National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxide nox emissions

  1. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  2. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents latest progress in the development of a new type of lean NOx trapping catalyst based on heterogenous composite nanowires, which could potentially be used in gasoline and diesel engines. PDF icon deer11_gao.pdf More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures

  3. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  4. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  5. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide...

  6. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace030_gao_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace030_gao_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation

  8. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  9. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  10. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_li.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants

  11. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  12. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  13. Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions PDF icon pm_02_glass.pdf More Documents & Publications NOxsensor development Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions NOx Sensor Development

  14. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace030_gao_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts

  15. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_yee.pdf More Documents & Publications Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control

  16. Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap | Department of Energy Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Thermal aging of LNT has numerous material and chemical effects PDF icon deer09_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated Thermal Deactivation

  17. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th...

  18. Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs PDF icon deer10_woo.pdf More Documents & Publications NOxsensor development NOx sensor development Electrochemical NOxSensor for

  19. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  20. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Introduction A combined heat and power (CHP) system can be a financially attractive energy option for many industrial and commercial facilities. This is particularly the case in areas of the country with high electricity rates. However, regions with air quality concerns often have strict limits on criteria pollutants, such as nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and

  1. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  2. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_pedersen.pdf More Documents & Publications Key Benefits in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder

  3. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted...

  4. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce ...

  5. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle PDF icon deer11_henry.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Cummins' Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light

  6. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  7. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx emissions (as much as 70%) with just a 2% nitrogen enrichment of intake air PDF icon air_separation_membranes

  8. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  9. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control PDF icon ...

  10. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Catalysis | Department of Energy NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_aardahl.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with

  11. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted ... Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Selective ...

  12. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions- Fact Sheet, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx Burner Technology to Meet Emissions Standards and Improve System Efficiency

  13. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for the intake manifold of a diesel engine equipped with EGR, along with a virtual intake manifold O2 sensor, show good accuracy with stationary measurements PDF icon deer09_traver.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation and Analysis of HP/LP EGR for Heavy-Duty Applications

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  15. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.

  17. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control PDF icon 2002_deer_aardahl.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies

  18. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  19. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in ...

  20. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - ...

  1. Laboratory Product Speciation Studies of the LNT + in situ SCR NOx Emission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Concept | Department of Energy Product Speciation Studies of the LNT + in situ SCR NOx Emission Control Concept Laboratory Product Speciation Studies of the LNT + in situ SCR NOx Emission Control Concept Understanding the detailed chemistry of Nox Reduction across the combined LNT+SCR system. PDF icon deer10_crocker.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Lean NOx

  2. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  3. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions Alternative to Exhaust Gas Recirculation that involves the nitrogen enrichment of intake air. Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through a membrane module</p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through

  4. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DPF | Department of Energy on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx removal and soot oxidation. PDF icon deer09_iretskaya.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy Duty Applications Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems SCR-DPF Integrations for Diesel

  5. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jae-Soon; Daw, C Stuart; Parks, II, James E; Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

  6. Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations | Department of Energy ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations Development and validation of a simple strategy-based technique using four engine parameters to minimize emissions and fuel

  7. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 | Department of Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio

  8. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  9. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results using GOME-2 and OMI measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2014-06-27

    Inverse modeling using satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns has been extensively used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provide independent global NO2 column measurements on a nearly daily basis at around 9:30 and 13:30 local time across the equator, respectively. Anthropogenic NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI) methods to these two sets of measurements show substantial differences. We improve the DI method by conducting model simulation, satellite retrieval, and inverse modeling sequentially on a daily basis. After each inversion, we update anthropogenic NOx emissions in the model simulation with the newly obtained a posteriori results. Consequently, the inversion-optimized emissions are used to compute the a priori NO2 profiles for satellite retrievals. As such, the a priori profiles used in satellite retrievals are now coupled to inverse modeling results. The improved procedure was applied to GOME-2 and OMI NO2 measurements in 2011. The new daily retrieval-inversion (DRI) method estimates an average NOx emission of 6.9 Tg N/yr over China, and the difference between using GOME-2 and OMI measurements is 0.4 Tg N/yr, which is significantly smaller than the difference of 1.3 Tg N/yr using the previous DI method. Using the more consistent DRI inversion results, we find that anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to be higher in winter and summer than spring (and possibly fall) and the weekday-to-weekend emission ratio tends to increase with NOx emission in China.

  10. Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 | Department of Energy 1 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey PDF icon 2002_deer_chatterjee1.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 2 SCRT Technology for Retrofit of

  11. Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 2 | Department of Energy 2 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey PDF icon 2002_deer_chatterjee2.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Development and Field Demonstrations of

  12. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  13. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  14. Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal aging of LNT has numerous material and chemical effects PDF icon deer09toops.pdf More Documents & Publications Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices NOx ...

  15. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  16. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  17. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbates storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  18. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-15

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbates storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

  19. Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment | Department of Energy the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

  20. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty Trucks | Department of Energy Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2002_deer_mcgill.pdf More Documents & Publications Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: The State-of-the-Art 21st Century Truck Partnership Roadmap Roadmap

  1. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine programs goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  2. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  3. Method of preparing doped oxide catalysts for lean NOx exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-09

    The lean NOx catalyst includes a substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina deposited on the substrate and a metal or metal oxide promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium cerium, and vanadium, and oxides thereof, and any combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between 80 and 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to about 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  4. Cost analysis for compliance with EPA's regional NOx emissions reductions for fossil-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.; Mann, A.; Ward, J.; Ramezan, M.

    1999-07-01

    To achieve a more stringent ambient-air ozone standard promulgated in 1997, the U.S. EPA has established summer NOx emissions limits for fossil-fired electric power generating units in the Ozone Transport Rulemaking region, consisting of 22 eastern and midwestern states and the District of Columbia. These jurisdictions are required to submit State Implementation Plans by September 1999 in response to EPA's rule, with compliance required by 2007. There are 1757 affected units in this region. In the present study, projected state-by-state growth rates for power production are used to estimate power production and NOx emissions by unit in the year 2007. NOx emissions reductions expected by January 1, 2000 due to Title IV compliance are estimated, leaving a substantial balance of emissions reductions to be achieved by post-combustion NOx control. Cost estimates are developed for achieving these remaining reductions.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel | Department of Energy the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length

  6. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  7. EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower’s Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NOx control technologies.

  8. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  9. Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Concept

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experimental results show low-emissions potential - possibly T2/B2 (SULEV) NOx with low-emitting engines and system optimization.

  10. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultralow-Sulfur Fuel | Department of Energy Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultralow-Sulfur Fuel Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  13. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  14. Current-biased potentiometric NOx sensor for vehicle emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Louis Peter (Castro Valley, CA); Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA)

    2006-12-26

    A nitrogen oxide sensor system for measuring the amount of nitrogen oxide in a gas. A first electrode is exposed to the gas. An electrolyte is positioned in contact with the first electrode. A second electrode is positioned in contact with the electrolyte. A means for applying a fixed current between the first electrode and the second electrode and monitoring the voltage required to maintain the fixed current provides a measurement of the amount of nitrogen oxide in the gas.

  15. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  16. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  17. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  18. Ceramatec NOx Sensor and NOx Catalyst Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ceramatec NOx Sensor and NOx Catalyst Technologies Ceramatec NOx Sensor and NOx Catalyst Technologies 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Ceramatec, Inc., Advanced Ionic Technologies PDF icon 2004_deer_nair.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Active Soot Filter Regeneration

  19. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  20. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  1. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Comparison of Methods for Estimating the NOx Emission Impacts of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Projects: Shreveport, Louisiana Case Study (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, A.; Kline, D. M.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Diem, A.; Dismukes, D.; Mesyanzhinov, D.

    2005-07-01

    This is a case study comparing methods of estimating the NOx emission impacts of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in Shreveport, Louisiana.

  3. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  4. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  5. Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schefer, Robert W. (Alamo, CA); Keller, Jay O (Oakland, CA)

    2007-01-16

    A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

  6. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  7. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  8. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  9. Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostiuk, Larry W. (Edmonton, CA); Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

  10. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  11. Effect of reductive treatments on Pt behavior and NOx storage in lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xianqin; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Chong M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-01

    Lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts represent a promising approach to meet increasingly stringent NOx emission regulations on diesel and other lean-burn engines. Pt material properties, including dispersion and particle size, are known to be important factors in determining NOx uptake performance, since Pt provides active sites for NO oxidation to NO2 necessary for storing NOx as nitrates, and for the reduction of nitrates to N2. In this work, the physicochemical properties of Pt in Pt-BaO/Al2O3 LNT catalysts, such as the Pt accessible surface area and particle size, were investigated by using various tools, such as irreversible volumetric H2 chemisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), following successive reductive treatments at elevated temperatures. NOx uptake activities were also measured to establish a relationship between the properties of Pt and NOx storage following identical high-temperature reductive treatments. We find that the reductive treatments of Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts at temperatures up to 500 C promote a significant increase in NOx uptake explained, in part, by an induced close interaction between Pt and BaO phases in the catalyst, thus enabling facilitation of the NOx storage process.

  12. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  13. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore » speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.« less

  15. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  16. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  17. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions ...

  18. Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions...

  19. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty ...

  20. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro, Fabio; Delgass, Nick; Gounder, Rajmani; Schneider, William F.; Miller, Jeff; Yezerets, Aleksey; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken

    2014-12-09

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compounds contribute to acid rain and photochemical smog and have been linked to respiratory ailments. NOx emissions regulations continue to tighten, driving the need for high performance, robust control strategies. The goal of this project is to develop a deep, molecular level understanding of the function of Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34 materials that catalyze the SCR of NOx with NH3.

  1. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beale, Andrew M.; Gao, Feng; Lezcano-Gonzalez, Ines; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2015-10-05

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade a renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3 SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptional high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ~5 years that lead to the introduction of these catalysts into practical application. The review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetics studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that are still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. Funding A.M.B. and I.L.G. would like to thank EPSRC for funding. F.G., C.H.F.P. and J.Sz. gratefully acknowledge financial support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Experimental study on NOx emission and unburnt carbon of a radial biased swirl burner for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan Xue; Shi'en Hui; Qulan Zhou; Tongmo Xu

    2009-07-15

    Pilot tests were carried out on a 1 MW thermal pulverized coal fired testing furnace. Symmetrical combustion was implemented by use of two whirl burners with dual air adjustment. The burnout air device was installed in various places at the top of the main burner, which consists of a primary air pipe with a varying cross-section and an impact ring. In the primary air pipe, the air pulverized coal (PC) stream was separated into a whirling stream that was thick inside and thin outside, thus realizing the thin-thick distribution at the burner nozzle in the radial direction. From the comparative combustion tests of three coals with relatively great characteristic differences, Shaanbei Shenhua high rank bituminous coal (SH coal), Shanxi Hejin low rank bituminous coal (HJ coal), and Shanxi Changzhi meager coal (CZ coal), were obtained such test results as the primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, impact of the change of outer secondary air, change of the relative position for the layout of burnout air, change of the swirling intensity of the primary air and secondary air, etc., on the NOx emission, and unburnt carbon content in fly ash (CFA). At the same time, the relationship between the NOx emission and burnout ratio and affecting factors of the corresponding test items on the combustion stability and economic results were also acquired. The results may provide a vital guiding significance to engineering designs and practical applications. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NOx formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased swirl burner, the configuration of the furnace, and the distribution of the air. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. NOx Reduction with Natural Gas for Lean Large-Bore Engine Applications Using Lean NOx Trap Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, JE

    2005-02-11

    Large-bore natural gas engines are used for distributed energy and gas compression since natural gas fuel offers a convenient and reliable fuel source via the natural gas pipeline and distribution infrastructure. Lean engines enable better fuel efficiency and lower operating costs; however, NOx emissions from lean engines are difficult to control. Technologies that reduce NOx in lean exhaust are desired to enable broader use of efficient lean engines. Lean NOx trap catalysts have demonstrated greater than 90% NOx reduction in lean exhaust from engines operating with gasoline, diesel, and natural gas fuels. In addition to the clean nature of the technology, lean NOx traps reduce NOx with the fuel source of the engine thereby eliminating the requirement for storage and handling of secondary fuels or reducing agents. A study of lean NOx trap catalysts for lean natural gas engines is presented here. Testing was performed on a Cummins C8.3G (CG-280) engine on a motor dynamometer. Lean NOx trap catalysts were tested for NOx reduction performance under various engine operating conditions, and the utilization of natural gas as the reductant fuel source was characterized. Engine test results show that temperature greatly affects the catalytic processes involved, specifically methane oxidation and NOx storage on the lean NOx trap. Additional studies on a bench flow reactor demonstrate the effect of precious metal loading (a primary cost factor) on lean NOx trap performance at different temperatures. Results and issues related to the potential of the lean NOx trap technology for large-bore engine applications will be discussed.

  4. Diesel DeNOx Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Diesel DeNOx Catalyst New Argonne-Developed Catalyst Can Reduce NOx Emissions From Diesel Engines by 80-85% Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Inventor Chris Marshall shows the new catalyst that could help remove nitrogen oxides from diesel engine exhaust while saving energy. Inventor Chris Marshall shows the

  5. Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 1999 | Department of Energy Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines, November 1999 Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines, November 1999 The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. This study compares the costs of the principal emission control technologies being employed or nearing commercialization for control of oxides of

  6. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

  7. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  8. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  9. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Ultra-Low NOx Premixed Industrial Burner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Low NOx Premixed Industrial Burner Ultra-Low NOx Premixed Industrial Burner Reduction of Burner NOx Production with Premixed Combustion Industries that are dependant on combustion processes are faced with more stringent environmental regulations to reduce NOx emissions. Some states require NOx emissions reductions as great as 90% for chemical and refining industries. The recently developed M-PAKT(tm) Ultra-Low NOx Burner uses lean premixed combustion gases and low swirl flow of combustion

  11. Long-Term Aging of NOx Sensors in Heavy-Duty Engine Exhaust | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Aging of NOx Sensors in Heavy-Duty Engine Exhaust Long-Term Aging of NOx Sensors in Heavy-Duty Engine Exhaust 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) Project PDF icon 2004_deer_orban.pdf More Documents & Publications Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for

  12. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  13. NOx reduction aftertreatment system using nitrogen nonthermal plasma desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okubo, M.; Inoue, M.; Kuroki, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2005-08-01

    In the flue emission from an internal combustion system using diffusing combustion such as coal or oil fuel boiler, incinerator, or diesel engine, around 10% oxygen is usually included. It is difficult to reduce the NOx in the emission completely using catalysts or plasma alone because part of the NO is oxidized under an O{sub 2}-rich environment. In order to overcome these difficulties, we propose a new aftertreatment system of NOx included in the exhaust gas of the combustion system using nonthermal plasma (NTP) desorption and reduction. In this system, exchangeable adsorbent columns are equipped. As an initial step to realize such kind of aftertreatment system, the basic characteristics of the N{sub 2} NTP desorption and NOx reduction were examined experimentally using a pulse corona NTP reactor. After several adsorption/desorption processes, the amount of NOx adsorbed becomes equal to that of the NOx desorbed, that is, all the NO, was desorbed in a single desorption process. It is confirmed that the NOx complete reduction using N{sub 2} NTP desorption is possible not only for a simulated exhaust gas but for a real diesel engine gas. The effective specific energy density can be decreased down to 22 Wh/m{sup 3}.

  14. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011 Reviews regulatory requirements and general technology approaches for heavy- and light-duty vehicle emissions control - filter technology, new catalysts, NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters PDF icon deer11_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Diesel Emission Control Review Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control

  15. Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOx Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Webb, C. C.; Weber, P. A.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

    2006-05-01

    Discusses the emission results of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst and a diesel particle filter in a medium-duty, diesel pick-up truck.

  16. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and O2 emissions found from the thermogravimetric analyzer soot oxidation. PDF icon p-18lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration...

  17. Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Control | Department of Energy Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Catalytica Energy Systems PDF icon 2004_deer_catalytica.pdf More Documents & Publications Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx

  18. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of a reactive baffle approach to NOx control. Final technical report, February-April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.; Van Stone, D.A.; Little, R.C.; Peterson, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    Vermiculite, vermiculite coated with magnesia, and activated carbon sorbents have successfully removed NOx (and carbon monoxide and particles) from combustion exhausts in a subscale drone jet engine test cell (JETC), but back pressure so generated elevated the temperature of the JETC and of the engine. The objective of this effort was to explore the feasibility of locating the sorbents in the face of the duct or of baffles parallel to the direction of flow within the ducts. Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are stationary sources of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), soot, and unburned or partially oxidized carbon compounds that form as byproducts of imperfect combustion. Regulation of NOx emissions is being considered for implementation under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Several principles have been examined as candidate methods to control NOx emissions from JETCs.

  20. Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. PDF icon 2002_deer_park.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

  1. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company PDF icon 2003_deer_hoard.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust particulates and NOx

  2. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Catalysis Research and Development Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar, Inc. PDF icon 2003_deer_park.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

  4. Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control | Department of Energy Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_dallabetta.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions

  5. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  6. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants Low-Temperature ...

  7. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOEs) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  8. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  9. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges associated with the various fuel stratification levels.« less

  10. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  11. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Desulfation | Department of Energy NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_huff.pdf More Documents & Publications Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Intra-catalyst

  13. High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: General Motors Corporation PDF icon 2004_deer_blint.pdf More Documents & Publications WA_02_042_GENERAL_MOTORS_POWER_TRAIN_DIV_Waiver_of_Domestic_.pdf Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Lean-NOx Catalyst

  14. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_hesser.pdf More Documents & Publications Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Powertrain Trends and Future Potential

  15. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  16. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel ...

  17. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  18. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  19. Detection of Ammonia Slip Using NOx Sensor Signal Processing | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Detection of Ammonia Slip Using NOx Sensor Signal Processing Detection of Ammonia Slip Using NOx Sensor Signal Processing Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_gady.pdf More Documents & Publications Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Simplification of Diesel Emission

  20. Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of internal combustion engine vehicles. These vehicles can run on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or propane. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A

  1. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and NOX Control | Department of Energy Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control The more heavily catalyzed and the hotter the exhaust temperature, the more strongly the aftertreatment will oxidize the exhaust. PDF icon deer09_hu.pdf More Documents & Publications SCRT Technology for Retrofit of Heavy-Duty Diesel Applications ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel

  2. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_huff.pdf More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in

  3. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control | Department of Energy Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. PDF icon deer08_rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development

  4. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  5. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  6. APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) ...

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  8. Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that future NOx and PM emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion methodology with an aftertreatment technology will be required. In this study, NOx reduction, fuel efficiency, and regeneration performance of lean NOx trap (LNT) were evaluated for four operating conditions. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without EGR, two exhaust enrichment methods (post injection and delayed injection), and one advanced combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine was operated under five conditions, which represent key interest points for light-duty diesel operation. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable. HECC was also reached under more moderate loads and the exhaust temperatures were high enough to enable even further NOx reductions by the LNT. At high loads HECC becomes difficult but the LNT performance improves and acceptable regeneration can be met with enrichment methodologies.

  9. Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614 1983 71 43 114

  10. Lower Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment Lower Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment NOx emissions data from bench-scale experiments and Class III truck operated using a low freezing point diesel exhaust fluid PDF icon deer11_highfield.pdf More Documents & Publications Urea Mixing Design -- Simulation and Test Investigation 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing Urea SCR and DPF System for Deisel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting

  11. Super Duty Diesel Truck with NOx Aftertreatment | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Super Duty Diesel Truck with NOx Aftertreatment Super Duty Diesel Truck with NOx Aftertreatment A profile of a Ford-Energy Department program to develop a three-stage aftertreatment technology, which cleans the vehicle exhaust emissions. This profile is part of the U.S. Drive 2011 Accomplishment Report. PDF icon U.S. DRIVE Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 2011: Super Duty Diesel Truck with NOx Aftertreatment More Documents & Publications Development of the 2011MY Ford Super Duty

  12. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Song Wu; Richard G. Herman

    2004-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the April 1 to June 30, 2004 time period.

  13. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-09-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the July 1 to September 30, 2005 time period.

  14. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2008-10-21

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  15. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  16. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control | Department of Energy Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace079_mukundan_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review

  17. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the effects of NO2 and O2 emissions found from the thermogravimetric analyzer soot oxidation. PDF icon p-18_lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANL/Corning/Caterpillar CRADA) Development of Advanced Particulate Filters

  18. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  19. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  20. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  1. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  2. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of New Mexico PDF icon 2004_deer_hammache.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System

  3. Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Thornton, M.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

    2006-05-01

    Investigates the emission control system performance and system desulfurization effects on regulated and unregulated emissions in a light-duty diesel engine.

  4. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential synergies of low emission advanced combustion techniques and advanced lean exhaust catalytic aftertreatment. PDF icon deer08_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode High

  5. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by LeanRich Cycling Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Urea SCR and DPF System for Tier ...

  6. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with standard high-temperature SCR catalyst formulation in one system provides high NOx conversion over wide temperature range. PDF icon deer08_iretskaya.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Advanced Technology Light Duty

  7. Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-11_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCR/DPF

  8. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  9. Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitacre, S. D.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the impact of lubricant formulation on the performance of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Adsorber Catalysts, including background/motivation for study, experimental design, and results.

  10. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  11. Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM Applications Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM Applications 2004 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson-Matthey Catalysts PDF icon 2004_deer_chatterjee.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT’ Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Aftertreatment Modeling Status, Futur Potential, and

  12. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  13. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Light-Duty Passenger Car Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomazic, D; Tatur, M; Thornton, M

    2003-08-24

    A 1.9L turbo direct injection (TDI) diesel engine was modified to achieve the upcoming Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standard in combination with a NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary objective for developing this test bed is to investigating the effects of different fuel sulfur contents on the performance of an advanced emission control system (ECS) in a light-duty application. During the development process, the engine-out emissions were minimized by applying a state-of-the-art combustion system in combination with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The subsequent calibration effort resulted in emission levels requiring 80-90 percent nitrogen-oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) conversion rates by the corresponding ECS. The strategy development included ean/rich modulation for NAC regeneration, as well as, the desulfurization of the NAC and the regeneration of the DPF. Two slightly different ECS were investigated and calibrated. The initial vehicle results in an Audi A4 station wagon over the federal test procedure (FTP), US 06, and the highway fuel economy test (HFET) cycle indicate the potential of these configuration to meet the future Tier 2 emission standard.

  14. APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory PDF icon 2004_deer_whitacre.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform

  15. CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

  16. The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Richard

    2001-08-05

    This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

  17. Ammonia storage and delivery systems for NOx aftertreatment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy storage and delivery systems for NOx aftertreatment Ammonia storage and delivery systems for NOx aftertreatment Poster presenation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_johannessen.pdf More Documents & Publications 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and

  18. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Representative Model | Department of Energy Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_toops1.pdf More Documents & Publications Pre-Competitive

  19. Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company | Department of Energy Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon

  20. Bringing the Low NOx Diesel Under Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bringing the Low NOx Diesel Under Control Bringing the Low NOx Diesel Under Control Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_pinson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Development for HECC Enabling High Efficiency Clean

  1. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  2. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  3. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  4. Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions | Department of Energy Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Advanced engines using HCCI or HCCI-like combustion can provide both high efficiencies and very low emissions of NOX and PM PDF icon deer09_dec.pdf More Documents & Publications HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research

  5. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A/T Subsystem at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Operation | Department of Energy Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A/T Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A/T Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Cummins Inc. and Johnson-Matthey PDF icon 2004_deer_li.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Desulfurization Fuel Filter

  6. Control of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants: Research and practice of TPRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming-Chuan Zhang

    1993-12-31

    The generation of electric power in China has been dominated by coal for many years. By the end of 1990, total installed generating capacity reached 135 GW, of which fossil fuel-fired plants accounted for 74 percent. The total electricity generated reached 615 TWh, with fossil fuels accounting for 80.5 percent. About 276 million tons of raw coal are consumed in these fossil fuel-burning units per year, accounting for about 25 percent of the total output of the country. According to the government, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity of Chinese power systems should be at least 240 GW, of which fossil fuels will account for about 77 percent. The coal required for power generation will increase to about 530 million tons per year, accounting for about 38 percent of the total coal output. So, it is obvious that coal consumed in coal-fired power plants occupies a very important place in the national fuel balance. The current environmental protection standards, which are based on ground-level concentrations of pollutants, do not effectively lead to the control of pollution emission concentrations or total SO{sub 2} emissions. Due to the practical limitations of the Chinese economy, there is a limited capability to introduce advanced sulfur emission control technologies. Thus, except for the two 360 MW units imported from Japan for the Luohuang Power Plant in Shichuan province, all the other fossil fuel-fired units have not yet adopted any kind of SO{sub 2} removal measures. The Luohuang units are equipped with Mitsubishi limestone flue gas desulfurization systems. Because of the lack of effective pollution control technologies, large areas of the country have been seriously polluted by SO{sub 2}, and some of them even by acid rain.

  7. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control | Department of Energy Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, Self-Diagnosing SmartCatalyst Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about NOx control ...

  9. Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study ...

  10. Optimization of Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to Meet Tier 2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bin 5 Emission Limits | Department of Energy Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to Meet Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Limits Optimization of Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to Meet Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Limits Drastic reduction of engine-out emissions and complicated aftertreatment system comprising of oxidation catalyst, particulate filter, and DeNOx catalyst are implemented to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 limits for U.S. market diesel engines. PDF icon deer08_yoon.pdf More Documents &

  11. Advanced Metal-Oxide based SCR Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal-Oxide based SCR Catalysts Advanced Metal-Oxide based SCR Catalysts SCR with ammonia as reductant is an effective strategy being utilized to reduce NOx emissions to meet regulated levels. PDF icon deer10_adelmann.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Looking From A Hilltop: Automotive Propulsion System Technology

  12. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 2005_deer_watanabe.pdf More Documents & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions Control Strategy for U.S. Tier 2

  13. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Southwest Research Institute PDF icon 2003_deer_webb.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultralow-Sulfur Fuel APBF-DEC Light-duty

  14. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy gains, and overall energy savings with propane injection in a diesel engine. PDF icon p-18_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit

  15. Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Elliott; C. Kendall; S.D. Wanke; D.A. Burns; E.W. Boyer; K. Harlin; D.J. Bain; T.J. Butler

    2007-11-15

    Global inputs of NOx are dominated by fossil fuel combustion from both stationary and vehicular sources and far exceed natural NOx sources. However, elucidating NOx sources to any given location remains a difficult challenge, despite the need for this information to develop sound regulatory and mitigation strategies. We present results from a regional-scale study of nitrogen isotopes (15N) in wet nitrate deposition across 33 sites in the midwestern and northeastern U.S. We demonstrate that spatial variations in 15N are strongly correlated with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U.S., our results suggest that wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition at sites in this study is strongly associated with NOx emissions from power plants. This suggests that large areas of the landscape potentially receive atmospheric NOy deposition inputs in excess of what one would infer from existing monitoring data alone. Moreover, we determined that spatial patterns in 15N values are a robust indicator of stationary NOx contributions to wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition and hence a valuable complement to existing tools for assessing relationships between NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition, regional emission inventories, and for evaluating progress toward NOx reduction goals. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for...

  17. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications. Briefly, impedancemetric operation has shown the potential to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches, including higher sensitivity towards NO{sub x}, better long-term stability, potential for subtracting out background interferences, total NO{sub x} measurement, and lower cost materials and operation. Past LLNL research and development efforts have focused on characterizing different sensor materials and understanding complex sensing mechanisms. Continued effort has led to improved prototypes with better performance, including increased sensitivity (to less than 5 ppm) and long-term stability, with more appropriate designs for mass fabrication, including incorporation of an alumina substrate with an imbedded heater. Efforts in the last year to further improve sensor robustness have led to successful engine dynamometer testing with prototypes mounted directly in the engine manifold. Previous attempts had required exhaust gases to be routed into a separate furnace for testing due to mechanical failure of the sensor from engine vibrations. A more extensive cross-sensitivity study was also undertaken this last year to examine major noise factors including fluctuations in water, oxygen, and temperature. The quantitative data were then used to develop a strategy using numerical algorithms to improve sensor accuracy. The ultimate goal is the transfer of this technology to a supplier for commercialization. Due to the recent economic downturn, suppliers are demanding more comprehensive data and increased performance analysis before committing their resources to take the technology to market. Therefore, our NO{sub x} sensor work requires a level of technology development more thorough and extensive than ever before. The objectives are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) exhaust gas monitoring; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements and designs and manufacturing metho

  18. Global NOx Measurements in Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-03-01

    Turbulent hydrogen diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen are currently being studied to assess their ability to achieve the DOE Turbine Programs aggressive emissions goal of 2 ppm NOx in a hydrogen-fueled IGCC gas turbine combustor. Since the unstrained adiabatic flame temperatures of these diluted flames are not low enough to eliminate thermal NOx formation the focus of the current work is to study how the effects of flame residence time and global flame strain can be used to help achieve the stated NOx emissions goal. Dry NOx measurements are presented as a function of jet diameter nitrogen dilution and jet velocity for a turbulent hydrogen/nitrogen jet issuing from a thin-lipped tube in an atmospheric pressure combustor. The NOx emission indices from these experiments are normalized by the flame residence time to ascertain the effects of global flame strain and fuel Lewis Number on the NOx emissions. In addition dilute hydrogen diffusion flame experiments were performed in a high-pressure combustor at 2 4 and 8 atm. The NOx emission data from these experiments are discussed as well as the results from a Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling effort currently underway to help explain the experimental data.

  19. Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-02-01

    Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

  20. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental Sulfation/Desulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean

  1. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_shoji.pdf More Documents & Publications An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System

  2. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan L. Szymanski; R. Glickert

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  3. Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey...

  4. Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey...

  5. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for ...

  6. Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx...

  7. Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for...

  8. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and...

  9. Parametric Study of NOx Adsorber Regeneration in Transient Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Parametric Study of NOx Adsorber Regeneration in Transient Cycles Parametric Study of NOx ... More Documents & Publications Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap ...

  10. Relating adatom emission to improved durability of Pt-Pd diesel oxidation catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johns, Tyne Richele; Goeke, Ronald S.; Ashbacher, Valerie; Thune, Peter C.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.; Kiefer, Boris; Kim, Chang H.; Balogh, Michael P.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2015-06-05

    Sintering of nanoparticles is an important contributor to loss of activity in heterogeneous catalysts, such as those used for controlling harmful emissions from automobiles. But mechanistic details, such as the rates of atom emission or the nature of the mobile species, remain poorly understood. Herein we report a novel approach that allows direct measurement of atom emission from nanoparticles. We use model catalyst samples and a novel reactor that allows the same region of the sample to be observed after short-term heat treatments (seconds) under conditions relevant to diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Monometallic Pd is very stable and does notmore » sinter when heated in air (T ≤ 800 °C). Pt sinters readily in air, and at high temperatures (≥800 °C) mobile Pt species emitted to the vapor phase cause the formation of large, faceted particles. In Pt–Pd nanoparticles, Pd slows the rate of emission of atoms to the vapor phase due to the formation of an alloy. However, the role of Pd in Pt DOCs in air is quite complex: at low temperatures, Pt enhances the rate of Pd sintering (which otherwise would be stable as an oxide), while at higher temperature Pd helps to slow the rate of Pt sintering. DFT calculations show that the barrier for atom emission to the vapor phase is much greater than the barrier for emitting atoms to the support. Thus, vapor-phase transport becomes significant only at high temperatures while diffusion of adatoms on the support dominates at lower temperatures.« less

  11. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  12. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344F.

  13. Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_seguelong.pdf More Documents & Publications Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Comparative Study on

  14. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Simes, A.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 C for 8 min.

  15. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  16. Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, W.A.; Martin, E.P.; Pietrasz, E.

    1994-10-01

    An oxidation catalyst was installed on an industrial LPG-powered forklift truck. For high conversion efficiency in an oxidation system on a rich burning engine a secondary air supply to the catalyst is necessary. Two simple and cost-effective ways of secondary air supply were tested: an air valve and a venturi type injector. The amount of secondary air supplied by both devices was measured under a variety of conditions - different engine speed, load and exhaust system pressure. Carbon monoxide emissions and the catalyst performance were measured and evaluated in terms of the secondary air flow. Advantages and drawbacks of the air valve and venturi injector systems are discussed and compared. 1 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. NOx sensor development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sensor development NOx sensor development PDF icon pm005_glass_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications NOxsensor development NOx Sensor Development Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

  18. Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Perovskite-based lean NOx catalysts shown to achieve comparable NOx reduction performance as commercial platinum based counterpart

  19. Economics of pollution trading for SO{sub 2} and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans; Alan Krupnick; Karen Palmer; Russell Toth

    2005-03-15

    For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major US programs for SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides. These programs are evaluated along measures of performance including cost savings, environmental integrity, and incentives for technological innovation. The authors offer lessons for the design of future programs including, most importantly, those reducing carbon dioxide. 128 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. NOx reduction technology for natural-gas-industry prime movers. Special report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, C.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability, performance, and costs are summarized for state-of-the-art NOx emission controls for prime movers used by the natural gas industry to drive pipeline compressors. Nearly 7700 prime movers of 300 hp or greater are in operation at compressor stations. NOx control technologies for application to reciprocating engines are catalytic reduction, engine modification, exhaust gas recirculation, and pre-stratified charge. Technologies discussed for application to gas turbines are catalytic reduction, water or steam injection, and low-NOx combustors.

