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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

2

Atmospheric chemistry of hydrofluorocarbon 134a. Fate of the alkoxy radical CF{sub 3}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atmospheric chemistry of the alkoxy radical CF{sub 3}O produced in the photooxidation of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 134a has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. CF{sub 3}O radicals are shown to react with methane and CF{sub 3}CFH{sub 2} to give CF{sub 3}OH. CF{sub 3}OH decomposes to give COF{sub 2} and HF. The rate constant for the reaction CF{sub 3}O + CF{sub 3}CFH{sub 2} (HFC-134a) {r_arrow} CF{sub 3}OH + CF{sub 3}CFH was determined to be k{sup 19} = (1.1 {plus_minus} 0.7) x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 297 K. The implications of our results for the atmospheric chemistry of CF{sub 3}O radicals and HFC-134a are discussed. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Sehested, J. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark); Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Word Pro - S12  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- house Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases-such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for about 98 percent of U.S. CO 2 emissions. The vast majority of CO 2 emissions come from fossil fuel combustion, with smaller amounts from the nonfuel use of fossil fuels, as well as from electricity generation using geothermal energy and non-

4

Honeywell developing low-GWP liquid blowing agent for foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell reports that it is developing a new blowing agent with low global warming potential (GWP) for energy-efficient polyurethane foam insulation. The non-flammable liquid blowing agent will provide customers with an alternative to hydrocarbons and traditional hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and assist customers in reducing the overall environmental impact of foam, the company says.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Climate Change 2001: Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis Get Javascript Other reports in this collection 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases Contents Executive Summary 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Sources of Greenhouse Gases 4.1.2 Atmospheric Chemistry and Feedbacks 4.1.3 Trace Gas Budgets and Trends 4.1.4 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Time-Scales 4.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 4.2.1 Non-CO2 Kyoto Gases 4.2.1.1 Methane (CH4) 4.2.1.2 Nitrous oxide (N2O) 4.2.1.3 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 4.2.1.4 Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 4.2.2 Montreal Protocol Gases and Stratospheric Ozone (O3) 4.2.3 Reactive Gases 4.2.3.1 Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) 4.2.3.2 Volatile organic compounds (VOC) 4.2.3.3 Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

6

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Oxidation of Propane by Doped Nickel Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... present study, however, indicate that in the absence of excess oxygen, direct oxidation of propane by the oxide lattice can occur.

D. W. McKEE

1964-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

8

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

9

Trifluoroacetic acid from degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A three-dimensional modeling study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diego, Calif. , 1977. Wallington, T. J. , M.D. Hurley, J. C.26, 1318-1324, 1992. Wallington, T. J. , M.D. Hurley, J. M.data reported by Wallington et al. [1996] indicate that the

Kotamarthi, V. R; Rodriguez, J. M; Ko, M. K. W; Tromp, T. K; Sze, N. D; Prather, Michael J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

11

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

12

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

14

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

Ethylene Oxide Explosions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE occasional occurrence of ethylene oxide explosions during the fumigation of dried fruit has led us to undertake a detailed ... yielded results somewhat like those for acetaldehyde1,2.. Cool flames can be initiated in ethylene oxide – air mixtures in the neighbourhood of 330° C. at atmospheric pressure. ...

J. H. BURGOYNE; F. A. BURDEN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

20

Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Oxidations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) offers many excellent opportunities for conducting oxidation reactions using inexpensive primary oxidants such as oxygen, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, electrooxidation...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Regenerative catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (R.T.O.`s) are an accepted technology for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s). This control technology, when introduced, offered substantial reductions in operating costs, especially auxiliary fuel requirements when compared to existing control technologies such as recuperative thermal and recuperative catalytic oxidizers. While these savings still exist, there is a demand for control of new and/or hybrid technologies, one of which is Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (R.C.O.`s). This paper will explore the development of regenerative catalytic oxidation from the theoretical stage through pilot testing through a commercial installation. The operating cost of R.C.O.`s will be compared to R.T.O.`s to verify the savings that are achievable through the use of regenerative catalytic oxidation. In the development of this technology, which is a combination of two (2) existing technologies, R.T.O.`s and catalysis, a second hybrid technology was explored and pilot tested. This is a combination R.C.O. for VOC and HAP control and simultaneous SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) control. Based on the pilot and full scale testing, both regenerative catalytic oxidizers and systems which combine R.C.O. with SCR for both VOC and NOx reduction are economically viable and are in fact commercially available. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Gribbon, S.T. [Engelhard Process Emission Systems, South Lyon, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach · Parallel planes: PSOFC · Other: combustor, reformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry Cell Reactions · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

23

Syngas Oxidation Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of synthesis gas (syngas) oxidation kinetics in wide ranges of temperature ... on the basis of the reaction mechanism of syngas ignition and combustion in air. A vast set of experimental ...

A. M. Starik; N. S. Titova; A. S. Sharipov…

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

September/October 2006 Out of the Ivory Tower Safety of HFCS GM plants: GM-less Pollen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

printed in the article was a little more information that I shared on Imperial Valley beekeeping. I also on to say that honey bee colonies survived in Imperial County where temperatures reached 120 degrees F in the Imperial County area, at least one beekeeper said that if they wanted to know what went on in deep

Ferrara, Katherine W.

25

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ... Optimization of hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation over a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) requires consideration of (i) HC gas diffusion into the catalyst layer, (ii) HC gas adsorption and desorption from catalyst sites, and (iii) kinetics of the oxidation reaction. ... Mutagenicity of Diesel Engine Exhaust Is Eliminated in the Gas Phase by an Oxidation Catalyst but Only Slightly Reduced in the Particle Phase ...

Yasushi Tanaka; Takashi Hihara; Makoto Nagata; Naoto Azuma; Akifumi Ueno

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

Thermally Oxidized Silicon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the lattice. The outline of four silicon unit cells is shown in black, whereas the outline of four expanded lattice cells in the oxide is shown in blue One of the most studied devices of modern technology is the field-effect transistor, which is the basis for most integrated circuits. At its heart

28

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

32

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

33

Chapter 10: Biological Impacts of ClimateChange 1.Nature of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. · Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide and solid waste. · Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride

Gottgens, Hans

34

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst Authors: Sherman, B. D., Pillai, S., Kodis, G., Bergkamp, J., Mallouk, T. E., Gust, D., Moore, T. A., and Moore, A. L....

37

Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel for use in solid oxide fuel cells. This cutting edge area of research continues to be important as energy prove useful for solid oxide fuel cells. METHODS Commercial molybdenum dioxide was used for all tests

Collins, Gary S.

38

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

39

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

40

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors ... Graphene oxide can be exploited in humidity and temperature sensors with a number of convenient features such as flexibility, transparency and suitability for large-scale manufacturing. ... Here we show that the two-dimensional nature of graphene oxide and its superpermeability to water combine to enable humidity sensors with unprecedented response speed (?30 ms response and recovery times). ...

Stefano Borini; Richard White; Di Wei; Michael Astley; Samiul Haque; Elisabetta Spigone; Nadine Harris; Jani Kivioja; Tapani Ryhänen

2013-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

43

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

44

Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project The Department of Energy is currently researching the development of building superinsulation through a carbon dioxide (CO2) foaming process. Project Description This project seeks to develop building super insulation through a carbon dioxide foaming process that does not use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and which produces insulation with a high R-value. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and The Industrial Science & Technology Network. Project Goals The goal of this project is to develop advanced insulation without HFC, and to achieve a competitive processing cost for CO2 foaming technology.

45

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species CDIAC's data collection includes measurements of the following climate-relevant chemical species. A summary of recent greenhouse gas concentrations is also available. To determine how compounds are named, see the CDIAC "Name that compound" page. Butane (C4H10) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform (CHCl3) Deuterium (2H) Ethane (C2H6) Ethyl Nitrate (C2H5ONO2) Ethyne (C2H2) Fluoroform (CHF3) Halogenated Compounds (modern records) Halons (fluorocarbons) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) i-Propyl Nitrate (C3H7ONO2) Methane (CH4) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl3)

46

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Abstract: Graphene...

48

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

50

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

51

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

Anodic oxidation of zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic polarization of zircaloy-2 in different electrolytic baths has been investigated in order to obtain thick oxide films with properties suitable for wear applications.

A. Conte; A. Borello; A. Cabrini

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

54

Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Possible catalyst deactivation problems High capital, low operating Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) Feasible only at high organic concentra- tions High Fast reaction, complete oxidation Severe reaction conditions, canosion problems... of milder reaction conditions and is much less energy intensive. Thus, catalytic wet oxidation would be an alternative to solvent extraction, supercritical water oxidation, homogeneous oxidation, and incineration. It should also be feasible at low...

Thomas, Brook James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.solidoxide.html, Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Demonstration of high efficiency elastocaloric cooling with large ?T using NiTi wires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit but its environmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2 [Buildings Energy Data Book (Building Technologies Program Department of Energy 2009)]. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly [A. D. Little Report For Office of Building Technology State and Community Programs Department of Energy 2001]. Here we demonstrate that elastocaloric cooling (EC) a type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation can have the coefficient of performance as high as ?11 with a directly measured ?T of 17?°C. The solid-state refrigerant of EC completely eliminates the use of any GWP refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs.

Jun Cui; Yiming Wu; Jan Muehlbauer; Yunho Hwang; Reinhard Radermacher; Sean Fackler; Manfred Wuttig; Ichiro Takeuchi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Ethylene Oxide for Soil Sterilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , this method may be time-consuming, and in view of the physical properties of ethylene oxide (solubility in water and boiling point 12-5 C.) it was considered ... consists of making up an aqueous solution to supply 2 or 4 c.c. of ethylene oxide in a given amount of water, using pre-chilled glassware and water. The ...

R. E. ROSE; R. W. BAILEY

1952-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

Myers, Christine Lee

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

62

New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of structural, electronic, and chemical properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces were performed on well-defined interfaces that created by depositing ultra-thin potassium and aluminum films and their oxides onto single crystal TiO[sub 2] and NiO surfaces. Work focused on determining the structure, growth mechanisms, and morphologies of metal and oxide films as they are deposited an single crystal oxide surfaces using RHEED and atomic force microscopy probing electronic structure, bonding and chemical interactions at the interfaces using x-ray and uv photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and understanding factors affecting stability and reactivity of the interface regions including the role of defects and impurities. Results indicate that kinetic effects have an important influence on interface structure and composition, and they also show that defects in the oxide substrate induce new electronic states at the interface which play a major role in cation-anion bonding and interface interactions. The results establish a link between electronic and chemical bonding properties and the interface structure and morphology, which is required to successfully manipulate the interfacial properties of advanced ceramic materials.

Lad, R.J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres for high temperature composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of fibre-reinforced metal, intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in gas turbine engines offers the potential of improved fuel efficiency, higher operating temperature and greater thrust to weight ratio. The development of ceramic fibres with high strength, excellent strength retention at elevated temperatures and good creep resistance is essential to the successful implementation of composites in various high temperature components. Several single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres have been developed to meet the demanding performance requirements. Recent progress made on developing these fibers will be discussed.

J.-M. Yang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

The catalytic oxidation of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

Sanderson, Charles Frederick

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

66

Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation in nitrous oxide by conventional hot wall furnace processing and by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) has been a subject of much interest in recent years. RTO is a fundamentally different process than furnace oxidation, however, and the full effects of this type of processing on the oxidation kinetics are not well understood. Oxidation of silicon by RTO at a variety of pressures, temperatures, and oxidation gas mixtures has been studied. Although at lower temperatures (< 850 C) the atmospheric pressure oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is very close to that in oxygen, at higher temperatures the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is much lower than that in oxygen. At lower pressures in a RTO process, the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is higher than that in oxygen. The effect of the nitrogen incorporated in the oxide acting as a diffusion barrier has been proposed as the mechanism of temperature dependence for atmospheric pressure oxidation in nitrous oxide. This does not explain the effects seen at lower pressure,s however, The authors propose that some of the intermediate species produced in the decomposition of nitrous oxide into molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and nitric oxide play a role in the initial stages of oxidation by RTO in nitrous oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Karim, Z. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

68

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

69

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling Oxidants, Antioxidants and Cell Signaling Speaker(s): Chandan K. Sen Date: February 17, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Reactive oxygen species represent a common mediator of environmental stress such as during physical exercise, ozone exposure, UV radiation and xenobiotic (pollutant) metabolism. Antioxidant defense systems protect against the ravages of such reactive species. In contrast to the conventional idea that reactive oxygen is mostly a trigger for oxidative damage of biological structures, now we know that low physiologically relevant concentration of reactive oxygen species can regulate a variety of key molecular mechanisms that may be linked with important processes such as immune response, cell-cell adhesion, cell proliferation, inflammation,

72

Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study.

Propp, W.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast Infrared Heating Laser Pulse-Induced Micellization Kinetics of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) in Water Xiaodong Ye, Yijie Lu, Shilin Liu,*, Guangzhao Zhang, and Chi Wu-induced micellization of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic PE10300) triblock

Liu, Shilin

76

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers Studied by Differential Scanning and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), EOnPOmEOn, and the ionic surfactants sodium the aggregates of all three polymers. Introduction Water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)- poly(ethylene

Loh, Watson

77

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel...

78

Computational Modeling of Graphene Oxide Exfoliation and Lithium Storage Characteristics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Graphene oxide is a two dimensional material obtained by adsorption of oxygen or oxygen-containing groups on graphene. Stacked layers of graphene oxide constitute graphite oxide.… (more)

Mortezaee, Reza

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past six months, we have begun our studies of the fundamental properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide heterogeneous interfaces which are being prepared by epitaxial growth of ultra-thin-films on single crystal TiO{sub 2} and NiO surfaces. A new ultra-high vacuum film growth chamber was assembled and coupled to an existing surface analysis chamber; a sample transfer system, metal deposition sources, and a RHEED systems with microchannel plate detection were constructed and implemented. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize and refine the preparation procedures for the single crystal surfaces. The electronic structure of stoichiometric, oxygen-deficient, and potassium-covered TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces was investigated. Preliminary results on the Al/TiO{sub 2} (110) system have been obtained. Two graduate students have begun thesis research on the project. 6 figs.

Lad, R.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

83

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

84

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time–temperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. • Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. • Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Role of Nitrous Oxide in Ambulatory Anaesthesia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the oldest anaesthetic still in routine use, the continued role of nitrous oxide is frequently questioned. There are a few well-defined situations in which nitrous oxide is contraindicated or undesirable; i...

Sarah Billingham; Ian Smith

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

87

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

88

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely...

89

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

High quality oxide films on substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Oxidative Transformation of Triclosan and Chlorophene by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidative Transformation of Triclosan and Chlorophene by Manganese Oxides H U I C H U N Z H A N G of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 The antibacterial agents triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4- dichlorophenoxy(-MnO2 andMnOOH)yielding MnII ions. Both the initial reaction rate and adsorption of triclosan to oxide

Huang, Ching-Hua

92

Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...specific ammonia oxidation rate. Symbols represent...Research Council (ARC) for funding this...correlated to its ammonia oxidation rate. 51 Arp, D...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...2004 Anaerobic oxidation of inorganic nitrogen...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

94

Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Performance and Durability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Department: Fuel Cells and SolidSolid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Anne Hauch Risø-PhD-37(EN) Risø : Images from transmission electron microscopy investigation of the H2 electrode for the solid oxide cell

95

Photo-oxides of Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... are involved in the biological action of carcinogenic hydrocarbons, we have attempted to isolate the photo-oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such ... -oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such photo-oxides would naturally be insoluble in water and hence would represent merely one stage in ...

J. W. COOK; R. MARTIN; E. M. F. ROE

1939-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Methylotrophs and iron oxidizers were also active in plume waters and expressed key proteins for methane by bacteria (especially, alpha-, gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria) that likely participate in the oxidationORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark

Hansell, Dennis

98

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

99

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Semiconductive Properties of Uranium Oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES Thomas Meek Materials Science Engineering Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37931 Michael Hu and M. Jonathan Haire Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 August 2000 For the Waste Management 2001 Symposium Tucson, Arizona February 25-March 1, 2001 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. _________________________ * Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy

102

Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Kinetics of Diesel Nanoparticle Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation rates in air of diesel nanoparticles sampled directly from the exhaust stream of a medium-duty diesel engine were measured over the temperature range of 800?1140 °C using online aerosol techniques. ... Particulate emission from diesel engines is currently a topic of great concern from both pollution and public health standpoints. ... In addition, the fundamental carbon-to-hydrogen ratio may be different in diesel particles as compared to the commonly used surrogates (15). ...

Kelly J. Higgins; Heejung Jung; David B. Kittelson; Jeffrey T. Roberts; Michael R. Zachariah

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

104

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. ... Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals. ...

L Schmidt; J Elder; J Davis

1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

Cao, Guozhong

107

Step-Orientation-Dependent Oxidation: From 1D to 2D Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, we have studied the initial oxidation of Rh(111) surfaces with two types of straight steps, having {100} and {111} microfacets. The one-dimensional (1D) oxide initially formed at the steps acts as a barrier impeding formation of the 2D oxide on the (111) terrace behind it. We demonstrate that the details of the structure of the 1D oxide govern the rate of 2D oxidation and discuss implications for oxidation of nanoparticles.

J. Klikovits; M. Schmid; L. R. Merte; P. Varga; R. Westerström; A. Resta; J. N. Andersen; J. Gustafson; A. Mikkelsen; E. Lundgren; F. Mittendorfer; G. Kresse

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, glasses, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO2 or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees Celsius, mixed and heated with the fusing reagent(s), and dissolved. For refractory PuO2, the most effective material tested was a lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)/sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) mixture which aided in the recovery of 90 percent of the plutonium. The fused product was identified as a lithium plutonate (Li3PuO4) by x-ray diffraction. The use of a Li2CO3/Na2B4O7 mixture to solubilize high-fired NpO2 was not as effective as demonstrated for refractory PuO2. In a small-scale experiment, 25 percent of the NpO2 was oxidized to a neptunium (VI) species that dissolved in nitric acid. The remaining neptunium was then easily recovered from the residue by fusing with sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Approximately 70 percent of the neptunium dissolved in water to yield a basic solution of neptunium (VII). The remainder was recovered as a neptunium (VI) solution by dissolving the residue in 8M nitric acid. In subsequent experiments with Na2O2, the ratio of neptunium (VII) to (VI) was shown to be a function of the fusion temperature, with higher temperatures (greater than approximately 400 degrees C) favoring the formation of neptunium (VII). The fusion of an actual plutonium-containing residue with Na2O2 and subsequent dissolution was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of a pretreatment process on a larger scale. Sodium peroxide was chosen due to the potential of achieving higher actinide recoveries from refractory materials. In this experiment, nominally 10 g of a graphite-containing residue generated during plutonium casting operations was initially calcined to remove the graphite. Removal of combustible material prior to a large-scale fusion with Na2O2 is needed due to the large amount of heat liberated during oxidation. Two successive fusions using the residue from the calcination and the residue generated from the initial dissolution allowed recovery of 98 percent of the plutonium. The fusion of the residue following the first dissolution was performed at a higher temperature (600 degrees Celsius versus 450 degrees Celsius during the first fusion). The ability to recover most of the remaining plutonium from the residue suggest the oxidation efficiency of the Na2O2 fusion improves with higher temperatures similar to results observed with NpO2 fusion.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

110

Why Sequence Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? The goal of this project is to obtain complete genome sequences for six different freshwater iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Four of these are oxygen-dependent iron-oxidizing β-proteobacteria, and three of these, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Gallionella capsiferriformans, and strain TW-2, are capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth (that is, obtaining energy by the oxidation of inorganic compounds) using Fe(II) as sole energy source under microaerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The fourth organism, Leptothrix cholodnii, is a sheath-forming heterotrophic (i.e., using complex organic compounds for nutrition) organism that oxidizes both Fe(II) and Mn(II) and deposits a ferromanganic coating on its sheath. In addition,

111

Unfamiliar oxidation states and their stabilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ferrate formation. Oxidation of copper(II) hydroxide in alkaline solution with sodium hydroperoxide, Na.OOH, apparently gives copper (III) oxide.8 Determination of the voltage-current curve for a silver anode in sodium hydroxide solution gives breaks... of a knowledge of the chemical prop erties of the substance in question is made apparent by the following illustration: a compound containing silver and oxygen in equal atomic proportions may be made by the oxidation of unipositive silver...

Kleinberg, Jacob

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term...

114

Precursors of copper/zinc oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results on hydroxycarbonate precursors of copper/zinc oxide catalysts for methanol synthesis are reinterpreted, taking into account earlier work on these systems.

M.S. Spencer

115

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

116

Double perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkali metal doped double perovskites containing manganese and at least one of cobalt, iron and nickel are useful in the oxidative coupling of alkane to higher hydrocarbons.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Lanthanide doped barium phosphorous oxide scintillators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped barium phosphorous oxide useful for detecting nuclear material.

Borade, Ramesh B; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Denzo, Stephen E

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

118

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oxide Fuel Cells PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Robert Ploessl Corning, Inc. Tim Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Barbara Heydorn SRI International Suresh Baskaran...

119

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications Operating Principles AEC Development Atmospheric Pressure Systems Pressurized Systems Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems...

120

How to overcome the oxide barrier | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxide semiconductor Atomistic diagram for crystalline chromium metal (light blue) on strontium titanate(top), an equation that describes the transport process (middle), and an...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cation Defects and Conductivity in Transparent Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality doped zinc oxide and mixed transition metal spinel oxide films have been deposited by means of sputter deposition from metal and metal oxide targets, and by spin casting from aqueous or alcoholic precursor solutions. Deposition conditions and post-deposition processing are found to alter cation oxidation states and their distributions in both oxide materials resulting in marked changes to both optical transmission and electrical response. For ZnO, partial reduction of the neat or doped material by hydrogen treatment of the heated film or by electrochemical processing renders the oxide n-type conducting. Continued reduction was found to diminish conductivity. In contrast, oxidation of the infrared transparent p-type spinel conductors typified by NiCo2O4 was found to increase conductivity. The disparate behavior of these two materials is caused in part by the sign of the charge carrier and by the existence of two different charge transport mechanisms that are identified as free carrier conduction and polaron hopping. While much work has been reported concerning structure/property relationships in the free carrier conducting oxides, there is a significantly smaller body of information on transparent polaron conductors. In this paper, we identify key parameters that promote conductivity in mixed metal spinel oxides and compare their behavior with that of the free carrier TCO’s.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Windisch, Charles F.; Ferris, Kim F.; Owings, Robert R.

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

122

Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis 13 May 2011 Professor Tom Moore, a...

123

Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent Iron. Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent...

124

Graphene oxide/poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by ?-ray pre-irradiation on graphene oxide surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene oxide/poly(acrylic acid) (GO/PAA)...?...-ray pre-irradiation technique. The functional groups in graphene oxide were modified to peroxide in an...2 environment with ?...-ray radiation. Radical species fr...

Sungyoung Lee; Hoik Lee; Jae Hyun Sim; Daewon Sohn

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The Oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steels in Simulated Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cyclic oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels has been studied in the temperature range 700–900°C in atmospheres relevant to solid-oxide fuel-cell operation. The most detriment...

J. E. Hammer; S. J. Laney; R. W. Jackson; K. Coyne; F. S. Pettit…

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene composited as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene (SnO2-TiO2.../G) ternary nanocomposite as high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries was prepared via a simple reflux method. ... The graphite oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene

Shan-Shan Chen; Xue Qin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this process is a limiting factor in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells, which produce electricityCorrelating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol

Kik, Pieter

128

Investigation of Self-Assembly and Micelle Polarity for a Wide Range of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide-Ethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Self-Assembly and Micelle Polarity for a Wide Range of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide-Ethylene Oxide Block Copolymers in Water Josias R. Lopes and Watson Loh* Instituto de Qui of 15 EO-PO-EO (EO ) ethylene oxide, PO ) propylene oxide) block copolymers by using three different

Loh, Watson

129

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Title Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Holder, Amara L., Brietta J. Carter, Regine Goth-Goldstein, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Atmospheric Pollution Research Volume 3 Start Page 25 Issue 1 Pagination 25-31 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords health effects, ozone, soot, toxicity Abstract Combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere undergo reactions with oxidants, which can change the particles' physiochemical characteristics. In this work, we compare the physical and chemical properties and cellular response of particles fresh from a flame with those oxidized by ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The reaction with ozone and nitrogen dioxide does not significantly modify the physical characteristics of the particles (primary particle size, fractal dimension, and surface area). However, oxidation affects the chemical characteristics of the particles, creating more oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, and increases their hydrophilicity. In addition, oxidized soot generates more reactive oxygen species, as measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Furthermore, oxidized soot is 1.5-2 times more toxic than soot that was not reacted with ozone, but the inflammatory response, measured by interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion, is unchanged. These results imply that combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere will have an increased toxicity on or after high ozone days.

130

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition Noelle E. Selin and Christopher D. Holmes mercury oxidation [Selin & Jacob, Atmos. Env. 2008] 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 Influences on Mercury Wet Deposition · Hg wet dep = f(precipitation, [Hg(II)+Hg(P)]) Correlation (r2) between

Selin, Noelle Eckley

131

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

132

Evaluating Environmental Influences Oxidation Kinetics by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strategies for remediation of As-contaminated waters. In this study, the influence of goethite (R D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, The University of As-Mn systems demonstrate rapid oxidation of AsIII , catalyzed by Mn-oxides, producing less toxic

Sparks, Donald L.

133

The High-Temperature Oxidation of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The High-Temperature Oxidation of Propane J. W. Falconer J. H. Knox Above 400 degrees C propane is oxidized by a two-stage degenerately...of propylene becomes important. While propane still in the main reacts to form propylene...

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

Surma, J.E.; Bryan, G.H.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Butner, R.S.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

135

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

136

Oxidation of carburized Hastelloy X  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), small quantities of impurities such as H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CO, CO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ are present in the helium coolant. Prolonged exposure to these impurities at high temperature can result in undesirable mechanical properties due to corrosion. Extensive research has been performed on many candidate alloys to study their properties in HTGR helium, and in addition to oxidation, it has been found that carburization is also a possible problem in HTGR. Carbon in the graphite core, carried out by carbon-containing impurities such as CO and CH/sub 4/, can deposit on and diffuse into metallic components and cause carburization. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of carburization on an accelerated test.

Gan, D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Evaporative oxidation treatability test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

139

Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

140

Revealing the Nature of Emergent Ferromagnetism at an Oxide Heterointe...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of thin-film structures 6-8. LaAlO3 (lanthanum aluminium oxide, LAO) and SrTiO3 (strontium titanium oxide, STO) materials are perovskites, a class of mineral oxides whose...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

Graphene oxide-based materials : synthesis, characterization and applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this study, the properties and applications of graphene oxide-based materials have been explored. Specifically, graphene oxide, i.e. a single layer of graphite oxide, reduced… (more)

Zhou, Xiaozhu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx...

144

High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

145

Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

146

Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

147

Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the...

148

Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance. Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance. Abstract: In H2 fuel cells,...

149

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...

150

Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

151

Robust control strategies for hybrid solid oxide fuel cell systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems are electrochemical energy conversion devices characterized by the use of solid oxide as the electrolyte. They operate at high… (more)

Mathew, Anju Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of Sediment Containing Fe-silicates and Fe-oxides: Effect of Redox Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent...

153

Graphene/metal Oxide Nanocomposites for Li-ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our work focuses on preparing the graphene/metal oxide nanocomposites by facile methold and exploring the graphene/metal oxide composites with unique structural or compositions for...

Liang, Junfei; Li, Lidong; Guo, Lin

154

Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Self-Assembled Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide...

155

Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels...

156

EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This...

157

Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

158

Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

159

Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...

160

Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Oxidation &...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

162

Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steels. Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)...

163

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...

164

Taking snapshots of different redox states of the water oxidation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

natural photosynthetic water oxidation mechanism empowers designers of artificial photosynthesis with knowledge to construct better water oxidation catalysts for solar fuel...

165

Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

Hwang, H.Y.

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

166

Surface oxidation of Permalloy thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and magnetic structures of oxides on the surface of Permalloy Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} films were investigated as functions of annealing time with x-ray and polarized neutron reflectometry. For annealing times of less than one hour, the oxide consisted of a 1.5-nm-thick layer of NiO on an Fe oxide layer that was in contact with Permalloy. The Fe oxide thickness increases with annealing time with a parabolic rate constant of 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (for an annealing temperature of 373 K). The growth of the oxide layer is limited by the rate at which oxygen appears below the NiO layer. No portion of the oxide region was found to be ferromagnetically ordered for films annealed less than one hour. The growth of the Fe oxide region is well correlated with the measured increase of the second-order magnetic susceptibility for similarly prepared samples.

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Crawford, T. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Silva, T. J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Direct atomic-scale observation of layer-by-layer oxide growth during magnesium oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic-scale oxide growth dynamics are directly revealed by in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy during the oxidation of Mg surface. The oxidation process is characterized by the layer-by-layer growth of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanocrystal via the adatom process. Consistently, the nucleated MgO crystals exhibit faceted surface morphology as enclosed by (200) lattice planes. It is believed that the relatively lower surface energies of (200) lattice planes should play important roles, governing the growth mechanism. These results facilitate the understanding of the nanoscale oxide growth mechanism that will have an important impact on the development of magnesium or magnesium alloys with improved resistance to oxidation.

Zheng, He; Wu, Shujing; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Zhou, Zhichao; Zhao, Dongshan, E-mail: wang@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wang@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: dszhao@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhao, Xingzhong [School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Green method to produce propylene oxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy Search CNM ... Search Argonne Home > Center for Nanoscale Materials > CNM Home About CNM Research Facilities People For Users Publications News & Highlights News Research Highlights Newsletters CNM Images on Flickr Events Jobs CNM Users Organization Contact Us Other DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers Green method to produce propylene oxide conversion of propylene to polyene oxide via silver nanoclusters Simulation of propylene to propylene oxide conversion via silver nanoclusters supported on an alumina surface. Propylene oxide is an important chemical whose current industrial production is energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Attempts to solve this problem by using catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with

169

Why Sequence Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Several environmental problems, such as acid rain, biocorrosion, etc., are caused by sulfur compounds, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). A sustainable process to remove these sulfur compounds is the production of elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gas streams by the use of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In this process, H2S is absorbed into the alkaline solution in the scrubber unit, followed by the biological oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur and the recycling of water. With this two-step process, a variety of gas streams (i.e., natural gas, synthesis gas, biogas, and refinery gas) can be treated. For the treatment of sulfate-containing waste streams, an extra step has to be introduced: the transformation of sulfate into H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In

170

Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA); Zilberstein, Vladimir A. (Brookline, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Degenerate cadmium oxide films for electronic devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly conducting and transparent cadmium oxide films have been deposited on Corning 7059 glass substrates by ion-beam sputtering and by spray pyrolysis. The electrical and optical properties of CdO films prep...

T. L. Chu; Shirley S. Chu

172

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Direct measurement and analysis of cyclohexadienyl oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxidation of cyclohexadienyl radical (c-C?H?) and similar resonantly stabilized radicals are important in an astonishing array of processes in nature. Cyclohexadienyl radical has been postulated to be significant in a ...

Taylor, James Wagner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low as 500-600 degrees Celsius...

