The end conditions included a precursor concentration of 0.65 mol/L, a pure hydrogen-oxygen flame and a 1.6 mm burner. The precursor droplets entrained fuel gas was passed through a round jet impactor and preheated at full power (130 VA). The particles synthesized were in the size range of 0.350 to 1.7 µm.

Mukundan, Mallika

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

U.S. Department of Energy Roadmap on Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies in Current and Future Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) recently sponsored the creation of a roadmap for instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technology development. The roadmap represents the collective efforts of a group of subject matter experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, vendors, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and utilities. It is intended to provide the underpinnings to the government sponsored ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) performed in the United States for the next several years. A distinguishing feature of this roadmapping effort is that it is not limited to a technology progression plan but includes a detailed rationale, aimed at the nonspecialist, for the existence of a focused ICHMI RD&D program. Eight specific technology areas were identified for focused RD&D as follows: (1) sensors and electronics for harsh environments,(2) uncertainty characterization for diagnostics/prognostics applications, (3) quantification of software quality for high-integrity digital applications, (4) intelligent controls for nearly autonomous operation of advanced nuclear plants, (5) plant network architecture, (6) intelligent aiding technology for operational support, (7) human system interaction models and analysis tools, and (8) licensing and regulatory challenges and solutions.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxides control technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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421

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Biofuels Biofuels Biotechnology and Medecine Biotechnology & Medicine Chemistry Developing World Energy Efficient Technologies Energy Environmental Technologies...

422

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, p. 209, Elsevier, NewI. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The progress and challenges of threshold voltage control of high-k/metal-gated devices for advanced technologies (Invited Paper)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses recent progress in and challenges of threshold voltage control for advanced high-k/metal-gated (HKMG) devices. It presents the impact on threshold voltage (V"t) control of incorporating La and Al into HKMG devices. A dipole moment ... Keywords: CMOS, Capping layer, EOT, High-k, Metal gate, Threshold voltage control

Hsing-Huang Tseng; Paul Kirsch; C. S. Park; Gennadi Bersuker; Prashant Majhi; Muhammad Hussain; Raj Jammy

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

Plotkin, S.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

and Submicron Oxide Powders for Optoelectronic and Renewable ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among various materials processes, Umicore develops technologies and manufactures various oxide powders for optoelectronic and renewable energy ...

426

Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Industrial Technologies Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames ...

427

Atomic-scale Chemical Quantification of Oxide Interfaces Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Atomic-scale Chemical ...

428

Solid Oxide Membrane Process for Solar Grade Silicon Production ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solid Oxide Membrane Process for Solar Grade Silicon ... Polysilicon in Photovoltaics: Market Conditions & Competing PV Technologies.

429

De-NOx Evaluation of Graphene Oxides Supported Vanadium Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Controlled Synthesis, Processing, and Applications of Structural and Functional ...

430

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An increasing worldwide demand for premium power, emerging trend towards electric utility deregulation and distributed power generation, global environmental concerns and regulatory controls have accelerated the development of advanced fuel cell based power generation systems. Fuel cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy through electrochemical oxidation of gaseous and/or liquid fuels ranging from hydrogen to hydrocarbons. Electrochemical oxidation of fuels prevents the formation of Nox, while the higher efficiency of the systems reduces carbon dioxide emissions (kg/kWh). Among various fuel cell power generation systems currently being developed for stationary and mobile applications, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) offer higher efficiency (up to 80% overall efficiency in hybrid configurations), fuel flexibility, tolerance to CO poisoning, modularity, and use of non-noble construction materials of low strategic value. Tubular, planar, and monolithic cell and stack configurations are currently being developed for stationary and military applications. The current generation of fuel cells uses doped zirconia electrolyte, nickel cermet anode, doped Perovskite cathode electrodes and predominantly ceramic interconnection materials. Fuel cells and cell stacks operate in a temperature range of 800-1000 *C. Low cost ($400/kWe), modular (3-10kWe) SOFC technology development approach of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative of the USDOE will be presented and discussed. SOFC technology will be reviewed and future technology development needs will be addressed.

Singh, Prabhakar; Pederson, Larry R.; Simner, Steve P.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Viswanathan, Vish V.

2001-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

431

Measurement and prediction of the resistivity of ash/sorbent mixtures produced by sulfur oxide control processes. Final report, Sep 86-Jun 88  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report describes the development of (1) a modified procedure for obtaining consistent and reproducible laboratory resistivity values for mixtures of coal fly ash and partially spent sorbent, and (2) an approach for predicting resistivity based on the chemical composition of the sample and the resistivities of the key compounds in the sample that are derived from the sorbent. Furnace and cold-side sorbent injection technologies for reducing the emission of sulfur oxides from electric generating plants firing medium- to high-sulfur coal are under development for retrofit applications. The particulate resulting from injecting this sorbent will be a mixture of coal fly ash and partially spent sorbent. The presence of this sorbent causes the resistivity of the mixture to be significantly higher than that of the fly ash alone. Since higher resistivity dusts are more difficult to collect in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), accurate knowledge of the resistivity of the mixture is needed to determine if the ESP will operate within an acceptable efficiency range.

Young, R.P.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.

Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies and costs for achieving a ZC building or microgrid.

Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

434

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

435

Integrating Newer Technology Software Systems into the SLAC Legacy Control System - Two Case Histories and New CMLOG Developments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been the goal of SLAC Controls Software to offload processing from the aging Alpha/VMS based control system onto machines that are more widely accepted and used. An additional goal has been to provide more modern software tools to our user community. This paper presents two software products which satisfy those goals.

J. Chen; M. Laznovsky; R. MacKenzie

2001-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

436

Axeon Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Axeon Technology Ltd Place United Kingdom Product Owns the Vindax technology, which controls batteries for more efficient...

437

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Mechatronics Technology, and Renewable Energy Technology. Career Opportunities Graduates of four origin, gender, age, marital status, sexual orientation, status as a Vietnam-era veteran, or disability

438

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research collaboration availability. If you can't find the technology you ...

439

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Quarterly technical status report, January--March 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

Not Available

1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

440

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation ProductsChapter 3 Determination of Cholesterol Oxidation Products by Gas Chromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products Chapter 3 Determination of Cholesterol Oxidation Products by Gas Chromatography Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemi