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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

3

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, some basic arrangements of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are described, starting with atmospheric systems using a catalytic burner or a thermal burner and anode gas recycling. For illustrating the potential electrical efficiency of SOFC systems, their combination with a gas turbine and also with a steam turbine (ST) are described. To be able to evaluate the potential of the different systems, first the essential efficiencies relevant to fuel cell systems are defined and then the basics of calculating energy balance are illustrated. Equations are given to describe, for example, the effect of fuel recycling on system fuel utilization and of internal reforming on the necessary air flow for cooling the stack. It is obvious that electrical efficiency depends strongly on cell voltage and fuel utilization. In the case of cells that operate with a high fuel utilization at cell voltages of 800 mV, a net electrical efficiency above 55% can be achieved. The combination in a pressurized system with a gas turbine enables efficiencies of up to 70% and combining this system with an additional ST allows efficiencies of up to 75%. However, an investigation into the size of these \\{STs\\} shows that such combined systems make sense only above a gas input of 10 MW.

L. Blum; E. Riensche

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Utilizing Alternative Fuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation is a summary of four solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) research projects which addressed a number of SOFC technologies to use alternative fuels… (more)

Labarbera, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. Fuel cells are an energy user's dream: an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions that runs almost silently and has few

8

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxide Fuel Cells PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Robert Ploessl Corning, Inc. Tim Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Barbara Heydorn SRI International Suresh Baskaran...

9

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications Operating Principles AEC Development Atmospheric Pressure Systems Pressurized Systems Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems...

10

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

14

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

17

Metallic Materials in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Recently, a new type of FeC...

V. Shemet; J. Piron-Abellan; W.J. Quadakkers…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Report from Breakout Group 5 of the Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, January 23-24, 2008...

19

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.solidoxide.html, Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Gas Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A uniform distribution of the reactants over the total available electrode surfaces in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is a prerequisite for the proper operation of the fuel cell. The gas distribution plays a dominant role not only in the current density distribution but also in the temperature distribution over the cell areas and in the stack and modules. Several transport mechanisms for mass transport occurring in the SOFC are introduced and discussed. General flow configurations and structures for the gas distribution at three different levels, i.e., stack/module, cell/tube, and electrode/electrolyte, are discussed for both tubular and planar type cells and illustrated with examples of concentration and temperature profiles.

L.G.J. de Haart; M. Spiller

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Internal and External Reformation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three basic concepts of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems operating on hydrocarbon fuels, with external, internal, and partial prereforming, respectively, are presented and discussed. Internal reforming of methane is advantageously used for additional cooling of the SOFC stack, thus increasing system efficiency. Basic thermodynamics, catalysis, and kinetics of the methane steam reforming process are presented. Examples of SOFC stacks operating on internal reforming of methane and simulated partial prereforming of mine gas and natural gas are discussed. The latter is used to illustrate the effect of internal methane reforming on heat management in SOFC stacks.

L.G.J. de Haart; R. Peters

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

25

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

26

Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

27

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies July 23, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling option, please visit: The NETL Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program Webpage Solid oxide fuel cells are among the cleanest, most efficient power-generating technologies now being developed. They provide excellent electrical efficiencies and are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels, from coal and natural gas to landfill waste and hydrogen. And with continued advancements, solid oxide fuel cells can provide clean

28

One dimensional modeling of planar solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers parametric study for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) as a function of fuel gas composition. The… (more)

Ghosh, Ujjal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

32

Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in terms at 800oC with humidified hydrogen (3% H2O) as the fuel and air as the oxidant. The cells were also tested

Lin, Xi

33

Robust control strategies for hybrid solid oxide fuel cell systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems are electrochemical energy conversion devices characterized by the use of solid oxide as the electrolyte. They operate at high… (more)

Mathew, Anju Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Talinfiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

38

FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

SciTech Connect

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

39

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Multi-scale solid oxide fuel cell materials modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance and degradation of fuel cell components are discussed in a multi-scale ... paper. Electrochemical reactions in a solid oxide fuel cell occur simultaneously as charge and gas pass ... and cathode to pr...

Ji Hoon Kim; Wing Kam Liu; Christopher Lee

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

43

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

Riley, B.

1988-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

44

Mathematical Analysis of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The mathematical analysis has been developed by using finite volume method, experimental data from literatures, and solving numerically to predict solid oxide fuel cell performances… (more)

Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Ageing of integrated-planar solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The ageing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) is a key problem because of the requirement of 50,000 hours to their lifetime in many applications.… (more)

Almutairi, Ghzzai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Effects and Degradation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Understanding Transport and Thermodynamics." The goals of this project are to: 1) understand the detailed mechanisms of...

47

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Biogas fuel reforming for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper strategies for biogas reforming and their ensuing effects on solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC) performance are explored. Synthesized biogas (65% CH4?+?35% CO2) fuel streams are reformed over a rhodium catalyst supported on a porous ?-alumina foam. Reforming approaches include steam reforming and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) utilizing either air or pure oxygen as the oxidant. A computational model is developed and utilized to guide the specification of reforming conditions that maximize both CH4 and CO2 conversions. Model predictions are validated with experimental measurements over a wide range of biogas-reforming conditions. Higher reforming temperatures are shown to activate the biogas-borne CO2 to enable significant methane dry-reforming chemistry. Dry reforming minimizes the oxidant-addition needs for effective biogas conversion potentially decreasing the thermal requirements for reactant heating and improving system efficiency. Such high-temperature reforming conditions are prevalent during CPOX with a pure-O2 oxidant. While CPOX-with-O2 reforming is highly exothermic the endothermicity of dry-reforming chemistry can be exploited to ensure that catalyst temperatures do not reach levels which cause catalyst sintering and degradation. SOFCelectrochemical performance under biogas reformate is shown to vary substantially with reforming approach. Cell operation under CPOX-with-O2 reformate is found to be comparable to that under humidified hydrogen.

Danielle M. Murphy; Amy E. Richards; Andrew Colclasure; Wade A. Rosensteel; Neal P. Sullivan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Model-based Interpretation of the Performance and Degradation of Reformate Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells offer great prospects for the sustainable, clean and safe conversion of various fuels into electrical energy. In this thesis, the performance-determining… (more)

Kromp, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July Uncertainties in our understanding of the oxygen reduction mechanism (ORR) at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC studies have shown that cathodic or anodic dc polarization of the solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes

Yildiz, Bilge

52

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Utilizing Syngas from Coal Gasifiers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Utilizing Syngas from Coal Gasifiers ... The oxidizer is expected to be similar in design to a HRSG duct firing burner (at the inlet of a HRSG). ...

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh; Stephen Jolly; Dilip Patel; David Stauffer

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

54

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C.FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Peggy Y. Hou,for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell is discussed in

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inand flat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings ofSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

New materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells to be powered by carbon- and sulfur-containing fuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unlike polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to use a wide variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons and gasified coal or… (more)

Yang, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

In Situ Studies of Fuel Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Situ Studies of Fuel Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Re-optimization of the Raman signal shows two broad, strong features in the OCV spectrum indicating large amounts of disordered graphite as evidenced by a broad D band (at 1350 cm-1) accompanying the G band (at 1585 cm-1) (Figure 2, right panel). ... intensities from a nonresonant, bond polarizability model optimized for sp2 carbon are also in qual. ...

Michael B. Pomfret; Jeffrey C. Owrutsky; Robert A. Walker

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Presentation by Acumentrics...

59

Stack configurations for tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell unit includes an array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes having porous metallic exterior surfaces, interior fuel cell layers, and interior surfaces, each of the tubes having at least one open end; and, at least one header in operable communication with the array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes for directing a first reactive gas into contact with the porous metallic exterior surfaces and for directing a second reactive gas into contact with the interior surfaces, the header further including at least one busbar disposed in electrical contact with at least one surface selected from the group consisting of the porous metallic exterior surfaces and the interior surfaces.

Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Trammell, Michael P. (Clinton, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

An Octane-Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for the adoption of fuel cells for applications...not only reduces fuel consumption but also reduces...emission. Although fuel cells can achieve efficiencies...internal combustion engine, and H 2 is more...is, gasoline and diesel, has not been successful...

Zhongliang Zhan; Scott A. Barnett

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In FY 2014, nine research projects focused on advancing the reliability, robustness, and endurance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been selected for funding by Office of Fossil Energy’s...

63

Perspectives on the metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The various stages and progress in the development of interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over the last two decades are reviewed. The criteria for the application of materials as intercon...

Wei-zhong Zhu; Mi Yan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Power System Development at PNNL Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011....

65

Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

Yoon, Jongsik

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell...

67

Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

McElroy, James F. (Hamilton, MA); Chludzinski, Paul J. (Swampscott, MA); Dantowitz, Philip (Peabody, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

1987-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

69

Neutron Sciences - Electrode Material for Solid-oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode material for solid-oxide fuel cells Research Contact: Ana B. Munoz-Garcia December 2012, Written by Agatha Bardoel Fuel cell technology is one potentially very efficient and environmentally friendly way to convert the chemical energy of fuels into electricity. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can convert a wide variety of fuels with simpler, cheaper designs than those used in liquid electrolyte cells. Using the Powder Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, researchers experimentally characterized the promising new SOFC electrode material strontium iron molybdenum oxide─Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ (SFMO). Combining the experimental results with insights from theory showed that the crystal structure is distorted from the ideal cubic simple perovskite

70

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

Minh, Nguyen Q. (Fountain Valley, CA); Horne, Craig R. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

SciTech Connect

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

ELECTRODE DEVELOPMENT FOR REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The reversibility of the electrodes for a solid oxide fuel cell with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte was examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current interrupt methods. The fuel electrodes were nickel/zirconia cermet and lanthanum-doped strontium titanate/doped ceria composites. The air electrodes were lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF) and lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF). Under the experimental conditions studied all four electrodes were able to operate in both the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes. The titanate/ceria fuel electrode performed substantially better in the electrolyzer mode than state-of-art Ni-YSZ. Moreover, it showed slightly higher activity for water electrolysis as compared to hydrogen oxidation. Air electrodes were less active in the electrolyzer than fuel cell modes. LSF typically provided higher overpotential losses in both modes than copper-substituted LSF. Changes in the defect chemistry of electrode materials under cathodic and anodic polarization are discussed.

Marina, Olga A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rieke, Peter C.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Williams, Mark C.

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steels in Simulated Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cyclic oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels has been studied in the temperature range 700–900°C in atmospheres relevant to solid-oxide fuel-cell operation. The most detriment...

J. E. Hammer; S. J. Laney; R. W. Jackson; K. Coyne; F. S. Pettit…

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Numerical Simulation of Electrolyte-Supported Planar Button Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are fuel cells that operate at high temperatures usually in the range of 600 °C to 1000 °C and employ solid… (more)

Aman, Amjad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Validation of a solid oxide fuel cell model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The need to study the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has made mathematical modeling an essential tool for their design. Electrochemical modeling evaluates ohmic activation and concentration overpotentials that affect SOFC operation. A detailed cell model is developed for an SOFC and is validated with experimental data from the open literature.

Christina Charalampidou; Ioannis K. Kookos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-stabilized zirconia, YSZ) and the electrocatalyst (lanthanum manganite for the cathode and nickel metal for the anode are stressed. Especially for planar cell designs, the chromium contamination of the cathode and interfacial; Processing; Interconnect materials 1. Introduction Worldwide, several developers of solid oxide fuel cell

Gleixner, Stacy

79

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell prospect  

SciTech Connect

Driven by technological achievement and rational projection of commercial product cost, expectations for tubular SOFC commercialization are improving. Tubular SOFCs have surpassed 7 yrs operation and have recently demonstrated remarkable toughness in thermal cycling. Customer-owned systems with 25 kW stacks utilizing air electrode supported (AES) cells continue to operate directly on natural gas without degradation after multiple thermal cycles and over 4000 hrs operation. AES cell operation at elevated pressure corroborates theoretical estimates of performance gain without evidence of deleterious effect. Commercial class AES cell of 22 mm dia and 1500 mm length, is now in production for application to 100 kW, 50% efficient (ac/LHV), atmospheric pressure systems. This same cell applied to pressurized systems in combination with conventional turbo machinery (gas turbines) can yield an efficiency approaching 70% for power plants as small as 5 MW. Total installed system cost for commercial 5 MW SOFC/CT units for distributed power generation and on-site cogeneration should approach $1000/kW. A major challenge is formation of funded projects to demonstrate at the turn of the century prototype MW class SOFC/CT combined cycle power plants and to complete the development of commercial fuel cell manufacturing processes.

Veyo, S.E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l t t PNNLSystem Development at PNNLSystem Development at PNNL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l;Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CharacteristicsSolid Oxide Fuel Cell Characteristics High temperature (~700 ­ 800 of SOFCDevelopment of SOFC TTechnologyechnology Fuel Reforming and System DesignFuel Reforming and System Design

83

Electrode Performance in Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The performance of several negative (fuel) and positive (air) electrode compositions for use in reversible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that are capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer was investigated in half-cell and full-cell tests. Negative electrode compositions studied were a nickel/zirconia cermet (Ni/YSZ) and lanthanum-substituted strontium titanate/ceria composite, whereas positive electrode compositions examined included mixed ion and electron-conducting lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF), lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF), lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCoF), and lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM). While titanate/ceria and Ni/YSZ electrodes performed similarly in the fuel cell mode in half-cell tests, losses associated with electrolysis were lower for the titanate/ceria electrode. Positive electrodes all gave higher losses in the electrolysis mode when compared to the fuel cell mode. This behavior was most apparent for mixed-conducting LSF, LSCuF, and LSCoF electrodes, and discernible but smaller for LSM; observations are consistent with expected trends in the interfacial oxygen vacancy concentration under anodic and cathodic polarization. Full-cell tests conducted for cells with a thin electrolyte (7 um YSZ) similarly showed higher polarization losses in the electrolysis than fuel cell direction.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Williams, Mark C.; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Nguyen, Carolyn D.; Thomsen, Ed C.