  1. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engines | Department of Energy a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea SCR system was developed for marine diesel engines and showed a 50-percent reduction in NOx. PDF icon deer08_bedick.pdf More Documents & Publications Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF Evaluation of 2010 Urea-SCR Technology for

  2. Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon pm023_singh_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx

  3. Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm023_singh_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx

  4. Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp_16_singh.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx

  5. Durability of NOx Absorbers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NOx Absorbers Durability of NOx Absorbers 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: EmeraChem LLC PDF icon 2002_deer_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel & Cleaner Air APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy Duty Applications: A Systems Approach

  6. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  7. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  8. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Desulfation | Department of Energy A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: ArvinMeritor PDF icon 2004_deer_crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration

  9. NOx Measurement Errors in Ammonia-Containing Exhaust | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement Errors in Ammonia-Containing Exhaust NOx Measurement Errors in Ammonia-Containing Exhaust Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_hoard.pdf More Documents & Publications Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Laboratory Product Speciation Studies of the LNT + in situ SCR NOx Emission Control Concept Function Specific Analysis of

  10. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reductants | Department of Energy Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_marshall.pdf More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by

  11. Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustuion | Department of Energy Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustuion Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustuion 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2002_deer_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions Achieving High-Effiency Clean Ccombustion in Diesel Engines Light-Duty Diesel EngineTechnology to Meet

  12. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace032_partridge_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNL/FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle

  13. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines | Department of Energy 12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace032_partridge_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines,

  14. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air | Department of Energy Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_bowser.pdf More Documents & Publications Membrane Technology Workshop Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) R&D - Presentation by Argonne National Laboratory, June 2011 Diesel Engine Alternatives

  15. Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Truck | Department of Energy NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_yezerets.pdf More Documents & Publications Durability

  16. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_slone.pdf More Documents & Publications Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Noxtechs PAC

  17. The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts PDF icon 2005_deer_whitacre.pdf More Documents & Publications The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine Diesel Aftertreatment Systems development Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter

  18. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  19. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, J. Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Faulkner, Stephen A. (Stamford, GB); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  1. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

    2012-12-31

    Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

  2. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx | Department of Energy Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during cold-start of HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles PDF icon p-13_gao.pdf More Documents & Publications

  3. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  4. Neutron Emission Characteristics of Two Mixed-Oxide Fuels: Simulations and Initial Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury; E. M. Gantz

    2009-07-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate the neutron emission characteristics of two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and it's Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. This analysis used the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and energy spectra of the different neutron source terms within these fuels, and then used this data to simulate the detection and measurement of these emissions using an array of liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers. These calculations accounted for neutrons generated from the spontaneous fission of the actinides in the MOX fuel as well as neutrons created via (alpha,n) reactions with oxygen in the MOX fuel. The analysis was carried out to allow for characterization of both neutron energy as well as neutron coincidences between multiple detectors. Coincidences between prompt gamma rays and neutrons were also analyzed. Experiments were performed at INL with the same materials used in the simulations to benchmark and begin validation tests of the simulations. Data was collected in these experiments using an array of four liquid scintillators and a high-speed waveform digitizer. Advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms were developed and used to collect this data. Results of the simulation and modeling studies are presented together with preliminary results from the experimental campaign.

  5. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  6. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  7. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine certified to 2002 MY Federal heavy-duty and 2002 MY California medium-duty emission standards. The stock vehicle included cooled air charge (CAC), turbocharger (TC), direct fuel injection (DFI), oxidation catalyst (OC), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

  8. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi Xu, Jian-Qun; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You

    2014-07-28

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  9. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  10. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  11. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. Toward the end of the program, a Second Generation gas injection system was installed. Higher injector gas pressures were used that eliminated the need for flue gas recirculation as used in the first generation design. The Second Generation GR resulted in similar NOX reduction performance as that for the First Generation. With an improvement in the LNB performance in combination with the new gas injection system , the reburn gas could be reduced to 12.5% of the total boiler heat input to achieve al 64?40 reduction in NO, emissions. In addition, the OFA injectors were modified to provide for better mixing to lower CO emissions.

  12. USE OF A DIESEL FUEL PROCESSOR FOR RAPID AND EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF SINGLE LEG NOX ADSORBER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betta, R; Cizeron, J; Sheridan, D; Davis, T

    2003-08-24

    Lean NOx adsorber systems are one of the primary candidate technologies for the control of NOx from diesel engines to meet the 2007-2010 US emissions regulations, which require a 90% reduction of NOx from the 2004 regulations. Several of the technical challenges facing this technology are regeneration at low exhaust temperatures and the efficient use of diesel fuel to minimize fuel penalty. A diesel processor system has been developed and tested in a single leg NOx adsorber configuration on a diesel engine test stand. During NOx adsorber regeneration, this fuel processor system performs reduces the exhaust O2 level to zero and efficiently processes the diesel fuel to H2 and CO. Combined with a Nox adsorber catalyst, this system has demonstrated NOx reduction above 90%, regeneration of the NOx adsorber H2/CO pulses as short as 1 second and fuel penalties in the 3 to 4% range at 50% load. This fuel processor system can also be used to provide the desulfation cycle required with sulfur containing fuels as well as providing thermal management for PM filter regeneration.

  13. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) is available at no charge to help the petroleum refining and chemicals industries develop a cost-effective, plant-wide strategy for NOx reduction and energy efficiency improvements.

  14. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company PDF...

  15. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  16. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on CuChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding NOx SCR...

  17. Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Poster presented at...

  18. H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor PDF icon...

  19. Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines, November 1999 Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines, November 1999 The use of...

  20. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants 2005 Diesel Engine...

  1. The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts PDF icon 2005deerwhitacre.pdf More...

  2. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation...

  3. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  4. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst Performance A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst...

  5. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  6. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber AT Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber AT Subsystem at Light-Duty ...

  7. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control &...

  8. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) ...

  9. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) ...

  10. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with...

  11. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning...

  12. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  13. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTIs highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

  15. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, William

    2014-08-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  16. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on secondary organic aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-12-08

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but it can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product volatility basis set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. Small differences are found for themore » no-aging VBS and 2-product schemes; large increases in SOA production and the SOA-to-OA ratio are found for the aging scheme. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution of US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of 2 compared to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different regions and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9–5.6, 6.4–12.0 and 0.9–2.8 % for global, southeast US and Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to a limited shift in chemical regime, to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  17. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-08-28

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution ofmore » US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of two compared to Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different region and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9 to 5.6, 6.4 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 2.8 % for global, the southeast US and the Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  18. Discovery of New NOx Reduction Catalysts for CIDI Engines Using Combinatorial Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blint, Richard J

    2005-08-15

    This project for the discovery of new lean reduction NOx catalysts was initiated on August 16th, 2002 and is now into its fourth year. Several materials have already been identified as NOx reduction catalysts for possible future application. NOx reduction catalysts are a critical need in the North American vehicle market since these catalysts are needed to enable both diesels and lean gasoline engines to meet the 2007-2010 emission standards. Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a preferred technology since it requires no infrastructure changes (as may be expected for urea SCR) and most likely has the simplest engine control strategy of the three proposed NOx reduction approaches. The use of fast throughput techniques and informatics greatly enhances the possibility of discovering new NOx reduction catalysts. Using fast throughput techniques this project has already screened over 3000 new materials and evaluates hundreds of new materials a month. Evaluating such a high number of new materials puts this approach into a very different paradigm than previous discovery approaches for new NOx reduction catalysts. With so much data on materials it is necessary to use statistical techniques to identify the potential catalysts and these statistical techniques are needed to optimize compositions of the multi-component materials that are identified under the program as possible new lean NOx catalysts. Several new materials have conversions in excess of 80% at temperatures above 300 C. That is more than twice the activity of previous HC SCR materials. These materials are candidates for emission control on heavy-duty systems (i.e.; over 8500 pounds gross weight). Tests of one of the downselected materials on an engine dynamometer show NOx reductions greater than 80% under some conditions even though the net NOx reductions on the HWFET and the US06 cycles were relatively low. The program is scheduled to continue until the end of the 2006 calendar year. Work in the final year will focus on continued discovery and identity of candidate materials, and also on refining the engine operating strategies to increase NOx reduction over a full engine cycle.

  19. Total integrated NOx compliance for existing pulverized coal-fired units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camody, G.; Lewis, R.; Cohen, M.B.; Buschmann, J.; Hilton, R.; Larsson, A.C.; Tobiasz, R.

    1999-07-01

    The EPA Title 1 NOx emission limits along with the corresponding OTR regulations are mandating coal-fired NOx emission levels below 0.15 lb/MBtu. For tangentially fired units, experience has shown that the technology is currently available to achieve these limits. The question for each unit owner-operator becomes; what is the most economical technology or combination of technologies to achieve the required results? This paper provides a brief overview of Combustion Engineering, Inc.'s (ABB C-E) latest NOx control technologies, both in-furnace and post-combustion, for tangential coal-fired steam generators. The paper further reviews options of both stand-alone and combined multiple technologies to achieve the most cost-effective NOx compliance, while maintaining the high levels of unit efficiency and performance that is required to by successful in their deregulated power industry. Current operational data of both in-furnace and SCR NOx reduction systems are presented, as well as the latest historical cost data for the systems.

  20. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  1. Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    O2/NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm043_singh_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx

  2. Influence of Ceria on the NOx Storage/Reduction Behavior of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yaying; Choi, Jae-Soon; Toops, Todd J; Crocker, Dr. Mark; Naseri, Mojghan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of La2O3-stabilized ceria incorporation on the functioning of fully formulated lean NOx trap catalysts was investigated. Monolithic catalysts were prepared, corresponding to loadings of 0, 50 and 100 g CeO2/L, together with a catalyst containing 100 g/L of ceria-zirconia (Ce0.7Zr0.3O2). Loadings of the other main components (Pt, Rh and BaO) were held constant. Catalyst evaluation was performed on a bench flow reactor under simulated diesel exhaust conditions, employing NOx storage/reduction cycles. NOx storage efficiency in the temperature range 150-350 C was observed to increase with ceria loading, resulting in higher NOx conversion levels. At 150 C, high rich phase NOx slip was observed for all of the catalysts, resulting from an imbalance in the rates of nitrate decomposition and NOx reduction. Optimal NOx conversion was obtained in the range 250-350 C for all the catalysts, while at 450 C high rich phase NOx slip from the most highly loaded ceria-containing catalyst resulted in lower NOx conversion than for the ceria-free formulation. N2O was the major NOx reduction product at 150 C over all of the catalysts, although low NOx conversion levels limited the N2O yield. At higher temperatures N2 was the main product of NOx reduction, although NH3 formation was also observed. Selectivity to NH3 decreased with increasing ceria loading, indicating that NH3 is consumed by reaction with stored oxygen in the rear of the catalyst.

