National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxides carbon monoxide

  1. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  2. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  3. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  4. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  5. Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou, and Houwen Xina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou: catalytic oxidation on a single sur- face, by analysis of the behavior of a set of ordinary differ- ential help researchers to find SR in this system experimentally. II. REACTION MODEL The catalytic oxidation

  6. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  7. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I of surface temperature and oxygen coverage. Both the velocity and angular distributions are bimodal without first accommodating on the surface, the velocity, angular, and internal state distributions may

  8. PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO intermediate, which enhances the catalytic activity at temperatures below 200°C. With the same catalyst system

  9. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Kinetics of the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction under microwave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.L.; Katz, J.D.; Rees, D.; Paffett, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Datye, A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    915 MHz microwave heating has been used to drive the CO oxidation reaction over Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with out significantly affecting the reaction kinetics. As compared to an identical conventionally heated system, the activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order with respect to CO were unchanged. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple extrapolation technique. Microwave-induced thermal gradients were found to play a significant role in kinetic observations. The authors chose the CO oxidation reaction over a supported metal catalyst because the reaction kinetics are well known, and because of the diverse dielectric properties of the various elements in the system: CO is a polar molecule, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are non-polar, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a dielectric, and Pt and Pd are conductors.

  11. A global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and anthropogenic incomplete combustion processes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (COA global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission compare carbon monoxide (CO) products from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT

  12. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  13. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    other material containing carbon such as gasoline, kerosene, oil, propane, coal, or wood. Forges, blast is the internal combustion engine. How does CO harm you? Carbon monoxide is harmful when breathed because

  14. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  15. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  16. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  17. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 19 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 5 NOVEMBER 2001 Distinct Reaction Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy for catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a platinum surface [3]. In the latter case, the two different mechanisms calculations, we identify the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide

  18. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  19. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  20. Carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jong, T.; Chu, Shih-I; Dalgarno, A.

    1975-07-01

    Calculations are made for the energy loss rates, brightness temperatures, and line profiles of carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds. The most recent data for the H2-CO collision rates have been used in the calculations; a useful...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    usual, it probably would've put me to sleep and left me there -- it was just too much carbon monoxide coming out in the house," says Mark Pickartz, of Van Buren, Ark. Pickartz's...

  2. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hueso, J. L.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Cabalerro, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin Rodriguez; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the oxidation of carbon monoxide over a lanthanum substituted perovskite (La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-d) catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis. Under the assumption of a first-order kinetics mechanism for CO, it has been found that the activation energy barrier of the reaction changes from 80 to 40 kJ mol-1 at a threshold temperature of ca. 320 oC. In situ XPS near-ambient pressure ( 0.2 torr) shows that the gas phase oxygen concentration over the sample decreases sharply at ca. 300 oC. These two observations suggest that the oxidation of CO undergoes a change of mechanism at temperatures higher than 300 oC.

  3. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  4. First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper Eric J. Walter a of carbon monoxide on a monolayer of copper adsorbed on the (1 1 1) face of cubic zirconia. For the bulk, oxidized and reduced (1 1 1) surfaces of cubic zirconia (c-ZrO2). For adsorption of copper

  5. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, John N.

    2010-01-01

    CO) oxidation (Figure 6) and the catalytic activity wascatalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,catalytic properties using ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,

  6. The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950; implications for the CO budget Supplementary Material2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950 as a supplement to `The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere23 atmospheric carbon monoxide since 1950 combustion, methane oxidation, NMHC oxidation, biofuel burning, biomass burning, direct57 biogenic

  7. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Carbon Monoxide."Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Ammonia, CarbonPassive Badges, and Dosimeter Tubes." In: Air Sampling

  8. Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    monoxide can lead to poisoning of platinum electrocatalysts used in the fuel cells [1,2]. The reforming are converted to hydrogen and carbon mon- oxide by reactions with air (partial oxidation), with water (steam. In the third step, the gas mixture is reacted with air over a preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst, so

  9. ILENR/RE-AQ-ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    #12;ILENR/RE-AQ- Printed: Contract: Project: ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON REMOTE SENSING. Repeat Measurements of the Same Vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 F

  10. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  11. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  12. Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

  13. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  14. Zirconia-based potentiometric sensor using a pair of oxide electrodes for selective detection of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Norio; Raisen, Takahisa; Lu, Geyu; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1997-07-01

    A high-performance solid-state compact gas sensor to detect CO has been needed for monitoring and controlling the combustion condition of gas appliances. By using a pair of oxide electrodes, a stabilized-zirconia-based sensor was developed for selective detection of CO at high temperature. Among the oxide pair examined, the combination of CdO and SnO{sub 2} was best suited for the electrode couple, giving quick and selective response to CO in air at 600 C. The 90% response and the 90% recovery times of the sensor to 200 ppm CO was as short as ca. 8 and 10 s, respectively, at 600 C. The EMF value was linearly related with the logarithm of CO concentration in the range of 20 to 4,000 ppm. Moreover, the cross-sensitivities to other gases, such as H{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, were small or insignificant.

  15. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  16. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  17. Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jin

    2004-09-30

    Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH), also known as Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), is one of seven known Ni containing enzymes. CODH/ACS is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes CO to CO2 reversibly and synthesizes acetyl-CoA. Recently, X-ray crystal...

  18. Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jian

    2005-08-29

    The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

  19. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    . Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an impor- tant trace gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by both natural emissions and human activities and is formed primarily through natural atmospheric oxidation processes fields of CO on short time scales. An observing framework for atmospheric composition that is analogous

  20. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  1. A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kung, Yan

    Ni–Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

  2. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  3. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hueso, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    XPS measurements 2.3. Catalytic oxidation tests of CO 2.4.background [27] and [28]. 2.3. Catalytic oxidation testsof CO Catalytic oxidation experiments of CO were carried out

  4. Carbon Monoxide Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbon

  5. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  6. ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

  7. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

  8. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    In. - Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 3A,Monoxide Detection. Industrial Hygiene Journal Match-April,Monoxide." Applied Industrial Hygiene, 4,119-125. Jabara, J.

  9. Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western 2001), in combination with an optimal estimation inverse model, to improve emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) from Asia. A priori emissions and their errors are from a customized bottom-up Asian emission

  10. Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using use of inverse modeling to better quantify regional surface emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), which to or larger than the combustion source, optimizing the CO from NMVOC emissions on larger spatial scales than

  11. Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Dylan

    Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain- posphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Enhanced CO is observed over the Zagros mountains of Iran), Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting

  12. Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    diameter of 30 nm and 20 layers. Nickel was observed in the tips of the nanotubes and played a crucial roleCarbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system

  13. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

  14. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  15. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  16. NAST-I remote sensing and carbon monoxide Daniel K. Zhoua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (CH2O), with those of the hydroxyl radical (OH) often show elevated CO and O3, the latter resulting from photochemical production.2 The importance

  17. Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, William Kent

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes two reactions involving redox chemistry (the reversible oxidation Of CO to C02, and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA) using three types of Ni and Fe-S structures called the A-, B...

  18. SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method Toshiaki NISHII1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    plants. Furthermore, carbon dioxide gas is exhausted from most industrial plants as one of Greenhouse. (2) R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, (1988 CVD SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method * Toshiaki

  19. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  20. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  1. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  2. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  3. Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses adaptive response induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Poster Session 08: Bystander and other Low Dose Effect Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses; adaptive response; zebrafish embryos Journal of Radiation Research, 2014, 55, i115 Supplement doi: 10 prepared medium with the chemical at different time points after the application of the priming dose. Our

  4. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

  5. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the patient compartment of ambulances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglewicz, R.; Rosenman, K.D.; Iglewicz, B.; O'Leary, K.; Hockemeier, R.

    1984-05-01

    Six hundred and ninety New Jersey ambulances were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO); 27 per cent had CO levels of 10 ppm or more greater than ambient air in the breathing zone of the patient. Twenty-nine of these ambulances had levels of at least 35 ppm greater than ambient air. Results indicate that a CO exposure problem exists in ambulances.

  6. Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications-grown and the O2-annealed TNT array electrodes. The improved biosensor properties of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were, particularly TiO2 nanotubes (TNT), which possess large surface areas, have been widely used as chemical sensors

  7. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  8. Name __________________ Lab 8. Air pollution: carbon monoxide & dioxide lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    and other particles become embedded in the lungs and leads to chronic coughing and lung damage. Carbon

  9. One-dimensional turbulence model simulations of autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide fuel mixtures in a turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Kamlesh G.; Echekki, Tarek [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide in a turbulent jet with preheated co-flow air is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. The simulations are performed at atmospheric pressure based on varying the jet Reynolds number and the oxidizer preheat temperature for two compositions corresponding to varying the ratios of H{sub 2} and CO in the fuel stream. Moreover, simulations for homogeneous autoignition are implemented for similar mixture conditions for comparison with the turbulent jet results. The results identify the key effects of differential diffusion and turbulence on the onset and eventual progress of autoignition in the turbulent jets. The differential diffusion of hydrogen fuels results in a reduction of the ignition delay relative to similar conditions of homogeneous autoignition. Turbulence may play an important role in delaying ignition at high-turbulence conditions, a process countered by the differential diffusion of hydrogen relative to carbon monoxide; however, when ignition is established, turbulence enhances the overall rates of combustion of the non-premixed flame downstream of the ignition point. (author)

  10. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  11. Impact of Emissions, Chemistry, and Climate on Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide: 100-year Predictions from a Global Chemistry-Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of methane and the production of CO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosols and thus affects climate, while, producing formaldehyde (CH2O) and then carbon monoxide. This methane reaction, in combination with R1

  12. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  13. Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-01

    Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation Jeong Y. Parkwere measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures ofexothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly

  14. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbonProcess for its

  16. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  17. Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

    2006-06-07

    A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

  18. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  19. Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Min

    2010-07-14

    Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low ...

  20. The Fourth Positive System of Carbon Monoxide in the Hubble Space Telescope Spectra of Comets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roxana E. Lupu; Paul D. Feldman; Harold A. Weaver; Gian-Paolo Tozzi

    2007-08-22

    The rich structure of the Fourth Positive System (A-X) of carbon monoxide accounts for many of the spectral features seen in long slit HST-STIS observations of comets 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), as well as in the HST-GHRS spectrum of comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. A detailed CO fluorescence model is developed to derive the CO abundances in these comets by simultaneously fitting all of the observed A-X bands. The model includes the latest values for the oscillator strengths and state parameters, and accounts for optical depth effects due to line overlap and self-absorption. The model fits yield radial profiles of CO column density that are consistent with a predominantly native source for all the comets observed by STIS. The derived CO abundances relative to water in these comets span a wide range, from 0.44% for C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 7.2% for 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, 8.8% for C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to 20.9% for C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The subtraction of the CO spectral features using this model leads to the first identification of a molecular hydrogen line pumped by solar HI Lyman-beta longward of 1200A in the spectrum of comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. (Abridged)

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  2. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  3. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  4. Line Broadening and Temperature Dependence in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril Hnatovsky , Adriana Predoi-Cross , Kimberly Strong , James R. Drummond , and D. Chris Benner1 1 1 1 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Kimberly

    Line Broadening and Temperature Dependence in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril. Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace constituent present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is produced, and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. The lifetime of an atmospheric CO molecule is relatively

  5. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  6. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  7. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 106, NO. D22, PAGES28,481-28,495, NOVEMBER 27, 2001 Source analysis of carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Source analysis of carbon monoxide pollution during INDOEX 1999 A.T.J. de Laat, J. Lelieveld, G and higher hydrocarbons, and is directly emitted by combustion processes. Fossil fuel combustion pollution. However, the large number of possible sources in combination with the long photochemical lifetime

  8. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  9. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 µm spectral region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity ...

  10. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  11. An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    dioxide (CO2) were performed using a rapid compression facility. Experiments were conducted using pressure for near zero pollutant emissions, including greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). In particular], complicating turbine operation and design. The high-temperatures associated with the hydro- gen kinetics can

  12. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  13. Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsurao, Takumi

    1994-01-01

    The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering ...

  14. Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    fossil fuel use and 40 Tg yrÀ1 from biomass burning. With the addition of isoprene oxidation, the total. In India, the preponderance of motorcycles with small, two-stroke engines and the practice of adulterating CO emissions were 67 Tg yrÀ1 from India and 87 Tg(CO) yrÀ1 from all of South Asia. These values

  15. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  16. Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millhone, J.

    2007-01-01

    transportation arteries and thus are capable of measuring impacts from mobile sources as well as stationary sources. Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter.... Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter, and ozone) as well as meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, wind direction variance, temperature, net...

  17. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  18. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26

    problems can stem from a number of common sources?automo- biles, furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, wood stoves, charcoal grills, gas ranges, space heaters and portable generators. Serious problems can develop when these appliances are not in good working... from one type to another without proper knowledge, skills and tools. 3 Never use a gas range, oven or clothes dryer for heating your home. 3 Never operate unvented gas-burning appli- ances, such as kerosene or natural gas space heaters, in a closed room...

  20. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  1. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  2. Metal catalyzed copolymerization processes involving carbon oxides as substrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps, Andrea Lee

    2005-11-01

    Studies concerning two different copolymerization processes are detailed in this dissertation: propylene oxide/CO2 coupling to afford poly(propylene carbonate) and Nbutylaziridine/ CO coupling to afford poly-??-butylalanoid. ...

  3. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke in the development of cardiorespiratory disease in smokers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borland, Colin David Ross

    1988-10-18

    in the Department of Respiratory Physiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ. 2) The practical work was all performed by me excepting as follows. In Chapter 6 Karen Harmes ESc p~rformed the methaemoglobin analyses. In Chapter 5(2) Rachel... as to atmospheric po llution (Reid and Fletcher 1971) . Genetic susceptibility to obstructive lung disease, e.g. a 1 antitrypsin defic iency (Kueppers and Black 1974) is well recognised but it affects only a s mall proportion of s mokers. The relat ionshi p...

  4. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua; Su, Yan; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  5. Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W.J. Dawson, and P.K. Dutta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Research has been conducted to develop a novel sensor for the detection of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen. The automotive fuel cell application requires a sensor to detect low levels will protect the PEM fuel cell stack; detection of CO is extremely important because too much CO will poison

  6. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  7. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  8. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  9. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  10. Pairing of Pentagonal and Heptagonal Carbon Rings in the Growth of Nanosize Carbon Spheres Synthesized by a Mixed-Valent Oxide-Catalytic Carbonization Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Synthesized by a Mixed-Valent Oxide-Catalytic Carbonization Process Z. L. Wang* and Z. C. Kang SchoolVed: August 29, 1996X Carbon spheres have been synthesized using a mixed-valent oxide-catalytic carbonization catalytic transition and/or rare earth metal oxides with mixed Valences had been placed. Decomposition of CH

  11. Structural response of oxidation resistant carbon-carbon composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Timothy Harold

    1996-01-01

    subjected to thermo-mechanical loading. The analytical models are compared to test data to verify the predictions of the lamina response. The material system studied is HITCO 2D CC137EH, highly inhibited, eight harness satin weave, RT42 CVD SiC coated carbon...

  12. Kinetics of the Reduction of Wüstite by Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide for the Chemical Looping Production of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen; Lim, Jin Yang; Saucedo, Marco A.; Hayhurst, Allan N.; Scott, Stuart A.; Dennis, J. S.

    2014-08-13

    , carbon capture storage; CSTR, continuous stirred tank reactor; I.D, internal diameter; PEMFC, proton exchange membrane fuel cell; PFR, plug flow reactor; SEM, scanning electron microscopy n Corresponding author. E-mail address: wl247@cam.ac.uk (W. Liu... of unsupported wüstite, the complicating effects of supporting materials on the kinetics can be excluded. W. Liu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 120 (2014) 149–166150 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials preparation The method of wet-granulation (Bohn et al...

  13. Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system reaction systems13 including the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO O2) and the catalytic reduction; accepted 19 April 1999 The noisy dynamic behavior of a surface catalytic reaction model to describe

  14. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

  15. Oxygen reduction by lithium on model carbon and oxidized carbon structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ye [ORNL; Shelton Jr, William Allison [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Li-air batteries have attracted substantial interest for their high theoretical specific energies, but the oxygen reduction reaction by Li (Li-ORR) that occurs at the carbon cathode remains poorly understood. Periodic density functional theory calculations have been performed to examine the Li-ORR on several model carbon structures, including the graphite(0001) basal plane, the (8,0) single-wall nanotube, the armchair-type edge, and a di-vacancy in the basal plane. The inertness of the basal plane limits the reversible potential of O{sub 2} reduction to 1.1 V, and slightly higher to 1.2 V on the curved nanotube. The armchair edge and di-vacancy are highly reactive and significantly oxidized at ambient conditions to various CO{sub x} groups, which are reduced by Li via redox mechanisms at 1.2-1.4 V. These CO{sub x} groups can also catalyze O{sub 2} reduction at up to 2.3 V (an overpotential of 0.4 V vs. the calculated equilibrium potential for bulk Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation) by chelating and stabilizing the LiO{sub 2} intermediate. The Li-ORR on graphitic carbon, if via concerted Li{sup +}/e{sup -} transfer and involving carbon, lithium, and oxygen only, is therefore expected to initiate with the smallest overpotential at under-coordinated carbon centers that are oxidized at ambient conditions.

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  17. Formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in interstellar analogous methane (CH{sub 4})-carbon monoxide (CO) ices: A combined FTIR and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jones, Brant M.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in methane-carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}-CO) ices was investigated upon its exposure to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons at 5.5 K. The radiation-induced nonthermal equilibrium processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via infrared spectroscopy complimented with post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption studies exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ReTOF) coupled with single photon fragment-free photo ionization (PI) at 10.49 eV. The detection of ketene in irradiated (isotopically labeled) methane-carbon monoxide ices was confirmed via the ?{sub 2} infrared absorption band and substantiated during the warm-up phase based on sublimation profiles obtained from the ReTOF-PI spectra of the corresponding isotopic masses. The experiments conducted with the mixed isotopic ices of {sup 12}CD{sub 4}-{sup 13}CO provide clear evidence of the formation of at least two ketene isotopomers (D{sub 2} {sup 12}C{sup 13}CO and D{sub 2} {sup 13}C{sup 13}CO), allowing for the derivation of two competing formation pathways. We have also proposed underlying reaction mechanisms to the formation of ketene based on kinetic fitting of the temporal evolution of the ketene isotopomers.

  18. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  19. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser- based- strumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.2747608 Keywords: breath analysis; nitric oxide; carbon dioxide sampling, NO is measured over time during exhalation. Offline sampling has the advantages of remote

  20. Development of carbon-metal oxide supercapacitors from sol-gel derived carbon-ruthenium xerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, C.; Ritter, J.A.; Popov, B.N.

    1999-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in electrochemical capacitors as energy storage systems because of their high power density and long cycle life, compared to battery devices. According to the mechanism of energy storage, there are two types of electrochemical capacitors. One type is based on double layer (dl) formation due to charge separation, and the other type is based on a faradaic process due to redox reactions. Sol-gel derived high surface area carbon-ruthenium xerogels were prepared from carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde resins containing an electrochemically active form of ruthenium oxide. The electrochemical capacitance of these materials increased with an increase in the ruthenium content indicating the presence of pseudocapacitance associated with the ruthenium oxide undergoing reversible faradaic redox reactions. A specific capacitance of 256 F/g (single electrode) was obtained from a carbon xerogel containing 14 wt% Ru, which corresponded to more than 50% utilization of the ruthenium. The double layer accounted for 40% of this capacitance. This material was also electrochemically stable, showing no change in a cyclic voltammogram for over 2,000 cycles.

  1. Carbon monoxide oxidation on bare and Pt-modified Ru(1010) and Ru(0001) single crystal electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brankovic, Stanko R.

    1010-01-01

    S.R. Brankovic a , N.S. Marinkovic b , J.X. Wang a , R.R. Adzic´ a, * a Materials Science Department

  2. Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

  3. Purification of carbon nanotubes by dynamic oxidation in air Nikolay Dementev,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    ) are nanometre-wide hollow carbon structures with exceptional mechanical and elec- tronic properties.1 such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor or ozone. A detailed overview of existing purification techniquesPurification of carbon nanotubes by dynamic oxidation in air Nikolay Dementev,a Sebastian Osswald

  4. Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Tae

    2012-07-16

    of several methods for carbon nanotube film fabrication: (a) vacuum filtration, (b) air-spraying, (c) transfer printing, and (d) rod coating (reproduced from [91], [92], [37], and [42], respectively). .................................... 16 2.8 (a...) Graphene oxide structure. (b) Deposition of graphene oxide sheet by dip coating and an SEM image of deposited graphene oxide pieces (reproduced from [172]). (c) Photo reduction lithography approach for fabrication of patterns on (PDDA/Graphene Oxide...

  5. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  6. Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J; Lakeman, Charles D. E.; Han, Sang M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F.

    2008-07-01

    The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

  7. Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaowei; Zhu Zhenping; Haevecker, Michael; Su Dangsheng . E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert

    2007-02-15

    A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

  8. Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature and lower environmental impacts make this the carbon-based fuel of choice well into the twenty-first century chemicals.1 There is additional need for new technologies which can also allow recovery of the many remote

  9. Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon-chromium steel under charcoal protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    -carbon-chromium bearing steel is often annealed in a sealed pot with a small amount of charcoal without physically for the bearing steel is suggested. Keywords: Annealing, Oxidation, Decarburisation, Charcoal, Non of carbon steels during annealing in air at temperatures between 900 and 1200uC. Gong et al.4 investigated

  10. Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x 2012) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-induced carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces modification during EUV exposure. XPS analysis showed that total carbon contamination (C 1s peak

  11. A DFT Study of Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Carbonaceous Materials Juan F. Espinal, Alejandro Montoya, Fanor Mondragon,*, and Thanh N. Truong*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    it is a clean and efficient alternative to the use of coal instead of combustion. The gasification process are important in carbon gasification processes as well as in carbon single-wall nanotubes formation from CO disproportionation reaction. In the case of gasification, adsorption of CO blocks the active sites

  12. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Enzyme Mediated Synthesis of a Semiconducting Metal Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, John Michael

    2012-01-01

    carbon monoxide 43 , methanol and ethanol 44 . Chapter 2: Principles and Preparations of Titanium Dioxide Nanocrystals 2.1 Properties

  14. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    window Á Solid electrolyte interphase 1 Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are now used in a wide range of a more stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) [13, 14], becomes a challenge. Although the typical different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V

  16. Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a "green" route to suspensions of RG-O.23 Direct thermal treatment at elevated tem- peratures provides of 5230 S/m. By adding tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEA BF4) to the reduced graphene oxide

  17. Graphene Oxide as an Electrophile for Carbon Nucleophiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    The covalent, surface functionalization of graphene oxide with the malononitrile anion has been demonstrated. Once installed, these surface-bound “molecular lynchpins” can be chemically modified to increase the solubility ...

  18. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

  19. Hierarchical Network Architectures of Carbon Fiber Paper Supported Cobalt Oxide Nanonet for High-Capacity Pseudocapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hierarchical Network Architectures of Carbon Fiber Paper Supported Cobalt Oxide Nanonet for High as an advantageous architecture for transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices due primarily to high of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

  20. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1990-01-01

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

  1. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1990-05-22

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed. 2 figs.

  2. Low-temperature magnetic properties of pelagic carbonates: Oxidation of biogenic magnetite and identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    -temperature magnetic measurements on biogenic magnetite-bearing sediments from the Southern Ocean (Ocean DrillingLow-temperature magnetic properties of pelagic carbonates: Oxidation of biogenic magnetite cells. We document a range of low-temperature magnetic properties, including reversible humped low

  3. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Multi-stage, isothermal CO preferential oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Stukey, Kevin (W. Henrietta, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Fairchok, Joel (Alexander, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-stage, isothermal, carbon monoxide preferential oxidation (PrOx) reactor comprising a plurality of serially arranged, catalyzed heat exchangers, each separated from the next by a mixing chamber for homogenizing the gases exiting one heat exchanger and entering the next. In a preferred embodiment, at least some of the air used in the PrOx reaction is injected directly into the mixing chamber between the catalyzed heat exchangers.

  5. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies of Two-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    activity during the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.activity during the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.oxide support on the catalytic oxidation of CO is reported

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  7. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  8. Preparation and electrochemical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes-nickel oxide porous composite for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yanzhen; Zhang Milin . E-mail: dhyzyz@yahoo.com.cn; Gao Peng

    2007-09-04

    Porous nickel oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NiO/MWNTs) composite material was synthesized using sodium dodecyl phenyl sulfate as a soft template and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the as-prepared nickel oxide nanoflakes aggregate to form a submicron ball shape with a porous structure, and the MWNTs with entangled and cross-linked morphology are well dispersed in the porous nickel oxide. The composite shows an excellent cycle performance at a high current of 2 A g{sup -1} and keeps a capacitance retention of about 89% over 200 charge/discharge cycles. A specific capacitance approximate to 206 F g{sup -1} has been achieved with NiO/MWNTs (10 wt.%) in 2 M KOH electrolyte. The electrical conductivity and the active sites for redox reaction of nickel oxide are significantly improved due to the connection of nickel nanoflakes by the long entangled MWNTs.

  9. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. (Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. (Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  10. Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinowski, Michael E.

    2005-01-25

    The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

  11. Selective decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martis, P.; Venugopal, B.R.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2011-05-15

    A simple route to selective decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using nickel acetylacetonate (NAA) was successfully achieved for the first time. The homogeneously decorated nanocrystals on MWCNTs were investigated for their structure and morphology by various techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the size distributions of the nanocrystals on MWCNTs ranged from 8 to 15 nm and they were well resolved. The precursor, NAA, was effectively employed to impregnate the MWCNTs, which on calcination at suitable temperatures and in the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen atmosphere gave rise to nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: Nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals were selectively and homogeneously decorated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nickel acetylacetonate, as a precursor in a simple and efficient route. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} A simple route for decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on MWCNTs. {yields} Nickel acetylacetonate used as nickel source for the first time to impregnate on MWCNTs. {yields} Selective decoration was achieved by calcination in hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres. {yields} The as-decorated nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals are in the range of 8-15 nm.

  12. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  13. Electrical transport characteristics of DNA wrapped carbon nanotubes contacted to palladium and palladium oxide electrodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Leonard, Francois; Jones, Frank Eugene; Talin, Albert Alec

    2005-03-01

    DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes (DNA-CNT) have generated attention due the ability to disperse cleanly into solution, and by the possibility of sorting nanotubes according to size and conductivity. In order to learn more about the effects of DNA on the electrical transport characteristics of single wall carbon nanotubes, we fabricate and test a series of devices consisting of DNA-wrapped CNTs placed across gold, palladium, and palladium oxide electrodes. In addition, we look at how DNA functionalized CNTs react to presence of hydrogen, which has previously been shown to affect the conductivity of CNTs when in contact with palladium.

  14. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  15. A Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide-Carbon Nanotube Complex for Water Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions including water splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel iron layered double hydroxide nanoplates on mildly oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-layered double hydroxide. The nanoplates were covalently attached to a network of nanotubes, affording excellent electrical wiring to the nanoplates. The ultra-thin Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide nanoplates/carbon nanotube complex was found to exhibit unusually high electro-catalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution and outperformed commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

  16. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  17. Oxidation of activated carbon fibers: Effect on pore size, surface chemistry, and adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangun, C.L.; Benak, K.R.; Daley, M.A.; Economy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were oxidized using both aqueous and nonaqueous treatments. As much as 29 wt% oxygen can be incorporated onto the pore surface in the form of phenolic hydroxyl, quinine, and carboxylic acid groups. The effect of oxidation on the pore size, pore volume, and the pore surface chemistry was thoroughly examined. The average micropore size is typically affected very little by aqueous oxidation while the micropore volume and surface area decreases with such a treatment. In contrast, the micropore size and micropore volume both increase with oxidation in air. Oxidation of the fibers produces surface chemistries in the pore that provide for enhanced adsorption of basic (ammonia) and polar (acetone) molecules at ambient and nonambient temperatures. The adsorption capacity of the oxidized fibers for acetone is modestly better than the untreated ACFs while the adsorption capacity for ammonia can increase up to 30 times compared to untreated ACFs. The pore surface chemical makeup was analyzed using elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  18. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  19. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  20. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  1. Electrochemical investigation of polyhalide ion oxidation-reduction on carbon nanotube electrodes for redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-10-01

    Polyhalide ions (Br-/BrCl2-) are an important redox couple for redox flow batteries. The oxidation-reduction behavior of polyhalide ions on a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode has been investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The onset oxidation potential of Br-/BrCl2- is negatively shifted by >100 mV, and the redox current peaks are greatly enhanced on a CNT electrode compared with that on the most widely-used graphite electrode. The reaction resistance of the redox couple (Br-/BrCl2-) is decreased on a CNT electrode. The redox reversibility is increased on a CNT electrode even though it still needs further improvement. CNT is a promising electrode material for redox flow batteries.

  2. Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite prepared via a precursor route and enhanced catalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Guoli; Wang Hui; Xiang Xu; Li Feng

    2013-01-15

    The present work reported the synthesis of Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes (CoAl-MMO/CNT) nanocomposite from Co-Al layered double hydroxide/CNTs composite precursor (CoAl-LDH/CNT). The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that in CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite, the nanoparticles of cobalt oxide (CoO) and Co-containing spinel-type complex metal oxides could be well-dispersed on the surface of CNTs, thus forming the heterostructure of CoAl-MMO and CNTs. Furthermore, as-synthesized CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite was utilized as additives for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Compared to those for pure AP and CoAl-MMO, the peak temperature of AP decomposition for CoAl-MMO/CNT was significantly decreased, which is attributed to the novel heterostructure and synergistic effect of multi-component metal oxides of nanocomposite. - Graphical abstract: Hybrid Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite showed the enhanced catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, as compared to carbon nanotubes and pure Co-Al mixed metal oxides. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides consisted of cobalt oxide and Co-containing spinels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of AP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior catalytic property is related to novel heterostructure and composition.

  3. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Batista, Victor; Haumann, Michael; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-05-07

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [RuII(bda)(NO)(N–N2)2]3+, 23+ (N–N22+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid material has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpartmore »in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOFis of 300 s–1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.« less

  4. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  5. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  6. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  7. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  8. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-offmore »of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.« less

  9. Reduced graphene oxide and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes superhydrophilic films for supercapacitors devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanin, H.; Saito, E.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Baranauskas, V.; Corat, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene nanosheets were produced onto wire rods. • RGO and VACNT-O were evaluated and compared as supercapacitor electrode. • RGO and VACNT-O have structural and electrochemical properties quite similars. • The materials present good specific capacitance, energy storage and power delivery. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) superhydrophilic films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition techniques for electrical energy storage investigations. These electrodes were characterized in terms of their material and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface wettability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive and Raman spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge. We observed several physical structural and electrochemical similarities between these carbon-based materials with particular attention to very good specific capacitance, ultra-high energy storage and fast power delivery. Our results showed that the main difference between specific capacitance values is attributed to pseudocapacitive contribution and high density of multiwall nanotubes tips. In this work we have tested a supercapacitor device using the VACNT electrodes.

  10. Carbon dioxide fixation by Metallosphaera yellowstonensis and acidothermophilic iron-oxidizing microbial communities from Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Ryan; Whitmore, Laura M.; Moran, James J.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2014-05-01

    The fixation of inorganic carbon (as carbon dioxide) has been documented in all three domains of life and results in the biosynthesis of a diverse suite of organic compounds that support the growth of heterotrophic organisms. The primary aim of this study was to assess the importance of carbon dioxide fixation in high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat communities and in pure cultures of one of the dominant Fe(II)-oxidizing organisms (Metallosphaera yellowstonensis strain MK1) present in situ. Protein-encoding genes of the complete 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3-HP/4-HB) carbon fixation pathway were identified in pure-cultures of M. yellowstonensis strain MK1. Metagenome sequencing from the same environments also revealed genes for the 3-HP/4-HB pathway belonging to M. yellowstonensis populations, as well as genes for a complete reductive TCA cycle from Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales). Stable isotope (13CO2) labeling was used to measure the fixation of CO2 by M. yellowstonensis strain MK1, and in ex situ assays containing live Fe(III)-oxide microbial mats. Results showed that M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 fixes CO2 via the 3-HP/4-HB pathway with a fractionation factor of ~ 2.5 ‰. Direct analysis of the 13C composition of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), landscape C and microbial mat C showed that mat C is comprised of both DIC and non-DIC sources. The estimated contribution of DIC carbon to biomass C (> ~ 35%) is reasonably consistent with the relative abundance of known chemolithoautotrophs and corresponding CO2 fixation pathways detected in metagenome sequence. The significance of DIC as a major source of carbon for Fe-oxide mat communities provides a foundation for examining microbial interactions in these systems that are dependent on the activity of autotrophic organisms such as Hydrogenobaculum and Metallosphaera spp.

  11. Oxidation resistant carbon-carbon composites: the effect of temperature dependent matrix material properties on laminate response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romine, Paul Richard

    1994-01-01

    The structural analysis of carbon-carbon (C-C) composites is a research area of increasing importance. As the use of the materials expands towards more demanding aerospace applications, it is of critical importance to understand the laminate...

  12. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@pku.edu.cn; Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao, E-mail: lmpeng@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2?V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  13. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  14. Amperometric Biosensors Based on Carbon Paste Electrodes Modified with Nanostructured Mixed-valence Manganese Oxides and Glucose Oxidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaoli; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-06-01

    Nanostructured multivalent manganese oxides octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), including cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides, were synthesized and evaluated for chemical sensing and biosensing at low operating potential. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides are nanofibrous crystals with sub-nanometer open tunnels that provide a unique property for sensing applications. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of OMS for the oxidation of H2O2 have been compared. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides can be used to fabricate sensitive H2O2 sensors. Amperometric glucose biosensors are constructed by bulk modification of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) with glucose oxidase as a biocomponent and nanostructured OMS as a mediator. A Nafion thin film was applied as an immobilization/encapsulation and protective layer. The biosensors were evaluated as an amperometric glucose detector at phosphate buffer solution with a pH 7.4 at an operating potential of 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor is characterized by a well-reproducible amperometric response, linear signal-to-glucose concentration range up to 3.5 mM and 1.75 mM, and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1 mM and 0.05 mM for todorokite-type manganese oxide and cryptomelane-type manganese oxide modified electrodes, respectively. The biosensors based on OMS exhibit considerable good reproducibility and stability, and the construction and renewal are simple and inexpensive.

  15. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  16. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to an Unconfined Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Harvey, Omar; Sullivan, E. C.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-15

    A series of batch and column experiments combined with solid phase characterization studies (i.e., quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions) were conducted to address a variety of scientific issues and evaluate the impacts of the potential leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep subsurface storage reservoirs. The main objective was to gain an understanding of how CO2 gas influences: 1) the aqueous phase pH; and 2) mobilization of major, minor, and trace elements from minerals present in an aquifer overlying potential CO2 sequestration subsurface repositories. Rocks and slightly weathered rocks representative of an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer within the continental US, i.e., the Edwards aquifer in Texas, were used in these studies. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream or were leached with a CO2-saturated influent solution to simulate different CO2 gas leakage scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in the liquid samples collected at pre-determined experimental times (batch experiments) or continuously (column experiments). The results from the strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the Edward aquifer samples contain As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which may potentially be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. The results from the batch and column experiments confirmed the release of major chemical elements into the contacting aqueous phase (such as Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Si, Na, and K); the mobilization and possible rapid immobilization of minor elements (such as Fe, Al, and Mn), which are able to form highly reactive secondary phases; and sporadic mobilization of only low concentrations of trace elements (such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mo, etc.). The results from this experimental research effort will help in developing a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption) in the aquifer sediments and will support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geologic carbon sequestration.

  17. Synthesis of few-walled carbon nanotube-Rh nanoparticles by arc discharge: Effect of selective oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yanfeng

    2012-06-15

    Highly crystalline rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes were prepared by selective oxidation method. Carbon nanotubes and FeRh nanoparticles were simultaneously generated in hydrogen arc plasma. The as-grown nanomaterials can be purified by heat treatment in open air and by soaking in HCl. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction results reveal that as-grown FeRh nanoparticles have a typical chemical CsCl-type structure which can be transformed into a face-centered cubic structure by thermal annealing in the purification process. The purification process is selective toward the removal of the amorphous carbon coating the nanoparticles, and transforms Fe to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be easily dissolved in hydrochloric acid, leaving carbon nanotubes-Rh nanoparticles. Rh nanoparticles with diameters of 2-60 nm are deposited uniformly on the surface of the carbon nanotube bundles. This simple and selective chemistry offers a new process for synthesizing and controlling Fe content in carbon nanotube-FeRh nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-crystallinity CNTs and FeRh nanoparticles were simultaneously generated in arc plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diameter distribution of CNTs depends on different gases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment in open air and soaking in HCl can convert CNTs-FeRh to CNTs-Rh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selective oxidation mechanisms of metal nanoparticles and carbon materials differ.

  18. INFLUENCE OF CARBON AND METAL OXIDE NANOMATERIALS ON AQUEOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF THE MUNITION CONSTITUENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -aluminum and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are incorporated into nano- thermites, energetics, and propellant

  19. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  20. Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

    2011-09-08

    ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid carbon fuel and electrolyte...

  1. Kinetics of hydrolysis and oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium and application to carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewuyi, Y.G.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1987-02-01

    Kinetic studies of the oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium were made spectrophotometrically. The reaction of CS/sub 2/ with OH/sup -/ ion was found to be rate controlling and proceeded by the formation of a dithiocarbonate complex. The major reaction product was sulfate with sulfur occurring as colloidal suspensions only at pH values less than 8. The formation of sulfate increased exponentially with time and was also found to be dependent on the rate of hydrolysis of CS/sub 2/. In addition, the production of sulfate showed large induction periods, suggesting either a complex mechanism or formation by secondary reactions. The results obtained for carbon disulfide were extended to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) oxidation in alkaline solutions. The removal of OCS (acid gas) from mixtures of gases by alkaline liquid absorbents (e.g. NaOH) and oxidation of subsequent solutions to sulfate is an important industrial practice. 42 references, 14 figures, 2 tables.

  2. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  3. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and ab Initio Investigation of the Multichannel Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    in conventional carbon based jet fuel systems. The combustion of hydrocarbon based fuels can reach temperatures monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons are of importance in understanding the formation of small boron-oxygen bearing hydrocarbons in boron combustion processes. Over recent decades

  4. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Liming; Fu, Honggang; Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g{sup ?1} Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 457.92 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g{sup ?1} Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance.

  5. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  6. Use of oxide decompositions in advanced thermochemical hydrogen cycles for solar heat sources. Experimental results on the low-temperature reactions for the tricobalt tetraoxide-cobalt monoxide pair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of utilizing oxide decompositions in advanced thermochemical hydrogen cycles for solar heat sources is introduced. It has particular interest in allowing direct transmission of energy to the process through an air window. A cycle for the Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/-CoO pair would be, schematically: (1) Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ = 3CoO + 1/2 O/sub 2/; (2) I/sub 2/(s,1) + Mg(OH)/sub 2/ + 3CoO = MgI/sub 2/(aq) + Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O(1); (3) H/sub 2/O + MgI/sub 2/(aq) = MgO + 2HI; (4) 2 HI = H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/; (5) MgO + H/sub 2/O = Mg(OH)/sub 2/. Reaction (2) should give a high concentration of MgI/sub 2/ that would be favorable for (3). The solutions would also contain iodine dissolved as polyiodide, partly offsetting this advantage. Preliminary results indicate that reaction (2) is slow at 150/sup 0/C. It is surmised that the mechanism of (2) consists of the iodine disproportionation reaction (6), followed by reaction (7). (6) I/sub 2/(s,1) + Mg(OH)/sub 2/ = 5/6 MgI/sub 2/(aq) + 1/6 Mg(IO/sub 3/)/sub 2/(aq) + H/sub 2/O(1); (7) 1/6 Mg(IO/sub 3/)/sub 2/(aq) + 3 CoO = 1/6 MgI/sub 2/(aq) + Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/. Other workers have found (6) to be relatively fast and with a good yield at 150/sup 0/C. We have found the independently studied reaction (7) to be sufficiently slow at 150/sup 0/C to account for the slowness of (2). The yield of (7) was found to be proportional to the square root of the time, which suggests that iodate must diffuse through an adherent, accumulating Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ layer. Since (7) is much faster when Mg(IO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ is replaced by KIO/sub 3/, the Mg/sup 2 +/ ion may catalyze formation of an adherent Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ spinel layer. The reactivity of CoO in the KIO/sub 3/ analog of (7) is greatly decreased by exposure to high temperature.

  7. Methanol Decomposition over Palladium Particles Supported on Silica: Role of Particle Size and Co-Feeding Carbon Dioxide on the Catalytic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)

    2012-10-23

    Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.

  8. Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH4-oxidizing bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Kung-Hui "Bella"

    in biomass carbon isotopes is primarily due to differences in the fraction- ation effect at the formaldehyde in the production and consumption of CH4 oc- cur (e.g., Bergamaschi, 1997; Conrad et al., 1999; Avery and Martens

  9. Oxidative Degradation of Trichloroethylene Adsorbed on Active Carbons: Use of Microwave Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, R.; Nandi, S. P.; Cleaveland, D.; Myles, K. M.; Vissers, D. R.; Nelson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    carbon bed impreg nated with CuO and Cr203 and exposed to moist air. Experimental results indicated that free chlorine produced from TCE degradation is very strongly held by active carbon. In addition, hydrogen chloride was found in large... concentration in the exit gas. Generation of free chlorine may be avoided by using a chlorohydrocarbon and hydrocarbon mixture on such composition that the stoichiometry favors the pro duction of hydrogen chloride. The experimental results show promise...

  10. Oxidation of Filled Carbon Nanotubes Inside a Transmission Electron Pedro M. F. J. Costa1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Recently. A controlled flow of pure oxygen gas was used at pressures ranging from 4 to 12 mbar. Various sample grids were of (d) highlighting the faceted nature of the thick external wall. (f) High-resolution image of an oxide

  11. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    oxidation" data. A A A A o lo Cx o o.o3 ~% ex ex v 'O f() NN '-.A CUI e II v-4 /It [Cx] (g/L) XBL 806-10264 Figure 3.3y = rate = d[S(IV)]/dt + [Cx] and x = S(IV) concentration.

  12. Studies on activated carbon capacitor materials loaded with different amounts of ruthenium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    as electrochemical capacitors in high-power applications [1]. The energy storage mechanism here is based on fast of Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 loadings of RuO2 on carbon have been synthesized by an electroless deposition process. Increase in RuO2

  13. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2 leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.

  14. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more »leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  15. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    moment of the electron with thorium monoxide A C Vutha, W Cmoment of the electron with thorium monoxide A C Vutha 1 , WeEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules.

  16. Chemical changes in carbon Nanotube-Nickel/Nickel Oxide Core/Shell nanoparticle heterostructures treated at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, Nitin; McWhinney, Hylton G.; Shi Wenwu

    2011-06-15

    Heterostructures composed of carbon nanotube (CNT) coated with Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles (denoted as CNC heterostructures) were synthesized in a wet-chemistry and single-step synthesis route involving direct nucleation of nanoparticles on CNT surface. Two different aspects of CNC heterostructures were studied here. First, it was observed that the nanoparticle coatings were more uniform on the as-produced and non-purified CNTs compared to purified (or acid treated) CNTs. These heterostructures were characterized using electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Second, thermal stability of CNC heterostructures was studied by annealing them in N{sub 2}-rich (O{sub 2}-lean) environment between 125 and 750 deg. C for 1 h. A detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of annealing temperatures on chemical composition, phases, and stability of the heterostructures. It was observed that the CNTs present in the heterostructures completely decomposed and core Ni nanoparticle oxidized significantly between 600 and 750 deg. C. - Research Highlights: {yields} Heterostructures composed of CNTs coated with Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. {yields} Poor nanoparticle coverage on purified CNT surface compared to non-purified CNTs. {yields} CNTs in heterostructures decompose between 600 and 750 deg. C in N{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. {yields} Metallic species in heterostructures were oxidized at higher temperatures.

  17. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Support  for  Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon in  Hydrogen  and  Deuterium  Oxidation  on  Catalytic Platinum in  the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon  Monoxide   

  18. Steady state and dynamic modeling of a packed bed reactor for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde: experimental results compared with model predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwedock, M.J.; Windes, L.C.; Ray, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Heterogeneous and pseudohomogeneous models are compared to experimental data from a packed bed reactor for the partical oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over an iron oxide-molybdenum oxide catalyst. Heat transfer parameters which were successful in matching data from experiments without reaction were not successful in matching temperature data from experiments with reaction. This made it necessary to decrease the fluid radial heat transfer to obtain good fit. A good fit was obtained for steady state composition profiles by optimizing selected frequency factors and the activation energy for methanol. A redox rate expression for the oxidation of formaldehyde to carbon monoxide was proposed since a simple first-order rate expression did not fit the data. The pseudohomogeneous model gave results similar to the heterogeneous model for both steady state and dynamic experiments and has been recommended for future experimental state estimation and control studies. 21 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  20. Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCallum, Stuart Neil

    2008-01-01

    of greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. Consequently, CO has an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months, making it a good tracer for studying the long range transport of pollution. Satellite observations present a valuable tool to investigate tropospheric CO...

  1. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  2. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, B-2001 Leuven (Belgium); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410 (New Zealand); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakicevic, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Marti-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M{sub Sun} of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.

  3. Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    continue testing and evaluation of sensors, in collaborationCharacteristics General evaluation of sensor Standard MD-1on the CO sampler sensors. Evaluation ofsampler materials

  4. A new photocatalytic material was synthesized to investigate its performance for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of water vapor (H2O) to valuable products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of water vapor (H2O) to valuable products such as carbon monoxide-TiO2 nano-composite for the reduction of carbon dioxide in the presence of water vapor

  5. Hydrous ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored to graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, S.; Lee, I.; Ahmed, K.; Zhong, J.; Favors, Z.; Zaera, F.; Ozkan, M.; Ozkan, C. S

    2014-03-25

    In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due to their relatively lower energy density in comparison to other types of energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energy density of SCs will have a huge impact on the development of future energy storage devices by broadening the area of application for SCs. Here, we report a simple and scalable way of preparing a three-dimensional (3D) sub-5 nm hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO?) anchored graphene and CNT hybrid foam (RGM) architecture for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This RGM architecture demonstrates a novel graphene foam conformally covered with hybrid networks of RuO? nanoparticles and anchored CNTs. SCs based on RGM show superior gravimetric and per-area capacitive performance (specific capacitance: 502.78 F g?¹, areal capacitance: 1.11 F cm?²) which leads to an exceptionally high energy density of 39.28 Wh kg?¹ and power density of 128.01 kW kg?¹. The electrochemical stability, excellent capacitive performance, and the ease of preparation suggest this RGM system is promising for future energy storage applications.

  6. Exploring Oxidation of Half-Sandwich Rhodium Complexes: Oxygen Atom Insertion into the Rhodium-Carbon Bond of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    -(2-pyridyl)phenol formed. Deactivation of the organometallic species, probably due to oxidative degradation

  7. DISSOLUTION OF METAL OXIDES AND SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO2 modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO2 and counter current stripping columns is presented.

  8. Dissolution of metal oxides and separation of uranium from lanthanides and actinides in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quach, D.L.; Wai, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Mincher, B.J. [Idaho National Lab, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO{sub 2} and counter current stripping columns is presented. (authors)

  9. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  10. SOOT-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    and T. Novakov, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon inThe mechanism of catalytic oxidation on activated carbon;of water in the catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbonaceous

  11. Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, Robert

    2012-12-11

    (DBD) containing pure carbon monoxide. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the plasma and models of the emission spectra were created to determine the plasma temperatures. Deposition rates were determined to be on the order of 0.2 mg...

  12. Ternary Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to Carbon Dioxide: Making Ir Capable of Splitting C-C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Meng; Cullen, David A; Sasaki, Kotaro; Marinkovic, N.; More, Karren Leslie; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2013-01-01

    Splitting the C-C bond is the main obstacle to electroxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO2. We recently demonstrated that the ternary PtRhSnO2 electrocatalyst can accomplish that reaction at room temperature with Rh having a unique capability to split the C-C bond. In this article we report the finding that Ir can be induced to split the C-C bond as a component of the ternary catalyst. We synthesized, characterized and compared the properties of several ternary electrocatalysts. Carbon-supported nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts comprising a SnO2 NP core decorated with multi-metallic nanoislands (MM = PtIr, PtRh, IrRh, PtIrRh) were prepared using a seeded growth approach. An array of characterization techniques were employed to establish the composition and architecture of the synthesized MM /SnO2 NPs, while electrochemical and in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies elucidated trends in activity and the nature of the reaction intermediates and products. Both EOR reactivity and selectivity towards CO2 formation of several of these MM /SnO2/C electrocatalysts are significantly higher compared to conventional Pt/C and Pt/SnO2/C catalysts. We demonstrate that the PtIr/SnO2/C catalyst with high Ir content shows outstanding catalytic property with the most negative EOR onset potential and reasonably good selectivity towards ethanol complete oxidation to CO2. PtRh/SnO2/C catalysts with a moderate Rh content exhibit the highest EOR selectivity, as deduced from infrared studies.

  13. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  14. ROLE OF CARBON SOOT IN SULFATE FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakov, T.

    2011-01-01

    and T. Novakov, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon inand T. Novakov, "Catalytic oxidation of SO2 on carbon inof water in the catalytic oxidation of SO2 on carbonaceous

  15. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  16. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  17. ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna-seasonal data on carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases in a region where rapid climate

  18. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  1. Low Temperature Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide using Metal-organic Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Semiconductor (CMOS) devices, [1,2] magnetic tunnel junctions, [3] and optical coatings.[4] Conventional such as electroplating, [6,7] electroless deposition, [8,9] and in supercritical carbon dioxide for the deposition

  2. Oxidation of atmospheric organic carbon : interconnecting volatile organic compounds, intermediate-volatility organic compounds, and organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, James Freeman

    2015-01-01

    .Organic molecules have many important roles in the atmosphere, acting as climate and biogeochemical forcers, and in some cases as toxic pollutants. The lifecycle of atmospheric organic carbon is extremely complex, with ...

  3. Urban driving cycle results of retrofitted diesel oxidation catalysts on heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K.F. [Engine Control Systems Ltd., Aurora, Ontario (Canada); Rideout, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the emissions testing results of various heavy duty engines and vehicles with and without retrofitted diesel oxidation catalyst technology. 1987 Cummins L10 and 1991 DDC 6V92TA DDECII engine results over the US Heavy Duty Transient Test are presented for comparison to chassis test results. The vehicles in this study include two urban buses, two school buses and three heavy duty trucks. The Central Business District, New York Bus and New York Composite urban driving cycles have been used to evaluate baseline emissions and the catalyst performance on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The results demonstrate that 25--45% particulate reduction is readily achievable on a wide variety of heavy duty vehicles. Significant carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon reductions were also observed.

  4. ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    when consumed in an internal combustion engine yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide allButanol ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. CO2 is the combustion byproduct of butanol, and is considered

  5. High Catalytic Activity of Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) Controlled by the Nature of the Mixed Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Ma, S; Liu, P; Nambu, A; Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-metal oxides play a very important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, materials science, and geochemistry. Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding phenomena associated with the deposition of oxide nanoparticles on the surface of a second (host) oxide. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density-functional calculations are used to study the behavior of ceria nanoparticles deposited on a TiO2(110) surface. The titania substrate imposes nontypical coordination modes on the ceria nanoparticles. In the CeOx/TiO2(110) systems, the Ce cations adopt an structural geometry and an oxidation state (+3) that are quite different from those seen in bulk ceria or for ceria nanoparticles deposited on metal substrates. The increase in the stability of the Ce3+ oxidation state leads to an enhancement in the chemical and catalytic activity of the ceria nanoparticles. The codeposition of ceria and gold nanoparticles on a TiO2(110) substrate generates catalysts with an extremely high activity for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO ? H2 + CO2) or for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O2 ? 2CO2). The enhanced stability of the Ce3+ state is an example of structural promotion in catalysis described here on the atomic level. The exploration of mixed-metal oxides at the nanometer level may open avenues for optimizing catalysts through stabilization of unconventional surface structures with special chemical activity.

  6. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  7. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  8. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  9. Air quality at a snowmobile staging area and snow chemistry on and off trail in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), particu- late matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and non- combusted fuel vapors (USDI 2000). Combustion quality at this high elevation site by measuring levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO), carbon monoxide (CO, but numbers were difficult to quantify with an infrared sensor. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were

  10. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Palazzotto MC, Mann KR (1990) Electrochemistry and infraredPalazotto MC, Mann KR (1991) Electrochemistry and InfraredJ (2006) Analytical Electrochemistry (John Wiley & Sons,

  11. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    collected on a Bruker Equinox 55 spectrometer. Microanalysesacquired using the Bruker Equinox 55 spectrometer mentionedacquired using a Bruker Equinox 55 spectrometer. For the CO

  12. Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the Sgr A complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Roland; Hjalmarson, Åke; Winnberg, Anders; Fathi, Kambiz; Frisk, Urban; Olberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We observed OH, H$_2$O, HN$_3$, C$^{18}$O, and C$_I$ towards the +50 km/s cloud (M-0.02-0.07), the CND and the +20 km/s (M-0.13-0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H$_2$O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C$^{18}$O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km/s clouds. The CND is rich in H$_2$O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km/s clouds and the CND, the very high H$_2$O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperatu...

  13. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    are on the decline of the peak oil production curve, and thedue to the impending peak in oil production and the threatoil production curves for those countries that have passed peak

  14. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smieja, Jonathan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Kubiak, C. P. “Artificial photosynthesis of CO: Kinetic andJM, et al. (2012) Artificial photosynthesis of CO: Kineticentitled “Artificial photosynthesis of CO: Kinetic and

  15. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-03-31

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) consists of 5 U.S DOE national laboratories collaborating to develop a framework for predicting the risks associated with carbon sequestration. The approach taken by NRAP is to divide the system into components, including injection target reservoirs, wellbores, natural pathways including faults and fractures, groundwater and the atmosphere. Next, develop a detailed, physics and chemistry-based model of each component. Using the results of the detailed models, develop efficient, simplified models, termed reduced order models (ROM) for each component. Finally, integrate the component ROMs into a system model that calculates risk profiles for the site. This report details the development of the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer at PNNL. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer uses a Wellbore Leakage ROM developed at LANL as input. The detailed model, using the STOMP simulator, covers a 5x8 km area of the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas. The model includes heterogeneous hydraulic properties, and equilibrium, kinetic and sorption reactions between groundwater, leaked CO2 gas, brine, and the aquifer carbonate and clay minerals. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate 1024 samples of input parameters. For each of these input samples, the STOMP simulator was used to predict the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, and the volume, length and width of the aquifer where pH was less than the MCL standard, and TDS, arsenic, cadmium and lead exceeded MCL standards. In order to decouple the Wellbore Leakage ROM from the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM, the response surface was transformed to replace Wellbore Leakage ROM input parameters with instantaneous and cumulative CO2 and brine leakage rates. The most sensitive parameters proved to be the CO2 and brine leakage rates from the well, with equilibrium coefficients for calcite and dolomite, as well as the number of illite and kaolinite sorption sites proving to be of secondary importance. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM was developed using nonlinear regression to fit the response surface with a quadratic polynomial. The goodness of fit was excellent for the CO2 flux to the atmosphere, and very good for predicting the volumes of groundwater exceeding the pH, TDS, As, Cd and Pb threshold values.

  16. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  17. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-12-15

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  18. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  19. A laboratory study of oil recovery by in-situ combustion with the addition of water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alderman, John H

    1968-01-01

    10 Fraction of Carbon Oxidized to Carbon Monoxide for Run 1. 22 Fraction of Carbon Oxidized to Carbon Monoxide for Run 2 23 Fraction of Carbon Oxidized to Carbon Monoxide for Run 3 24 Fraction of Carbon Oxidized to Carbon Monoxide for Run 4 25... and the resultant combustion zone is propagated toward a producing well by the injec- tion of air. The injected air and the combustion front both move toward the producing well. Spent air and the products of combustion move into the unburned portion...

  20. The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research topic that is at the forefront of current engineering and sustainability applications. Direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research studies indicate that titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing materials serve as the best photocatalyst for CO2O2 materials allows one to increase the yield of certain products such as carbon monoxide (CO

  1. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  2. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  3. Catalytic membranes for CO oxidation in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Carrado Gregar, Kathleen; Kizilel, Riza

    2010-06-08

    A hydrogen permeable membrane, which includes a polymer stable at temperatures of about 200 C having clay impregnated with Pt or Au or Ru or Pd particles or mixtures thereof with average diameters of less than about 10 nanometers (nms) is disclosed. The membranes are useful in fuel cells or any device which requires hydrogen to be separated from carbon monoxide.

  4. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

  5. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  6. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  7. Basic Engineering Research for D and D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Matthews; David A. Bruce,; Thomas A. Davis; Mark C. Thies; John W. Weidner; Ralph E. White

    2002-04-01

    Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D and D operations at DOE sites across the country. The standard process for destruction of MLLW is incineration, which has an uncertain future. The extraction and destruction of PCBs from MLLW was the subject of this research Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide with 5% ethanol as cosolvent and Supercritical Waster Oxidation (SCWO) were the processes studied in depth. The solid matrix for experimental extraction studies was Toxi-dry, a commonly used absorbent made from plant material. PCB surrogates were 1.2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 2-chlorobiphenyl (2CBP). Extraction pressures of 2,000 and 4,000 psi and temperatures of 40 and 80 C were studied. Higher extraction efficiencies were observed with cosolvent and at high temperature, but pressure little effect. SCWO treatment of the treatment of the PCB surrogates resulted in their destruction below detection limits.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of formation process of single-walled carbon nanotubes by CCVD method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method [4-7] has been contrived for a scalable, large-scale production of SWNTs, with various carbon-source molecules tested such as carbon monoxide [4, 7], methane [5 simulations [10, 11] with the Brenner potential [12] or tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) simulation [13

  9. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  10. THE ROLE OF SOOT PARTICLES AND NOx IN THE OXIDATION OF SO2 IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION: KINETICS, MECHANISM, AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    kinetic data for the catalytic oxidation of S02 by variousdata indicate that catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon

  11. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  12. Carbonyl sulfide/carbon chemistry: Interim report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Shiley, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    This interim report describes work performed during the first eight months of a continuing project, including descriptions of sample preparations and analyses. The objective of the study is to determine the effects of carbonyl sulfide, a product of the carbon monoxide/ethanol desulfurization process, on coal. A coal is first treated with carbon monoxide to reduce pyrite, and is then reacted with OCS and N/sub 2/ under various conditions. OCS is a potent resulfurization agent and appears to affect the formation of mesophase in chars derived from the coal. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  13. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  14. THE NATURE OF SULFUR MONOXIDE FROM THIIRANE OXIDE: A STEREOCHEMICAL TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalbersberg, W.G.L.

    2014-01-01

    40.91. Solution Phase . Pyrolysis of cis-:" and tr\\:ins,.recorded. Gas Phase Pyrolysis of cis,. and trans~A standard flash vacutml pyrolysis apparatus was employed in

  15. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ? To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ? ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ? PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ? The findings suggest that ELF has a protective role against PM. ? The synthetic ELF system could reduce the use of animals in PM-driven ROS testing.

  16. Carbon-based composite electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Lee, Jog-Won (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini P. (Kennesaw, GA); Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC); Nallathambi, Vijayadurga (T-Nagar, IN); Li, Xuguang (Columbia, SC); Wu, Gang (West Columbia, SC)

    2009-12-08

    A process for synthesis of a catalyst is provided. The process includes providing a carbon precursor material, oxidizing the carbon precursor material whereby an oxygen functional group is introduced into the carbon precursor material, and adding a nitrogen functional group into the oxidized carbon precursor material.

  17. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    composition, chemistry, and climate. atmospheric chemistry | oxidative capacity | halogens | heterogeneous chemistry | air-sea exchange Reactive iodine impacts atmospheric chemistry in several ways. Catalytic a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215; b Cooperative

  18. Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    and carbon monoxide, is an important raw material in chemical manufacture such as, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and Materials Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 An experimental study of synthesis gas production has been steam reforming, shown in reaction 4. It is very useful to use low-cost materials

  19. Exocyclic Carbons Adjacent to the N[superscript 6] of Adenine are Targets for Oxidation by the Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AlkB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Deyu

    The DNA and RNA repair protein AlkB removes alkyl groups from nucleic acids by a unique iron- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent oxidation strategy. When alkylated adenines are used as AlkB targets, earlier work suggests that ...

  20. The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

  1. Does H2O improve the catalytic activity of Au1-4/MgO towards CO oxidation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amft, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The present density functional theory study addresses the question whether the presence of H2O influences the catalytic activity of small gold clusters, Au1-4/MgO(100), towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide. To this end, we studied the (co-)adsorption of H2O and CO/O2 on these gold clusters. The ground state structures in the presence of all three molecular species, that we found, are Au1O2/MgO and Au2-4CO/MgO with H2O adsorbed on the surface in the proximity of the clusters-molecule complex. In this configuration the catalytic activity of Au1-4/MgO is indifferent to the presence of H2O. We also found that a stable, highly activated hydroperoxyl-hydroxyl complex, O2H\\dot\\dot OH, can be formed on Au1,3/MgO. For the catalytic active system Au8/MgO, it has been predicted that this complex opens an alternative catalytic reaction pathway towards CO oxidation. Our results suggest that this water mediated catalytic cycle is unlikely to occur on Au1,3/MgO. In the case of Au1/MgO the cycle is interrupted by the dis...

  2. Remote Sensing of In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    -road measurements in 2005 of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxideRemote Sensing of In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks D A N I E L A . B U R G A R D , G A R Y A . B I. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide show increasing emissions with increased altitude. Oxides of nitrogen

  3. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Critical Properties of a ZGB Model of Catalytic CO Oxidation with Long-Range Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, C H

    2014-01-01

    The Ziff-Gulari-Barshad (ZGB) model is widely used to study the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) on a catalyst surface. It exhibits a non-equilibrium, discontinuous phase transition between a reactive and a CO poisoned phase. If one allows a nonzero rate of CO desorption ($k$), the line of phase transitions terminate at a critical point ($k_{c}$). In this work, instead of restricting the CO and atomic oxygen (O) to react only when they are adsorbed in close proximity, we consider a model that allows adsorbed CO and O atoms located far apart on the lattice to react to form carbon dioxide (CO$_{2}$). We employ large-scale Monte Carlo simulations and use the crossing of fourth-order cumulants to study the critical properties of this system. We find that the non-equilibrium critical point changes from the two-dimensional Ising universality class to the mean-field universality class upon introducing even a weak long-range interaction term. This behavior is consistent with that of the \\emph{equilibrium} Ising ferr...

  4. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

    2009-01-07

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

  5. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R.E.; Wine, P.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S({sup 3}P{sub j}) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2})+OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases and Acetyl-CoA Synthases: Light at the End of the Tunnel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Lindahl

    2002-02-19

    OAK-B135 Metalloenzymes seem to ''come of age'' when their structures are known at atomic resolution, spectroscopic and catalytic properties are basically understood, and genetic expression systems are available. Such foundations allow detailed mechanistic and spectroscopic properties to be probed and correlated to structure. The objective of this article is to summarize what is known about the title group of enzymes, and show that, to a large degree, they have come of age.

  7. INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Robert Brian

    2011-01-01

    is proportional to the outgassing rate of the warm metalat temperature 1.6 K, outgassing ceases, and the only source

  8. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 ± 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  9. Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

  10. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    1997), The ASAD atmospheric chemistry integration packageet al. (2001), Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases,J. -F. Lamarque, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National

  11. Delivering carbon monoxide froma prorous material with an entrapped photoactive manganese carbonyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Il Gu

    2013-01-01

    conducted. The control group of CBA mice with BALB/c heartsc mice were transplanted into CBA mice after treatment with

  12. A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVivo, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based control system utilizing a distributed intelligence architecture has been developed to control combustion in hydrocarbon fuel-fired boilers and heaters to significantly reduce fuel usage. The system incorporates a unique flue...

  13. TES carbon monoxide validation with DACOM aircraft measurements during INTEX-B 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , consistent with known features in the tracer fields due to transpacific transport of polluted air parcels in the Houston area. The comparisons of TES and DACOM CO profiles near Hawaii and Anchorage in April to May 2006, and Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX)-B in March to May 2006 near Houston, TX, Hawaii, HI

  14. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonaland its response to NOx emission controls, J. Atmos. Chem. ,Inversion of CO and NOx emissions using the adjoint of the

  15. Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    worldwide by outdoor air pollution caused by vehicles and industrial emissions (http://www.who.int; http:// www.infoforhealth.org). Notably, air pollution increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular investigating the effects of urban air pollution in humans are mainly restricted to epide- miological studies

  16. Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring and autumn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    and autumn Huixiang Xie1 Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Rimouski, Rimouski, Que´bec G5L 3A1, Canada Simon Be´langer De´partement de biologie, chimie et ge´ographie, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Rimouski, Rimouski, Que´bec G5L 3A1, Canada Serge Demers Institut des sciences de

  17. Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    - based fuels is known to degrade the performance of a proton ex- change membrane fuel cell PEMFC effects of CO on the performance of a PEMFC, researchers have explored ways to modify fuel cell opera

  18. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. [Pretreatment of catalyst in carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present study shows that activation of a high surface area Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in CO in a (CSTR), continuously stirred tank reactor using tetralin as solvent results in an activated that is three times of material that is activated in H{sub 2} or directly in the syngas.

  19. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  20. PAST RESEARCH SUMMARY REDUCTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE DOE/ER/04949--1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctoberConsumptionPoweredE Contract No.No. 330

  1. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionfor carbon-monoxide hydrogen oxygen kinetics. Combustion

  2. High temperature electrolysis for syngas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoots, Carl M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, James Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hawkes, Grant L. (Sugar City, ID); Hartvigsen, Joseph J. (Kaysville, UT)

    2011-05-31

    Syngas components hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be formed by the decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by a solid-oxide electrolysis cell to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen, a portion of which may be reacted with carbon dioxide to form carbon monoxide. One or more of the components for the process, such as steam, energy, or electricity, may be provided using a nuclear power source.

  3. Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Microwave heating of a metal oxide in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes may result in...

  4. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  5. Incorporation effect of nanosized perovskite LaFe?.?Co?.?O? on the electrochemical activity of Pt nanoparticles-multi walled carbon nanotube composite toward methanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Khaleghian-Moghadam, Roghayeh; Ekrami-Kakhki, Mehri-Saddat; Shahraki, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    Nanosized perovskite LaFe?.?Co?.?O? (LFCO) is synthesized through conventional co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The incorporation effect of the mentioned perovskite to catalytic activity of the PtNPs-MWCNTs-nafion (or -chitosan) catalyst toward methanol oxidation has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. Based on the electrochemical studies, all MWCNTs-PtNPs-nafion (or chitosan) and MWCNTs-PtNPs-LFCO-nafion (or chitosan) catalysts show a considerable activity for methanol oxidation. However, a synergistic effect is observed when LFCO is added to the catalyst by decreasing the poisoning rate of the Pt catalyst. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized perovskite LaFe?.?Co?.?O? is synthesized and characterized. The incorporation effect of the mentioned perovskite to catalytic activity of the PtNPS-MWCNTs-nafion (or -chitosan) catalyst toward methanol oxidation is studied. Highlights: • Nanocrystalline LaFe?.?Co?.?O? (LFCO) is prepared by a new simple co-precipitation method. • Effect of LFCO to catalytic activity of PtNPS for methanol oxidation is studied. • A synergistic effect is observed when LFCO is added to the Pt catalyst. • Oxygen of LFCO could be considered as active oxygen to remove CO intermediates.

  6. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  7. Morphology of the surface of technically pure titanium VT1-0 after electroexplosive carbonization with a weighed zirconium oxide powder sample and electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sosnin, Kirill V.; Raykov, Sergey V.; Vaschuk, Ekaterina S.; Budovskikh, Evgenie A. Gromov, Victor E.; Ivanov, Yuri F.

    2014-11-14

    Titanium is carbonized by the electroexplosive method. Formation of a surface alloyed layer and a coating on the treated surface is established by the methods of transmission electron microscopy. The morphology and elemental composition of the alloyed layer are analyzed. A dependence of the structure of the modified layer subjected to electron gun treatment on the absorbed power density is revealed.

  8. A Model of Transient Thermal Transport Phenomena Applied to the Carbonation and Calcination of a Sorbent Particle for Calcium Oxide Looping CO2 Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    equations for the four species of the system and one conservation of energy equation. Conservation of mass looping is selected as the model cycle because of its suitability for solar-driven carbon dioxide capture cycles are found in important industrial applications, including thermal energy storage, chemical

  9. Sub-Nano Clusters: The Last Frontier of Inorganic Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, AN; Bouchard, LS

    2015-01-01

    W-D (1999). "Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide onJK (2002). "Catalytic CO Oxidation by a Gold Nanoparticle: Atheir catalytic activity toward the reaction of CO oxidation

  10. High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-02-27

    Berkeley Lab’s High Performance Silicon Monoxide Electrode has a capacity retention of more than 90% after ~500 cycles, which translates into a ~20% improvement over the limited energy density of conventional graphite anode-based lithium-ion batteries, enabling next-generation mobile electronics and electric/plug-in vehicles....

  11. Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The excitation coefficient ?{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}?{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

  12. Controlled Multistep Purification of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Controlled Multistep Purification of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Ya-Qiong Xu,,§ Haiqing Peng materials from raw single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) produced in the HiPco (high-pressure CO) process at increasing temperatures. To avoid catalytic oxidation by iron oxide of carbon nanotubes, the exposed

  13. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J.; Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M.; Donohue, R.

    2009-02-15

    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  14. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  15. Effects of pretreatment of coal by CO{sub 2} on nitric oxide emission and unburned carbon in various combustion environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gathitu, B.B.; Chen, W.Y. [University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Polar solvents are known to swell coal, break hydrogen bonds in the macromolecular structure, and enhance coal liquefaction efficiencies. The effects of the pretreatment of coal using supercritical CO{sub 2} on its physical structure and combustion properties have been studied at the bench-scale level. Emphasis has been placed on NO reburning, NO emissions during air-fired and oxy-fired combustion, and loss on ignition (LOI). Pretreatment was found to increase porosity and to significantly alter the fuel nitrogen reaction pathways. Consequently, NO reduction during reburning using bituminous coal increased, and NO emissions during oxidation of lignite decreased. These two benefits were achieved without negative impacts on LOI.

  16. Composite catalysts supported on modified carbon substrates and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini (Kennesaw, GA); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC)

    2009-11-17

    A method of producing a composite carbon catalyst is generally disclosed. The method includes oxidizing a carbon precursor (e.g., carbon black). Optionally, nitrogen functional groups can be added to the oxidized carbon precursor. Then, the oxidized carbon precursor is refluxed with a non-platinum transitional metal precursor in a solution. Finally, the solution is pyrolyzed at a temperature of at least about 500.degree. C.

  17. Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O2 and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzas, James R.

    2010-03-08

    It is well known that the activity, selectivity, and deactivation behavior of heterogeneous catalysts are strongly affected by a wide variety of parameters, including but not limited to nanoparticle size, shape, composition, support, pretreatment conditions, oxidation state, and electronic state. Enormous effort has been expended in an attempt to understand the role of these factors on catalytic behavior, but much still remains to be discovered. In this work, we have focused on deepening the present understanding of the role of nanoparticle shape, nanoparticle composition, and hot electrons on heterogeneous catalysis in the oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide. These reactions were chosen because they are important for environmental applications, such as in the catalytic converter, and because there is a wide range of experimental and theoretical insight from previous single crystal work as well as experimental data on nanoparticles obtained using new state-of-the-art techniques that aid greatly in the interpretation of results on complex nanoparticle systems. In particular, the studies presented in this work involve three types of samples: {approx} 6.5 nm Rh nanoparticles of different shapes, {approx} 15 nm Rh1-xPdx core-shell bimetallic polyhedra nanoparticles, and Rh ultra-thin film ({approx} 5 nm) catalytic nanodiodes. The colloidal nanoparticle samples were synthesized using a co-reduction of metal salts in alcohol and supported on silicon wafers using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. This synthetic strategy enables tremendous control of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. Nanoparticle shape was controlled through the use of different organic polymer capping layers. Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by careful choice of metal salt precursors. Rh/TiO{sub x} and Rh/GaN catalytic nanodiodes were fabricated using a variety of thin film device fabrication techniques, including reactive DC magnetron sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and rapid thermal annealing. The combination of these techniques enabled control of catalytic nanodiode morphology, geometry, and electrical properties.

  18. Atomic-Structural Synergy for Catalytic CO Oxidation over Palladium-Nickel Nanoalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Joseph, Pharrah; Mayzel, Dina; Prasai, Binay; Wang, Lingyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-05-05

    Alloying palladium (Pd) with other transition metals at the nanoscale has become an important pathway for preparation of low-cost, highly-active and stable catalysts. However the lack of understanding of how the alloying phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of the alloys at the nanoscale influence their catalytic activity impedes the rational design of Pd-nanoalloy catalysts. This work addresses this challenge by a novel approach to investigating the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) over palladium-nickel (PdNi) nanoalloys with well-defined bimetallic composition, which reveals a remarkable a maximal catalytic activity at Pd:Ni ratio of ~50:50. Key to understanding the structural-catalytic synergy is the use of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function (HE-XRD/PDF) analysis to probe the atomic structure of PdNi nanoalloys under controlled thermochemical treatments and CO reaction conditions. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the atomic structure of the nanoalloy particles were generated by reverse Monte Carlo simulations (RMC) guided by the experimental HE-XRD/PDF data. Structural details of the PdNi nanoalloys were extracted from the respective 3D models and compared with the measured catalytic properties. The comparison revealed a strong correlation between the phase state, chemical composition and atomic-scale structure of PdNi nanoalloys and their catalytic activity for CO oxidation. This correlation is further substantiated by analyzing the first atomic neighbor distances and coordination numbers inside the nanoalloy particles and at their surfaces. These findings have provided new insights into the structural synergy of nanoalloy catalysts by controlling the phase state, composition and atomic structure, complementing findings of traditional density functional theory studies.

  19. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  20. Effects of inert species in the gas phase in a model for the catalytic oxidation of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buendia, G M

    2011-01-01

    We study by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a surface in the presence of contaminants in the gas phase. The process is simulated by a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad (ZGB) model that has been modified to include the effect of the contaminants and to eliminate the unphysical oxygen-poisoned phase. The impurities can adsorb and desorb on the surface, but otherwise remain inert. We find that, if the impurities can not desorb, no matter how small their proportion in the gas mixture, the first order transition and the reactive window that characterize the ZGB model disappear. The coverages become continuous, and once the surface has reached a steady state there is no production of CO$_2$. This is quite different from the behavior of a system in which the surface presents a fixed percentage of impurities. When the contaminants are allowed to desorb, the reactive window appears again, and disappears at a value that depends on the proportion of contaminants in the gas and on their de...

  1. Polyacrylonitrile-based electrospun carbon paper for electrode applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ying

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon paper with fiber diameters of 200–300 nm was developed through hot-pressing, pre-oxidation, and carbonization of electrospun fiber mats. Changes in morphology, crystallinity, and surface ...

  2. Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry February 7, 2014 - 3:27pm Addthis Oxidized fibers move to a high temperature...

  3. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  4. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  9. Long-Term Trends in Motor Vehicle Emissions in U.S. Urban Areas Brian C. McDonald and Drew R. Gentner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    to estimate long- term trends (1990-2010) in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from motor vehicles. Non), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) are coemitted with carbon dioxide (CO2) during combustion. These pollutants are important to tropospheric ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA

  10. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  11. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

  12. Light emission from an argon discharge containing an admixture of carbon G. Bekefi, P. Avivi, F. DothanDeutsch, L. Friedland, J. L. Hirshfield, and H. Keren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedland, Lazar

    Light emission from an argon discharge containing an admixture of carbon monoxide G. Bekefi, P Publishing Articles you may be interested in Light Emission of Argon Discharges: Importance of Heavy Particle Processes AIP Conf. Proc. 740, 353 (2004); 10.1063/1.1843519 Kinetic pathways to visible emission from

  13. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide originates from incomplete combustion ofcarbon monoxide poisoning caused by faulty combustion

  14. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionthe combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionpects of combustion of hydrogen [29], carbon monoxide [29],

  15. Computational Studies of Flame Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    equation for combustion of carbon monoxide with oxygen isof combustion of hydrogen [19], carbon monoxide [19],and carbon monoxide is necessary to design combustion

  16. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01

    of hydrogen and carbon monoxide”, Combustion and Flame, 145,of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide”, Combustion and Flame, 145,hydrogen and carbon monoxide”, Combustion and Flame , 145,

  17. Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation* Brenda L:Ru nanoparticles on carbon (PtRu/C) for use as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. This bimetallic carbonyl support particles. Cyclic voltammo- grams of methanol oxidation from the two catalysts showed

  18. Methyl Formate Oxidation: Speciation Data, Laminar Burning Velocities, Ignition Delay Times and a Validated Chemical Kinetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Burke, M. P.; Chaos, M.; Stein, Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Zhukov, V. P.; Finch, O.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2010-07-16

    The oxidation of methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCHO) has been studied in three experimental environments over a range of applied combustion relevant conditions: 1. A variable-pressure flow reactor has been used to quantify reactant, major intermediate and product species as a function of residence time at 3 atm and 0.5% fuel concentration for oxygen/fuel stoichiometries of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at 900 K, and for pyrolysis at 975 K. 2. Shock tube ignition delays have been determined for CH{sub 3}OCHO/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures at pressures of ? 2.7, 5.4, and 9.2 atm and temperatures of 1275–1935 K for mixture compositions of 0.5% fuel (at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5) and 2.5% fuel (at an equivalence ratio of 1.0). 3. Laminar burning velocities of outwardly propagating spherical CH{sub 3}OCHO/air flames have been determined for stoichiometries ranging from 0.8–1.6, at atmospheric pressure using a pressure-release-type high-pressure chamber. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been constructed, validated against, and used to interpret these experimental data. The kinetic model shows that methyl formate oxidation proceeds through concerted elimination reactions, principally forming methanol and carbon monoxide as well as through bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions. The relative importance of elimination versus abstraction was found to depend on the particular environment. In general, methyl formate is consumed exclusively through molecular decomposition in shock tube environments, while at flow reactor and freely propagating premixed flame conditions, there is significant competition between hydrogen abstraction and concerted elimination channels. It is suspected that in diffusion flame configurations the elimination channels contribute more significantly than in premixed environments.

  19. Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructures of cubic titanium monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2013-08-15

    A cubic model is proposed for the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (Ti{sub 5} Black-Small-Square O{sub 5}{open_square} {identical_to} Ti{sub 90} Black-Small-Square {sub 18}O{sub 90}{open_square}{sub 18}) superstructure of nonstoichiometric titanium monoxide Ti{sub x}O{sub z} with double imperfection. The unit cell of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure has the threefold lattice parameter of the unit cell of the basis disordered B1 structure of Ti{sub x}O{sub z} monoxide and belongs to space group Pm 3-bar m . The channel of the disorder-order transition, i.e., Ti{sub x}O{sub z} (space group Fm 3-bar m)-Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (space group Pm 3-bar m), includes 75 superstructure vectors of seven stars (k{sub 10}), (k{sub 7}), (k{sub 6(1)}), (k{sub 6(2)}), (k{sub 4(1)}), (k{sub 4(2)}), and (k{sub 1}). The distribution functions of Ti and O atoms over the sites of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure are calculated. A comparison of the X-ray and electron diffraction data obtained for ordered TiO{sub 1.087} monoxide with the theoretical simulation results supports the existence of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure. The cubic (space group Pm 3-bar m) Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure is shown to be a high-temperature structure relative to the well-known monoclinic (space group C2/m) superstructure of the same type.

  20. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis Jr., Benjamin E (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  1. Carbonate Thermochemical Cycle for the Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Dole, Leslie Robert [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Haire, Marvin Jonathan [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Lewis Jr, Benjamin E [ORNL; Wymer, Raymond [ORNL; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  2. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  3. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  4. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  5. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  6. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  7. On the photoelectron velocity-map imaging of lutetium monoxide anion LuO{sup ?}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao, E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn; Fan, Hongjun, E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Quanjiang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-21

    We report a combined photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation on lutetium monoxide anion. Transition between the X {sup 1}?{sup +} anion electronic ground state and the neutral X {sup 2}?{sup +} electronic ground state is observed. Vibrationally resolved spectra were obtained at four different photon energies, providing a wealth of spectroscopic information for the electronic ground states of the anionic lutetium monoxide and corresponding neutral species. Franck-Condon simulations of the ground-state transition are performed to assign vibrational structure in the spectra and to assist in identifying the observed spectral bands. The electronic ground state of LuO{sup ?} is found to have a vibrational frequency of 743 ± 10 cm{sup ?1} and an equilibrium bond length of 1.841 Å. The electron affinity of LuO is measured to be 1.624 ± 0.002 eV. The fundamental frequency of ground-state LuO is estimated to be 839 ± 10 cm{sup ?1}.

  8. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  9. Electrolysis of Molten Iron Oxide with an Iridium Anode: The Role of Electrolyte Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-free, electrochemical technique to decompose a metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas. From an environmental perspective what makes MOE attractive is its ability ...

  10. Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

  11. Non-destructive radiocarbon and stable isotopic analyses of archaeological materials using plasma oxidation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steelman, Karen Lynn

    2005-11-01

    Plasma oxidation, an alternative to combustion, is shown to be a non-destructive method for obtaining radiocarbon dates on perishable organic artifacts. Electrically excited oxygen gently converts organic carbon to carbon dioxide. Radiocarbon...

  12. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firsich, D.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Delnick, F.M.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200--250 C, followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300 C, follows carbonization. 1 fig.

  13. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firsich, David W. (Dayton, OH); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Delnick, Frank M. (Dexter, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200.degree.-250.degree. C., followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300.degree. C., follows carbonization.

  14. Predict carbonation rate on iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    An experimental study of the coking rate in 5 cm ID fluidized-bed reactors, in which the feed gas composition, the total pressure, and the fresh feed/recycle gas ratios were varied over wide ranges, showed a strong correlation between the carbon deposition rate and the ratio of carbon monoxide partial pressure to the square of the hydrogen partial pressure at the reactor inlet over a wide gas-composition range. At a given fresh gas composition, the combination rate varied inversely with the total pressure of the system. Coking decreased as the moles of CO + CO/sub 2/ converted to hydrocarbon increased. A Fischer-Tropsch reaction scheme is proposed and is used to derive a rate expression for catalyst carbonation that was approximately confirmed.

  15. Revised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2O..., Thiazyl ,,NS...,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    in the 4th edition of the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. Updated enthalpies of formation were includedRevised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2 to compute the thermochemical tables for four ideal gases: mercapto HS , disulfur monox- ide (S2O), thiazyl

  16. Comparison of adjoint and analytical Bayesian inversion methods for constraining Asian sources of carbon monoxide using satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    satellite fire data. Citation: Kopacz, M., D. J. Jacob, D. K. Henze, C. L. Heald, D. G. Streets, and Q of Gaussian errors [Rodgers, 2000]. The cost function describes the error- weighted mismatch between

  17. Detection of Far-Infrared Water Vapor, Hydroxyl, and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho

    1998-09-01

    We report the detection of shock-excited far-infrared emission of H2O, OH, and CO from the supernova remnant 3C 391, using the ISO Long-Wavelength Spectrometer. This is the first detection of thermal H2O and OH emission from a supernova remnant. For two other remnants, W~28 and W~44, CO emission was detected but OH was only detected in absorption. The observed H2O and OH emission lines arise from levels within ~400 K of the ground state, consistent with collisional excitation in warm, dense gas created after the passage of the shock front through the dense clumps in the pre-shock cloud. The post-shock gas we observe has a density ~2x10^5 cm^{-3} and temperature 100-1000 K, and the relative abundances of CO:OH:H2O in the emitting region are 100:1:7 for a temperature of 200 K. The presence of a significant column of warm H2O suggests that the chemistry has been significantly changed by the shock. The existence of significant column densities of both OH and H2O, which is at odds with models for non-dissociative shocks into dense gas, could be due to photodissociation of H2O or a mix of fast and slow shocks through regions with different pre-shock density.

  18. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA * Correspondence to: Dylan B. Millet (dbm@umn.edu) Supporting. Turbulence is simulated by a Markov chain process. The evolution of particles backwards in time maps I(xr, tr

  19. Structural Changes in Self-Catalyzed Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on 1,4-Phenylene Diisocyanide Modified Au(111)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kestell, John; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Cheng, Lanxia; Garvey, Michael; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2015-07-23

    The self-accelerated adsorption of CO on 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI)-derived oligomers on Au(111) is explored by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. PDI incorporates gold adatoms from the Au(111) surface to form one-dimensional —(Au–PDI)n— chains that can also connect between gold nanoparticles on mica to form a conductive pathway between them. CO adsorption occurs in two stages; it first adsorbs adjacent to the oligomers that move to optimize CO adsorption. Further CO exposure induces PDI decoordination to form Au–PDI adatom complexes thereby causing the conductivity of a PDI-linked gold nanoparticle array on mica to decrease to act as a chemicallymore »drive molecular switch. This simple system enables the adsorption process to be explored in detail. DFT calculations reveal that both the —(Au–PDI)n— oligomer chain and the Au–PDI adatom complex are stabilized by coadsorbed CO. A kinetic “foot-in-the-door” model is proposed in which fluctuations in PDI coordination allow CO to diffuse into the gap between gold adatoms to prevent the PDI from reattaching, thereby allowing additional CO to adsorb, to provide kinetic model for allosteric CO adsorption on PDI-covered gold.« less

  20. Controlled synthesis of concave tetrahedral palladium nanocrystals by reducing Pd(acac){sub 2} with carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hai; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Li, Chunya; Tang, Heqing; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan; Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. CO flow rate was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. Highlights: ? By using CO as a reducing agent, concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were obtained. ? CO flow rate is critical to the formation of concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals. ? The selective adsorption of CO on (1 1 0) facets is essential to concave Pd tetrahedra. -- Abstract: CO reducing strategy to control the morphologies of palladium nanocrystals was investigated. By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals with a mean size of about 55 ± 2 nm were readily synthesized with Pd(acac){sub 2} as a precursor and PVP as a stabilizer. The structures of the as-prepared Pd nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that CO was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral Pd nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. The most appropriate CO flow rate, temperature and time for the formation of the ideal concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals was 0.033 mL s{sup ?1}, 100 °C and 3 h, respectively.

  1. Adsorption and Co-adsorption of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide on Silica-Supported Monodisperse Pt Nanoparticles: Volumetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    on the poisoning of the heterogeneously catalyzed conversion of hydrocarbons. 1. Introduction Lateral interactions conventional theory, such as Langmuir-Hinshelwood hetero- geneous kinetics.1,2 Interactions between adsorbates roughness (nano- particle size) on adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is important. Conventional theories

  2. GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz) and prototype silicon carbide (SiC) FET based sensors show enhanced sensitivity at high temperature

  3. Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camou, Alejandro

    2014-05-03

    concentration can be reduced by eliminating condensation within the gas lines. The sensor also proved to capture the fuel flow variations while showing room for improvement in the broadening behavior. These tests using direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS...

  4. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  5. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    combustion thus increase emissions of carbon monoxide andand carbon monoxide may also be generated from combustion and

  6. The Effect of Simulated Barium Carbonate Waste Stream on the Hydration of Composite Cement Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    of spent uranium oxide fuel and passed through a caustic scrubber producing a sodium carbonate waste form. In the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at BNFL, Sellafield, CO2 is released during the dissolution

  7. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized...

  8. CVD Growth of Carbon Nanostructures from Zirconia: Mechanisms and a Method for Enhancing Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudo, Akira

    By excluding metals from synthesis, growth of carbon nanostructures via unreduced oxide nanoparticle catalysts offers wide technological potential. We report new observations of the mechanisms underlying chemical vapor ...

  9. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  10. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  11. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  12. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  13. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  14. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  15. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A. [Grupo MEMS, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S. [Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Buffa, F. A. [INTEMA Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  16. Structure and Reactivity of Surface Oxides on Pt(110) during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.D.; Pedersen, T.M.; Hammer, B.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Bobaru, S.C.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Robach, O.; Quiros, C.

    2005-12-16

    We present the first structure determination by surface x-ray diffraction during the restructuring of a model catalyst under reaction conditions, i.e., at high pressure and high temperature, and correlate the restructuring with a change in catalytic activity. We have analyzed the Pt(110) surface during CO oxidation at pressures up to 0.5 bar and temperatures up to 625 K. Depending on the O{sub 2}/CO pressure ratio, we find three well-defined structures: namely, (i) the bulk-terminated Pt(110) surface, (ii) a thin, commensurate oxide, and (iii) a thin, incommensurate oxide. The commensurate oxide only appears under reaction conditions, i.e., when both O{sub 2} and CO are present and at sufficiently high temperatures. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the commensurate oxide is stabilized by carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). Both oxides have a substantially higher catalytic activity than the bulk-terminated Pt surface.

  17. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and Ab Initio Investigation of the Reaction of Boron Monoxide (BO; X2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    ; X2 + ) with 1,3-Butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2; X1 Ag) and Its Deuterated Counterparts Surajit Maity, Beni B Information ABSTRACT: The reactions of the boron monoxide (11 BO; X2 + ) radical with 1,3- butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2; X1 Ag) and its partially deuterated counterparts, 1,3- butadiene-d2 (CH2CDCDCH2; X1 Ag) and 1

  18. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide Dmitriy A. Dikin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper Dmitriy A. Dikin1 , Sasha for fuel cell and structural composite applications12­15 . Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon- based membrane material made by flow

  19. A Carbon Corrosion Model to Evaluate the Effect of Steady State and Transient Operation of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandy, Arun; Gummalla, Mallika; Atrazhev, Vadim V; Kuzminyh, Nikolay Yu; Sultanov, Vadim I; Burlatsky, Sergei F

    2014-01-01

    A carbon corrosion model is developed based on the formation of surface oxides on carbon and platinum of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrode. The model predicts the rate of carbon corrosion under potential hold and potential cycling conditions. The model includes the interaction of carbon surface oxides with transient species like OH radicals to explain observed carbon corrosion trends under normal PEM fuel cell operating conditions. The model prediction agrees qualitatively with the experimental data supporting the hypothesis that the interplay of surface oxide formation on carbon and platinum is the primary driver of carbon corrosion.