2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

84

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

85

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

than traditional generators even though they still have an important level of greenhouse gas (CO2 for more than a century. Today, as conventional fossil energy supplies, such as oil, coal and natural gas of Energy's Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program [3] is targeting solid oxide fuel cell

Tolbert, Leon M.

87

Nanofiber Scaffold for Cathode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

A high performance solid oxide fuel cell cathode using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanofibers scaffold with the infiltrated La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM) shows an enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. Such a cathode offers a continuous path for charge transport and an increased number of triple-phase boundary sites.

Mingjia Zhi; Nicholas Mariani; Randall Gemmen; Kirk Gerdes; Nianqiang Wu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Initial and final state geometries are found with standard geometry optimization, then a number of intermediate states are generated by interpolation of atomic positions. ... A special "metric" and a special "preconditioning" optimized for a plane-wave basis set will be introduced. ...

Timothy P. Holme; Fritz B. Prinz

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

89

New Chemical Systems for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New Chemical Systems for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells† ... (238) This, however, represented a significant improvement over earlier work with the use of Pt electrodes, suggesting that further improvements can be made through electrode optimization and, hence, identifying the need for more work in optimizing electrodes for use with apatite electrolytes. ... cond., the optimized compn. ...

A. Orera; P. R. Slater

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

90

The Performance of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells using Hydrogen-depleted Coal Syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Since solid oxide fuel cells can operate on fuel containing both hydrogen and carbon monoxide, it may prove possible to remove hydrogen from syngas streams… (more)

Burnette, David D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Molten Metal Anodes for Direct Carbon-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis was to enable the direct utilization of solid carbonaceous fuels like coal and biomass, in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).… (more)

Jayakumar, Abhimanyu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Microstructure-based solid oxide fuel cell seal design using statistical mechanics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in a flat-plate configuration require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air sides of the electrodes, and this seal… (more)

Milhans, Jacqueline Linda

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Acumentrics Corporation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration March 16, 2010

94

Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell Jeff Lillibridge Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Advisor: Mikko Haataja #12;What is a solid oxide fuel cell microstructuralcoarsening processes to electrochemical performancein solid oxide fuel cells: An integrated modeling approach

Petta, Jason

96

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate

Yildiz, Bilge

97

Aerosol Jet Printing of LSCF-CGO Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology has attracted great attention due to advantages such as low emissions and high efficiency. In this work, solid oxide… (more)

Gardner, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Thermal Stress Analysis of LCA-based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research characterizes the thermal stress resulting from temperature gradients in hybrid solid oxide fuel cells that are processed using a novel oxide powder slurry… (more)

LeMasters, Jason Augustine

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe Borhan M of Engineering Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (MIMO) Systems Are... fuel. Sanandaji, Tyrone L. Vincent, Andrew Colclasure, and Robert J. Kee Colorado Fuel Cell Center (CFCC) Division

Sanandaji, Borhan M.

100

Modeling Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design and Analysis Moe A Khaleel BJ Koeppel, W Liu, K Lai, KP Recknagle, EM Ryan, EV Stephens, X Sun Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 11 th Annual SECA Workshop Pittsburgh, PA July 27-29, 2009 1 PNNL SOFC Modeling Tools SOFC-MP Stack level model for fast analysis of co/counter-flow SOFC stack performance Detailed electrochemistry model Cell level model for the investigation of secondary reactions (degradation/contamination) mechanisms within the tri-layer Component-based design and performance modeling Contact material Interconnect Glass seal 2 SOFC-MP Stack Simulation Code Recent Accomplishments Major memory improvements of 3D model to accommodate 50-cell stacks on LINUX platform. Previously, developed a 2D (or stacked

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Steady state thermal stress analyses of two-dimensional and three-dimensional solid oxide fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert fuels directly into electrical energy without combustion. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the most promising energy… (more)

Valluru, Srividya.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electrical contact structures for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrical output connection means is provided for a high temperature solid oxide electrolyte type fuel cell generator. The electrical connection of the fuel cell electrodes to the electrical output bus, which is brought through the generator housing to be connected to an electrical load line maintains a highly uniform temperature distribution. The electrical connection means includes an electrode bus which is spaced parallel to the output bus with a plurality of symmetrically spaced transversely extending conductors extending between the electrode bus and the output bus, with thermal insulation means provided about the transverse conductors between the spaced apart buses. Single or plural stages of the insulated transversely extending conductors can be provided within the high temperatures regions of the fuel cell generator to provide highly homogeneous temperature distribution over the contacting surfaces.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

104

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

Herceg, J.E.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

106

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS OXIDIZERS ON THE OVERALL PERFORMACE OF A DIRECT FLAME SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The power output of a direct-flame solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was studied using hydrogen (H2) as the fuel for the flame and various oxidizers,… (more)

Donadio, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the July 2001 to September 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. An internal program kickoff was held at Honeywell in Torrance, CA. The program structure was outlined and the overall technical approach for the program was presented to the team members. Detail program schedules were developed and detailed objectives were defined. Initial work has begun on the system design and pressurized SOFC operation.

Unknown

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the January 2002 to March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. For this reporting period the following activities have been carried out: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} System-level performance model was created {lg_bullet} Dynamic control models are being developed {lg_bullet} Mechanical properties of candidate heat exchanger materials were investigated {lg_bullet} SOFC performance mapping as a function of flow rate and pressure was completed

Nguyen Minh

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Thermo Physical Properties of Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are energy conversion devices that convert chemical energy to electrical energy with high efficiency and have the added advantage of least production of pollutants during their operation. SOFCs comprise of a number of components such as the anode the electrolyte the cathode and the interconnect. Each of these components is made of a different material with different thermophysical and electrical properties. Thermal expansion coefficient is one of the most important properties of these compounds. Various components should have matching thermal expansion behaviour to avoid cracking during thermal cycling and for long term operation of SOFCs. In this article the thermophysical properties of materials for solid oxide fuel cells will be discussed with special emphasize on their thermal expansion behaviour.

S. R. Bharadwaj

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and facile method in the manufacturing of anode support solid oxide fuel cell(1). Two anode support SOFCsPage 5-211 Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel oxide fuel cell (SOFC, hereafter) has been identified as an attractive technique in the recent few

Kasagi, Nobuhide

111

Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades hydrogen as a fuel and pure oxygen as an oxidant. Anode-reference static current method, with a current

Kasagi, Nobuhide

112

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when oxidize (redox reaction) instead of the hydrogen fuel [2]. This conversion to NiO exerts a volumetric

Petta, Jason

113

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cells and stacks ­ Active and passive thermal management #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Preparation Generally, most powders will be procured from suppliers ­ May require in-house processing

114

Multi-Component and Multi-Dimensional Mathematical Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are solid-state ceramic cells, typically operating between 1073 K and 1273 K. Because of high operating temperature, SOFCs are mostly… (more)

Hussain, Mohammed Mujtaba

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low, Director Product Development & Federal Programs #12;Project Background f Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells:Water The VPS Storage f Wind Fuel Cell / f Solar Electrolyzer Continuous SOFC Intermittent Power Power

116

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

117

Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to solid oxide fuel power generators and is particularly directed to improvements in the assembly and coupling of solid oxide fuel cell modules. A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing. 17 figs.

Szreders, B.E.; Campanella, N.

1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

118

Development of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

A 250 kW External Fuel Processor was developed and tested that will supply the gases needed by a pipeline natural gas fueled, solid oxide fuel cell during all modes of operation. The fuel processor consists of three major subsystems--a desulfurizer to remove fuel sulfur to an acceptable level, a synthesis gas generator to support plant heat-up and low load fuel cell operations, and a start gas generator to supply a non-flammable, reducing gas to the fuel cell during startup and shutdown operations. The desulfurization subsystem uses a selective catalytic sulfur oxidation process that was developed for operation at elevated pressure and removes the fuel sulfur to a total sulfur content of less than 80 ppbv. The synthesis gas generation subsystem uses a waterless, catalytic partial oxidation reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich mixture from the natural gas and air. An operating window was defined that allows carbon-free operation while maintaining catalyst temperatures that will ensure long-life of the reactor. The start gas subsystem generates an oxygen-free, reducing gas from the pipeline natural gas using a low-temperature combustion technique. These physically and thermally integrated subsystems comprise the 250 kW External Fuel Processor. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was tested at the Rolls-Royce facility in North Canton, Ohio to verify process performance and for comparison with design specifications. A step wise operation of the automatic controls through the startup, normal operation and shutdown sequences allowed the control system to be tuned and verified. A fully automated system was achieved that brings the fuel processor through its startup procedure, and then await commands from the fuel cell generator module for fuel supply and shutdown. The fuel processor performance met all design specifications. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was shipped to an American Electric Power site where it will be tested with a Rolls-Royce solid oxide fuel cell generator module.

Daniel Birmingham; Crispin Debellis; Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

119

Design improvements of micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells for unmanned aircraft applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work contributes to the development of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (mSOFC) stack for use in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. Fuel cells… (more)

Howe, Katie Sarah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

123

Thin-film heterostructure solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A micro thin-filmsolid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC) has been designed based on thin-filmdeposition and microlithographic processes. The TFSOFC is composed of a thin-filmelectrolyte grown on a nickel foil substrate and a thin-filmcathodedeposited on the electrolyte. The Ni foil substrate is then processed into a porous anode by photolithographic patterning and etching to develop pores for gas transport into the fuel cell. A La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO) thin-filmcathode is then deposited on the electrolyte and a porous NiO–YSZ cermet layer is added to the anode to improve the electrode performance. The TFSOFC has stably operated in a temperature ranges as low as 480–570?°C significantly lower than bulk SOFC’s and has yielded a maximum output power density of ?110? mW/cm 2 in that temperature range.

X. Chen; N. J. Wu; L. Smith; A. Ignatiev

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

SciTech Connect

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- sr¡pported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

Adzic, Radoslav

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks Modeling and Control Mohammad and maintenance of the truck engine. While still in the research phase, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) based APUs are used to provide this power, rather than idling the engine, because they use less fuel and reduce wear

128

Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Bipolar Plate-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell J. D. Carter, T. Cruse, J. Ralph,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bipolar Plate-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell "TuffCell" J. D. Carter, T. Cruse, J. Ralph, R. Kumar, and D. Myers Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 2003 Annual Review DOE Fuel Cells Program May 19;Metallic Bipolar-Plate-Supported SOFC Design (TuffCell) Fuel flow field (metal) Air flow field (metal

130

Topological analysis of hydrogen oxidation reaction kinetics at Ni/YSZ anode of the solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of reactions that occur on the electrodes hold the key to further advances in solid oxide fuel cell… (more)

Dar, Yasir Rasool

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Proton Conductor based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 S. (Elango) Elangovan, Joseph Hartvigsen, Insoo Bay, and Feng Zhao High efficiency operation is one of the primary attractions to use solid oxide fuel cells as the energy conversion device. High efficiency requires maximizing of the product of operating voltage and fuel utilization. The maximum possible operating voltage however is limited by the Nernst potential near the fuel exhaust. In oxygen conducting electrolyte based fuel cells (O-SOFC) as the fuel utilization increases, the Nernst potential continues to decrease with the dilution of fuel by the reaction products. In contrast, in a proton conducting electrolyte based fuel cell (P-SOFC) the reaction product is formed on the cathode side allowing for high operating voltage at high fuel

132

Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Performance Analysis and Development Strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are of great interest for a diverse range of applications. Within the past 10 years, an increase in power density by one order of magnitude, a lowering of the operating temperature by 200 K, and degradation rates lowered by a factor of 10 have been achieved on the cell and stack level. However, there is still room for further enhancement of the overall performance by suitably tailoring the cell components on a micro- and nanostructural level. The efficiency of the electrochemically active single cell is characterized by the linear ohmic losses within the electrolyte and by nonlinear polarization losses at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. Both depend on material composition and operation conditions (temperature and time, fuel utilisation and gas composition). The area-specific resistance (ASR) is considered as the figure of merit for overall performance. ASR values of anode supported cells (ASC) were determined by means of impedance spectroscopy and subsequently separated into ohmic losses (mainly electrolyte) and nonlinear polarisation losses resulting from gas diffusion and activation polarization in the cathode and anode. The efficiencies of ASCs will be discussed for various material combinations in the temperature range of technological interest (between 550 °C and 850 °C).

E Ivers-Tiffée; A Leonide; A Weber

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] In this dissertation an investigation into the utility of mechanochemically synthesized nanopowders for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell components is reported. The… (more)

Hos, James Pieter

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Program Area of Interest: Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant for Microfluidic Fuel Cells Erik Kjeang,a,c,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant for Microfluidic Fuel Cells Erik Kjeang,a,c, * Alexandre G. Brolo, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 3P6 We demonstrate a microfluidic fuel cell incorporating hydrogen and exhibits a high standard reduction potential. It also enables fuel cell operation where natural convection

Brolo, Alexandre G.

137

Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

140

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Development of metallic substrate supported planar solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) consisting of a cell supported with a porous metallic substrate and a metallic separator has been developed. In the fabrication of the cell, anodes and electrolytes were form...

Shunji Takenoiri; Naruaki Kadokawa; Kazuo Koseki

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures ... (1-4) Although the concept of SOFCs was first reported more than one century ago,(5) major technological advances in cell materials, reactor configuration, operation mode, and balance of plant system integration and optimization were realized in the last 20–30 years only. ... The hybrid start-up process is optimized with respect to a specific setup as an example, but is of general nature and utility to similar systems. ...

Chao Su; Yubo Chen; Wei Wang; Ran Ran; Zongping Shao; João C. Diniz da Costa; Shaomin Liu

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

Numerical analysis of an internal methane reforming solid oxide fuel cell with fuel recycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems capable of direct internal reforming (DIR) of methane is being actively pursued. However, a major challenge with current state-of-the-art nickel-based anodes is their propensity to form deteriorous carbon deposits in DIR, unless excess steam is introduced in the fuel. Reduced fuel humidification levels are desirable from the viewpoints of cell performance, reliability and plant economics. This study explores the use of partial recycling of the anode exhaust as a mitigation strategy against carbon deposits at fuel steam-to-carbon ratios less than unity. Using a detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which couples momentum, heat, mass and charge transport with electrochemical and chemical reactions, the spatial extent of carbon deposition within a SOFC anode is analyzed by accounting for both the cracking and Boudouard reactions, for several fuel humidification and recycling conditions. At temperatures of approximately 1173 K and for inlet fuel molar H2O/CH4 ratios between 0.5 and 1, 50% (mass%) fuel recycling is found to be an effective strategy against carbon deposition. For lower recycling levels at the same fuel compositions, or lower fuel humidification levels (regardless of the recycling level), fuel recycling reduces the risk of coking, but does not eliminate it. The analyses presented suggest that recycling of the anodic fuel stream could help extend the operational range of DIR-SOFCs to lower fuel humidification levels than typically considered, with reduced risks of carbon deposits, while reducing system cost and complexity in terms of steam production. For dry or weakly humidified fuels, additional mitigation strategies would be required.

Valérie Eveloy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

145

Apparatus tube configuration and mounting for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator apparatus (10) is made containing long, hollow, tubular, fuel cells containing an inner air electrode (64), an outer fuel electrode (56), and solid electrolyte (54) therebetween, placed between a fuel distribution board (29) and a board (32) which separates the combustion chamber (16) from the generating chamber (14), where each fuel cell has an insertable open end and in insertable, plugged, closed end (44), the plugged end being inserted into the fuel distribution board (29) and the open end being inserted through the separator board (32) where the plug (60) is completely within the fuel distribution board (29).

Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

Singh, P.; George, R.A.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

148

Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

149

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches One Year of Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 31, 2000 January 31, 2000 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches One Year of Operations Netherlands Test Boosts Confidence for Commercial Introduction by 2004 An experimental all solid-state fuel cell - the possible prototype for a future "combustion-less" power plant - has passed a key milestone in a joint public-private development effort. Schematic Diagram of Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell The Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell is a tubular arrangement of concentric ceramic electrodes and a solid-state electrolyte. Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corp., headquartered in Orlando, FL, announced this week that its 100-kilowatt solid oxide fuel cell power system, the world's largest, has completed one year of total operating time, the longest any fuel cell of this type and size has run. The milestone marked

150

SAMARIUM-BASED INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The development of electrochemical converters (i.e. fuel cells) has attracted research interest during the last decades due to an increasing concern on the depletion of… (more)

Guzman Montanez, Felipe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator 510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell generators near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Final Environmental Assessment High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC) August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Finding of No Significant Impact

152

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells in the mass transport of various species and electrochemical reactions in DMFCs compared with hydrogen- fueled of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC was observed to undergo an overshoot before it stabilized during

Zhao, Tianshou

153

Electromotive Force for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Biomass Produced Gas as Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electromotive force (e.m.f.) of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass produced gas (BPG) as the fuels is calculated at 700-1 200 K using an in-house computer program based on thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. Tour program also predicts the concentration of oxygen in the fuel chamber as well as the concentration of equilibrium species such as H2 CO CO2 and CH4. Compared with using hydrogen as a fuel the e.m.f. for cells using BPG as the fuels is relative low and strongly influenced by carbon deposition. To remove carbon deposition the optimum amount of H2O to add is determined at various operating temperatures. Further the e.m.f. for cells based on yttria stabilized zirconia and doped ceria as electrolytes are compared. The study reveals that when using BPG as fuel the depression of e.m.f. for a SOFC using doped ceria as electrolyte is relatively small when compared with that using Yttria stabilized zirconia.

Wei Zhu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Conditioning effects on La1-xSrxMnO3-Yttria stabilized Zirconia electrodes for thin-film solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells You-Kee Lee a, *, Jung-performance of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). LSM surfacethe development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) capable of

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Increasing the CO tolerance of PEM fuel cells via current pulsing and self-oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the effect of cell current pulsing and "self-oxidation" in increasing the CO tolerance of a PEM fuel cell. The most effective pulsing parameter values were also determined. Current pulsing...

Thomason, Arthur Hugh

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells utilization in the cell-stack should be reduced. Ã? 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Introduction Solid-oxide Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

158

Composite cathode based on yttria stabilized bismuth oxide for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites consisting of silver and yttria stabilized bismuth oxide (YSB) have been investigated as cathodes for low-temperature honeycomb solid oxide fuel cells with stabilized zirconia as electrolytes. At 600?° C the interfacial polarization resistances of a porous YSB–Ag cathode is about 0.3??? cm 2 more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of other reported cathodes on stabilized zirconia. For example the interfacial resistances of a traditional YSZ–lanthanum maganites composite cathode is about 11.4??? cm 2 at 600?° C . Impedance analysis indicated that the performance of an YSB–Ag composite cathode fired at 850?° C for 2 h is severely limited by gas transport due to insufficient porosity. The high performance of the YSB–Ag cathodes is very encouraging for developing honeycomb fuel cells to be operated at temperatures below 600?° C .

Changrong Xia; Yuelan Zhang; Meilin Liu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris National Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalyst. The range of fuels has further been extended to include ethanol and coal syn-gas by development of a new coke resistant catalyst suitable for future SOFC technology. CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we (usually air) on the cathode side. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize a ceramic oxygen-ion conducting

Sanandaji, Borhan M.

162

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1263 Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell Performance and Durability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1263 Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell of solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC) power-conditioning system (PCS) at the subsystem/component and system Terms--Power-conditioning system (PCS), power-elec- tronics subsystem (PES), solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC

Mazumder, Sudip K.