  3. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  4. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_muncrief.pdf More Documents & Publications Design of Integrated Laboratory

  5. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  6. NOX: An Object-Oriented Nonlinear Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-11-15

    NOX is a C++ object-oriented library for the solving nonlinear equations. It can be used with an linear algebra package and includes interfaces to Epetra and PETSc.

  7. Parametric Study of NOx Adsorber Regeneration in Transient Cycles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Parametric Study of NOx Adsorber Regeneration in Transient Cycles Parametric Study of NOx Adsorber Regeneration in Transient Cycles 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2002_deer_west.pdf More Documents & Publications Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation Measurement

  8. Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity Volume 1: Main Text ::_:_ii_i!!._i_!!!i_!!_!_!i!ii_!).._i!iiii!!_i!i_!!_iii!i!_ii_iii!!_i!i!ii_!i!!_!!!_ii!!_)i!i_i_i!!ii!i!_!!ii!!i_!i_!iii_!!i!i_i!i!!_!ii_i!i._!ii_i!i!_i!_!!!i!!_!_!!_!_!!!!i_!_!!!i_:``.!ii!!_i_i_i!!!_!_!_ii_i_!_i_i_!!i!i!i!!!ii:!i_i!_ii!_!!ii_! ,qh_...dllri" :._m..41W..- ,,mm,m_ - Centerfor TransportationResearch Argonne NationalLaboratory Operated by lhe University of Chicago, under

  9. Composition of motor-vehicle organic emissions under elevated-temperature summer driving conditions (75 to 105 deg F)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stump, F.D.; Knapp, K.T.; Ray, W.D.; Snow, R.; Burton, C.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions from seven late-model popular V-6 and V-8 motor vehicles were characterized at three test temperatures. The Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule was used for vehicle tailpipe testing. Six vehicles fueled by port fuel injection (PFI) and one vehicle with a carbureted fuel system were tested at temperatures of 75, 90, and 105 F with unleaded regular summer grade gasoline. Tailpipe and evaporative emissions were determined at each test temperature. Measured emissions were the total hydrocarbons (THCs), speciated hydrocarbons, speciated aldehydes, carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. In general, tailpipe emissions of THC, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene from the vehicles were not temperature sensitive, but the CO and NOx emissions showed some temperature sensitivity. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and total aldehyde emissions from the PFI vehicles were also not temperature dependent, while formaldehyde emissions from the carbureted vehicle decreased slightly with increasing test temperature. Evaporative THC emissions generally increased with increasing test temperature. Hydrocarbon emissions saturated and broke through the evaporative carbon canister of one PFI vehicle during the 105 F hot soak while the other six vehicles showed no hydrocarbon breakthrough.

  10. New operation strategy for driving the selectivity of NOx reduction to N2, NH3 or N2O during lean/rich cycling of a lean NOx trap catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mr?ek, David; Koci, Petr; Choi, Jae -Soon; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2015-09-08

    Periodical regeneration of NOx storage catalyst (also known as lean NOx trap) by short rich pulses of CO, H2 and hydrocarbons is necessary for the reduction of nitrogen oxides adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Ideally, the stored NOx is converted into N2, but N2O and NH3 by-products can be formed as well, particularly at low-intermediate temperatures. The N2 and N2O products are formed concurrently in two peaks. The primary peaks appear immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tail off with the breakthrough of the reductant front accompanied by NH3 product. In addition, the secondary N2 and N2O peaks then appearmoreat the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, NCO) and residual stored NOx under increasingly lean conditions.less

  11. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  12. Demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardman, R.R.; Wilson, S.M. ); Smith, L.L.; Larsen, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrating advanced tangentially fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the performance of four low NO{sub x} combustion technologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 180 MW boiler. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction has been established for the project. Details of the required instrumentation including acoustic pyrometers and continuous emissions and monitoring systems are given. Results from a 1/12 scale model of the demonstration boiler outfitted with the retrofit technology are presented. Finally, preliminary baseline results are presented. 4 figs.

  13. Microsoft Word - Energy and Emissions Benefit Table Instructions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    known air emissions from the production site related to the manufacturing process (i.e. NOx from a boiler, emissions from a diesel forklift or volatization of a solvent). If there...

  14. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  15. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  17. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  18. System and method for diagnosing EGR performance using NOx sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John

    2003-12-23

    A method and system for diagnosing a condition of an EGR valve used in an engine system. The EGR valve controls the portion exhaust gases produced by such engine system and fed back to an intake of such engine system. The engine system includes a NOx sensor for measuring NOx in such exhaust. The method includes: determining a time rate of change in NOx measured by the NOx sensor; comparing the determined time rate of change in the measured NOx with a predetermined expected time rate of change in measured NOx; and determining the condition of the EGR valve as a function of such comparison. The method also includes: determining from NOx measured by the NOx sensor and engine operating conditions indications of instances when samples of such measured NOx are greater than an expected maximum NOx level for such engine condition and less than an expected minimum NOx level for such engine condition; and determining the condition of the EGR valve as a function of a statistical analysis of such indications. The method includes determining whether the NOx sensor is faulty and wherein the EGR condition determining includes determining whether the NOx sensor is faulty.

  19. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Ray; Jones, DBA; Suntharalingam, P; Chen, j.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Wecht, K. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Kulawik, SS; Bowman, K; Worden, JR; Machida, T; Matsueda, H

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure generally resulting in decreased CO2 over land and increased CO2 over the oceans. Since these CO2 emissions are omitted or misrepresented in most inverse modeling work to date, their implementation in forward simulations should lead to improved inverse modeling estimates of terrestrial biospheric fluxes.

  20. Oxide

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-15

    Oxide is a modular framework for feature extraction and analysis of executable files. Oxide is useful in a variety of reverse engineering and categorization tasks relating to executable content.

  1. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2?nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (?V{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying ?1?V for 5?s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V, and the memory window can be up to 8?V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at ?1?V programming voltage, the ?V{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10?V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1?V the electric field across the 3.6?nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ?V{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E??2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  2. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  3. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  4. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by LeanRich Cycling Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel...

  5. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace033_toops_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, Self-Diagnosing SmartCatalyst Systems Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a

  6. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Performance | Department of Energy A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst Performance A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst Performance 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Dephi Corporation PDF icon 2002_deer_dou.pdf More Documents & Publications Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems

  7. Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon acep_01_larson.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled

  8. DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Barone, Teresa L; Curran, Scott; Cho, Kukwon; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

  9. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. PDF icon 2002_deer_slone.pdf More Documents & Publications Noxtechs PAC System Development and Demonstration Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development

  10. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. The regenerable trap oxidizer-An emission control technique for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.; Loose, G.

    1985-01-01

    Daimler-Benz made an early start with the development of systems for the aftertreatment of the exhaust gas emitted by diesel engines. The more important limiting conditions could best be met by the provision of a ceramic, selfcleaning trap oxidizer (TO). In such filters, self-regeneration is effected continuously while driving without any external control. Either partial or complete regeneration is effected, depending on the temperature, oxygen content and rate of flow of the exhaust gas, the amount of soot in the filter and the period for which a given operating condition is maintained. Such a trap oxidizer was developed for a 3.0 liter turbocharged diesel engine to the extent necessary for series production and has been fitted to type 300 SD and 300 D turbocharged diesel of model year 1985 in California.

  13. New Diesel Emissions Control Strategy for U.S. Tier 2 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Emissions Control Strategy for U.S. Tier 2 New Diesel Emissions Control Strategy for U.S. Tier 2 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: Southwest Research Institute PDF icon 2004_deer_leet.pdf More Documents & Publications Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap

  14. Enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by indium tin oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, Chul, E-mail: chuh@etri.re.kr; Kim, Bong Kyu; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeob [IT Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21

    We report an enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a Si nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) by employing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs). The formed ITO NWs (diameter?

  15. Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regeneration Strategies | Department of Energy Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_parks.pdf More

  16. Reduction of Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control Reduction of Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control This poster describes an air path control concept, which minimizes NOx and PM emission variance while having the ability to run reliably with many different sensor configurations. PDF icon p-17_nanjundaswamy.pdf More Documents & Publications Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Future Directions in Engines and

  17. DOE - Fossil Energy: Knocking the NOx Out of Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-Knocking Out NOx An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal Knocking the NOx Out of Coal - How NOx Forms - Formation of NOx - Air is mostly nitrogen molecules (green in the above diagram) and oxygen molecules (purple). When heated hot enough (around 3000 degrees F), the molecules break apart and oxygen atoms link with the nitrogen atoms to form NOx, an air pollutant. Nitrogen is the most common part of the air we breathe. In fact, about 80% of the air is nitrogen. Normally, nitrogen atoms float around

  18. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.

  19. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  20. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    along with a virtual intake manifold O2 sensor, show good accuracy with stationary measurements PDF icon deer09traver.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation and Analysis of...

  1. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will develop a FlexCHP-65 system that incorporates new burner technology into a 65 kW microturbine and 100 HP heat recovery boiler.

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  3. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  4. SO{sub 2} and NOx trading markets: providing flexibility and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sam Napolitano; Melanie LaCount; Daniel Chartier

    2007-06-15

    Experience with the Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trading Programs demonstrates that cap-and-trade programs are an effective means of achieving broad improvements in air quality. Results demonstrate that the combination of mandatory emissions caps, a viable allowance trading market, rigorous emissions monitoring and reporting protocols, and automatic enforcement provide accountability and ensure results in a cost-effective manner. The market developments discussed in this article demonstrate a successful environmental partnership. With a government focused on results and a private sector motivated to innovate, cap-and trade systems deliver environmental results as efficiently and effectively as possible. 3 refs., 4 figs,

  5. State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  6. NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_west.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project

  7. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR PDF icon deer10_diewald.pdf More Documents & Publications Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future SCR-DPF Integrations

  8. Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_24_peden.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  9. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace026_peden_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT)

  10. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and sulfur poisoning | Department of Energy mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance over model catalysts. Novel reaction protocol designed to decouple effects of thermal deactivation and incomplete desulfation. PDF icon deer08_muntean.pdf More Documents & Publications

  11. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and SCR | Department of Energy Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_atkinson.pdf More Documents & Publications Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Lean NOx Trap

  12. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  13. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in Conjunction with...

  14. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LNT) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

  15. NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National ...

  16. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an ...

  17. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review...

  18. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines CLEERS Coordination & Development of...

  19. Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company Development of Materials Analysis Tools ...

  20. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence Presentation: Toyota Motor Corporation PDF icon 2003deerwatanabe.pdf More Documents & Publications An...

  1. Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-05-03

    Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

  2. Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustuion Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Use of

  3. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with ...

  4. Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for...

  5. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace026_peden_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis

  6. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip PDF icon deer12harold.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of ...