Lee, Seung Min

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

Metallic Materials in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Recently, a new type of FeC...

V. Shemet; J. Piron-Abellan; W.J. Quadakkers…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Oxidation of methionine residues in protein pharmaceuticals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) of free methionine. Therefore, the environments surrounding different methionine sites in G-CSF mainly provide spatial restriction to the access to the solvent but do not affect oxidation in a specific manner, ...

Chu, Jhih-Wei, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Bringing oxides into the visible realm | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

visible realm Bringing oxides into the visible realm Reducing the optical band gap of strontium titanate thin films This is a model of the growth process showing one lanthanum and...

179

Oxidized coal in coking: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A literature review shows that the oxidation of coal changes its granulometric composition, packing density, ... clinkering properties, the quality of the resulting coke, and the yield of coking byproducts. On ac...

N. A. Desna; D. V. Miroshnichenko

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Structural Determination of Marine Bacteriogenic Manganese Oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fig 2 Figure 2. (A) X-ray diffraction intensity data for bacteriogenic manganese oxides produced in sea water. The bottom pattern is for clean cells. (B) X-ray diffraction...

182

Microsecond Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Alkanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HICKMAN A. D. , PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS BY DIRECT CATALYTIC-OXIDATION OF METHANE...PFEFFERLE D. L. , CATALYSIS IN COMBUSTION , CATALYSIS...a-alu-mina monoliths coated with Rh (for syngas) (1, 2) or with Pt (for olefins...

Duane A. Goetsch; Lanny D. Schmidt

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

184

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

185

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

186

Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

Barringer, Eric A. (Waltham, MA); Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce (Waban, MA); Bowen, H. Kent (Belmont, MA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

Wu, Xin D. (Greenbelt, MD); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Espanola, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5?nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303?mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

Deng, Chunqing, E-mail: cdeng@uwaterloo.ca; Otto, M.; Lupascu, A., E-mail: alupascu@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

192

Ethylene oxide and Acetaldehyde in hot cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[Abridged] Ethylene oxide and its isomer acetaldehyde are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxid...

Occhiogrosso, A; Herbst, E; Viti, S; Ward, M D; Price, S D; Brown, W A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

194

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Conversion of a regenerative oxidizer into catalytic unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of a VOC oxidation catalyst in the existing regenerative thermal oxidizers may greatly reduce fuel consumption and improve the oxidizer performance. This was demonstrated in a commercial 25,000 SCFM unit installed at a printing facility. The paper discusses the principles of the oxidizer retrofit design and test results obtained at various conditions of operation.

Matros, Y.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies, Chesterfield, MO (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reactivity and Transformation of Antibacterial N-Oxides in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shown in Figure 1) represent organic N-oxides that are common in many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals

Huang, Ching-Hua

197

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

199

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

200

Polymorphous Transformations of Nanometric Iron(III) Oxide: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its polymorphism, iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide, Fe2O3) is one of the most interesting and potentially useful phases of the iron oxides. ... Structural and magnetic properties, methods of synthesis, and applications of seven Fe(III) oxide polymorphs, including rare beta, epsilon, amorphous, and high-pressure forms, are reviewed. ... Films of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by oxidizing Fe films rapidly in air. ...

Libor Machala; Ji?í Tu?ek; Radek Zbo?il

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions, device for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic process for the oxidation of organic. Oxygen is loaded into a metal foil by heating the foil while in contact with an oxygen-containing fluid. After cooling the oxygen-activated foil to room temperature, oxygen diffuses through the foil and oxidizes reactants exposed to the other side of the foil.

Beuhler, Robert J. (East Moriches, NY); White, Michael G. (Blue Point, NY); Hrbek, Jan (Rocky Point, NY)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis: a review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...review-article Review articles 1004 30 36 15 Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic...of about approximately 0.5 nm. Thus, nano-sized manganese compounds might be good...particles. In this paper, we focus on nano-sized manganese oxides as functional...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

205

Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Thermo-Oxidation of Tokamak Carbon Dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dust and flakes collected from the DIII-D tokamak, and various commercial dust specimens, has been measured at 350 ºC and 2.0 kPa O2 pressure. Following an initial small mass loss, most of the commercial dust specimens showed very little effect due to O2 exposure. Similarly, dust collected from underneath DIII-D tiles, which is thought to comprise largely Grafoil™ particulates, also showed little susceptibility to oxidation at this temperature. However, oxidation of the dust collected from tile surfaces has led to ~ 18% mass loss after 8 hours; thereafter, little change in mass was observed. This suggests that the surface dust includes some components of different composition and/or structure – possibly fragments of codeposited layers. The oxidation of codeposit flakes scraped form DIII-D upper divertor tiles showed an initial 25% loss in mass due to heating in vacuum, and the gradual loss of 30-38% mass during the subsequent 24 hours exposure to O2. This behavior is significantly different from that observed for the oxidation of thinner DIII-D codeposit specimens which were still adhered to tile surfaces, and this is thought to be related to the low deuterium content (D/C ~ 0.03 – 0.04) of the flakes.

J.W. Davis; B.W.N. Fitzpatrick; J.P. Sharpe; A.A. Haasz

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. Fuel cells are an energy user's dream: an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions that runs almost silently and has few

208

Why Sequence a Methane-Oxidizing Archaean?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Methane-Oxidizing Archaeon? a Methane-Oxidizing Archaeon? Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose atmospheric concentration has increased significantly because of anthropogenic activities and fluctuated naturally over glacial and interglacial cycles. While the importance of methane in Earth's climate dynamics has been well established, the global processes regulating its oceanic cycling remain poorly understood. Although there are high rates of methane production in many marine sedimentary environments (including a number that have been targeted as petroleum reserves), net methane sources from the ocean to the atmosphere appear to be small. This is due in large part to a biogeochemical process known as the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Microbially mediated AOM reduces methane flux from ocean to atmosphere, stimulates subsurface microbial

209

Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Method for fluorination of uranium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

In situ oxidation of subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

213

Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.1 National Legislation  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 Phase Out Schedule of Halocarbons in the U.S. (1) Gas % By % By Chlorofluorocarbons 75% 1994 75% 1994 (CFCs) 100% 1996 (4) 100% 1996 Bromofluorocarbons 100% 1994 (4) 100% 1994 (Halons) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons 35.0% 2004 35% 2003 (HCFCs) 75.0% 2010 75% 2010 90.0% 2015 90% 2015 99.5% 2020 99.5% 2020 100% 2030 (4) 100% 2030 Hydrofluorocarbons N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. (HFCs) Note(s): Source(s): 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption 1996 N.A. N.A. 1) The phase out of halocarbons is consistent with Title VI of the Clean Air Act and is in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and Amendments. 2) The amount of gas produced and consumed in this year is established and defined as the base level. To meet basic domestic needs, levels of production are allowed to exceed the base level by up to 10%. 3) After this year, levels of production are no longer

214

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

216

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Investigation of the Local Structure of Graphene Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the local structure of graphene oxide is presented. Graphene oxide is understood to be partially oxidized graphene. Absorption peaks corresponding to interlayer states suggest the presence of pristine graphitic nanoislands in graphene oxide. Site-projected partial density of states of carbon atoms bonded to oxygen atoms suggests that the broadening of the peak due to interlayer states in the carbon K-edge spectrum of graphene oxide is predominantly due to formation of epoxide linkages. Density functional theory suggests that multilayers of graphene oxide are linked by peroxide-like linkages.

S Saxena; T Tyson; E Negusse

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Catalytic reactions on well-characterized vanadium oxide catalysts. 1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide over unsupported and supported vanadium oxide catalysts was investigated from the standpoint of structure sensitivity. The activity of unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ markedly decreased the turnover frequency, while the reduction-oxidation treatment of the fused catalyst increased it. The turnover frequency of V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with low V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content was much smaller than that of the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with high V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content or the unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Such a retarding effect of the TiO/sub 2/ support on the activity of the oxidation of carbon monoxide is in contrast to the known promoting effect of TiO/sub 2/ for the oxidations of various hydrocarbons. From these results coupled with the characterization of the catalysts, it was concluded that the oxidation of carbon monoxide on vanadium oxide catalysts is a structure-sensitive reaction and that the activity of surface defects such as steps, kinks, and vacancies is much higher than that of the surface V=O species in the smooth (010) face of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Mori, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Murakami, Y.

1984-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cu- and Ag-modified cerium oxide catalysts for methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline doped ceria and Cu- and Ag-modified ceria for the complete oxidation of methane was studied in this work. The catalyst structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and related to the availability of low-temperature oxygen species. Selected samples were also analyzed by STEM/EDX, HRTEM, and XPS. Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) by H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as well as oxygen chemisorption, measurements were used to characterize the different oxygen species present on the catalyst. La and Zr were used as dopants to modify the crystal size and reduction properties of ceria. Enhanced activity for the complete oxidation of methane is discussed in terms of ceria reducibility, crystal size, and formation of oxygen defects at the surface (extrinsic oxygen vacancies). Addition of transition metal oxides (CuO) or transition metals (Ag) improves the low-temperature oxidation activity of cerium oxide. The interaction of ceria with Ag and CuO is a strong function of the crystal size of ceria. In the presence of the transition metal or metal oxide, a small crystal size of ceria favors the formation of highly reducible oxygen species and enhances the methane oxidation activity.

Kundakovic, L.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulis, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Synthesis of Co oxide doped carbon aerogel catalyst and catalytic performance in heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co oxide doped carbon aerogel (Co/CA) was prepared, characterised by several techniques, and tested for heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution using oxone as an oxidant. For a comparison, homogeneous oxidation of phenol in Co2+/oxone was also investigated. It was found that homogeneous oxidation of phenol using Co2+/oxone was more effective than Co2+/H2O2 and homogeneous oxidation was faster than heterogeneous Co/CA–oxone. Heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in Co/CA–oxone system followed first order kinetics and the activation energy of the heterogeneous system was estimated to be 62.9 kJ/mol. Several factors influencing phenol degradation in the heterogeneous oxidation were studied. Co/CA loading played a more important role in phenol degradation than oxone concentration, and the presence of other organics in solution resulted in a lower phenol oxidation.

Yasnessya Hardjono; Hongqi Sun; Huyong Tian; C.E. Buckley; Shaobin Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements byrate enhancement is due to a photo-chemical process. Thenanocrystals can be rapidly photo-oxidized. This oxidation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

225

Anomalous behaviour of magnetic coercivity in graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we present the temperature dependence of the magnetic coercivity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). We observe an anomalous decrease in coercivity of GO and RGO with decreasing temperature. The observation could be understood by invoking the inherent presence of wrinkles on graphene oxide due to presence of oxygen containing groups. Scanning electron microscopic image reveals high wrinkles in GO than RGO. We observe higher coercivity in RGO than in GO. At room temperature, we observe antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviours in GO and RGO, respectively. Whereas, at low temperatures (below T?=?60–70?K), both materials show paramagnetic behaviour.

Bagani, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Kaur, J.; Rai Chowdhury, A.; Ghosh, B.; Banerjee, S., E-mail: sangam.banerjee@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Surface Physics Division, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sardar, M. [Material Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Title Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Kong, Fanping, Robert Kostecki, Frank R. McLarnon, and Rolf H. Muller Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 313-314 Pagination 775-780 Keywords effective medium approximation, electrochemical precipitation, inhomogeneous films, nickel hydroxide, spectroscopic ellipsometry Abstract In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to investigate the electrochemical precipitation of nickel hydroxide films. By use of optical models for inhomogeneous films it was found that a specific precipitation current density produced the most compact and homogeneous film structures. The density of nickel hydroxide films was derived to be 1.25-1.50 g/cm3. The redox behavior of precipitated nickel hydroxide films was studied with an effective-medium optical model. Incomplete conversion to nickel oxyhydroxide and a reduction in film thickness were found during the oxidation cycle.

227

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

228

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Photo-Sensitized Oxidation of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Photo-Sensitized Oxidation of Ethanol J. L. Bolland H. R. Cooper Certain...photosensitizers of the autoxidation of ethanol. In this quantitative investigation the...mechanism, abstracting hydrogen from the ethanol to give a semi-quinone radical which...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Electrical Properties of Tungsten Oxide Films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... appear that the mechanism of electron emission with oxide films is different from that with roughened electrodes. This would be the case for short gaps if the electrons were drawn ... located on the upper surface of the film, as envisaged by Paetov1, while with roughened electrodes it is possible that photo-ionization can take place throughout the gap due to ...

F. LLEWELLYN JONES

1946-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

231

Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O O O + + O2 Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone studies. However, the study by Turner et al.1 seems to be the first to use Au55 in the synthesis of supported gold catalysts a very narrow and reproducible size distribution for the result- ing particles. Traditional catalyst

Rouyer, Francois

232

Oxidative Stress Resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...phosphate pathway (683). The energy required for the recovery process...considerable potential interest and sustainable global significance for the...tetrad. FIG. 2. Sources of energy and building blocks in oxidatively...Both can be used as sources of energy, while polyphosphates also...

Dea Slade; Miroslav Radman

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Oxidized messenger RNA induces translation errors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...passed through a QIA shredder (Qiagen) to reduce...bound and the unbound fraction, respectively. Sucrose...and a Foxy Jr. fraction collector (ISCO). Each fraction was resuspended in distilled water...oxidized mRNA. In light of these findings...

Mikiei Tanaka; P. Boon Chock; Earl R. Stadtman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Potential oxidative stress due to Pb exposure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increases in oxidation of glutathione in K562 myelogenous leukemia cells at low Pb levels. The approach consisted of incubating K562 cells in solutions of 0, 300, and 700 ppb Pb dissolved in RPMI cell medium for a total of 96 hours. After this period...

Elms, Rene' Davina

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

239

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Municipal Landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Municipal Landfill ... Due to the small area of landfills as compared to other land-use classes, the total N2O emissions from landfills are estimated to be of minor importance for the total emissions from Finland. ...

Janne Rinne; Mari Pihlatie; Annalea Lohila; Tea Thum; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila; Timo Vesala

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies July 23, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling option, please visit: The NETL Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program Webpage Solid oxide fuel cells are among the cleanest, most efficient power-generating technologies now being developed. They provide excellent electrical efficiencies and are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels, from coal and natural gas to landfill waste and hydrogen. And with continued advancements, solid oxide fuel cells can provide clean

242

Tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide as an electron acceptor for Escherichia coli.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Research Article Tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide as an electron acceptor...Schrementi Escherichia coli used tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (THTO) as an electron...source; the THTO was reduced to tetrahydrothiophene. Cell extracts also reduced THTO...

R Meganathan; J Schrementi

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification ... The research results could open avenues for developing low-cost water purification materials for the developing economies. ... water purification; graphite oxide; mercury removal; diazonium chemistry; Rhodamine B; sand coating ...

Wei Gao; Mainak Majumder; Lawrence B. Alemany; Tharangattu N. Narayanan; Miguel A. Ibarra; Bhabendra K. Pradhan; Pulickel M. Ajayan

2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

Synthesis Dependent Core Level Binding Energy Shift in the Oxidation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Shift in the Oxidation State ofPlatinum Coated on Ceria–Titania and its Synthesis Dependent Core Level Binding Energy Shift in the Oxidation State ofPlatinum Coated...

245

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Utilizing Syngas from Coal Gasifiers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Utilizing Syngas from Coal Gasifiers ... The oxidizer is expected to be similar in design to a HRSG duct firing burner (at the inlet of a HRSG). ...

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh; Stephen Jolly; Dilip Patel; David Stauffer

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

Functionalization of Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Biosensing and Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in our group about graphene biofunctionalization are discussed. In particular, the functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide, biosensing and bioimaging by using graphene-based nanomaterials, and some fundamental studies of graphene and graphene oxide have been summarized.

Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Ying; Du, Dan; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mechanisms of Oxidation-Enhanced Wear in Diesel Exhaust Valves...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of wear oxidation microstructures of alloys Fe-, Ni-, Co-alloys h T h i h v Combined plastic deformation, wear, and oxidation on both valve and seat surfaces 6 Managed by...

248

Oxidation of graphite surface: the role of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on density functional calculations, we demonstrate a significant difference in oxidation patterns between graphene and graphite and the formation of defects after oxidation. Step-by-step modeling demonstrates that oxidation of 80% of the graphite surface is favorable. Oxidation above half of the graphite surface significantly decreases the energy costs of vacancy formation with CO2 production. The presence of water is crucial in the transformation of epoxy groups to hydroxyl, the intercalation with further bundle and exfoliation. In water-rich conditions, water intercalates graphite at the initial stages of oxidation and oxidation, which is similar to the oxidation process of free-standing graphene; in contrast, in water-free conditions, large molecules intercalate graphite only after oxidation occurs on more than half of the surface.

Boukhvalov, D W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Ovarian nitric oxide synthase gene expression during peripubertal development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from L-arginine by different isoforms of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. (NOS) and is known to be involved in mediating several biological functions, some of which are associated with reproduction. Much attention...

Jones, Benjamin James

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

251

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Report from Breakout Group 5 of the Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, January 23-24, 2008...

252

Iron oxide nanoparticles as a contrast agent for thermoacoustic tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation. The addition of an exogenous contrast agent improves image quality by more effectively converting microwave energy to heat. The use of iron oxide nanoparticles in MRI applications has been explored but super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles...

Keho, Aaron Lopez

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

253

Role of Ethylene Oxidation in the Mechanism of Ethylene Action  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide by ethylene monooxygenase (EM) has been shown to...Mycobacterium paraffinicum...(14, 16, 17, 18, 32), plants (8, 21, 24), and animals (22, 23). In microorga...

F. B. Abeles

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Toward an Improved Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asphalt binder oxidation in pavements has been proven to be an ongoing process throughout a pavement's service life. Understanding the nature of the oxidation process is a critical step toward better pavement design to achieve greater pavement...

Prapaitrakul, Nikornpon

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

255

Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with a Water-Soluble Nickel-Based Catalyst. Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with a...

256

Morphology and Electronic Structure of the Oxide Shell on the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure of the Oxide Shell on the Surface of Iron Nanoparticles. Abstract: A iron nanoparticle exposed to air at room temperature will be instantly covered by an oxide shell of...

257

Neutron field characterisation at mixed oxide fuel plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......plutonium oxide (PuO2) and 70 % depleted uranium oxide (UO2) are blended together...and typical field conditions. Health Phys. (1990) 58(6):691-704...Power Plants Quality Assurance, Health Care Radiation Dosage Radiation......

C. Passmore; M. Million; M. Kirr; J. Bartz; M. S. Akselrod; A. Devita; J. Berard

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ... The effectiveness of sulfated mesoporous niobium oxide (MNO-S) as a catalyst for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from sugar was studied and is reported herein. ...

Ernest Lau Sze Ngee; Yongjun Gao; Xi Chen; Timothy Misso Lee; Zhigang Hu; Dan Zhao; Ning Yan

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

259

Nitric oxide inhibition of soot oxidation by oxygen atoms at 298/sup 0/Ktiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitric oxide is observed to inhibit the rate of soot oxidation by oxygen atoms at 298 K. Small amounts of added NO reduce the rates of production of CO/sub 2/ and CO by up to 35%. The authors show experimentally that NO is not reducing the gas phase O atom concentration. Thermal description mass spectrometry is used to measure the small adsorption of NO on the soot; this NO adsorption corresponds to 1.5% of the carbon atoms on the surface of the individual soot spheres. This inhibition is interpreted in terms of a relatively small number of reactive sites on the soot at which soot gasification occurs and which are effectively blocked by NO. When considered together with our previously reported work on oxidation of soot by oxygen atoms at 298 K, these results allow a partial mechanism to be formulated for this soot oxidation process.

Wicke, B.G.; Grady, K.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effect of Thermal Neutron Irradiation on Oxide Catalysts for the Decomposition of Nitrous Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... alpha-particles which are produced by an (n, a) reaction with lithium-6 or boron-10 atoms. Nickel oxide contains excess oxygen ions as a £-type semiconductor and probably ...

YASUKAZU SAITO; YUKIO YONEDA; SHOJI MAKISHIMA

1959-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Metal oxide catalysts for the low temperature selective oxidation of propane to iso-propanol.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A range of Ga203/Mo03 and C03O4 catalysts have been prepared and tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene. The Ga2(VMo03 physical mixture demonstrated… (more)

Davies, Thomas Edward.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

Mohamed El-Genk

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

263

In Situ Studies of Fuel Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Situ Studies of Fuel Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Re-optimization of the Raman signal shows two broad, strong features in the OCV spectrum indicating large amounts of disordered graphite as evidenced by a broad D band (at 1350 cm-1) accompanying the G band (at 1585 cm-1) (Figure 2, right panel). ... intensities from a nonresonant, bond polarizability model optimized for sp2 carbon are also in qual. ...

Michael B. Pomfret; Jeffrey C. Owrutsky; Robert A. Walker

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

264

Thief Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov January 2012 Significance * Oxidizes heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury, in gas streams * Uses partially combusted coal ("Thief" carbon) * Yields an inexpensive catalyst * Cheap enough to be a disposable catalyst * Cuts long-term costs * Simultaneously addresses oxidation and adsorption issues Applications * Any process requiring removal of heavy

265

Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

Saikawa, E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Methane oxidation rates in the anaerobic sediments of Saanich Inlet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

water methane concentration were avail- able. ... water solute concentrations and methane oxidation rates ..... Diffusion of light paraffin hydrocarbons in water.

2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

267

Tungsten oxide nanowire-reduced graphene oxide aerogel for high-efficiency visible light photocatalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A light, 3-D, porous aerogel was fabricated by way of a simple approach from 1-D tungsten oxide nanowires and 2-D reduced graphene oxide sheets. The as-prepared graphene oxide, tungsten oxide nanowires, and tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide (W18O49-RGO) aerogel were characterised. The photocatalytic activities of as-prepared aerogel under visible light irradiation were investigated through the degradation of six different organic dyes including Rhodamine B, reactive black 39, reactive yellow 145, weak acid black BR, methyl orange, and weak acid yellow G. In comparison with the pure W18O49 nanowires, the prepared W18O49-RGO aerogel had significantly improved photocatalytic efficiency. Also, the photocatalysis of W18O49-RGO aerogel maintained its efficiency after 30 cycles for each of the six dyes. The photocatalytic mechanism was studied by adding hole and radical scavengers: the results confirmed that the holes generated in W18O49-RGO aerogel played a key role in the visible light photocatalytic process.

Xiubing Li; Siwei Yang; Jing Sun; Peng He; Xuguang Xu; Guqiao Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

269

P0301-Mogensen Performance of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser cell (SOEC) mode1 P0301-Mogensen Performance of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells: A Review Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State

270

Semiconducting chalcogenide buffer layer for oxide heteroepitaxy on Si,,001...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controlled laminar growth of a crystalline transition metal oxide on Si 001 without SiOx or silicide/or silicides at the Si/oxide interface. Subnanometer buffer layers can prevent interface reac- tions while, also enables flexible strain relief. We observe nei- ther oxide nor silicide formation at the buried Si

Olmstead, Marjorie

271

A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

272

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in terms at 800oC with humidified hydrogen (3% H2O) as the fuel and air as the oxidant. The cells were also tested

Lin, Xi

274

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED;ABSTRACT Autotrophic ammonia oxidation has been documented for the first time in deep- sea hydrothermal autotrophic ammonia oxidation at ~ 91 nM d-1 , and potentially produces de novo organic carbon at a rate (0

Luther, Douglas S.

275

Toolbox Safety Talk Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Awareness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toolbox Safety Talk Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Awareness Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety-in sheet to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is used during hospital REQUIREMENTS Because of the severe potential health effects of Ethylene Oxide (EtO) all Cornell members

Pawlowski, Wojtek

276

Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes and Misorientations in Magnesium Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes and Misorientations in Magnesium Oxide D.M. Saylor 1 , A distribution, magnesium oxide. Abstract. We have developed a technique that allows the geometry of polycrystalline magnesium oxide. Using these data, we have specified the distribution of grain boundaries within

Rohrer, Gregory S.

277

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

Belanger, David P.

278

Glass Based on the oxides of Molybdenum, Tungsten and Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN previous publications from this Laboratory, attention has been directed to glasses of unusual composition based on the oxides of tellurium and vanadium1-4. This article ... the oxides of tellurium and vanadium1-4. This article describes the development of further unusual glasses based on the oxides of molybdenum, tungsten and uranium.

P. L. BAYNTON; H. RAWSON; J. E. STANWORTH

1956-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

279

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS OXIDIZERS ON THE OVERALL PERFORMACE OF A DIRECT FLAME SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The power output of a direct-flame solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was studied using hydrogen (H2) as the fuel for the flame and various oxidizers,… (more)

Donadio, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheet: A novel glucose sensor based on nickel-graphene oxide composite film  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were produced by ... IR). An electrochemical sensor based on Ni/graphene (GR) composite film was developed by...2+ into the graphene oxide film modified glassy carbon electrode ...

Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we demonstrate comprehensive studies on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based saturable absorbers (SA) for mode-locking of Er-doped fiber lasers. The...

Sobon, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Jagiello, Joanna; Kozinski, Rafal; Zdrojek, Mariusz; Holdynski, Marcin; Paletko, Piotr; Boguslawski, Jakub; Lipinska, Ludwika; Abramski, Krzysztof M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction at the Ni/YSZ Anode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from First Principles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of ab initio simulations we here provide a comprehensive scenario for hydrogen oxidation reactions at the Ni/zirconia anode of solid oxide fuel cells. The simulations have also revealed that in the presence of water chemisorbed at the oxide surface, the active region for H oxidation actually extends beyond the metal/zirconia interface unraveling the role of water partial pressure in the decrease of the polarization resistance observed experimentally.

Clotilde S. Cucinotta; Marco Bernasconi; Michele Parrinello

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

284

Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly superior to any currently available for these materials. In a preferred embodiment, the desired superconducting oxide material is BSCCO 2223.

Christopherson, Craig John (Grafton, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Scudiere, John (Bolton, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Investigation of a series of transition metal oxides and precious metal based catalysts for ammonia selective oxidation at low temperatures

286

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Talinfiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Synthesis and Oxidation Behavior of Nanocrystalline MCrA1Y Bond Coats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spraying gun passes can be critical for the oxidation behavior because of the inter-pass oxidation presence in HVOF

Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo; Tang, Feng; Picas, Josep; Kim, Geoge E.; Provenzano, Virgil; Schoenung, Julie M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

EFFECT OF MECHANICAL DISCONTINUITIES ON THE STRENGTH OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRENGTH OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM OXIDE S. Wallace ofThe variables and number of aluminum oxide (almnina). size~

Wallace, J.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation held Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Calcium oxide Water Carbon (activated) Calcium... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ,...

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation defects-remaining Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Calcium oxide Water Carbon (activated) Calcium... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ,...

291

Unveiling and controlling the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor surfaces: Crystalline oxidized InSb(100)(1 × 2)-O  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The exothermic nature of oxidation causes nearly all semiconductor applications in various fields like electronics, medicine, photonics, and sensor technology to acquire an oxidized semiconductor surface part during the application manufacturing. The significance of understanding and controlling the atomic scale properties of oxidized semiconductor surfaces is expected to increase even further with the development of nanoscale semiconductor crystals. The nature of oxidized semiconductor layers is, however, hard to predict and characterize as they are usually buried and amorphous. To shed light on these issues, we pursue a different approach based on oxidized III-V semiconductor layers that are crystalline. We present a comprehensive characterization of oxidized crystalline InSb(100)(1×2)-O layers by ab initio calculations, photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and spectroscopy, and demonstrate the electronic band structures of different oxidized phases of the semiconductor, which elucidate the previous contradictory semiconductor-oxidation effects. At 0.5 monolayer (ML) oxidation, oxygen atoms tend to occupy subsurface Sb sites, leading to metallic states in the semiconductor band gap, which arise from top dimers. When the oxidation is increased to the 1.0–2.0 ML concentration, oxygen occupies also interstitial sites, and the insulating band structure without gap states is stabilized with unusual occupied In dangling bonds. In contrast, the 2.5–3.0 ML oxide phases undergo significant changes toward a less ordered structure. The findings suggest a methodology for manipulating the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor layers.

J. J. K. Lång; M. P. J. Punkkinen; M. Tuominen; H.-P. Hedman; M. Vähä-Heikkilä; V. Polojärvi; J. Salmi; V.-M. Korpijärvi; K. Schulte; M. Kuzmin; R. Punkkinen; P. Laukkanen; M. Guina; K. Kokko

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

292

Mechanistic Studies of Water Electrolysis and Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation on High Temperature Ceria-Based Solid Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion devices with multicomponent materials (e.g., solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers-Based Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Chunjuan Zhang,,# Yi Yu,,# Michael E. Grass,,# Catherine Dejoie spectroscopy (APXPS) and a single-sided solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), we have studied the mechanism

Li, Weixue

293

Hibiscus Protocatechuic Acid or Esculetin Can Inhibit Oxidative LDL Induced by Either Copper Ion or Nitric Oxide Donor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hibiscus Protocatechuic Acid or Esculetin Can Inhibit Oxidative LDL Induced by Either Copper Ion or Nitric Oxide Donor ... Several groups using different flavonoids, such as quercetin, catechin, morin, rutin, fisetin, and gossypetin, also showed that flavonoids could inhibit copper-catalyzed and macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation (13?16). ... morin and fisetin 1 ?M; quercetin and gossypetin 2 ?M). ...

Miao-Jane Lee; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Ming-Hsun Hsieh; Ming-Cheng Lin; Chau-Jong Wang

2002-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

294

Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 selected Pt nanoparticles2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), which produce electricity from11 liquid fuel without1 Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 * Corresponding author: roldan@ucf.edu9 Keywords: platinum; methanol oxidation; operando; XAS; EXAFS; alumina

Kik, Pieter

295

Characterization of metal oxide layers grown on CVD graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of a fully oxidized aluminum oxide layer with low surface roughness on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. This is accomplished by the deposition of a 0.2 nm thick titanium seed layer on the graphene prior to the deposition of the aluminum under ultra high vacuum conditions, which was subsequently oxidized. The stoichiometry and surface roughness of the oxide layers were measured for a range of titanium and aluminum depositions utilizing ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. These fully oxidized films are expected to produce good dielectric layers for use in graphene based electronic devices.

Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Abel, Joseph; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Manganese Oxidation In A Natural Marine Environment- San Antonio Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and can be oxidized to any higher oxidation state, but Mn4+ is the most stable form first achieved (Stumm and Morgan 1996; Armstrong 2008). Mn3+ is a transitional/ metastable state that persists in nature before being further oxidized to the stable form... of Mn4+, which has also been described as a thermodynamic sink (Hem and Lind 1983; Stumm and Morgan 1996; Armstrong 2008). Mn oxides are found in the geologic record associated with other metal oxides such as iron (Fe) and cerium (Ce) (Braun et al...

Neyin, Rosemary Ogheneochuko

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

Oxidation of boron silicide and materials based on it  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron silicide and compounds based on its containing titanium, chromium, nickel, and yttrium and scandium oxides are studied for their oxidation in air from room temperature to 1300{degrees}C. It is shown that chromium boride markedly improves the heat resistance of B{sub 4}Si over a wide temperature range (700-1300{degrees}C) probably as a result chromium-oxide dissolution in borosilicate glass and alteration of its structure. A favorable effect of yttrium and scandium oxides as well of nickel silicide appears at above 1000{degrees}C as a result of forming complex oxide compounds in the scale.