163

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184­191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide

164

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

165

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

One primary suspected cause of long-term performance degradation of solid oxide fuels (SOFCs) is the accumulation of chromium (Cr) species at or near the cathode/electrolyte interface due to reactive Cr molecules originating from Cr-containing components (such as the interconnect) in fuel cell stacks. To date, considerable efforts have been devoted to the characterization of cathodes exposed to Cr sources; however, little progress has been made because a detailed understanding of the chemistry and electrochemistry relevant to the Cr-poisoning processes is still lacking. This project applied multiple characterization methods - including various Raman spectroscopic techniques and various electrochemical performance measurement techniques - to elucidate and quantify the effect of Cr-related electrochemical degradation at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Using Raman microspectroscopy the identity and location of Cr contaminants (SrCrO{sub 4}, (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel) have been observed in situ on an LSM cathode. These Cr contaminants were shown to form chemically (in the absence of current flowing through the cell) at temperatures as low as 625 C. While SrCrO{sub 4} and (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel must preferentially form on LSM, since the LSM supplies the Sr and Mn cations necessary for these compounds, LSM was also shown to be an active site for the deposition of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} for samples that also contained silver. In contrast, Pt and YSZ do not appear to be active for formation of Cr-containing phases. The work presented here supports the theory that Cr contamination is predominantly chemically-driven and that in order to minimize the effect, cathode materials should be chosen that are free of cations/elements that could preferentially react with chromium, including silver, strontium, and manganese.

Harry Abernathy; Meilin Liu

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test March 19, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC --In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours. The device provides an alternative to running a truck's main diesel engine, or using a truck's batteries, to power auxiliary electrical loads during rest periods, thereby lowering emissions, reducing noise, and saving fuel. In testing at Peterbilt Motors Company Texas head-quarters, a Delphi

168

A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas of natural gas has been developed. The model simultaneously solves mass, energy transport equations emission level, and multiple fuel utilization. SOFC can operate with various kinds of fuels such as natural

Boyer, Edmond

169

Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

Alan Ludwiszewski

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

170

Enhanced Power Stability for Proton Conducting Solid Oxides Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide the basis for a rational approach to improving the performance of Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolytes for proton conducting ceramic fuel cells, we carried out a series of coupled computational and experimental studies to arrive at a consensus view of the characteristics affecting the proton conductivity of these systems. The computational part of the project developed a practical first principles approach to predicting the proton mobility as a function of temperature and doping for polycrystalline systems. This is a significant breakthrough representing the first time that first principles methods have been used to study diffusion across grain boundaries in such systems. The basis for this breakthrough was the development of the ReaxFF reactive force field that accurately describes the structure and energetics of Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} as the proton hops from site to site. The ReaxFF parameters are all derived from an extensive set of quantum mechanics calculations on various clusters, two dimensionally infinite slabs, and three dimensionally infinite periodic systems for combinations of metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, pure and Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including chemical reaction pathways and proton transport pathways, structures. The ReaxFF force field enables molecular dynamics simulations to be carried out quickly for systems with {approx} 10,000 atoms rather than the {approx}100 or so practical for QM. The first 2.5 years were spent on developing and validating the ReaxFF and we have only had an opportunity to apply these methods to only a few test cases. However these simulations lead to transport properties (diffusion coefficients and activation energy) for multi-granular systems in good agreement with current experimental results. Now that we have validated the ReaxFF for diffusion across grain boundaries, we are in the position of being able to use computation to explore strategies to improve the diffusion of protons across grain boundaries, which both theory and experiment agree is the cause of the low conductivity of multi-granular systems. Our plan for a future project is to use the theory to optimize the additives and processing conditions and following this with experiment on the most promising systems. The experimental part of this project focused on improving the synthetic techniques for controlling the grain size and making measurements on the properties of these systems as a function of doping of impurities and of process conditions. A significant attention was paid to screening potential cathode materials (transition metal perovskites) and anode electrocatalysts (metals) for reactivity with Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, fabrication compatibility, and chemical stability in fuel cell environment. A robust method for fabricating crack-free thin membranes, as well as methods for sealing anode and cathode chambers, have been successfully developed. Our Pt|BYZ|Pt fuel cell, with a 100 {micro}m thick Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte layer, demonstrates the peak power density and short circuit current density of 28 mW/cm{sup 2} and 130mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These are the highest values of this type of fuel cell. All of these provide the basis for a future project in which theory and computation are combined to develop modified ceramic electrolytes capable of both high proton conductivity and excellent mechanical and chemical stability.

Boris Merinov; William A. Goddard III; Sossina Haile; Adri van Duin; Peter Babilo; Sang Soo Han

2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

171

New Sealing Concept for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A key element in developing high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks is the hermetic seal between the metal and ceramic components. There are two methods of sealing that are commonly employed: (1) rigid joining or (2) compressive sealing. Each method has its own set of advantages and design constraints. An alternative approach is currently under development that appears to combine some of the advantages of the other two techiques, including hermeticity, mechanical integrity, and minimization of interfacial stresses in either of the joint substrate materials, particulary the ceramic. The new sealing concept relies on a plastically deformable metal seal; one that offers a quasi-dynamic mechanical response in that it is adherent to both sealing surfaces, i.e. non-sliding, but readily yields or deforms under thermally generated stresses, thereby mitigating the development of stresses in the adjacent ceramic and metal components even when a significant difference in thermal expansion exists between the two materials. The pre-experimental design of the seal, initial proof-of-principle results on small test specimens, and finite element analyses aimed at scaling the seal to prototypical sizes and geometries are described herein.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Koeppel, Brian J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Metallic Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Performance of Reactive Element Oxide Coating During 10, 20 and 30 Months Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of challenges in improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of SOFCs (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) is the development of suitable interconnect materials. Chromia-forming alloys and especially ferritic sta...

S. Fontana; S. Chevalier; G. Caboche

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

Kalies, William D.

175

In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q, Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a large, high fuel utilization or a shut down without protection gas. The important expansion during oxidation

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

176

Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XXXXX XXXXX Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells GA Whyatt LA Chick April 2012 PNNL-XXXXX Electrical Generation for More- Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells GA Whyatt LA Chick April 2012 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Summary This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate

177

Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating Systems, Focused on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to analyze a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for residential heating applications by...producer, the user as an individual and the user...intended as the heating demand of a building, applied by defa...

Alba Cánovas; Rainer Zah; Santiago Gassó

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Seven Projects That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by DOE for Further Development Seven Projects That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by DOE for Further Development July 27, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Seven projects that will help develop low-cost solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for environmentally responsible central power generation from the Nation's abundant fossil energy resources have been selected for further research by the Department of Energy (DOE). The projects, managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), are valued at a total of $4,391,570, with DOE contributing $3,499,250 and the remaining cost provided by the recipients. Four of the selected projects will pursue advances in cathode performance,

179

Solid oxide fuel cell development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risoe National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The consortium of Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risoe National Laboratory has up-scaled its production capacity. Stacks are based on a compact thin plate multilayer design with metallic interconnects and 12x12 cm{sup 2} or 18x18 cm{sup 2} foot print. Larger (500 cm{sup 2}) cells are currently under evaluation. Stacks have been tested successfully for more than 13000 hours. Several 50 or 75 cell stacks in the 1+ kW power range have been tested successfully at a fuel utilisation of up to 92%. Multi stack modules consisting of four 75 cell stacks have been tested for more than 4000 hours with pre-reformed natural gas and modules consisting of twelve stacks are under development. Our SOFC program comprises development of next generation cells with porous ferritic steel is used as a cheap, ductile, robust cell support and the electrolyte is based on scandia-doped zirconia with improved durability. In collaboration with Waertsilae, a 24-stack prototype based on natural gas is being tested. The range of fuels have further been extended to include ethanol and coal syn-gas by development of a new coke resistant catalyst suitable for future SOFC technology.