  20. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  1. Graphene Oxide Thin Films for Flexible Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,12 binary tran- sition metal oxides (such as NiO,13-15 TiO2,16-18 and ZnO19 ), and even Fe3O4 nanoparticle assemblies.20 Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene-based ma- terials have attracted attention as future nonvolatile memory elements.21 Suspended and crossed carbon nanotubes in an array configuration yielded

  2. Low-Potential Stable NADH Detection at Carbon-Nanotube-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musameh, Mustafa; Wang, Joseph; Merkoci, Arben; Lin, Yuehe )

    2002-11-22

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified glassy-carbon electrodes exhibiting strong and stable electrocatalytic response toward NADH are described. A substantial (490 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the NADH oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is observed using single-wall and multi-wall carbon-nanotube coatings, with oxidation starting at ca.?0.05V (vs. Ag/AgCl; pH 7.4). Furthermore, the NADH amperometric response of the coated electrodes is extremely stable, with 96 and 90% of the initial activity remaining after 60min stirring of 2x10-4M and 5x10-3M NADH solutions, respectively (compared to 20 and 14% at the bare surface). The CNT-coated electrodes thus allow highly-sensitive, low-potential, stable amperometric sensing. Such ability of carbon-nanotubes to promote the NADH electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for dehydrogenase-based amperometric biosensors.

  3. Reactive based NOx sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliou, Christophoros Christou

    2006-01-01

    Diesel engines exhibit better fuel economy and emit fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline engines. Modern diesel technology has virtually eliminated carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur oxide emissions have ...

  4. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    , MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethyl- ene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measure- ments are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each

  5. Frontiers in Catalysis Science and Engineering Materials Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -controlled metal nanocrystals, and applied them to the systematic investigation of catalytic processes for steam reforming of alcohols and the oxidation of carbon monoxide on nanoscale facets. Aberration- corrected

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: INstItute for INterfacIaL cataLysIs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will require the use of novel catalysts to oxidize, at these lower temperatures, the byproduct carbon monoxide-rich exhaust without negatively impacting fuel economy. Moreover, the catalyst technology must have a long life

  7. BERKELEY CATALYSIS CENTER November 11, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides emitted from the gasoline internal combustion engine has in fuel cells and hydrogen generation research. Most major automobile companies are demonstrating fuel

  8. Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amar C. Vutha; Wesley C. Campbell; Yulia V. Gurevich; Nicholas R. Hutzler; Maxwell Parsons; David Patterson; Elizabeth Petrik; Benjamin Spaun; John M. Doyle; Gerald Gabrielse; David DeMille

    2010-11-06

    The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is a signature of CP-violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We describe an ongoing experiment to measure or set improved limits to the eEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules. The metastable $H {}^3\\Delta_1$ state in ThO has important advantages for such an experiment. We argue that the statistical uncertainty of an eEDM measurement could be improved by as much as 3 orders of magnitude compared to the current experimental limit, in a first-generation apparatus using a cold ThO beam. We describe our measurements of the $H$ state lifetime and the production of ThO molecules in a beam, which provide crucial data for the eEDM sensitivity estimate. ThO also has ideal properties for the rejection of a number of known systematic errors; these properties and their implications are described.

  9. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Ytre Enebakk, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  10. Methylene Blue MSDS 20 November 2013 Page 1 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Extinguishing Media: Dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide, foam and water spray. Hazards from Combustion products carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, oxides of sulphur and hydrogen sulphide. Specific Hazards: Combustible solid. This product will burn if exposed to fire. This product in sufficient quantity

  11. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  12. Generation and reactivity of putative support systems, Ce-Al neutral binary oxide nanoclusters: CO oxidation and C–H bond activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2013-11-21

    Both ceria (CeO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are very important catalyst support materials. Neutral binary oxide nanoclusters (NBONCs), Ce{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}, are generated and detected in the gas phase and their reactivity with carbon monoxide (CO) and butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) is studied. The very active species CeAlO{sub 4}{sup •} can react with CO and butane via O atom transfer (OAT) and H atom transfer (HAT), respectively. Other Ce{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} NBONCs do not show reactivities toward CO and C{sub 4}H{sub 10}. The structures, as well as the reactivities, of Ce{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} NBONCs are studied theoretically employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ground state CeAlO{sub 4}{sup •} NBONC possesses a kite-shaped structure with an O{sub t}CeO{sub b}O{sub b}AlO{sub t} configuration (O{sub t}, terminal oxygen; O{sub b}, bridging oxygen). An unpaired electron is localized on the O{sub t} atom of the AlO{sub t} moiety rather than the CeO{sub t} moiety: this O{sub t} centered radical moiety plays a very important role for the reactivity of the CeAlO{sub 4}{sup •} NBONC. The reactivities of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CeAlO{sub 4}{sup •}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 4} toward CO are compared, emphasizing the importance of a spin-localized terminal oxygen for these reactions. Intramolecular charge distributions do not appear to play a role in the reactivities of these neutral clusters, but could be important for charged isoelectronic BONCs. DFT studies show that the reaction of CeAlO{sub 4}{sup •} with C{sub 4}H{sub 10} to form the CeAlO{sub 4}H•C{sub 4}H{sub 9}{sup •} encounter complex is barrierless. While HAT processes have been previously characterized for cationic and anionic oxide clusters, the reported study is the first observation of a HAT process supported by a ground state neutral oxide cluster. Mechanisms for catalytic oxidation of CO over surfaces of Al{sub x}O{sub y}/M{sub m}O{sub n} or M{sub m}O{sub n}/Al{sub x}O{sub y} materials are proposed consistent with the presented experimental and theoretical results.

  13. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  14. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  15. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  16. Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation to seeping fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation of carbon derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), the oxidation of organic matter and from sea water. Methane is the dominant component among other hydrocarbon gases in these sediments. Its

  17. Electronic structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutar, D. S.; Singh, Gulbagh; Divakar Botcha, V.

    2012-09-03

    Graphene oxide (GO) monolayers obtained by Langmuir Blodgett route and suitably treated to obtain reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monolayers were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon reduction of GO to form RGO C1s x-ray photoelectron spectra showed increase in graphitic carbon content, while ultraviolet photoelectron spectra showed increase in intensity corresponding to C2p-{pi} electrons ({approx}3.5 eV). X-ray excited Auger transitions C(KVV) and plasmon energy loss of C1s photoelectrons have been analyzed to elucidate the valence band structure. The effective number of ({pi}+{sigma}) electrons as obtained from energy loss spectra was found to increase by {approx}28% on reduction of GO.

  18. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  19. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  20. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  2. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  3. Coupling of CO_(2) and CS_(2) with Novel Oxiranes: Polycarbonate vs. Cyclic Carbonate Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Stephanie Jo

    2013-07-09

    ,2-butylene oxide, and styrene oxide with CO_(2) utilizing (salen)CrCl/nBu_(4)NCl to yield their corresponding cyclic carbonates. Additionally, the metal-free backbiting of the singly-coupled styrene oxide/CO_(2) intermediate was simulated utilizing...

  4. Oregon Subduction Zone: Venting, Fauna, and Carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldfinger, Chris

    . The animals use meth- ane as an energy and food source in symbiosis with microorganisms. Oxidized methane, are associated with venting sites of cool fluids located on a fault-bend antidline at a water depth of2036 meters. The distribution of animals and carbonates suggests up-dip migration of fluids from both shallow and deep sources

  5. Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide Extrusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide with constant carbon composition. In the case of stainless steels, the protective layer of chrome oxide must the surface hardness of steel by introducing a carbon-rich gas environment to a specimen at an elevated

  6. Effect of nitric oxide annealing on the interface trap densities near the band edges in the 4H polytype of silicon carbide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    in SiO2 /SiC structures to carbon clusters and near- interfacial defects in the oxide layer that is terminated with a wet reoxidation anneal at 950 °C following oxide layer growth at 1100

  7. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

  8. High efficiency, oxidation resistant radio frequency susceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Klett, James W.

    2004-10-26

    An article and method of producing an article for converting energy from one form to another having a pitch-derived graphitic foam carbon foam substrate and a single layer coating applied to all exposed surfaces wherein the coating is either silicon carbide or carbides formed from a Group IVA metal. The article is used as fully coated carbon foam susceptors that more effectively absorb radio frequency (RF) band energy and more effectively convert the RF energy into thermal band energy or sensible heat. The essentially non-permeable coatings also serve as corrosion or oxidation resistant barriers.

  9. Predicted Abundances of Carbon Compounds in Volcanic Gases on Io

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2004-09-17

    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of carbon in volcanic gases on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K), pressure (10^-8 to 10^+2 bars), and composition ranges (bulk O/S atomic ratios \\~0 to 3), which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (1760 K, 0.01 bar, O/S ~ 1.5). Bulk C/S atomic ratios ranging from 10^-6 to 10^-1 in volcanic gases are used with a nominal value of 10^-3 based upon upper limits from Voyager for carbon in the Loki plume on Io. Carbon monoxide and CO2 are the two major carbon gases under all conditions studied. Carbonyl sulfide and CS2 are orders of magnitude less abundant. Consideration of different loss processes (photolysis, condensation, kinetic reactions in the plume) indicates that photolysis is probably the major loss process for all gases. Both CO and CO2 should be observable in volcanic plumes and in Io's atmosphere at abundances of several hundred parts per million by volume for a bulk C/S ratio of 10^-3.

  10. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    relative to carbon monoxide (CO) for combustion of differentcarbon monoxide emissions (Poulopou- los et al. , 2001), their combustion

  11. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  12. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  13. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  14. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  15. Materials issues in solid oxide fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-03-02

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). The presence of carbon oxides in the fuel can cause significant performance problems resulting in decreasing the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC below ~800 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects. This presentation provides insight on the material performance of ferritic steels in fuels containing carbon oxides and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to carbon species in the gas stream.

  16. Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Amit K. (Richland, WA); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson, Gary B. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  17. Corona Method And Apparatus For Altering Carbon Containing Compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Amit K. (Plainsboro, NJ); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson; Gary B. (Richland, WA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon-containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon-containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  18. New iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  19. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  20. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1990-05-15

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  1. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  2. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  3. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

  4. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions from the combustioncombustion of biomass is dominated by emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide; EC/TC ratio is proposed as a better surrogate of combustion

  6. Computational studies of polysiloxanes : oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Zhang, Z.; Amine, K.

    2011-06-23

    Silicon-containing solvents have tremendous potential for application as electrolytes for electrical energy storage devices such as lithium-ion (air) batteries and supercapacitors. Quantum chemical methods were employed to investigate trends in oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions of a series of polysiloxanes. Various electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents can be used to tune the oxidation potential in shorter chain siloxanes but not in longer ones. Decomposition reactions of siloxanes in their oxidized states were investigated and compared against their carbon analogues. These studies suggest that the Si-O group provides added stability for siloxanes over their carbon analogues. Computational studies have also been performed for various disiloxanes and siloxanes with spacer groups to understand their thermochemical stability and oxidation potentials.

  7. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Carbon monoxideCombustion Appliance Zone California Energy Commission Central Fan Integrated Supply Cubic Feet per Minute Carbon Monoxide

  8. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    cylinder mode Carbon Monoxide (ppm) Combustion Timing,combustion timing, higher emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxideand carbon monoxide emissions increase with delays in combustion

  9. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    kerosene combustion include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,combustion releases a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds, such as fine particulates (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (

  10. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  11. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  12. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  13. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dikin,D.; Stankovich, S.; Zimney, E.; Piner, R.; Dommett, G.; Evmenenko, G.; Nguyen, S.; Ruoff, R.

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range, and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.

  15. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  16. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  17. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2006-06-30

    Catalysis is the key fundamental ingredient to convert elemental mercury in coal-fired power stations into its oxidized forms that are more easily captured by sorbents, ESPs, baghouses, and wet scrubbers, whether the catalyst be unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash or vanadium pentoxide in SCR catalysts. This project has investigated several different types of catalysts that enhance mercury oxidation in several different ways. The stated objective of this project in the Statement of Objectives included testing duct-injection catalysts, catalyst-sorbent hybrids, and coated low-pressure-drop screens. Several different types of catalysts were considered for duct injection, including different forms of iron and carbon. Duct-injection catalysts would have to be inexpensive catalysts, as they would not be recycled. Iron and calcium had been shown to catalyze mercury oxidation in published bench-scale tests. However, as determined from results of an on-going EPRI/EPA project at Southern Research, while iron and calcium did catalyze mercury oxidation, the activity of these catalysts was orders of magnitude below that of carbon and had little impact in the short residence times available for duct-injected catalysts or catalyst-sorbent hybrids. In fact, the only catalyst found to be effective enough for duct injection was carbon, which is also used to capture mercury and remove it from the flue gas. It was discovered that carbon itself is an effective catalyst-sorbent hybrid. Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury adsorption (a key step in the catalytic oxidation of mercury by carbon) for different forms of carbon. All carbon types investigated behaved in a similar manner with respect to mercury sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at adsorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because their internal surface area of activated carbon was greater. Catalyst coating of low-pressure-drop screens was of particular interest as this project was being developed. However, it was discovered that URS was already heavily involved in the pursuit of this same technology, being funded by DOE, and reporting significant success. Hence, testing of SCR catalysts became a major focus of the project. Three different commercial SCR catalysts were examined for their ability to oxidize mercury in simulated flue-gas. Similar performance was observed from each of the three commercial catalysts, both in terms of mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} generation. Ammonia injection hindered mercury oxidation at low HCl concentrations (i.e., {approx}2 ppmv), yet had little impact on mercury oxidation at higher HCl concentrations. On the other hand, SO{sub 2} oxidation was significantly reduced by the presence of ammonia at both low and high concentrations of HCl.

  18. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

    1998-06-23

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

  19. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

  20. Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution Reaction Kinetics on Platinum: Acid vs Alkaline Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Wenchao

    The kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on polycrystalline platinum [Pt(pc)] and high surface area carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C) were studied in 0.1 M ...

  1. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  2. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

  3. Material Safety Data Sheet According to 93/112/EC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Hazardous Combustion Products Thermal decomposition may emit carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Upper

  4. Rev. Date: 25-Aug-11 Art: 715023-00D Material Safety Data Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Combustion Products Thermal decomposition may emit carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Upper Explosion Limit

  5. Condensed Matter Physics 2010, Vol. 13, No 3, 34801: 1--5 http://www.icmp.lviv.ua/journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Communication Chemical oscillations in catalytic CO oxidation reaction I.S. Bzovska, I.M. Mryglod Institute of the catalytic CO oxidation on Pt(110) sur­ face at low pressures, is investigated with taking into account activities, respectively. Key words: chemical oscillations, bifurcation, catalytic oxidation, carbon monoxide

  6. Condensed Matter Physics 2010, Vol. 13, No 3, 34801: 15 http://www.icmp.lviv.ua/journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Communication Chemical oscillations in catalytic CO oxidation reaction I.S. Bzovska, I.M. Mryglod Institute of the catalytic CO oxidation on Pt(110) sur- face at low pressures, is investigated with taking into account activities, respectively. Key words: chemical oscillations, bifurcation, catalytic oxidation, carbon monoxide

  7. Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing based emission ratio. In effect this technique makes use of CO2, and the other usually minor carbon

  8. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 63916408, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6391/2010/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate mat- ter kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion prod- ucts within the upper latitudes, and 74.6% was burned above 7 km. This activity led to 162.25 Tg of carbon from CO2 emitted glob

  9. 7, 1569315721, 2007 Particulate PAH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide, particulate PAHs are most strongly correlated with NOx. Mexico City's PAH-to-black carbon mass and particu- late properties at six locations throughout the city. The measurements were intended to5 support of sources and15 ages of particles are present. Among carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon

  10. 6, 1152111559, 2006 Including the plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and carbon dioxide, and is a major source of other compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic25 compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO+NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and organic halo- 11522 #12;ACPD 6, 11521 recognize which columns have fires. Using a land use dataset appropriate fire properties are selected

  11. Adsorption of cadmium ions on oxygen surface sites in activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Y.F.; Thomas, K.M.