  7. MODELING COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION IN UREA-SCR CATALYSTS FOR EFFECTIVE LOW TEMPERATURE NOX CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-17

    Although the SCR technology exhibits higher NOx reduction efficiency over a wider range of temperatures among the lean NOx reduction technologies, further improvement in low-temperature performance is required to meet the future emission standards and to lower the system cost. In order to improve the catalyst technologies and optimize the system performance, it is critical to understand the reaction mechanisms and catalyst behaviors with respect to operating conditions. For example, it is well known that the ammonia coverage on catalyst surface is critical for NOx reduction efficiency. However, the level of ammonia storage is influenced by competitive adsorption by other species, such as H2O and NO2. Moreover, hydrocarbon species that slip through the upstream DOC during the cold-start period can also inhibit the SCR performance, especially at low temperatures. Therefore, a one-dimensional detailed kinetic model that can account for the effects of such competitive adsorption has been developed based on steady state surface isotherm tests on a commercial Fe-zeolite catalyst. The model is developed as a C language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Rate kinetics of adsorption and desorption of each of the adsorbents are determined from individual adsorption tests and validated for a set of test conditions that had all the adsorbents in the feed gas.

  8. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  9. Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activity | Department of Energy fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) Activity Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) Activity 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory PDF icon deer_2003_thornton.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty

  10. Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Rodney

    2007-08-08

    The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

  11. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  12. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harborth, Peter; Fu, Roland; Mnnich, Kai; Flessa, Heinz; Fricke, Klaus

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 3040 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  13. Low Temperature Combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate nox from large bore natural gas-filled engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biruduganti, M. S.; Gupta, S. B.; Sekar, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NOx emissions levels set by regulatory agencies. This phenomenon can be realized by utilizing various advanced combustion control strategies. The present work discusses nitrogen enrichment using an Air Separation Membrane (ASM) as a better alternative to the mature Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) technique currently in use. A 70% NOx reduction was realized with a moderate 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving Fuel Conversion Efficiency (FCE). The maximum acceptable Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) in a single cylinder spark ignited natural gas engine was investigated in this paper. Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance both in terms of power density and FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N2 enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing NEA was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with NEA is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NOx emissions.

  14. Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_larson.pdf More Documents & Publications Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Rh/Ba NOx Traps for Design and Optimization Production, Storage, and FC Analysis

  15. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  16. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  17. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2,...

  18. Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon acep01larson.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx ...

  19. APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: FEV Technology, Inc. PDF icon deer_2003_tomazic.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study

  20. Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2002_deer_west.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study

  1. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an analytical and experimental sA PDF icon 2002_deer_hakim.pdf More Documents & Publications Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Cleaner Vehicles,

  2. Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pathway for SULEV | Department of Energy Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Discusses possible improvement potential and various pathways for LNT after-treatment systems for diesel applications to comply with Tier 2 Bin 5 and SULEV regulations PDF icon deer11_nanjundaswamy.pdf More Documents & Publications Future Directions in Engines and

  3. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace026_peden_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction

  4. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace026_peden_2013_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: CLEERS: Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis

  5. CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fundamentals | Department of Energy Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_21_herling.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling

  6. CNG and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions in Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, A.; Kado, N.; Okamoto, R.; Gebel, M. Rieger, P.; Kobayashi, R.; Kuzmicky, P.

    2003-08-24

    Over the past three years, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in collaboration with the University of California and other entities, has investigated the tailpipe emissions from three different latemodel, in-use heavy-duty transit buses in five different configurations. The study has focused on the measurement of regulated emissions (NOX, HC, CO, total PM), other gaseous emissions (CO2, NO2, CH4, NMHC), a number of pollutants of toxic risk significance (aromatics, carbonyls, PAHs, elements), composition (elemental and organic carbon), and the physical characterization (size-segregated number count and mass) of the particles in the exhaust aerosol. Emission samples are also tested in a modified Ames assay. The impact of oxidation catalyst control for both diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and a passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) were evaluated over multiple driving cycles (idle, 55 mph cruise, CBD, UDDS, NYBC) using a chassis dynamometer. For brevity, only CBD results are discussed in this paper and particle sizing results are omitted. The database of results is large and some findings have been reported already at various forums including last year's DEER conference. The goal of this paper is to offer an overview of the lessons learned and attempt to draw overall conclusions and interpretations based on key findings to date.

  7. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  8. VALIDATION AND RESULTS OF A PSEUDO-MULTI-ZONE COMBUSTION TRAJECTORY PREDICTION MODEL FOR CAPTURING SOOT AND NOX FORMATION ON A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bittle, Joshua A.; Gao, Zhiming; Jacobs, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    A pseudo-multi-zone phenomenological model has been created with the ultimate goal of supporting efforts to enable broader commercialization of low temperature combustion modes in diesel engines. The benefits of low temperature combustion are the simultaneous reduction in soot and nitric oxide emissions and increased engine efficiency if combustion is properly controlled. Determining what qualifies as low temperature combustion for any given engine can be difficult without expensive emissions analysis equipment. This determination can be made off-line using computer models or through factory calibration procedures. This process could potentially be simplified if a real-time prediction model could be implemented to run for any engine platform this is the motivation for this study. The major benefit of this model is the ability for it to predict the combustion trajectory, i.e. local temperature and equivalence ratio in the burning zones. The model successfully captures all the expected trends based on the experimental data and even highlights an opportunity for simply using the average reaction temperature and equivalence ratio as an indicator of emissions levels alone - without solving formation sub-models. This general type of modeling effort is not new, but a major effort was made to minimize the calculation duration to enable implementation as an input to real-time next-cycle engine controller Instead of simply using the predicted engine out soot and NOx levels, control decisions could be made based on the trajectory. This has the potential to save large amounts of calibration time because with minor tuning (the model has only one automatically determined constant) it is hoped that the control algorithm would be generally applicable.

  9. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

  10. Ammonia Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  11. Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace031_parks_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies

  12. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 2 Report Comparison of Performance and Emissions from Near-Term Hydrogen Fueled Light Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ng, Henry K.; Waller, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the emissions and efficiency from hydrogen blended compressed natural gas (CNG) in light duty vehicles. The different blends used in this investigation were 0%, 15%, 30%, 50%, 80%, 95%, and ~100% hydrogen, the remainder being compressed natural gas. The blends were tested using a Ford F-150 and a Chevrolet Silverado truck supplied by Arizona Public Services. Tests on emissions were performed using four different driving condition tests. Previous investigation by Don Karner and James Frankfort on a similar Ford F-150 using a 30% hydrogen blend showed that there was substantial reduction when compared to gasoline in carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions while the reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions was minimal. This investigation was performed using different blends of CNG and hydrogen to evaluate the emissions reducing capabilities associated with the use of the different fuel blends. The results were then tested statistically to confirm or reject the hypotheses on the emission reduction capabilities. Statistically analysis was performed on the test results to determine whether hydrogen concentration in the HCNG had any effect on the emissions and the fuel efficiency. It was found that emissions from hydrogen blended compressed natural gas were a function of driving condition employed. Emissions were found to be dependent on the concentration of hydrogen in the compressed natural gas fuel blend.

  13. Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_toops2.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on

  14. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Legislation | Department of Energy Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Robert Bosch GMBH Common Rail System Engineering for PC Diesel Systems PDF icon 2004_deer_busch.pdf More Documents & Publications Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction Powertrain

  15. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  16. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  17. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has

  18. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  19. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  20. Inorganic aerosols responses to emission changes in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2014-05-15

    China announced the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality standards (CH-NAAQS) on Feb. 29th, 2012, and PM2.5 is for the very first time included in the standards as a criteria pollutant. In order to probe into PM2.5 pollution over Yangtze River Delta, which is one of the major urban clusters hosting more than 80 million people in China, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system is applied for a full year simulation to examine the PM2.5 concentration and seasonality, and also the inorganic aerosols responses to precursor emission changes. Both simulation and observation demonstrated that, inorganic aerosols have substantial contributions to PM2.5 over YRD, ranging from 37.1% in November to 52.8% in May. Nocturnal production of nitrate (NO3-) through heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 was found significantly contribute to high NO3-concentration throughout the year. We also found that in winter NO3- was even increased under nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction due to higher production of N2O5 from the excessive ozone (O3) introduced by attenuated titration, which further lead to increase of ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-), while other seasons showed decrease response of NO3-. Sensitivity responses of NO3- under anthropogenic VOC emission reduction was examined and demonstrated that in urban areas over YRD, NO3- formation was actually VOC sensitive due to the O3-involved nighttime chemistry of N2O5, while a reduction of NOx emission may have counter-intuitive effect by increasing concentrations of inorganic aerosols.

  1. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for Retrofit of In-Use Trucks Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by...

  2. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising...

  3. Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustuion Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustuion 2002 DEER Conference...

  4. Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge...

  5. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update 2003 DEER ...

  6. Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  7. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given ...

  8. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient ... Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Reductant ...

  9. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 ...

  10. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel ...

  11. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in ...

  12. Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOx/O2 Sensors with an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOxO2 Sensors with an Internal Reference for High Temperature Applications Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOxO2 Sensors with an...

  13. MOBILE4. 1: Highway-vehicle mobile-source emission-factor model (Apple MacIntosh version) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    MOBILE4.1 is the latest revision to EPA's highway vehicle mobile source emission factor model. Relative to MOBILE4, it contains numerous revisions and provides the user with additional options for modeling highway vehicle emission factors. it will calculate emission factors for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from highway motor vehicles. It calculates emission factors for eight individual vehicle types, in two regions of the country (low and high altitude). The emission factors depend on various conditions such as ambient temperature, fuel volatility, speed, and mileage accrual rates. It will estimate emission factors for any calendar year between 1960 and 2020 inclusive. The 25 most recent model years are considered in operation in each calendar year. EPA is requiring that states and others preparing emission inventories for nonattainment areas for CO and ozone to use MOBILE4.1 in the development of the base year 1990 emission inventories required under the Clean Air Act of 1990.

  14. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_26_crocker.pdf More Documents & Publications Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts

  15. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    engine | Department of Energy on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence Presentation: Toyota Motor Corporation PDF icon 2003_deer_watanabe.pdf More Documents & Publications An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System EPA Mobile Source Rule Update

  16. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Lawless; C. Clark

    2008-09-01

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NO{sub x} sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NO{sub x} from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5-$10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NO{sub x}. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650-700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NO{sub x} sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NO{sub x} sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NO{sub x} and oxygen sensors yields the NO{sub x} content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  17. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, Lawrence E. (East Aurora, NY); Snyder, William J. (Ossining, NY)

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  18. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of nitrogen only in regions with sufficient rainfall or irrigation, include below-ground crop residues while omitting biological fixation of nitrogen, and transfer...