Niels Christiansen; J.B. Hansen; H.H. Larsen (and others) [Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.

YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction at the Ni/YSZ Anode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from First Principles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of ab initio simulations we here provide a comprehensive scenario for hydrogen oxidation reactions at the Ni/zirconia anode of solid oxide fuel cells. The simulations have also revealed that in the presence of water chemisorbed at the oxide surface, the active region for H oxidation actually extends beyond the metal/zirconia interface unraveling the role of water partial pressure in the decrease of the polarization resistance observed experimentally.

Clotilde S. Cucinotta; Marco Bernasconi; Michele Parrinello

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

182

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) University of Cincinnati  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)-University of Cincinnati Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

184

Ternary PtSnRhSnO2 nanoclusters: synthesis and electroactivity for ethanol oxidation fuel cell reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ternary PtSnRh­SnO2 nanoclusters: synthesis and electroactivity for ethanol oxidation fuel cell a superior long-term activity and stability towards ethanol oxidation than the commercial Pt catalyst. Our. Ethanol becomes an attractive fuel in the fuel cell reactions compared with methanol and hydrogen, because

Frenkel, Anatoly

185

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9, 2009 9, 2009 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test DOE, Delphi, Peterbilt Join to Test Auxiliary Power Unit for Commercial Trucks Washington, DC -In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours. The device provides an alternative to running a truck's main diesel engine, or using a truck's batteries, to power auxiliary electrical loads during rest periods, thereby lowering emissions, reducing noise, and saving fuel. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test

186

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Shen J. Dillon, Lam Helmick,§,¶ Herbert M. Miller,§ Lane Wilson in a multiphase ceramic material. I. Introduction THE active cathode regions of many solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, both before and after mild

Rohrer, Gregory S.

188

Fuel Composition Effects and Other Operational Parameters on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition Effects and Other Composition Effects and Other Operational Parameters on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance DOE/NETL-401/093010 September 30, 2010 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

189

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach · Parallel planes: PSOFC · Other: combustor, reformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry Cell Reactions · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

190

Fuel Processing for Portable Power Fuel Cell Systems: Preferential Oxidation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reformer Water-Gas Shift CO Elimination Fuel Processor Fuel Cell Hydrocarbon Fuel Electrical Power H2-rich Microfabrication Kinetic Simulation Fluidic Modeling 222 1 COOCO + #12;Approach Microreactor Design Development (Bednarova) Mechanism Development (Bednarova) Kinetic Model w/ CHEMKIN (Ho) Kinetic Model w

Besser, Ronald S.

191

Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit  

SciTech Connect

Auxiliary Power Units (APUs), driven by truck engines, consume over 800 million gallon of diesel fuel while idling. Use of separate SOFC based APUs are an excellent choice to reduce the cost and pollution associated with producing auxiliary power. However, diesel fuel is a challenging fuel to use in fuel cell systems because it has heavy hydrocarbons that can transform into carbon deposits and gums that can block passages and deactivate fuel reformer and fuel cell reactor elements. The work reported herein addresses the challenges associated with the diesel fuel sulfur and carbon producing contaminants in a Fuel Preprocessor (FPP). FPP processes the diesel fuel onboard and ahead of the reformer to reduce its carbon deposition tendency and its sulfur content, thus producing a fuel suitable for SOFC APU systems. The goal of this DOE supported Invention and Innovation program was to design, develop and test a prototype Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) that efficiently and safely converts the diesel fuel into a clean fuel suitable for a SOFC APU system. The goals were achieved. A 5 kWe FPP was designed, developed and tested. It was demonstrated that FPP removes over 80% of the fuel sulfur and over 90% of its carbon residues and it was demonstrated that FPP performance exceeds the original project goals.

M. Namazian, S. Sethuraman and G. Venkataraman

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

193

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell functionally graded electrodes and a feasibility study of fabrication techniques for functionally graded electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) electrodes have not been explored for optimization of graded electrodes and nonlinear functional grading. In this work, a complete… (more)

Flesner, Reuben

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Grain-size effects in nanoscaled electrolyte and cathode thin films for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to their high energy conversion efficiencies and low emissions, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) show promise as a replacement for combustion-based electrical generators at… (more)

Peters, Christoph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications.

Phanicha Tippawan; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Influence of NaCl on cathode performance of solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Degradation induced by sodium chloride in air was...0.8Sr0.2)0.98MnO3(LSM) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3(LSCF) cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells(SOFC). Cell performance was measured by volatilizing NaCl to...2...fo...

Run-ru Liu; De-jun Wang; Jing Leng

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Woldman, Cornell University, 2009 SURF Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Milhans Introduction Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air side of the electrodes in order to function properly. The cracking or leaking of an SOFC seal is the end of the useful

Li, Mo

202

Fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Unveiling Structure-Property Relationships in Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-, an Electrode Material for Symmetric Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ana B. Munoz-García, Daniel E. Bugaris, Michele Pavone,,§ Jason P. Hodges, Ashfia oxide fuel cell electrode material Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6- (SFMO). Rietveld refinement of powder neutron oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can convert a wide variety of fuels with simpler and cheaper designs than those

Carter, Emily A.

204

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant & Stack Component Integration Norman Bessette Acumentrics Corporation March 16, 2010 Acumentrics Corporation *Based in Westwood, Mass. *~40,000 sq. ft facility *Profitable * Critical disciplines in-house El t i l E i i Strategic Partners Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Chemical Engineering Thermal Modeling Ceramics Processing Manufacturing Sales & Marketing Automation Finance Scalable, Ruggedized Power - Combat Proven Take Almost Any Generator Plug into Clean Power Provided by Acumentrics RUPS And Be Ready For Continuous Communications

205

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Extended Two Dimensional Nanotube and Nanowire Surfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation field: solid oxide fuel cells require highto solid oxide, alkaline, and direct alcohol fuel cells.

Alia, Shaun Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

208

Mechanisms of Oxide Scale Formation on Ferritic Interconnect Steel in Simulated Low and High pO2 Service Environments of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Laves phase strengthened ferritic steel Crofer 22 H has recently been proposed as construction material for interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In the present study, the oxidation kinetics of ...

L. Niewolak; D. J. Young; H. Hattendorf; L. Singheiser…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

210

Application of Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... (4, 5, 8-10) Therefore, the electrode material requires particular attention in the development and optimization of low-temperature SOFCs. ... Enormous Plasmonic Enhancement and Suppressed Quenching of Luminescence from Nanoscale ZnO Films by Uniformly Dispersed Atomic-Layer-Deposited Platinum with Optimized Spacer Thickness ...