Golovko, E.I.; Makarenko, G.N.; Voitovich, R.F.; Fedorus, V.B. [Institute of Materials Science, Kiev (Russian Federation)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fundamental kinetics of methane oxidation in supercritical water. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental understanding of the oxidation of compounds in supercritical water is essential for the design, development and operation of a supercritical water oxidation unit. Previous work in our group determined the oxidation kinetics of carbon monoxide and ethanol in supercritical water for temperatures ranging from 400 to 540 C. Oxidation studies of methane up to 700 C have recently been completed and are presented in this report. Theoretical studies of fundamental kinetics and mechanistic pathways for the oxidation of methane in supercritical water are discussed. Application of current gas phase elementary reaction models are briefly presented and their limitations discussed.

Webley, P.A.; Tester, J.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1989-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

300

Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NF?B Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 ?g/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NF?B inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)] [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France) [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)] [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

ENS'07 Paris, France, 3-4 December 2007 NANOSTRUCTURES DEFINED BY THE LOCAL OXIDATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

53 Praha 6, Czech Republic ABSTRACT The results of Local Anodic Oxidation (LAO) on the thin Ga in monitoring substrate tip water oxide substrate tip water oxide Fig. 1 Local anodic oxidation by the AFM tip for pattern transfer, local anodic oxidation and subsequent use of the oxide as the etch mask, and maskless

Boyer, Edmond

302

Why sequence carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? Many microbes that use carbon monoxide as an energy source are found in high temperature environments such as geothermal areas. Researchers think that these carboxydotrophs may be involved in reducing potentially toxic carbon monoxide hotspots by combine with water to form hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which are in turn used for thermophilic energy conservation and carbon sequestration mechanisms. The project focuses on sequencing two closely related microbes, one of which is Carboxydothermus hydrogenformans. A strain of C. hydrogenformans has been grown in hydrogen-enriched synthesis gas (syngas), which contains a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Researchers are interested in sequencing both microbial strains to track the genome's evolution and

303

Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

308

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

Anderson, M.A.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

309

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

312

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

Jensen, R.R.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

315

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

316

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

Applications of direct chemical oxidation to demilitarization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is reported concerning an aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes, including ongoing work relevant to demilitarization This process uses acidified ammonium- or sodium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at temperatures of 80- 100 C The oxidant may be regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by- product at Pt anodes at roughly 80% coulombic efficiency, even in the presence of inorganic contaminants (e g , nitrate, phosphate or chloride) found in the original waste and entrained in the recycle stream Integral rate constants have been determined for the oxidation of diverse organic compounds at low concentrations (50 ppm, C), with rate constants (based on equivalents) of 0 004-O 02 miri Higher concentrations generally react at a 2-4X higher rate. The process has been carried through full- scale laboratory tests and initial pilot plant tests on chlorinated solvents, using a hydrolysis pretreatment Integral rate data indicate throughput rates of about 200 kg- C/m3-day The process may benefit the demilitarization efforts in various specialized applications destruction of solvents; destruction of trace propellants and explosives in shell casings remaining after bulk removal, destruction of red and pink waters, in situ remediation of soils at open pit burning/detonation sites; and as a regenerative filter for offgas carrying toxic or explosive substances.

Cooper, J.F., LLNL

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

319

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

Hohorst, Frederick A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

Catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate over La-Co and La-Cu oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lanthanum-containing mixed oxides (La-Co and La-Cu) were synthesized by several methods: exotemplating, evaporation, glycine-nitrate and glycine-nitrate-exotemplating. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, N2 adsorption, temperature programmed reduction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The materials obtained were tested as catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation, as a model volatile organic compound. La-Cu samples showed poor catalytic performance, but La-Co materials were much more active than the individual components. Catalytic activity seems to be mainly determined by the easiness of reduction of the catalysts, which is related to the availability of oxygen from the lattice. Catalysts containing Co or Cu in excess of La (on a molar base) were more active than the corresponding mixed oxides consisting of equal amounts of La and the transition metal. Samples prepared by the evaporation method were more active than those prepared by exotemplating, for the same molar ratio. Samples prepared by evaporation and glycine-nitrate methods calcined at 600 °C had a better performance than the corresponding oxides calcined at 300 °C. The most active sample found in this study was the La-Co mixed oxide prepared by the glycine nitrate method and calcined at 600 °C, 100% conversion of ethyl acetate to H2O and CO2 being achieved at 230 °C.

X. Chen; S.A.C. Carabineiro; P.B. Tavares; J.J.M. Órfão; M.F.R. Pereira; J.L. Figueiredo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Polycrystalline oxides formation during transient oxidation of (001) Cu-Ni binary alloys studied by in situ TEM and XRD.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nucleation and growth of Cu{sub 2}O and NiO islands due to oxidation of Cu{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (001) films were monitored, at various temperatures, by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). In remarkable contrast to our previous observations of Cu and Cu-Au oxidation, irregular-shaped polycrystalline oxide islands formed with respect to the Cu-Ni alloy film, and an unusual second oxide nucleation stage was noted. In situ XRD experiments revealed that NiO formed first epitaxially, then other orientations appeared, and finally polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O developed as the oxidation pressure was increased. The segregation of Ni and Cu towards or away, respectively, from the alloy surface during oxidation could disrupt the surface and cause polycrystalline oxide formation.

Yang, J. C.; Li, Z. Q.; Sun, L.; Zhou, G. W.; Eastman, J. A.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Baldo, P. M.; Rehn, L. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Materials Science Division; Univ.of Pittsburgh; State Univ. of New York at Binghamton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5).

Hanson, B.D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained real-time oxidation results for this elusive range. Using the ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) endstation at ALS Beamline 9.3.2, they examined oxidation of Si(100) at pressures up to 1 torr and temperatures up to 450 ºC. The Si 2p chemical shifts allowed determination of oxide thickness as a function of time with a precision of 1-2 Å. The initial oxidation rate was very high (up to ~234 Å/h). Then, after an initial oxide thickness of 6-22 Å was formed, the rate decreased markedly (~1.5-4.0Å/h). Neither rate regime can be explained by the standard Deal-Grove (D-G) model for Si oxidation. These results are a significant step toward developing a better understanding of this critical thickness regime.

327

Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained real-time oxidation results for this elusive range. Using the ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) endstation at ALS Beamline 9.3.2, they examined oxidation of Si(100) at pressures up to 1 torr and temperatures up to 450 ºC. The Si 2p chemical shifts allowed determination of oxide thickness as a function of time with a precision of 1-2 Å. The initial oxidation rate was very high (up to ~234 Å/h). Then, after an initial oxide thickness of 6-22 Å was formed, the rate decreased markedly (~1.5-4.0Å/h). Neither rate regime can be explained by the standard Deal-Grove (D-G) model for Si oxidation. These results are a significant step toward developing a better understanding of this critical thickness regime.

328

A comprehensive kinetics model for CO oxidation during char combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important parameter in representing energy feedback to a particle during char combustion concerns the oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/. If substantial oxidation of CO occurs near a particle, then the greater heat of combustion for the complete oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ (94.1 kcal/mole vs. 26.4 kcal/mole for oxidation to CO) is available for energy feedback mechanisms. ''Energy feedback'' is here defined as any situation in which an individual particle receives a significant fraction of its heat of combustion directly, through the localized oxidation of emitted combustible species, i.e. CO. Conversely, if the oxidation of CO does not occur near a particle, then energy feedback will occur only indirectly, through heating of the bulk gas. The primary reaction product at the particle surface during char combustion is generally considered to be CO, and the location of the subsequent CO oxidation zone plays a very important role in determining the particle temperature. Ayling and Smith performed experimental and modeling work which indicates that CO oxidation is not of major importance under the conditions they investigated, although they noted the need for improved accuracy in measuring char reactivities, as well as for better modeling of the gas phase CO oxidation kinetics. The modeling work presented in this paper attempts to develop an improved understanding of the boundary layer oxidation of CO through the use of a comprehensive set of kinetic expressions.

Haussmann, G.; Kruger, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

Kauffman, Douglas R.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained real-time oxidation results for this elusive range. Using the ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) endstation at ALS Beamline 9.3.2, they examined oxidation of Si(100) at pressures up to 1 torr and temperatures up to 450 ºC. The Si 2p chemical shifts allowed determination of oxide thickness as a function of time with a precision of 1-2 Å. The initial oxidation rate was very high (up to ~234 Å/h). Then, after an initial oxide thickness of 6-22 Å was formed, the rate decreased markedly (~1.5-4.0Å/h). Neither rate regime can be explained by the standard Deal-Grove (D-G) model for Si oxidation. These results are a significant step toward developing a better understanding of this critical thickness regime.

331

Interfacial oxide re-growth in thin film metal oxide III-V semiconductor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs and HfO{sub 2}/GaAs interfaces after atomic layer deposition are studied using in situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Samples are deliberately exposed to atmospheric conditions and interfacial oxide re-growth is observed. The extent of this re-growth is found to depend on the dielectric material and the exposure temperature. Comparisons with previous studies show that ex situ characterization can result in misleading conclusions about the interface reactions occurring during the metal oxide deposition process.

McDonnell, S.; Dong, H.; Hawkins, J. M.; Brennan, B.; Milojevic, M.; Aguirre-Tostado, F. S.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Hinkle, C. L.; Kim, J.; Wallace, R. M.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, together with a reversible inhibition due to competitive adsorption of SO{sub 2} with NO on the catalyst. In an effort to minimize the deactivating effect of SO{sub 2} on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, two synthetic approaches were briefly examined. These consisted of (1) the incorporation of highly dispersed Co(II) ions in silica, as a non-sulfating matrix, via the sol-gel preparation of CoO-SiO{sub 2}; and (2) the sol-gel preparation of a mixed metal oxide, CoO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2}, with the aim of exploiting the acidity of the niobium oxide to minimize SO2 adsorption. While both catalysts showed almost no activity for NO oxidation in the absence of SO{sub 2}, when SO{sub 2} was present low activity was observed, indicating that SO{sub 2} acts as a promoter for NO oxidation over these materials. The kinetics of NO oxidation over Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} were also examined. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} was found to exhibit a higher apparent activation energy for NO oxidation than the Pt catalysts, while the combined reaction order in NO and O{sub 2} for the three catalysts was very close to one. CO{sub 2} was found to have no effect on the kinetics of NO oxidation over these catalysts. The presence of H{sub 2}O caused a decrease in NO conversion for both Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, while no effect was observed for Pt/SiO{sub 2}. The inhibiting effect of water was reversible and is attributed to competitive adsorption with the reactants. In sum, this study has shown that a variety of base metal catalysts are very active for NO oxidation. However, all of the catalysts studied are strongly deactivated in the presence of 2800 ppm SO{sub 2} at typical flue gas temperatures; consequently improving catalyst resistance to SO{sub x} will be a pre-requisite if the fast SCR concept is to be applied to coal-fired flue gas conditions.

Mark Crocker

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

333

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Recent developments in zinc oxide target chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zinc oxide targets irradiated with high energy protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) contain a number of radioactive spallation products in quantities large enough to warrant recovery. This paper describes methods for recovering {sup 7}Be, {sup 46}Sc, and {sup 48}V from such targets and offers suggestions on possible ways to recover additional isotopes. The proposed methods are based on traditional precipitation and ion exchange techniques, are readily adaptable to hot cell use, and produce no hazardous waste components. The products are obtained in moderate to high yields and have excellent radiopurity.

Heaton, R.C.; Taylor, W.A.; Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Garcia, J.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

336

Stable Oxide Nanoparticle Clusters Obtained by Complexation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the electrostatic complexation between polyelectrolyte-neutral copolymers and oppositely charged 6 nm-crystalline nanoparticles. For two different dispersions of oxide nanoparticles, the electrostatic complexation gives rise to the formation of stable nanoparticle clusters in the range 20 - 100 nm. It is found that inside the clusters, the particles are pasted together by the polyelectrolyte blocks adsorbed on their surface. Cryo-transmission electronic microscopy allows to visualize the clusters and to determine the probability distributions functions in size and in aggregation number. The comparison between light scattering and cryo-microscopy results suggests the existence of a polymer brush around the clusters.

J. -F. Berret; A. Sehgal; M. Morvan; O. Sandre; A. Vacher; M. Airiau

2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

337

Metal Oxide Nanoparticles as Bactericidal Agents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

8 Magnesium oxide prepared through an aerogel procedure (AP-MgO)9 yields square and polyhedral shaped nanoparticles with diameters varying slightly around 4 nm, arranged in an extensive porous structure with considerable pore volume. ... Approximately 106 CFU (colony forming units) of bacteria or spores were deposited on water filtration membranes with pore size 0.45 ?m (Millipore Corp.). ... The filters were dried at ambient conditions for 30 min and then completely covered with 0.25 g of AP-MgO/X2 (X = Cl, Br, none). ...

Peter K. Stoimenov; Rosalyn L. Klinger; George L. Marchin; Kenneth J. Klabunde

2002-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

338

Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

339

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

340

CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

342

CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Emergency Management program at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide

343

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

344

Oxidation of magnesium single crystals and evaporated films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxidation of (001) and (100) faces of pure magnesium single crystals at 2.5 mm Hg oxygen pressure was measured at 400°C and 440°C by means of an all-quartz, high vacuum microbalance. In a first approximation a parabolic oxidation law is observed. The oxidation rate on the basal plane is initially higher than on the prismatic plane. Electron diffraction patterns and photomicrographs indicate that the oxide has a preferred orientation on the basal plane, even for a thickness of about 1000 Å. The oxidation of evaporated magnesium films at room temperature was also investigated. After an induction period a logarithmic oxidation law is observed, where the limiting thickness is dependent on the oxygen pressure.

R.R Addiss Jr.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Polyoxometalate water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

346

CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide

347

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

348

Zinc sorption by iron oxides and soil samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Head of Department) May 1989 ABSTRACT Zinc Sorption by Iron Oxides and Soil Samples. (May 1989) Markku Juhani Yli-Halla, M. S. University of Helsinki, Finland Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard H. Loeppert Zn sorption by synthetic Fe oxide... and soil samples was studied. The purpose was to examine the effect of crystallinity and adsorbed silica on Zn adsorption by synthetic Fe oxide using goethite and ferrihydrite as test materials. Zn sorption by acid soil samples from Finland and a...

Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

350

Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

Schutts, Scott M. (Menomonie, WI); Kinney, Robert J. (Woodbury, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The catalytic oxidation of propylene: investigation of catalyst activity.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- thur oxidation resulted in the formation oi' dioxymsthylperoxides acetalde- hydes formic aoids carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide~ hydrogen and water, &t temperatures above 500 degrees Centigrade the polymer1sation of eth- ylene became significant... that water vapor exerted a catalytio effeot on the oxidation of ethylene, while carbon dioxide showed no aooelerating effeot. Davis (ll) observed that water vapor possessed a oatalytio ei'- feet on ths oxidation of olefins. Thompson and Hinshslwood (SS...

Woodham, John Frank

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Characteristics of two thermionic converters with oxide collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermionic converters built with selected metal oxide coatings on their collectors have given enhanced performance at interelectrode spacings greater than 0.25 mm. The capability of such converters to operate efficiently at large interelectrode spacings is of interest for in-core thermionic power systems. Performance data are reported from one converter built with a collector having a coating of molybdenum sublimed in oxygen and a second converter containing an oxidized zirconium collector. The molybdenum oxide collector converter demonstrated enhanced performance.

Smith, E.A.; Huffman, F.N.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticle by sol-gel technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconium oxide nanoparticle is synthesized using sol-gel technique. Various mole ratio of ammonia solution and nitric acid relative to zirconium propoxide is added in the reaction to study the effect on the crystallinity and particle size on zirconium oxide particle. Zirconium oxide synthesized with nitric acid have the smallest particle size under FESEM image and show the increasing formation of crystalline tetragonal phase under XRD diffractogram.