    2000-02-08

    Various types of oxygen functional groups were introduced onto the surface of coconut shell derived activated carbon by oxidation using nitric acid. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and selective neutralization were used to characterize the surface oxygen functional groups. The oxidized carbons were also heat treated to provide a suite of carbons where the oxygen functional groups of various thermal stabilities were varied progressively. The adsorption of cadmium ions was enhanced dramatically by oxidation of the carbon. The ratio of released protons to adsorbed cadmium ions on oxidized carbon was approximately 2, indicating cation exchange was involved in the process of adsorption. Na{sup +} exchange studies with the oxidized carbon gave a similar ratio. After heat treatment of the oxidized carbons to remove oxygen functional groups, the ratio of H{sup +} released to Cd{sup 2+} adsorbed and the adsorption capacity decreased significantly. Both reversible and irreversible processes were involved in cadmium ion adsorption with reversible adsorption having higher enthalpy. The irreversible adsorption resulted from cation exchange with carboxylic acid groups, whereas the reversible adsorption probably involved physisorption of the partially hydrated cadmium ion.

  12. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  13. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  14. TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    C Carbon TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon Active C Pool Indicated by Light, the relationship between carbon dynamics including total organic carbon (TOC) storage, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon in subsoil 4 years after rehabilitation · Microbial biomass carbon had a positive

  15. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  16. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  17. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  18. Niobium oxide compositions and methods for using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodenough, John B; Han, Jian-Tao

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates a niobium oxide useful in anodes of secondary lithium ion batteries. Such niobium oxide has formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and M represents Ti or Zr. The niobium oxide may be in the form of particles, which may be carbon coated. The disclosure also relates to an electrode composition containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. The disclosure further relates to electrodes, such as anodes, and batteries containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. Furthermore, the disclosure relates to methods of forming the above.

  19. Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2013-02-05

    Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

  20. UV/oxidation providers shed technical problems, fight cost perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapaport, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Systems combining ultraviolet light and oxidation (UV/oxidation) to remove contaminants from water were introduced in the early 1980s. Since then, improvements in the technology, a wide array of applications, educational efforts by companies offering the systems and changes in environmental regulations have accelerated acceptance of UV/oxidation technology. From the standpoint of regulatory officials, the major advantage of UV/oxidation is that it creates no secondary pollutants to treat or haul away. It is a self-contained, in situ treatment technology. This benefit has gained importance as regulations have become more stringent regarding disposal of secondary pollutants, such as saturated carbon, and concentration levels of air emissions created by air stripping. Such regulations have increased the costs of monitoring and disposal, while the costs of using UV/oxidation were decreasing.

  1. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  2. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Eisenmann, Erhard T. (Belpre, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  3. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Size distribution of oxides and toughness of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the size distribution of oxide particles in steel weld metals which have predominantly martensitic of steel weld metals S. Terashima* and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Experiments have been conducted to modify microstruc- tures dominated by low carbon martensite. The role of oxide particles introduced into the metal

  4. The catalytic oxidation of ethylene and butenes with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, John Cunningham

    1952-01-01

    wit!& oxygen. A study of t? o oxidation of ethyl&rue end of ethylene oxide soparetely re- vealed ti'at ti-, o oxidatio&& o. either compound rioldcd carbon dioxido and water directly, "xtensive kinetic studies led to tl. o proposal of a reaction...

  5. Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

  6. Annealing effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of chromium oxide coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    oxide coatings on low carbon steel substrates ware annealed at high temperatures in order to obtainAnnealing effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of chromium oxide coatings Xiaolu coatings were annealed at different temperatures and times. The influence of annealing temperature

  7. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ozkan, Umit S. (Worthington, OH); Holmgreen, Erik M. (Columbus, OH); Yung, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH)

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  8. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  9. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  10. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  12. Engineering carbon nanostructures : development of novel aerogel-nanotube composites and optimization techniques for nanotube growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Stephen Alan, III

    2006-01-01

    Carbon aerogels offer several unique advantages which make them ideal for evaluating a metal's ability to catalyze nanotube growth, including in situ carbothermic reduction of oxidized nanoparticles to their catalytic ...

  13. Reducing a Companies Carbon Footprint through Energy Saving Best Practices at a Dairy Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortan, Michael J.

    2010-12-17

    these companies with increased sales. These global warming gasses are made up of both naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring gasses. Naturally occurring gasses are carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone gasses while non...

  14. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  15. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, Gene H. (Downers Grove, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  16. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Avon Lake, OH); Liang, Haifan (Santa Clara, CA)

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  18. Oxidation resistant filler metals for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using essentially pure trinickel aluminide and trinickel aluminide containing small amounts of carbon. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  19. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  20. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2004-09-30

    Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted in the first quarter of 2004, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury oxidation and sorption for different forms of carbon. The current quarterly report provides a more extensive quantitative analysis of the data obtained from the CRTF experiments on different carbon types and carbocalcium mixtures than was presented in the last quarterly report. The procedure and basis for normalizing mercury removals, so that they could be compared on an equal residence time basis, is described. The chemisorption rate of mercury on carbon was found to be first order in mercury concentration and half order in HCl concentration, for the facility configuration investigated. The applicable temperature range of the kinetic rates obtained is from 300 F to 700 F, and the applicable chlorine concentration range is from 2 ppmv HCl to 250 ppmv HCl. The gas-sorbent contact time of 0.12 seconds used in this work was shown to be representative of gas-dust cake contact times in full-scale baghouses. All carbon types investigated behaved similarly with respect to Hg sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at sorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because the internal surface area of activated carbon is greater. The synergistic relationship between Ca and C is also discussed in the report.

  1. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  2. Lead monoxide $\\alpha$-PbO: electronic properties and point defect formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berashevich, J; Rubel, O; Rowlands, J A; Reznik, A

    2012-01-01

    The electronic properties of polycrystalline lead oxide consisting of a network of single-crystalline $\\alpha$-PbO platelets and the formation of the native point defects in $\\alpha$-PbO crystal lattice are studied using first principles calculations. The $\\alpha$-PbO lattice consists of weakly coupled layers with inter-layer interactions of 0.013 eV/atom that is too low to produce high efficiency charge transfer between the adjacent layers. In practice, the polycrystalline nature of $\\alpha$-PbO causes the formation of lattice defects in such a high concentration that defect-related conductivity becomes the dominant factor in the interlayer charge transition. We found that the formation energy for the O vacancies is low, such vacancies are occupied by two electrons in the zero charge state and tend to donate their electrons to the Pb vacancies that leads to ionization of both vacancies.The vacancies introduce localized states in the band gap which can affect charge transport. The O vacancy forms a defect sta...

  3. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  4. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  6. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  7. HCCI engine control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Killingsworth, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    combustion and increasing emissions of carbon monoxide (CO)the combustion chamber. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide areand carbon monoxide. The tradeo?s in heat transfer, pressure rise rate, and combustion

  8. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a cabon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  9. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  10. A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    , selectively forming hydrogen and carbon mon- oxide [5­8]. However, when palladium is prepared with ZnO or ZrO2A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from Abstract Complex catalysts containing combinations of copper, zinc, zirconium, and palladium oxides were

  11. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  12. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  13. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  14. Study of cobalt-doped lithiumnickel oxides as cathodes for MCFC Prabhu Ganesan, Hector Colon, Bala Haran, Ralph White, Branko N. Popov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes were prepared using non-aqueous tape casting Science B.V. Keywords: Cobalt substituted nickel oxide; Molten carbonate; Fuel cell; Dissolution 1. Introduction Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology is expected to be one of the most promising power

  15. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  16. First detection of the Cs symmetric isomer of carbon hexaoxide (CO6) at 10 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    , intensive research has been car- ried out to develop new high-energy materials (HEMs) to meet needs­6]. Particular attention has been devoted to cyclic car- bon oxides of the generic formula COn (n = 3 for high- energy density materials. The carbon oxides and their cor- responding anions are also of interest

  17. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  18. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  19. Ethylene ame synthesis of well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhi

    Ethylene ¯ame synthesis of well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes Liming Yuan a , Kozo Saito a±air premixed ¯ame had iron, chromium and nickel oxide deposits on the grid surface. With this grid, entangled and curved shape multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were harvested from an ethylene±air diusion ¯ame

  20. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  1. Measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratios in Houston using a compact high-power CW DFB-QCL-based QEPAS sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of 0.5­5 ppm are expected in homes in the absence of high-efficiency heaters and stoves. In spaces, selective, compact, and portable quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spec- troscopy (QEPAS)-based CO sensor and water heaters, stoves and other gasoline pow- ered equipment used in households. Typically, CO levels

  2. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  3. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  4. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  6. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  7. Mechanism-Based Design of Green Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybak-Akimova, Elena

    2015-03-16

    In modern era of scarce resources, developing chemical processes that can eventually generate useful materials and fuels from readily available, simple, cheap, renewable starting materials is of paramount importance. Small molecules, such as dioxygen, dinitrogen, water, or carbon dioxide, can be viewed as ideal sources of oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon atoms in synthetic applications. Living organisms perfected the art of utilizing small molecules in biosynthesis and in generating energy; photosynthesis, which couples carbohydrate synthesis from carbon dioxide with photocatalytic water splitting, is but one impressive example of possible catalytic processes. Small molecule activation in synthetic systems remains challenging, and current efforts are focused on developing catalytic reactions that can convert small molecules into useful building blocks for generating more complicated organic molecules, including fuels. Modeling nature is attractive in many respects, including the possibility to use non-toxic, earth-abundant metals in catalysis. Specific systems investigated in our work include biomimetic catalytic oxidations with dioxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and related oxygen atom donors. More recently, a new direction was been also pursued in the group, fixation of carbon dioxide with transition metal complexes. Mechanistic understanding of biomimetic metal-catalyzed oxidations is critical for the design of functional models of metalloenzymes, and ultimately for the rational synthesis of useful, selective and efficient oxidation catalysts utilizing dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidants. All iron oxidases and oxygenases (both mononuclear and dinuclear) utilize metal-centered intermediates as reactive species in selective substrate oxidation. In contrast, free radical pathways (Fenton chemistry) are common for traditional inorganic iron compounds, producing hydroxyl radicals as very active, non-selective oxidants. Recent developments, however, changed this situation. Growing families of synthetic iron complexes that resemble active sites of metalloenzymes produce metal-based intermediates (rather than hydroxyl radicals) in reactions with oxygen donors. These complexes are very promising for selective oxygen and peroxide activation. In order to understand the mechanisms of metal-based small molecule activation, kinetically competent metal-oxygen intermediates must be identified. One of the grand challenges identified by the Department of Energy workshop "Catalysis for Energy" is understanding mechanisms and dynamics of catalyzed reactions. The research summarized herein focuses on detailed characterization of the formation and reactivity of various iron-peroxo- and iron-oxo intermediates that are involved in catalysis. Rates of rapid reactions were studied at low temperatures by a specialized technique termed cryogenic stopped-flow spectrophotometry. These measurements identified reaction conditions which favor the formation of catalytically competent oxidants. Chemical structures of reactive complexes was determined, and new, efficient catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation were synthesized. Importantly, these catalysts are selective, they promote oxidation of hydrocarbons at a specific site. The catalysts are also efficient and robust, hundreds of cycles of substrate oxidation occur within minutes at room temperature. Furthermore, they enable utilization of environmentally friendly oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, which produces water as the only byproduct. Mechanistic insights uncovered the role of various acid-containing additives in catalytic oxidations. Proton delivery to the active catalytic sites facilitated oxidations, similarly to the catalytic pathways in metal-containing enzymes. Under certain conditions, two metals in one complex can act in concert, modeling the reactivity of a bacterial enzyme which converts methane into methanol. In related studies, a family of nickel complexes that react with carbon dioxide at the rates comparable to enzyme carbonic anhydrase, was discovered. Sequestration and che

  8. Method of produce ultra-low friction carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Eryilmaz, Osman Levent (Istanbul, TK); Lee, Richard H. (Lemont, IL)

    2003-04-15

    A method and article of manufacture of amorphous diamond-like carbon. The method involves providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a mixture of a carbon containing gas and hydrogen gas with the mixture adjusted such that the atomic molar ratio of carbon to hydrogen is less than 0.3, including all carbon atoms and all hydrogen atoms in the mixture. A plasma is formed of the mixture and the amorphous diamond-like carbon film is deposited on the substrate. To achieve optimum bonding an intervening bonding layer, such as Si or SiO.sub.2, can be formed from SiH.sub.4 with or without oxidation of the layer formed.

  9. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  10. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the combustion products will produce carbon monoxide. Othercombustion is to stoichiometric conditions. This is limited by imperfect mixing, which then produces hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide.

  11. An Experimental Based Investigation of Oxycombustion in an SI Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Blarigan, Andrew Charles

    2012-01-01

    Combustion efficiency is computed by evaluating the energy of the carbon monoxide (and Carbon Monoxide Mixtures for Syngas Turbine Applications”. In: Pro- BIBLIOGRAPHY ceedings of the Combustion

  12. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  13. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  14. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactiveRare Iron Oxide in Ancient

  15. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide catalytic systems.12,13 On the other hand, the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is functionalized graphene Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO

  16. Carbon aging mechanisms and effects on retention of organic iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The activated carbon used to treat the off-gas from the Savannah River Plant prodution reactor building was studied to determine the chemical changes occurring in this carbon during its service life. The carbon is a coconut-shell charcoal impregnated with 1% triethylenediamine (TEDA) and 2% KI. It was known that during its 30-month service life the carbon becomes more acidic and less effective for retaining iodine in organic form. The study showed that the most important change occurring in the carbon is the reaction of KI to give other chemical forms of iodine. The reacted iodine is unavailable for exchange with alkyl iodides. The results suggest that the carbon reacts with KI to form organic compounds, but small amounts of oxidized iodine may also be presnt. There is also evidence that some iodide is lost from the carbon altogether. The TEDA impregnant is lost from the carbon very quickly, and has no importance after a few months. The specific reactions by which the impregnant is lost have not been identified. However, mathematical analysis shows that the carbon performance data are consistent with the reaction of iodide impregnant with impurities in the air flowing through the carbon bed. Additional mathematical analysis, based on electron microscopic observation of the carbon particles, indicates that the external surfaces of the carbon are mainly responsible for their effectiveness in retaining iodine. Consequently, the condition of the impregnants on a relatively small fraction of the carbon surface can have a large effect on its performance. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Schematic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene showing carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    method for graphene doping, and is compatible with current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOSSchematic structure of nitrogen- doped graphene showing carbon (gray) and nitrogen (blue) NPG Asia Materials research highlight | doi:10.1038/asiamat.2010.204 Published online 13 December 2010 Graphene

  18. Coating of porous carbon for use in lithium air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Lei, Yu; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-14

    A cathode includes a carbon material having a surface, the surface having a first thin layer of an inert material and a first catalyst overlaying the first thin layer, the first catalyst including metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the cathode is configured for use as the cathode of a lithium-air battery.

  19. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  20. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.