  1. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Update | Department of Energy Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ricardo Inc., Chicago Technical Center PDF icon deer_2003_may.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF

  2. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap | Department of Energy NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR. PDF icon deer09_lymburner.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit

  3. Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control | Department of Energy Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_dalla_betta.pdf More Documents & Publications

  4. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  5. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  6. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  7. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  8. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  9. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  10. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  11. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  12. NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_33_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of

  13. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office 1 Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2014 DOE AMR Review This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. The work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies. Program Managers: Ken Howden and Gurpreet Singh June 19, 2014 Feng Gao, George Muntean, Janos Szányi, Chuck Peden Institute for Integrated Catalysis Pacific Northwest

  14. Locomotive Emission and Engine Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Archer

    2005-03-14

    In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) emissions reduction and the noise reduction capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units demonstrated an IME of 64% at stationary idle for the test period. The data collected during calendar year 2004 demonstrated that 707,600 gallons of fuel were saved and 285 tons of NOX were not emitted as a result of idle management in stationary idle, which translates to 12,636 gallons and 5.1 tons of NOx per unit respectively. The noise reduction capabilities of the APU demonstrated that at 150 feet from the locomotive the loaded APU with the main engine shut down generated noise that was only marginally above ambient noise level.

  15. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  16. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace033_toops_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental Sulfation/Desulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

  17. H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy -Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor PDF icon 2003_deer_crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber

  18. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies | Department of Energy reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_peden.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx

  19. Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature Aerosol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deposition for Potential Marine Applications | Department of Energy supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature Aerosol Deposition for Potential Marine Applications Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature Aerosol Deposition for Potential Marine Applications Presents preparation of SCR catalyst coatings on cost effective metallic substrates using aerosol deposition technique and their catalytic De-NOx performance PDF icon p-06_choi.pdf More Documents

  20. Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace035_larson_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials

  1. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost PDF icon deer10lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in...

  2. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    johannessen.pdf More Documents & Publications Ammonia storage and delivery systems for NOx aftertreatment 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas...

  3. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) can help petroleum refining and chemical plants improve energy efficiency.

  4. Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Focus is the heavy duty, US dynamometer certification using the Duramax 6.6 liter diesel PDF icon deer09_blint.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx

  5. Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Poster ...

  6. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost PDF icon deer10_lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite

  7. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling | Department of Energy Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust. PDF icon deer08_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul

  8. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  9. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  10. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  11. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  12. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Coraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  13. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Caraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  14. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  15. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  16. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    customers the fuel mix of its electricity production and the associated sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions emissions, expressed in pounds per 1000...

  17. Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace035_larson_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data

  18. Study of phase I NOx control: Lessons learned for phase II NOx control strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, B.

    1996-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) is concerned with lowering the levels of acid rain in the USA. One of the contributions to acid rain is nitric oxides referred to as NO{sub x}. Title IV seeks NO{sub x} reductions from two groupings of utility steam generators. The first group, known as Phase I, was to have their reductions made by January 1, 1996. The purpose of this paper is to look back at Phase I to see what one can learn for use in Phase II compliance planning. Phase II units are scheduled to be in compliance by January 1, 2000. As such, this paper looks to answer four questions about Phase I units.

  19. Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

    2005-06-15

    Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 2, Overfire air tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.L.; Hooper, M.P.

    1992-07-13

    This Phase 2 Test Report summarizes the testing activities and results for the second testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The second phase demonstrates the Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) retrofit with existing Foster Wheeler (FWEC) burners. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data supported by short-term characterization data. Ultimately a fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction target using combinations of combustion modifications has been established for this project.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.L.; Hooper, M.P. )

    1992-07-13

    This Phase 2 Test Report summarizes the testing activities and results for the second testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The second phase demonstrates the Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) retrofit with existing Foster Wheeler (FWEC) burners. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data supported by short-term characterization data. Ultimately a fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction target using combinations of combustion modifications has been established for this project.

  2. FY2011 Progress Report: Agreement 8697 - NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2011-11-01

    Objectives are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) OBD II systems; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements and designs and manufacturing methods that are compatible with mass fabrication; and (3) Collaborate with industry in order to (ultimately) transfer the technology to a supplier for commercialization. Approach used is: (1) Use an ionic (O{sup 2-}) conducting ceramic as a solid electrolyte and metal or metal-oxide electrodes; (2) Correlate NO{sub x} concentration with changes in cell impedance; (3) Evaluate sensing mechanisms and aging effects on long-term performance using electrochemical techniques; and (4) Collaborate with Ford Research Center to optimize sensor performance and perform dynamometer and on-vehicle testing. Work in FY2011 focused on using an algorithm developed in FY2010 in a simplified strategy to demonstrate how data from controlled laboratory evaluation could be applied to data from real-world engine testing. The performance of a Au wire prototype sensor was evaluated in the laboratory with controlled gas compositions and in dynamometer testing with diesel exhaust. The laboratory evaluation indicated a nonlinear dependence of the NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} sensitivity with concentration. For both NO{sub x} and O{sub 2}, the prototype sensor had higher sensitivity at concentrations less than {approx}20 ppm and {approx}7%, respectively, compared to lower NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} sensitivity at concentrations greater than {approx}50 ppm and {approx}10.5%, respectively. Results in dynamometer diesel exhaust generally agreed with the laboratory results. Diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will likely require detection levels less than {approx}20 ppm in order to meet emission regulations. The relevant mathematical expressions for sensitivity in different concentration regimes obtained from bench-level laboratory evaluation were used to adjust the sensor signal in dynamometer testing. Both NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} exhibited non-linear responses over the concentration regimes examined (0-100 ppm for NO{sub x} and 4-7% for O{sub 2}). Adjusted sensor signals had better agreement with both a commercial NO{sub x} sensor and FTIR measurements. However, the lack of complete agreement indicated that it was not possible to completely account for the nonlinear sensor behavior in certain concentration regimes. The agreement at lower NO{sub x} levels (less than 20 ppm) was better than at higher levels (50-100 ppm). Other progress in FY2011 included dynamometer testing of sensors with imbedded heaters and protective housings that were mounted directly into the exhaust manifold. Advanced testing protocols were used to evaluate the sensors. These experiments confirmed the potential for sensor robustness and durability. Advanced material processing methods appropriate for mass manufacturing, such as sputtering, are also being evaluated. A major milestone for this past year was the licensing of the LLNL NO{sub x} sensor technology to EmiSense Technologies, LLC. EmiSense has extensive experience and resources for the development of emission control sensors. A CRADA is in development that will allow LLNL to work in partnership with EmiSense to bring the LLNL NO{sub x} sensor technology to commercialization. Ford Motor Company is also a partner in this effort.

  3. Model Identification for Optimal Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon

    2013-06-20

    In this paper we develop a model based con- troller for diesel emission reduction using system identification methods. Specifically, our method minimizes the downstream readings from a production NOx sensor while injecting a minimal amount of urea upstream. Based on the linear quadratic estimator we derive the closed form solution to a cost function that accounts for the case some of the system inputs are not controllable. Our cost function can also be tuned to trade-off between input usage and output optimization. Our approach performs better than a production controller in simulation. Our NOx conversion efficiency was 92.7% while the production controller achieved 92.4%. For NH3 conversion, our efficiency was 98.7% compared to 88.5% for the production controller.

  4. 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comparison to Reference Methods | Department of Energy Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_lake.pdf More Documents & Publications Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx

  5. Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Catalyzed DPFs | Department of Energy Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel and Catalyzed DPFs Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel and Catalyzed DPFs 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. PDF icon 2004_deer_cherrillo.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM Applications

  6. HCCI Combustion: the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GDI Fuel Injection | Department of Energy Combustion: the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection HCCI Combustion: the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection PDF icon 2002_deer_dec.pdf More Documents & Publications HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research

  7. State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2006 (Update) (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency published two final rules aimed at reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) requires 28 states and the District of Columbia to reduce emissions of SO2 and/or NOx. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) requires the states to reduce emissions of mercury from new and existing coal-fired plants.

  8. The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Lab PDF icon 2002_deer_whitacre.pdf More Documents & Publications Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber

  9. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned

  11. NOx/O2 Sensors for High-Temperature Applications | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory NOx/O2 Sensors for High-Temperature Applications Technology available for licensing: Low-cost bifunctional high-temperature NOx/oxygen sensor that provides real-time sensing inside a combustion chamber without the requirement of a reference air supply. Placement in combustion chamber provide accurate oxygen-sensing, extremely low drift 2-10% energy saving from sensor optimization of air-flow ratio and fuel oil viscosity PDF icon high-temp_NOx-O2_sensor

  12. Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_thomas.pdf More Documents & Publications Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants Fuel-Borne Catalyst Assisted DPF regeneration on a Renault truck MD9 Engine Outfitted with SCR NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena

  13. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    automotive units | Department of Energy Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_johannessen.pdf More Documents & Publications Ammonia storage and delivery systems for NOx

  14. Oxidation of elemental mercury vapor over gamma-Al2O3 supported CuCl2 catalyst for mercury emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhouyang; Liu, Xin; Lee, Joo-Youp; Bolin, Trudy B.

    2015-09-01

    In our previous studies, CuCl2 demonstrated excellent Hg(0) oxidation capability and holds potential for Hg(0) oxidation in coal-fired power plants. In this study, the properties and performances of CuCl2 supported onto gamma-Al2O3 with high surface area were investigated. From various characterization techniques using XPS, XAFS, XRD, TPR, SEM and TGA, the existence of multiple copper species was identified. At low CuCl2 loadings, CuCl2 forms copper aluminate species with gamma-Al2O3 and is inactive for Hg(0) oxidation. At high loadings, amorphous CuCl2 forms onto the gamma-Al2O3 surface, working as a redox catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation by consuming Cl to be converted into CuCl and then being regenerated back into CuCl2 in the presence of O-2 and HCl gases. The 10%(wt) CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst showed excellent Hg(0) oxidation performance and SO2 resistance at 140 degrees C under simulated flue gas conditions containing 6%(v) O-2 and 10 ppmv HCl. The oxidized Hg(0) in the form of HgCl2 has a high solubility in water and can be easily captured by other air pollution control systems such as wet scrubbers in coal-fired power plants. The CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst can be used as a low temperature Hg(0) oxidation catalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation ...

  16. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support ...

  17. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  18. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  19. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  20. Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents preparation of SCR catalyst coatings on cost effective metallic substrates using aerosol deposition technique and their catalytic De-NOx performance PDF icon p-06choi.pdf ...

  1. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research to identify most promising catalytic formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx

  2. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavoulareas, E.S.; Hardman, R.; Eskinazi, D.; Smith, L.

    1994-02-01

    This report provides the key findings of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration project at Gulf Power`s Lansing Smith Unit No. 2 and the implications for other tangentially-fired boilers. L. Smith Unit No. 2 is a 180 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning Eastern Bituminous coal, which was retrofitted with Asea Brown Boveri/Combustion Engineering Services` (ABB/CE) LNCFS I, II, and III technologies. An extensive test program was carried-out with US Department of Energy, Southern Company and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funding. The LNCFS I, II, and III achieved 37 percent, 37 percent, and 45 percent average long-term NO{sub x} emission reduction at full load, respectively (see following table). Similar NO{sub x} reduction was achieved within the control range (100--200 MW). However, below the control point (100 MW), NO{sub x} emissions with the LNCFS technologies increased significantly, reaching pre-retrofit levels at 70 MW. Short-term testing proved that low load NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced further by using lower excess O{sub 2} and burner tilt, but with adversed impacts on unit performance, such as lower steam outlet temperatures and, potentially, higher CO emissions and LOI.