Lim, H. S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H. [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

354

Theoretical study of sequential oxidation of clusters of gallium oxide: Ga3On (n: 48)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as well as addition (and removal) of an electron leads to significant changes in the geometry oxide clusters, we found that the structural changes induced by addition and removal of an electron properties of neutral and ionized small GamOn (m,n = 1,2) clusters [2]. Addition of an electron introduced

Pandey, Ravi

355

Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

Haak, Hein

356

Energetic basis of catalytic activity of layered nanophase calcium manganese oxides for water oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and pyrolusite. Am Mineral 97:1291 ZZQQhy1298...Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances...compositions of the two mineral oxide phases, reported...direction in this context); green line, mass loss...285.8 ± 0.1 CaO (lime)-635.1 ± 0.9...

Nancy Birkner; Sara Nayeri; Babak Pashaei; Mohammad Mahdi Najafpour; William H. Casey; Alexandra Navrotsky

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Solar-driven electrochemically assisted semiconductor-catalyzed iodide ion oxidation. Enhanced efficiency by oxide mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxidation of iodide ion from an air-saturated solution under natural sunlight (900±50 W m?2) on the surfaces of TiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, MoO3 and CeO2 enhances by 6 to 12-fold on application of a cathodic bias of ?0.2 t...

Chockalingam Karunakaran; Premkumar Anilkumar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control CO and hydrocarbon emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion Effectiveness of a...

359

Synthesis of Nanodispersed Oxides of Vanadium, Titanium, Molybdenum...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vanadium, Titanium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten on Mesoporous Silica using Atomic Layer Synthesis of Nanodispersed Oxides of Vanadium, Titanium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten on...

360

Effect of microstructure on air oxidation resistance of nuclear graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation resistance in air of three grades of nuclear graphite with different structures was compared using a standard thermogravimetric method. Differences in the oxidation behavior have been identified with respect to both (i) the rate of oxidation in identical conditions and the derived apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor and (ii) the penetration depth of the oxidant and the development of the oxidized layer. These differences were ascribed to structural differences between the three graphite grades, in particular the grain size and shape of the graphite filler, and the associated textural properties, such as total BET surface area and porosity distribution in the un-oxidized material. It was also found that the amount of strongly bonded surface oxygen complexes measured by thermodesorption significantly exceeds the amount afforded by the low BET surface area, and therefore low temperature oxygen chemisorption is not a reliable method for determining the amount of surface sites (re)active during air oxidation. The relationship between nuclear graphite microstructure and its oxidation resistance demonstrated in this work underlines the importance of performing comprehensive oxidation characterization studies of the new grades of nuclear graphite considered as candidates for very high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Guldan, Tyler R [ORNL; Wang, Peng [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm04paulauskas.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of...

362

Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Nanocarrier in a Multienzyme...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a Multienzyme Labeling Amplification Strategy for Ultrasensitive Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Nanocarrier in a Multienzyme Labeling Amplification Strategy for...

363

Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for LithiumSulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National...

364

Concomitant thionation and reduction of graphene oxide through...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Concomitant thionation and reduction of graphene oxide through solidgas metathetical sulfidation reactions at high temperatures Authors: Jeon, K.-W. and Seo, D.-K. Title:...

365

Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of Graphene Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The local atomic structure of graphene oxide has been probed using synchrotron radiations. Detailed investigations of recently proposed simplistic model of graphene oxide using x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy have been performed. X-ray diffraction measurements and calculations indicate loss of coherence between graphene-like layers. However, larger in-plane structural coherence is understood to be present. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the presence of graphitic regions in graphene oxide which is expected to produce interesting confinement effects in graphene oxide which could be important for the development of tunable electronic and photonic devices.

S Saxena; T Tyson; S Shukla; E Negusse; H Chen; J Bai

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Diffraction from oxide confinement apertures in vertical-cavity lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurement of scattered fields from oxide confinement apertures in vertical-cavity lasers is presented. Diffraction fringes associated with each transverse lasing mode are detected in the far field from devices with varying oxide aperture dimensions and with quantum efficiencies as high as 48{percent}. The diffracted pattern symmetries match the rectangular symmetry of the oxide apertures present in the devices and fringe locations are compared to Fraunhofer theory. The fraction of power diffracted from the lasing mode remains roughly constant as a function of relative pump rate, but is shown to depend on both transverse mode order and oxide aperture size. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Roos, P.A.; Carlsten, J.L. [Montana State University, Department of Physics, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)] [Montana State University, Department of Physics, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Kilper, D.C. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Physics, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)] [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Physics, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States); Lear, K.L. [MicroOptical Devices Inc., 5601C Midway Park Pl. NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87109 (United States)] [MicroOptical Devices Inc., 5601C Midway Park Pl. NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87109 (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Apparatus and Method for Oxidation and Stabilization of Polymeric...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is based on the use of reactive oxidative species (ROS), such as monatomic oxygen, and atmospheric plasma to increase the rate of oxygen diffusion to nonoxidized polymeric...

368

Neutron Compton scattering from hydrogen and perovskite oxide interfaces.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis we investigate two independent topics: neutron Compton scattering from hydrogen and perovskite oxide interfaces. Part one is an investigation of the scattering… (more)

Lemon, Christopher P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

One dimensional modeling of planar solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers parametric study for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) as a function of fuel gas composition. The… (more)

Ghosh, Ujjal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mathematical Analysis of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The mathematical analysis has been developed by using finite volume method, experimental data from literatures, and solving numerically to predict solid oxide fuel cell performances… (more)

Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Utilizing Alternative Fuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation is a summary of four solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) research projects which addressed a number of SOFC technologies to use alternative fuels… (more)

Labarbera, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Ageing of integrated-planar solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ageing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) is a key problem because of the requirement of 50,000 hours to their lifetime in many applications.… (more)

Almutairi, Ghzzai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development of non-premixed porous inserted regenerative thermal oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, a porous inserted regenerative thermal oxidizer (PRTO) system was developed for a... x emissions and high radiant efficiency. Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2...) ceramic ...

Jun-chun Zhang; Le-ming Cheng; Cheng-hang Zheng…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Multimetal Oxide Catalysts DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902574  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of propane to acrolein and acrylic acid as well as the oxidation of various alcohols.[1a,4] Mo3VOx, which

Goddard III, William A.

375

Cadmium Zinc Oxide Based Optoelectronics Materials and Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

201907. [45] 2010 Optoelectronics Market Report. Databeans,candidate of wide bandgap optoelectronics applications, ZnOZinc Oxide Based Optoelectronics Materials and Devices A

Li, Lin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Oxygen Coverage Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). Abstract: The interaction of NO with adsorbed atomic oxygen on Pt(111) was studied with temperature programmed desorption (TPD),...

377

Sequential Oxidations of Thiolates and the Cobalt Metallocenter...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Nitrile Hydratase Authors: Dutta, A., Flores, M., Roy, S., Schmitt, J., Hamilton, G. A., Hartnett, H., Shearer, J., and Jones, A. Title: Sequential Oxidations of...

378

The effects of oxidative modifications on cardiac and skeletal muscle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

George Brooks Professor Terry Machen Spring 2011 Abstract The Effects of Oxidative Modifications on Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle by Sean Michael Gross

Gross, Sean

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

LANL disassembles "pits," makes mixed-oxide fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at the MOX facility in South Carolina, the plutonium oxide from LANL will be blended with depleted uranium, fabricated into MOX fuel, and irradiated in domestic nuclear...

380

Cation Defects and Conductivity in Transparent Oxides. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In this paper, we identify key parameters that promote conductivity in mixed metal spinel oxides and compare their behavior with that of the free carrier TCO’s....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Selective aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons over supported gold catalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The selective oxidation of hydrocarbons is of vital importance for the production of valuable chemicals from crude oil and natural gas resources. Unfortunately, when using… (more)

Hereijgers, B.P.C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Molecular movie of water oxidation | Center for Bio-Inspired...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Molecular movie of water oxidation 22 Oct 2012 Shibom Basu,...

383

Searching for novel catalysts for water oxidation | Center for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Searching for novel catalysts for water oxidation 30 Oct 2012...

384

FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Effects and Degradation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Understanding Transport and Thermodynamics." The goals of this project are to: 1) understand the detailed mechanisms of...

385

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Nano zinc oxide for UV protection of textiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the effect on the fading of dyed polyester fabrics in artificial sunlight, when the Ultra Violet (UV) component of the radiation was blocked by coating the fabric with zinc oxide nanoparticles, dispersed in an acrylic polymer. Zinc oxide is photoactive and generates superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (Reactive Oxygen Species; ROS) when irradiated with UV in the presence of oxygen and water. The results for the four dyes studied show that different dye chromophores interact differently with ROS. Selection of dyes with anti oxidant properties or addition of other anti oxidants may reduce the adverse effects of ROS.

Lu Sun; John A. Rippon; Peter G. Cookson; Xungai Wang; Ken King; Olga Koulaeva; Reno Beltrame

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Iron Oxide Waste Form for Stabilizing 99Tc. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stabilizing 99Tc. Iron Oxide Waste Form for Stabilizing 99Tc. Abstract: Crystals of goethite were synthesized with reduced technetium 99Tc(IV) incorporated within the solid...

388

Performance and Safety of Olivines and Layered Oxides | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Studies on Oxide Cathode Crystals Phase Behavior and Solid State Chemistry in Olivines Olivines and Substituted Layered Materials...

389

Thermal resistance of contact with oxidized metal surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model of an elementary heat channel is analyzed which simulates the ... is derived which describes the increment of contact resistance due to the presence of an oxide...

V. M. Popov; A. I. Krasnoborod'ko

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research...

391

Designing Semiconductor Metal Oxides for Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Innovative materials hold the key for renewable energy conversion. In this talk, we will introduce our recent progress in semiconducting metal oxides, which underpin a number of...

Wang, Lianzhou

392

The formation of double-row oxide stripes during the initial oxidation of NiAl(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of ultrathin aluminum oxide film during the oxidation of NiAl(100) was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy. Our observations reveal that the oxide film grows initially as pairs of a double-row stripe structure with a lateral size equal to the unit cell of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These double-row stripes serve as the very basic stable building units of the ordered oxide phase for growing thicker bulk-oxide-like thin films. It is shown that the electronic properties of these ultrathin double-row stripes do not differ significantly from that of the clean NiAl surface; however, the thicker oxide stripes show a decreased conductivity.

Qin, Hailang; Zhou, Guangwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Apparatus for solubilizing and oxidizing of peat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane is produced from peat by solubilizing the phenolic polymers therein, and oxidizing the solute to produce short chain molecules. The short chain molecules are fermented to produce a gas that this scrubbed to remove CO/sub 2/ to produce methane. Solubilizing takes place in a vertically oriented pressurized vessel that is circular in cross-section and divided into a number of regular vertically elongated compartments, each comprising a circular sector in cross-section, and extending the majority the height of the vessel. Slurried peat is fed into the top of one compartment while another compartment is being emptied from the bottom, the compartment being filled or emptied being progressively changed in response to rotation of a central shaft in the vessel. Oxidation of solubilized peat takes place in a structure that transports the solubilized peat in a substantially vertical wave path from an inlet to an outlet with oxygen being introduced at the bottoms of segments of the wave path, and co2 being withdrawn from the tops of segments of the wave path while the solubilized peat is maintained at a pressure above atmospheric. Coolant is circulated around the wave path to remove the exothermic heat of reaction, and the coolant is flashed into steam used elsewhere in the process.

Elmore, C.L.; Funk, E.D.; Poulin, T.M.

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

397

Structure, adhesion, and stability of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces. Technical progress report, August 1, 1992--July 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of structural, electronic, and chemical properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces were performed on well-defined interfaces that created by depositing ultra-thin potassium and aluminum films and their oxides onto single crystal TiO{sub 2} and NiO surfaces. Work focused on determining the structure, growth mechanisms, and morphologies of metal and oxide films as they are deposited an single crystal oxide surfaces using RHEED and atomic force microscopy probing electronic structure, bonding and chemical interactions at the interfaces using x-ray and uv photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and understanding factors affecting stability and reactivity of the interface regions including the role of defects and impurities. Results indicate that kinetic effects have an important influence on interface structure and composition, and they also show that defects in the oxide substrate induce new electronic states at the interface which play a major role in cation-anion bonding and interface interactions. The results establish a link between electronic and chemical bonding properties and the interface structure and morphology, which is required to successfully manipulate the interfacial properties of advanced ceramic materials.

Lad, R.J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Topological analysis of hydrogen oxidation reaction kinetics at Ni/YSZ anode of the solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of reactions that occur on the electrodes hold the key to further advances in solid oxide fuel cell… (more)

Dar, Yasir Rasool

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Energy Recovery Efficiency and Cost Analysis of VOC Thermal Oxidation Pollution Control Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). ... In a thermal oxidation process, VOC-laden air is thermally treated (oxidized/decomposed) at temperatures about 730?850 °C. ... Choi and Yi(4) worked on the simulation and optimization of regenerative thermal oxidizers. ...

Aruna S. K. Warahena; Yew Khoy Chuah

2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

400

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Adsorption and decomposition of triclosan by activated carbons, manganese oxides, and their composite materials from aqueous solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research investigates the use of activated carbon (AC) and manganese oxides as adsorbents and oxidizing agents to adsorb and oxidize triclosan, a compound which… (more)

Fang, Sheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Title Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Xun, Shidi, Xiangyun Song, Michael E. Grass, Daniel K. Roseguo, Z. Liu, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Gao Li Journal Electrochemical Solid-State Letters Volume 14 Start Page A61 Issue 5 Pagination A61-A63 Date Published 02/2001 Keywords Electrochemistry, elemental semiconductors, etching, lithium, nanoparticles, secondary cells, silicon, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra Abstract This study characterizes the native oxide layer of Si nanoparticles and evaluates its effect on their performance for Li-ion batteries. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to identify the chemical state and morphology of the native oxide layer. Elemental and thermogravimetric analysis were used to estimate the oxide content for the Si samples. Hydrofluoric acid was used to reduce the oxide layer. A correlation between etching time and oxide content was established. The initial electrochemical performances indicate that the reversible capacity of etched Si nanoparticles was enhanced significantly compared with that of the as-received Si sample.

404

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

406

Oxides: neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the opal silica-water system. Keywords...oxides, opal silica-water system Received 11...order to perform advanced structure studies...oxides containing water (superionic non-stoichiometric...presence of very heavy atoms and to distin...using the IBR pulsed reactor in structure analysis......

Izabela M. Sosnowska; Makoto Shiojiri

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Measurement and Meaning of Oxidatively Modified DNA Lesions in Urine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...commercially available kits presently on the market. Two are available from JICA, named...oxidative stress-inducing agents, such as diesel emission particles or potassium bromate...Moller P, et al. Repeated inhalations of diesel exhaust particles and oxidatively damaged...

Marcus S. Cooke; Ryszard Olinski; and Steffen Loft

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using a catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

Chafin, R.B.; Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

409

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L.

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

Chafin, Richard B. (Hurricane, WV); Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 6–10?nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

David Henry, M., E-mail: mdhenry@sandia.gov; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert [Sandia National Labs, MESA Fabrication Facility PO Box 5800 MS 1084, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1084 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

{sup 17}O NMR investigations of oxidative degradation in polymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have initiated studies using both solution and solid state magic angle spinning {sup 17}O NMR for a series of oxidatively aged polymers. This short note reports the solution {sup 17}O NMR for oxidatively degraded polypropylene, ethylene-propylene-diene, polyisoprene, and nitrile rubber. Enriched O{sub 2} is used during the accelerated aging. 3 figs, 7 refs.

Alam, T.M.; Celina, M.; Assink, R.A.; Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Engineering Organic/inorganic hybrids comprise a mixture of oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examine the current status of using organic/inorganic hybrids in fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells, and reactions on solid oxide fuel cell catalysts. The objectives of his research program are (i) developing of potential applications in coatings, fuel cells, solar cells, and sensors. Organic amino (-NH2) silane

414

Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the phase one testing of a data acquisition system for a supercritical water waste oxidation system. The system is designed to destroy a wide range of organic materials in mixed wastes. The design and testing of the MODAR Oxidizer is discussed. An analysis of the optimized runs is included.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide Dmitriy A. Dikin1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper Dmitriy A. Dikin1 , Sasha batteries or supercapa- citors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon- based membrane material made by flow

416

Low-Temperature Oxidation and Cool Flames of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1954 research-article Low-Temperature Oxidation and Cool Flames of Propane J. H. Knox R. G. W. Norrish A detailed analytical study of the cool-flame oxidation of propane has been carried out using a continuous-flow technique with a view...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Oded Hod,* Vero´nica Barone theoretical study of the electronic properties and relative stabilities of edge-oxidized zigzag graphene with nanometer scale dimen- sions. Recently, a new type of graphene-based material was experimentally realized.12

Hod, Oded

418

Manganese Based Oxidative Technologies For Water/Wastewater Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NaNO3. The vessel was then spiked with manganese oxide to achieve a specified oxide concentration. The reactor solution was stirred using a Teflon coated magnetic stirrer for an hour before the reaction’s initiation. This process ensured...

Desai, Ishan

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

419

Graphene Oxide as an Ideal Substrate for Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene Oxide as an Ideal Substrate for Hydrogen Storage ... Organometallic nanomaterials hold the promise for molecular hydrogen (H2) storage by providing nearly ideal binding strength to H2 for room-temperature applications. ... graphene oxide; titanium anchoring; hydrogenation; hydrogen storage; first-principles computations ...

Lu Wang; Kyuho Lee; Yi-Yang Sun; Michael Lucking; Zhongfang Chen; Ji Jun Zhao; Shengbai B. Zhang

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

Modeling of UO{sub 2} oxidation in steam atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel oxidation is an important phenomenon affecting fission product behavior. As indicated by a number of studies, uranium dioxide shows a very wide range of nonstoichiometric states. In steam, fuel oxidation produces a hyperstoichiometric composition, changing the transport properties. Variation of stoichiometry changes diffusion coefficients for oxygen, noble gases, and fission products substantially, affecting the release of fission products.

Dobrov, B.V.; Likhanskii, V.V. [Triniti Research Center, Triniti, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ozrin, V.D. [Nuclear Safety Institute IBREA, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Scalable enhancement of graphene oxide properties by thermally driven phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scalable enhancement of graphene oxide properties by thermally driven phase transformation Priyank,2,4 * and Jeffrey C. Grossman1 * Chemical functionalization of graphene is promising for a variety of next-generation technologies. Although graphene oxide (GO) is a versatile material in this direction, its use is limited

Wu, Junqiao

422

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

423

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I Landfill, OK, provides an excellent natural laboratory for the study of anaerobicprocessesimpactinglandfill enrichment indicated that 80-90% of the original landfill methane was oxidized over the 210-m transect. First

Grossman, Ethan L.

424

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ultraviolet Light Initiated Oxidation of Elemental Hg  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The PCO Process for Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas The PCO Process for Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Christopher R. McLarnon, Ph.D. Powerspan Corp., P.O. Box 219, 54 Old Bay Road, New Durham, NH 03855 Evan J. Granite* and Henry W. Pennline National Energy Technology Laboratory, United States Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, MS 58-106, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 *Corresponding author. Tel.: +1412-386-4607; fax: +1412-386-6004 E-mail address: evan.granite@netl.doe.gov Abstract A promising technology has been developed to capture and remove elemental mercury species from coal-fired power plants. Powerspan Corp. has licensed the technology and initiated a bench and pilot test program to develop the Photochemical Oxidation, or PCO(tm), process for

427

Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Task 1 Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some conclusions are: (1) Increased flow rates can lower chromia activity in alloys with Ti and Mn - (a) Reduced chromia activity reduces equilibrium CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) vapor pressures; (2) Model is very sensitive to small decreases in chromia activity at the HP turbine - (a) Upstream partial saturation of the gas phase with CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) can become nearly or fully saturated at the HP turbine, (b) Can radically change breakaway oxidation times from less than a year to never happening; and (3) Thus even small chromia activity reductions from Ti and Mn additions can make evaporation issues self-correcting.

G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu,

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

429

Quantum conductance of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic properties of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons (ZGOR) are presented. The results show interesting behaviors which are considerably different from the properties of the perfect graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The theoretical methods include a Huckel-tight binding approach, a Green's function methodology, and the Landauer formalism. The presence of oxygen on the edge results in band bending, a noticeable change in density of states and thus the conductance. Consequently, the occupation in the valence bands increase for the next neighboring carbon atom in the unit cell. Conductance drops in both the conduction and valence band regions are due to the reduction of allowed k modes resulting from band bending. The asymmetry of the energy band structure of the ZGOR is due to the energy differences of the atoms. The inclusion of a foreign atom's orbital energies changes the dispersion relation of the eigenvalues in energy space. These novel characteristics are important and valuable in the study of quantum transport of GNRs.

Kan, Zhe; Nelson, Christopher; Khatun, Mahfuza, E-mail: mkhatun@bsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Computational Nanoscience, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ultrafiltration evaluation with depleted uranium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are using electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline solutions to decontaminate oralloy parts that have surface plutonium contamination. Ultrafiltration of the electrolyte stream removes precipitate so that the electrolyte stream to the decontamination fixture is precipitate free. This report describes small-scale laboratory ultrafiltration experiments that the authors performed to determine conditions necessary for full-scale operation of an ultrafiltration module. Performance was similar to what they observed in the ferric hydroxide system. At 12 psi transmembrane pressure, a shear rate of 12,000 sec{sup {minus}1} was sufficient to sustain membrane permeability. Ultrafiltration of uranium(VI) oxide appears to occur as easily as ultrafiltration of ferric hydroxide. Considering the success reported in this study, the authors plan to add ultrafiltration to the next decontamination system for oralloy parts.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Schake, A.R.; Morgan, A.N.; Purdy, G.M.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor of a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Li, Naichao (Croton on Hudson, NY)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

432

Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5

Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

433

Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

436

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

Chastagner, P.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

437

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

Riley, B.

1988-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

438

Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

Harris, E.

439

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Criticality Safety program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

440

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal are being performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation correlations will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature are also being investigated. SO2 oxidation is also being investigated for each test condition.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Niobium oxide compositions and methods for using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates a niobium oxide useful in anodes of secondary lithium ion batteries. Such niobium oxide has formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and M represents Ti or Zr. The niobium oxide may be in the form of particles, which may be carbon coated. The disclosure also relates to an electrode composition containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. The disclosure further relates to electrodes, such as anodes, and batteries containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. Furthermore, the disclosure relates to methods of forming the above.

Goodenough, John B; Han, Jian-Tao

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

443

Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R. S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

444

Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasad (Durham, NC)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Y-12 Site Office's programs for oversight of its contractors at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

446

Nitric oxide inhibition of soot oxidation by oxygen atoms at 298K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitric oxide is observed to inhibit the rate of soot oxidation by oxygen atoms at 298K. Small amounts of added NO reduce the rates of production of CO/sub 2/ and CO by up to 35%. The authors show experimentally that NO is not reducing the gas phase O atom concentration. Thermal desorption mass spectrometry shows a small adsorption of NO on the soot; this NO adsorption corresponds to 1.5% of the carbon atoms on the surface of the individual soot spheres. This inhibition is interpreted in terms of a relatively small number of reactive sites on the soot at which soot gasification occurs and which are effectively blocked by NO.

Wicke, B.G.; Grady, K.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Composite cathode based on yttria stabilized bismuth oxide for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites consisting of silver and yttria stabilized bismuth oxide (YSB) have been investigated as cathodes for low-temperature honeycomb solid oxide fuel cells with stabilized zirconia as electrolytes. At 600?° C the interfacial polarization resistances of a porous YSB–Ag cathode is about 0.3??? cm 2 more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of other reported cathodes on stabilized zirconia. For example the interfacial resistances of a traditional YSZ–lanthanum maganites composite cathode is about 11.4??? cm 2 at 600?° C . Impedance analysis indicated that the performance of an YSB–Ag composite cathode fired at 850?° C for 2 h is severely limited by gas transport due to insufficient porosity. The high performance of the YSB–Ag cathodes is very encouraging for developing honeycomb fuel cells to be operated at temperatures below 600?° C .

Changrong Xia; Yuelan Zhang; Meilin Liu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Support Information for Kinetic Modeling of Oxidation of Antibacterial Agents by Manganese Oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obtained by two different quenching methods. TABLE S4. (a) k' and Srxn for triclosan oxidation and (b) k and k: (a)CIP; (b) CDX. FIGURE S4. Effect of MnO2 loading on Srxn and k: (a) Triclosan; (b) CDX. FIGURE) Triclosan OH Cl Cl Cl O 7.99 (1) Chlorophene OH Cl 9.96 (1) 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenol OHCl 9.76 (1) 2

Huang, Ching-Hua

449

Thermal stability and oxidation resistance of TiCrAlYO coatings...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

stability and oxidation resistance of TiCrAlYO coatings on SS430 for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications. Thermal stability and oxidation resistance of TiCrAlYO...

450

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C.FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Peggy Y. Hou,for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell is discussed in

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells", (DoctoralImpedance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell LSM/YSZ CompositeCathode materials of solid oxide fuel cells: a review”, J

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inand flat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings ofSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Acetone Chemistry on Oxidized and Reduced TiO2(110). | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acetone Chemistry on Oxidized and Reduced TiO2(110). Acetone Chemistry on Oxidized and Reduced TiO2(110). Abstract: The chemistry of acetone on the oxidized and reduced surfaces of...

455

Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 61, Nos. 3/4, April 2004 ( 2004) Thermal Conductivity, Phase Stability, and Oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Oxidation Resistance of Y3Al5O12 (YAG)/Y2O3­ZrO2 (YSZ) Thermal-Barrier Coatings Y. J. Su, R. W. Trice,# K oxidation resistance while maintaining low thermal conductivity and good phase stability. Padture) is proposed. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect of YAG on thermal resistance, long

Trice, Rodney W.

456

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure including a trans- parent anode, an organic active layer, and a metallic cathode. It has recently zinc oxide films have been actively investigated as alternate materials to ITO because zinc oxide consisted of Al as a cathode, Al2O3 as an electro transport layer, Alq3 as a luminously layer, TPD as a hole

Boo, Jin-Hyo

457

Comparative study of polyoxometalates and semiconductor metal oxides as catalyst. Photochemical oxidative degradation of thioethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photochemical degradation of thioether substrates catalyzed by representative semiconductor metal oxides and sulfides (anatase TiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, cubic WO{sub 3}, and CdS) and photoredox-active early-transition-metal polyometalates (W{sub 10}O{sub 32}{sup 4{minus}}, PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}}, PV{sub 2}Mo{sub 10}O{sub 10}{sup 5{minus}}, and P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}{sup 6{minus}}) have been examined under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, all the semiconductors are completely ineffective at photochemically oxidizing or degrading the exemplary thioether substrate tetrahydrothiophene (THT) in the oxidatively resistant solvent acetonitrile. In contrast, all the homogeneous polyoxometalate systems under the same reaction condition, except the neutral tetra-n-butylammonium (Q) salt of PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, are quite effective. The latter systems generate products derived from the carbon-based radical {alpha} to the sulfur atom and not sulfoxide or sulfone, the usual products of thioether oxidation by oxometal species. The rate for the most active anaerobic system, that involving the photochemical degradation of THT by Q{sub 4}W{sub 10}O{sub 32}, under optically dilute conditions, is first order in W{sub 10}O{sub 32} {sup 4{minus}} and light intensity and variable order in THT substrate. A rate law consistent with these data is given. Upon addition of O{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} (with or without Pt(O)) becomes highly active, SnO{sub 2} becomes active, but WO{sub 3} and CdS remain inactive. Reactivity in thioether oxidation is dominated by the interactions of the semiconductors with O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}-derived intermediates; there is no correlation between reactivity and semiconductor band gap. Upon addition of O{sub 2}, all the polyoxometalate systems become more active. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Chambers, R.C.; Hill, C.L. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1991-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

458

The effect of Mn on the oxidation behavior and electrical conductivity of Fe–17Cr alloys in solid oxide fuel cell cathode atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four Fe–17Cr alloys with various Mn contents between 0.0 and 3.0 wt.% are prepared for investigation of the effect of Mn content on the oxidation behavior and electrical conductivity of the Fe–Cr alloys for the application of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). During the initial oxidation stage (within 1 min) at 750 °C in air, Cr is preferentially oxidized to form a layer of Cr2O3 type oxide in all the alloys, regardless the Mn content, with similar oxidation rate and oxide morphology. The subsequent oxidation of the Mn containing alloys is accelerated caused by the fast outward diffusion of Mn ions across the Cr2O3 type oxide layer to form Mn-rich (Mn, Cr)3O4 and Mn2O3 oxides on the top. After 700 h oxidation a multi-layered oxide scale is observed in the Mn containing alloys, which corresponds to a multi-stage oxidation kinetics in the alloys containing 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% of Mn. The oxidation rate and ASR of the oxide scale increase with the Mn content in the alloy changes from 0.0 to 3.0 wt.%. For the application of metallic interconnects in SOFCs, Mn-free Fe–17Cr alloy with conducting Cr free spinel coatings is preferred.

Bin Hua; Yonghong Kong; Wenying Zhang; Jian Pu; Bo Chi; Li Jian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Water-induced Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over SupportedCobalt...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over Supported CobaltCeria-Zirconia Catalysts under Ethanol-Steam Conditions. Water-induced Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over Supported Cobalt...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - atrbohd-mediated oxidative burst Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extinction Brandon Lohman Summary: triggered by cosmic events. A high intensity gamma ray burst directed toward Earth may have irradiated our... of nitrogen oxides. These oxides...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Predicting the Effect of Catalyst Axial Active Site Distributions on a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Zone-coated diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) can be used to obtain overall improved performance in oxidation reaction extents. However, why this occurs and under what conditions… (more)

Al-Adwani, Suad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

E-Print Network 3.0 - alliedsignal solid oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gas shift units, a selective oxidizing unit, and associated pumps, compressorexpander, heat... , noncatalyzed partial-oxidation reforming process that is suitable for converting...

463

E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulation involving oxidative Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

active phase. For example, thin metal oxide films have been... oxidation of carbon monoxide. Here, we present operando X-ray diffraction experiments on a palladium surface... ,...

464

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti oxidant activity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

homogeneous catalysts are known to display high activities in useful oxidation... nanoparticles and their catalytic activities in the oxidations of olefins, sulfides, and cyclic...

465

Fisetin averts oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Persistent hyperglycemia is associated with chronic oxidative stress which contributes to the development and progression of diabetes-associated complications. The sensitivity of pancreatic ?-cells to oxidative s...

Gopalan Sriram Prasath; Chinnakrishnan Shanmuga Sundaram…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity oxidative stress Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

due to growth of the oxide film or thermal... within the oxide, not through to the bare metal. ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics...

467

Oxidation studies of CrAlON nanolayered coatings on steel plates...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks have directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation...