  3. Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts | Department of Energy Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon

  4. Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOx/O2 Sensors with an Internal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reference for High Temperature Applications | Department of Energy Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOx/O2 Sensors with an Internal Reference for High Temperature Applications Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOx/O2 Sensors with an Internal Reference for High Temperature Applications A inexpensive compact O2 sensor has been developed using internal reference gas that is stable for months, has no complex electronics, and is amenable to mass production PDF icon deer09_singh.pdf More

  5. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines | Department of Energy 10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace032_partridge_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

  6. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst | Department of Energy Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Evaluation of commercial Ba-based LNT (CLEERS benchmark catalyst; containing oxygen storage capacity) in a bench flow reactor under fast-cycling conditions, varying reductant type,

  7. Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2015 Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2015 Solar Turbines Incorporated, in collaboration with The Pennsylvania State University and the University of Southern California, modified a gas turbine combustion system to operate on hydrogen-rich opportunity fuels. Increasing the usability of opportunity fuels will avoid

  8. index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced NOx Emissions Control DOE/NETL's NOx Emissions Control R&D Program - Bringing Advanced Technology to the Marketplace - April 2008 [PDF-346KB] Commercially available technologies for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are enabling industry compliance with today's regulatory requirements. Low-NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology have enabled hundreds of power plants to reach mandated emission levels. For a number of plants,

  9. Application of holographic neural networks for flue gas emissions prediction in the Burnaby incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Dockrill, P.; Clements, B.

    1997-12-31

    This article describes the development of a parametric prediction system (PPS) for various emission species at the Burnaby incinerator. The continuous emissions monitoring system at the Burnaby incinerator is shared between three boilers and therefore actual results are only available 5 minutes out of every 15 minutes. The PPS was developed to fill in data for the 10 minutes when the Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) is measuring the other boilers. It bases its prediction on the last few actual readings taken and parametrically predicts CO, SO2 and NOx. The Burnaby Incinerator is located in the commercial/industrial area of South Burnaby, British Columbia. It consists of three separate lines, each burning ten tonnes of garbage per hour and producing about three tonnes of steam for every tonne of garbage burned. The air pollution control system first cools the combustion products with water injection and then scrubs them with very fine hydrated lime. Carbon is added to the lime to enhance the scrubbing of the combustion products. The CEM monitors the levels of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and opacity. In 1996, an expert system was installed on one of boilers at the Burnaby Incinerator plant to determine if it could improve the plant=s operations and reduce overall emission. As part of the expert system, the PPS was developed. Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT), developed by AND Corporation of Toronto, Ontario, is a novel neural network technology using complex numbers in its architecture. Compared to the traditional neural networks, HNeT has some significant advantage. It is more resilient against converging on local minima; is faster training and executing; less prone to over fitting; and, in most cases, has significantly lower error. Selection of independent variabs, training set preparation, testing neural nets and other related issue will be discussed.

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  12. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  13. A simulation approach of ozone season emissions to optimize a fossil utility's options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, M.D.; Masoniello, R.; DeNavas, J.; Fasca, T.; Jones, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes PREACT--an approach to choose a mix of pollution control that optimizes economic and environmental alternatives for NOx compliance. The Predictive Real (Time) Emission and Allowance Compliance Tool (PREACT) is a computer program that allows the user to predict key emission parameters and optimize the maximization of net profits while managing emissions compliance. The program allows simulations of various compliance scenarios for NOx emission reductions in order to maintain both State and Federal NOx allocation of allowances on the fossil fired generating units in the Pepco system. The program uses real time data that is interfaced through a Local Area Network system to update forecasts of emissions. It also provides the user with an understanding of the production energy net profits that results from the simulation. The BTU used and fuel quantities are also outputs of the simulation. This paper describes the principle of the tool, which is to learn from past history and modify emissions forecasts considering up-to-date information on a unit profile. NOx emissions, operating options, fuel changes, technology retrofits, and any other opportunities for reducing emissions; considering feedback from real time information are used to modify the forecast. Other factors such as the market price of energy and the production costs of energy will also allow the user to modify the forecast through simulation. The last activity, which requires redefinition, is how to make decisions in real time considering the many opportunities to minimize the incremental cost to maintain emission compliance. The necessary management processes have been installed to maintain the risk management levels that the company wishes to maintain.

  14. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace018_parks_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Light-Duty Lean GDI Vehicle Technology Benchmark Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst

  15. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  16. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to oxidize the ammonia that slips past the SCR catalyst to nitrogen. PDF icon deer10folic.pdf More Documents & Publications SCR-DPF Integrations for Diesel ExhaustPerformance...

  17. The use of CETANER{trademark} for the reduction of particulate matter emissions in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, H.S.; Chiodo, J.A.; Boehman, A.L.; Tijim, P.J.A.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    In this experimental study, the effects of the addition of CETANER{trademark} to a premium diesel fuel at various blend levels (5%, 10% and 15% by weight) were evaluated using a 1.9 liter turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. CETANER{trademark}, a product developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., can be manufactured from coal-derived syngas through a two-stage process: (i) Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether synthesis (LPDME); and (ii) oxidative coupling of DiMethyl Ether (DME) to form long chain linear ethers. When compared to other oxygenated components currently being researched, CETANER has several key advantages: (1) it is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock; (2) it has a cetane number greater than 100; and (3) it will have a cost comparable to diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions and exhaust gas composition (NOx and CO), were determined at six steady-state engine operating conditions. In addition, fuel properties (viscosity, cloud point, pour point, density, flash point and calorific value) of the various blends were also determined. Engine test results indicate that CETANER is effective in reducing particulate matter emissions at all blend levels tested, without any modifications to engine operating parameters. At the highest blend level (15% CETANER by weight), particulate matter emissions were reduced by greater than 20% when compared to premium diesel fuel.

  18. Optimization of La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} complex oxide laser ablation conditions by plume imaging and optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoruso, S.; Bruzzese, R.; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Aruta, C.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Wang, X.; Maccariello, D.; Maritato, L.; Orgiani, P.

    2010-08-15

    The properties of thin films of complex oxides, such as La{sub 1-x}D{sub x}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} (D=Ba, Ca, Sr, etc.), produced by pulsed laser deposition depend critically on the experimental parameters in which laser ablation is carried out. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the pulsed laser ablation process of La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}}, in oxygen background, in the ambient pressure range from 10{sup -2} to 1 mbar, typically employed in pulsed laser deposition of manganites. The laser ablation plume was studied by using time-gated imaging and optical emission spectroscopy techniques. It was found that at a pressure of {approx_equal}10{sup -2} mbar, the plume species arriving at the substrate are characterized by hyperthermal kinetic energy ({approx_equal}10 eV), and high degree of excitation. On the contrary, at larger oxygen pressure (0.1-1 mbar), the velocity of plume species reaching the substrate, and their degree of excitation are much reduced by the confining effects of the background gas. These features explain why an appropriate choice of the experimental conditions in which the deposition process is carried out leads to better quality films, providing helpful indications to improve control over the growth process of both La{sub 1-x}D{sub x}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} and other perovskitic oxides.

  19. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  20. Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NH3 Over Cu-zeolite Catalysts (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3 Over Cu-zeolite Catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3 Over Cu-zeolite Catalysts Authors: Brookshear, D. William [1] ; Nguyen, Ke [1] ; Toops, Todd J [2] ; Bunting, Bruce G [2] ; Rohr, William F [2] + Show Author Affiliations University of

  1. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects | Department of Energy Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications The Next Regulatory Chapter for Commercial Vehicles Review of Diesel

  2. SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_traver.pdf More Documents & Publications Validated SCR Concept Development Simulation and Analysis of HP/LP EGR for Heavy-Duty Applications New Demands on Heavy Duty Engine Management

  3. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 | Department of Energy Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 A distinct relationship was found between engine-out and SCR-out PM distributions for single-mode testing. PDF icon deer08_ardanese.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of ADECS to Meet 2010

  4. Development and Demonstration of a High Efficiency, Rapid Heating, Low NOx Alternative to Conventional Heating of Round Steel Shapes, Steel Substrate (Strip) and Coil Box Transfer Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurek, Harry; Wagner, John

    2010-01-25

    Direct Flame Impingement involves the use of an array of very high-velocity flame jets impinging on a work piece to rapidly heat the work piece. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. Because of the locally high rate of heat transfer at the surface of the work piece, the refractory walls and exhaust gases of a DFI furnace are significantly cooler than in conventional radiant heating furnaces, resulting in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A DFI furnace is composed of a successive arrangement of heating modules through or by which the work piece is conveyed, and can be configured for square, round, flat, and curved metal shapes (e.g., billets, tubes, flat bars, and coiled bars) in single- or multi-stranded applications.

  5. Impact of sulfation and desulfation on NOx reduction using Cu-chabazite SCR catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brookshear, Daniel William; Nam, Jeong -Gil; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J.; Binder, Andrew J.

    2015-06-05

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NOx reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO2 exposure at 250 and 400 °C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NOx reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 °C; however, above 250 °C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples. Interestingly, BET measurements revealmore » that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Moreover, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NOx/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO2 exposure also results in an increase in NH3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 °C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NOx reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.« less

  6. Impact of Sulfation and Desulfation on NOx Reduction Using Cu-Chabazite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, Daniel W; Nam, Jeong-Gil; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Binder, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NOx reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO2 exposure at 250 and 400 C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NOx reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 C; however, above 250 C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples. Interestingly, BET measurements reveal that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Furthermore, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NOx/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO2 exposure also results in an increase in NH3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NOx reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.

  7. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2001-10-30

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Final selection of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were also completed.

  8. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent) for each facility as well as total...

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide equivalent, and biogenic carbon dioxide) for each...

  10. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corrosion | Department of Energy Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil cause changes of lubricating oil properties and scuffing of engine components. PDF icon deer08_watson.pdf More

  11. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  12. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  14. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

  15. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  16. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.A.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the third phase of SNCR tests, where an additional injection location was installed to increase the low-load NOx removal performance. The new injectors consist of a pair of retractable in-furnace lances which were designed to provide a high degree of load following flexibility through on-line adjustments of the injection angle. With the new lances, NOx removals in excess of 35% are achievable at the same load and HN{sub 3} slip limit. At loads of 43 to 60 MWe, NOx removals with the lances range from 37--52%. At loads greater than 60 MWe, the wall-injection location is more efficient, and at loads of 70 to 100 MWe, NOx removals range from 37--41%. The coal mill-in-service pattern was found to have a large effect on both NOx removal and NH{sub 3} slip for injection at the new lance location. At 60 MWe, the NOx removal at the 10 ppm NH{sub 3} slip limit ranges from 28--52% depending on the mill-in-service pattern. Biasing the coal mills to provide uniform combustion conditions ahead of the injection location was found to be the best option for improving SNCR system performance under these conditions.

  17. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  18. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  20. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.