468

Aerosol Jet Printing of LSCF-CGO Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology has attracted great attention due to advantages such as low emissions and high efficiency. In this work, solid oxide… (more)

Gardner, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Thermal Stress Analysis of LCA-based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research characterizes the thermal stress resulting from temperature gradients in hybrid solid oxide fuel cells that are processed using a novel oxide powder slurry… (more)

LeMasters, Jason Augustine

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

E-Print Network 3.0 - amperometric nitric oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

behavioral... Ref. Neurotransmitters and related compounds Nitric oxide (nitrite) Carbon fiber End-channelInt 8... been studied by microchip CEEC is nitric oxide (NO). NO...

471

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonia-oxidizing archaea diversity Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 4 Ammonia oxidation kinetics determine niche separation of nitrifying Archaea and Bacteria Summary: LETTERS Ammonia oxidation kinetics...

472

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony oxides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

growth of the field oxide in the case of a LOCOS... deposition or removing, - oxide and nitride deposition or etching, - ion-implantationof boron, BF,, arsenic... isolation, -...

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony pyrochlore-type oxides Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

growth of the field oxide in the case of a LOCOS... deposition or removing, - oxide and nitride deposition or etching, - ion-implantationof boron, BF,, arsenic... isolation, -...

474

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Presentation by Acumentrics...

475

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum oxide aperture Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aluminum oxide aperture Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE AND OXIDATION ON...

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric oxidation by-products Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

only a few electrode materials are known... exhibits some selectivity towards the reduction of nitric oxide in a net oxidising atmosphere. Several... and in the nitric oxide...

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - a-induced oxidative liver Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tect rats... . Evaluation of oxidative stress during apoptosis and necrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride in rat liver... oxide in acute liver injury induced by carbon...

478

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated yttrium oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

copper oxide," G. Srinivasan, Guo-mei Wu, and T. T. Srinivasan, J... frequencies in transition metal ion substituted yttrium barium copper oxide superconductors," G. Srinivasan......

479

The electrochemical oxidation of organic selenides and selenoxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical oxidation of alkyl and aryl selenides was investigated in acetonitrile. The oxidation of diphenyl selenide and di(4-methylphenyl) selenide led primarily to the formation of their respective selenoxides, which were identified by exhaustive coulometric oxidation and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C analysis of the products. The selenoxide itself was not observed in the cyclic voltammetry of the selenide for two reasons: first, the protonation of the selenoxide by the acid formed from the reaction of water with the cation radical and second, the formation of a selenoxide hydrate. The formation of the hydrate with diphenyl selenoxide was verified by isolation of the dimethoxy derivative. In addition to the selenoxide, selenonium compounds, formed by the coupling of the oxidized material, were also observed. The alkyl selenides were generally oxidized at a lower potential than the aryl selenides. This trend is different from the sulfur analogues, where the aryl sulfides are easier to oxidize than their alkyl counterparts. As a result, the difference in their redox potentials is relatively small. These differences may occur because the oxidation of aryl sulfides is more likely to take place on the aromatic ring, which leads to a greater yield of the coupled products (about 100%) when compared to the selenide analogue.

Ryan, M.D.; Yau, J.; Hack, M. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide hydrofluorocarbons hfcs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

DEVELOPMENT OF STRAIN IN OXIDES GROWN IN STEAM TUBES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the foundation is being developed for the numerical simulation of the processes that determine the oxide scale exfoliation behavior of the steam-side surfaces of superheater and reheater tubes in a steam boiler. Initially, the assumptions concerning the base state for calculating oxide strains also were critically examined. The state of stress-strain of an oxide growing on the inside surface of an externally-heated tube was considered for the conditions experienced in a boiler during transition from full- to partial-load operation. Since the rate at which the oxide grows is an important consideration, it was necessary to determine the appropriate temperature to use in the oxidation rate calculations. The existence of a temperature gradient through the tube, and the cyclic nature of the boiler operation (temperature and pressure) were considered; the growth temperature of the oxide was taken to be the oxide surface temperature. It was determined that the commonly-used approach for accounting for geometrical effects when calculating stress-strain development in a growing oxide scale of using the analogy of an infinitely-long flat plate gave sufficiently different results than when using a cylindrical geometry, that the latter was adopted as the preferred calculation procedure. Preliminary calculation of strains developed in multilayered oxides formed on alloy T22 as a function of boiler operating conditions indicated the magnitude of the strains in each layer; the large strain gradients between the layers inferred the importance of the detailed scale morphology in determining the mode of exfoliation

Wright, Ian G [ORNL] [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL] [ORNL; Dooley, Barry [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)] [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Membranes for corrosive oxidations. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop porous hydrophilic membranes that are highly resistant to oxidative and corrosive conditions and to deploy them for recovery and purification of high tonnage chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and other oxychemicals. The research team patented a process for membrane-based separation of hydrogen peroxide (US Patent No. 5,662,878). The process is based on using a hydrophilic membrane to separate hydrogen peroxide from the organic working solution. To enable this process, a new method for producing hydrophilic membrane materials (Patent No.6,464,880) was reported. We investigated methods of producing these hydrophilic materials and evaluated separations performance in comparison to membrane stability. It was determined that at the required membrane flux, membrane stability was not sufficient to design a commercial process. This work was published (Hestekin et al., J. Membrane Science 2006). To meet the performance needs of the process, we developed a membrane contactor method to extract the hydrogen peroxide, then we surveyed several commercial and pre-commercial membrane materials. We identified pre-commercial hydrophilic membranes with the required selectivity, flux, and stability to meet the needs of the process. In addition, we invented a novel reaction/separations format that greatly increases the performance of the process. To test the performance of the membranes and the new formats we procured and integrated reactor/membrane separations unit that enables controlled mixing, flow, temperature control, pressure control, and sampling. The results were used to file a US non-provisional patent application (ANL-INV 03-12). Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in pulp and paper applications, environmental treatment, and other industries. Virtually all hydrogen peroxide production is now based on a process featuring catalytic hydrogenation followed by auto-oxidation of suitable organic carrier molecules. This process has several drawbacks, particularly in the extraction phase. One general disadvantage of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide must be produced at large centralized plants where it is concentrated to 70% by distillation and transported to the users plant sites where it is diluted before use. Advanced membranes have the potential to enable more efficient, economic, and safe manufacture of hydrogen peroxide. Advanced membrane technology would allow filtration-based separation to replace the difficult liquid-liquid extraction based separation step of the hydrogen peroxide process. This would make it possible for hydrogen peroxide to be produced on-site in mini-plants at 30% concentration and used at the same plant location without distillation and transportation. As a result, production could become more cost-effective, safe and energy efficient.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

High Temperature Oxidation Performance of Aluminide Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminide coatings are of interest for many high temperature applications because of the possibility of improving the oxidation resistance of structural alloys by forming a protective external alumina scale. Steam and exhaust gas environments are of particular interest because alumina is less susceptible to the accelerated attack due to hydroxide formation observed for chromia- and silica-forming alloys and ceramics. For water vapor testing, one ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and one austenitic alloy (304L) have been selected as substrate materials and CVD coatings have been used in order to have a well-controlled, high purity coating. It is anticipated that similar aluminide coatings could be made by a higher-volume, commercial process such as pack cementation. Previous work on this program has examined as-deposited coatings made by high and low Al activity CVD processes and the short-term performance of these coatings. The current work is focusing on the long term behavior in both diffusion tests16 and oxidation tests of the thicker, high Al activity coatings. For long-term coating durability, one area of concern has been the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between coating and substrate. This difference could cause cracking or deformation that could reduce coating life. Corrosion testing using thermal cycling is of particular interest because of this potential problem and results are presented where a short exposure cycle (1h) severely degraded aluminide coatings on both types of substrates. To further study the potential role of aluminide coatings in fossil energy applications, several high creep strength Ni-base alloys were coated by CVD for testing in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO{sub 2} environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Such alloys would be needed as structural and turbine materials in this concept. For Ni-base alloys, CVD produces a {approx}50{mu}m {beta}-NiAl outer layer with an underlying interdiffusion zone. Specimens of HR160, alloy 601 and alloy 230 were tested with and without coatings at 900 C and preliminary post-test characterization is reported.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it would be about $20,000/lb removed.

Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

486

Kinetic model of catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed for describing the previous disclosed multiplicity of equilibrium states in the oxidation of carbon monoxide on metallic nickel. In contrast to the known mechanism for oxidation of CO on platinum metals it includes a nonlinear stage of carbon monoxide adsorption and a linear stage of oxygen adsorption. A kinetic model has been obtained and stage velocity constants have been found, providing a basis for obtaining a quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimental relations between the reaction velocity and the reagent concentrations. Opinions are stated in relation to the causes for evolution of the CO oxidation reaction from platinum metals to nickel.

Pyatnitskii, Yu.I.; Ostapyuk, V.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

An EPR study of ¹?O? on magnesium oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EPR STUDY OF 0 ON MAGNESIUM OXIDE A Thesis by NING-SEW WONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Chemistry AN EPR... STUDY OF 0 ON MAGNESIUM OXIDE A Thesis by NING-BEN WONG Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) May 1971 ABSTRACT 17 An EPR Study of 0 on Magnesium Oxide (May, 1971) Ning-Bew Wong, B...

Wong, Ning-Bew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

489

Oxidation induced localized creep deformation in Zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Extensive plastic deformation in the metal underneath the oxide scale in autoclave tested Zircaloy-2 was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was concluded that the plastic deformation is created by creep during oxidation, and is not caused by surface treatment, sample preparation or cooling from autoclave temperatures. Evidence of large strains was found in the form of dislocation tangles, dislocation patches and sub-grain formation, and also indications of twinning were found. The heavily deformed layer is around a few ?m thick and no obvious difference could be seen between alloys with different strength or different oxide thickness.

Pia Tejland; Hans-Olof Andrén

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Electric Resistance Change Mechanism of Indium-Tin Oxide Film During Deposition of Dielectric Oxide Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric resistance change of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film was investigated when dielectric oxide films such as Sr(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 and Y2O3 for an electroluminescent device were deposited on the ITO by the rf magnetron sputtering method using oxide ceramic targets. In order to understand the mechanism of the resistance change, a dc voltage of -70~+70 V was biased to an ITO film during the sputtering of dielectric oxide films. The resistance of the ITO film became higher in the positive bias region. The cause of the increase in resistance of the ITO films was confirmed to be oxidation by the oxide targets and the sputtering gas. The amount of the resistance change could be qualitatively explained by the ratio of the oxygen introduced into the ITO film and the combined oxygen forming O2 gas at the ITO surface incident to the ITO film at the sputtering of the dielectric oxide films.

Tomizo Matsuoka; Jun Kuwata; Masahiro Nishikawa; Yosuke Fujita; Takao Tohda; Atsushi Abe

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Apoptosis and oxidants in the heart  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis has been reported in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion, end-stage heart failure, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. The role of CM apoptosis in the development and progression of cardiac diseases merits further investigation. Cumulative evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in cardiac pathophysiology, can trigger myocyte apoptosis by up-regulating proapoptotic proteins, such as Bax and caspases, and the mitochondria-dependent pathway. These apoptotic proteins and pathways are inhibited by various antioxidants, as well as by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 by way of the antioxidant pathway. Detection of CM apoptosis with the terminal transferase–mediated DNA nick-end labeling assay alone has recently been questioned because of technical concerns regarding its sensitivity and specificity. Because \\{CMs\\} are mononuclear or binuclear, if only one nucleus or a certain percentage of fragmented nuclei is stained with TUNEL assay at the early stage of apoptotic cell death, it remains unknown whether this particular early apoptotic CM is still functionally active. The issue of TUNEL specificity further questions reports of high percentages of apoptotic CM nuclei (0.02%-35%) in the heart. Nevertheless, oxidative stress is a major apoptotic stimulus in many cardiovascular diseases and the process can be inhibited by antioxidants both in vitro and in vivo.

Dinender Kumar; Bodh I Jugdutt

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

Jacobson, J.

1994-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

493

Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

G. R. Holcomb

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, some basic arrangements of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are described, starting with atmospheric systems using a catalytic burner or a thermal burner and anode gas recycling. For illustrating the potential electrical efficiency of SOFC systems, their combination with a gas turbine and also with a steam turbine (ST) are described. To be able to evaluate the potential of the different systems, first the essential efficiencies relevant to fuel cell systems are defined and then the basics of calculating energy balance are illustrated. Equations are given to describe, for example, the effect of fuel recycling on system fuel utilization and of internal reforming on the necessary air flow for cooling the stack. It is obvious that electrical efficiency depends strongly on cell voltage and fuel utilization. In the case of cells that operate with a high fuel utilization at cell voltages of 800 mV, a net electrical efficiency above 55% can be achieved. The combination in a pressurized system with a gas turbine enables efficiencies of up to 70% and combining this system with an additional ST allows efficiencies of up to 75%. However, an investigation into the size of these \\{STs\\} shows that such combined systems make sense only above a gas input of 10 MW.

L. Blum; E. Riensche

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Transition metal oxides deposited on rhodium and platinum: Surface chemistry and catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface chemistry and catalytic reactivity of transition metal oxides deposited on Rh and Pt substrates has been examined in order to establish the role of oxide-metal interactions in influencing catalytic activity. The oxides investigated included titanium oxide (TiOx), vanadium oxide (VOx), iron oxide (FeOx), zirconium oxide (ZrOx), niobium oxide (NbOx), tantalum oxide (TaOx), and tungsten oxide (WOx). The techniques used to characterize the sample included AES, XPS, LEED, TPD, ISS, and STM. After characterization of the surface in UHV, the sample was enclosed in an atmospheric reaction cell to measure the influence of the oxide deposits on the catalytic activity of the pure metal for CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. The oxide deposits were found to strongly enhance the reactivity of the Rh foil. The rates of methane formation were promoted by up to 15 fold with the maximum in rate enhancement occurring at oxide coverages of approximately 0.5 ML. TiOx TaOx, and NbOx were the most effective promoters and were stable in the highest oxidation states during both reactions (compared to VOx, WOx, and FeOx). The trend in promoter effectiveness was attributed to the direct relationship between oxidation state and Lewis acidity. Bonding at the metal oxide/metal interface between the oxygen end of adsorbed CO and the Lewis acidic oxide was postulated to facilitate C-O bond dissociation and subsequent hydrogenation. 192 refs.

Boffa, A.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Interfacial electrochemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation. 1: Effect of borate on pyrite surface oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial chemistry of pyrite is of great industrial importance in complex sulfide ore flotation, coal desulfurization, acid mine drainage mitigation, and conversion of solar energy to electrical or chemical energy. Sodium tetraborate (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) has been widely used as an electrolyte and pH buffer in studying the interfacial electrochemistry of sulfide minerals in relation to sulfide mineral flotation. In all the previous studies published so far, borate was regarded as an inert electrolyte/pH buffer, and its reactions with the sulfide minerals were completely overlooked. In this first part of this series papers, the complicating effects of borate on the interfacial electrochemistry of pyrite have been studied. In the borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is strongly enhanced. The first and rate-determining step of the reaction between borate and pyrite has been shown to be the following irreversible reaction: FeS{sub 2} + B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} {yields} FeS{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis} [B(OH){sub 4}]{sub ads} + e. This reaction appears in the voltammogram as an anodic oxidation peak at potentials of more than 0.4 V lower than the commencement of pyrite oxidation in sodium perchlorate or nitrate electrolyte solutions. As the borate concentration increases, the peak current increases linearly, while the peak potential shifts positively at 240 mV per decade. On a rotating-disc electrode, the peak becomes a plateau. The limiting current density is a linear function of the square root of the rotation speed at relatively low rotation speeds. The Tafel slope is close to 240 mV per decade and is independent of the rotation speed and borate concentration. The results indicate that charge transfer coefficient is 0.25.

Wang, X.H. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

500

Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on the Cubic V4O10 Cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and mixed metal oxide (MMO) catalysts for selective oxidation and ammoxida- tion of propene to acrolein

Goddard III, William A.