Xirong Jiang; Hong Huang; Friedrich B. Prinz; Stacey F. Bent

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

211

Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Distributed the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells September 29, 2013 DOE/NETL- 342/093013 NETL Contact: Katrina Krulla Analysis Team: Arun Iyengar, Dale Keairns, Dick Newby Contributors: Walter Shelton, Travish Shulltz, Shailesh Vora OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY Table of Contents Executive Summary .........................................................................................................................1 1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................2 2 DG Market Opportunity ................................................................................................................3 3 SOFC Technology Development Plan ..........................................................................................6

212

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microstructured Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro fuel cells ; Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells ; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ...

Luc G. Frechette

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Marins, Sean Parris, and Caleb Ellefson Introduction to Multiscale Engineering School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program Introduction in fuels such as biodiesel or jet fuel, SOFC anodes are poisoned, rendering them useless. Research

Collins, Gary S.

215

Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

216

Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

217

Transient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Ccile Pra, Raynal Glises, Jean Marie Kauffmann and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Cécile Péra, Raynal provided by HTceramix. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; Transient thermal modelling; Fluidic and Electrochemical modelling. 1- Introduction The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Phase and strain distributions associated with reactive contaminants inside of a solid oxide fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A microfocused synchrotron x-ray diffraction method was used to reveal the quantitative distributions of phase fractions internal strains and their interdependences at different layer depths inside of a planar solid oxide fuel cell which was deactivated by chromium contamination through direct contact with the metallic interconnect under typical operating conditions. These observations provide insight into the mechanism of Cr poisoning. The method can serve as a versatile tool for studying the electrochemical devices with thin-layered construction such as batteries and fuel cells under static or in situ conditions.

Di-Jia Liu; Jonathan Almer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

SciTech Connect

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Assessment of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur D. Little, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planar Solid Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur D. Little, Inc. Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference 39463-02 Report to: DOE FETC October 1999 EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 2 Table of Contents 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1 Project Objectives "Low Temperature" Planar SOFC Cost Analysis 2 Executive Summary EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 3 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1 Project Objectives "Low Temperature" Planar SOFC Cost Analysis 2 Executive Summary EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 4 Project Objectives DOE FETC Fuel Cell Program In support of the 21st Century Fuel Cell Concept Team, we have assessed planar architectures for SOFC technology. Tasks Tasks Tasks * Literature Review of Planar SOFC Programs * Interviews with Major Developers

222

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

223

Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

HISTORY | Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Together with the electric motor, dynamo, gas turbine, internal combustion engine, and the fused salt electrolysis of aluminum, the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century brought about the fuel cell – the silent or cold combustion of fossil fuels by the electrochemical oxidation with atmospheric oxygen to water and carbon dioxide. Wilhelm Ostwald, in 1894, emphasized the high efficiency and the nonpolluting properties of the direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity – in contrast to the then combination of steam engine and dynamo, which reached only about 10% efficiency. Direct coal fuel cells designed for the propulsion of ships, however, have not become a reality so far. Instead of fuel cells and batteries, internal combustion engines determined the nineteenth- and twentieth- century technological landscape. Against the background of the oil crisis and the long-term scarcity of natural gas, crude oil, and coal, new hopes have focused on fuel cell technology, which saw first early splendid applications during the space programs of the 1960s, in submarines since the 1980s, and in experimental zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) since the 1990s. This article outlines (1) early insights about energy conversion: Grove's cell, direct conversion of coal and indirect fuel cells; (2) historical roots of alkaline fuel cells: the discovery of gas diffusion electrodes; low-pressure alkaline fuel cell conquer spacecrafts and submarines; (3) polymer electrolyte fuel cells: solid polymer technology, electric vehicles, direct methanol fuel-cell, stationary power systems and portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems; (4) phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC): acid fuel cells, PAFC plants in Japan, gasoline fuel cells; and (5) high-temperature fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell.

P. Kurzweil

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell is described that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units. 7 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.; Myles, K.M.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

226

Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROGRAM | 2013 PROJECT PORTFOLIO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROGRAM | 2013 PROJECT PORTFOLIO 2 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROGRAM | 2013 PROJECT PORTFOLIO 3 Disclaimer DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not neces-

228

ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion through yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes. All parameters for Reax temperature, leading to applications as oxygen sensors and as membranes for high temperature solid oxide fuel

Goddard III, William A.

229

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect

Work performed during the period February 21, 2006 through August 21, 2006 is summarized herein. During this period, efforts were focused on 5 kWe bundle testing, development of on-cell reformation, the conceptual design of an advanced module, and the development of a manufacturing roadmap for cells and bundles. A 5 kWe SOFC system was built and delivered to the Pennsylvania State University; fabrication of a second 5 kWe SOFC for delivery to Montana State University was initiated. Cell testing and microstructural analysis in support of these efforts was also conducted.

Joseph F. Pierre

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

231

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the tubular SOFC development program from August 22, 1997 to September 30, 2007 under the Siemens/U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement. The technical areas discussed include cell manufacturing development, cell power enhancement, SOFC module and system cost reduction and technology advancement, and our field unit test program. Whereas significant progress has been made toward commercialization, significant effort remains to achieve our cost, performance and reliability targets for successful commercialization.

Joseph Pierre

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Quasi-Two-Dimensional Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional numerical model is presented for the efficient computation of the steady-state current density, species concentration, and temperature distributions in planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The model reduction techniques, engineering approximations, and numerical procedures used to simulate the stack physics while maintaining adequate computational speed are discussed. The results of the model for benchmark cases with and without on-cell methane reformation are presented with comparisons to results from other research described in the literature. The capabilities, performance, and scalability of the model for the study of large multi-cell stacks are then demonstrated.

Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Sun, Xin; Chick, Lawrence A.; Korolev, Vladimir N.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Redox instability, mechanical deformation, and heterogeneous damage accumulation in solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanical integrity and damage tolerance represent two key challenges in the design of solid oxide fuel cells(SOFCs). In particular reduction and oxidation(redox) cycles and the associated large transformation strains have a notable impact on the mechanical stability and failure mode of SOFCanodes. In this study the deformation behavior under redox cycling is investigated computationally with an approach that provides a detailed microstructurally based view of heterogeneous damage accumulation behavior within an experimentally obtained nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia SOFCanode microstructure. Simulation results underscore the critical role that the microstructure plays in the mechanical deformation behavior of and failure within such materials.

F. Abdeljawad; G. J. Nelson; W. K. S. Chiu; M. Haataja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

235

Microstructure, residual stress, and mechanical properties of thin film materials for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The microstructure and residual stress of sputter-deposited films for use in microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells are presented. Much of the work focuses on the characterization of a candidate solid electrolyte: Yttria ...

Quinn, David John, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Characterization of YSZ solid oxide fuel cells electrolyte deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying and low pressure plasma spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yttria doped zirconia has been widely used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Plasma spraying is a cost-effective process to...2O3 stabilized ZrO2...(YSZ) layer was deposited by low press...

C. Zhang; H. L. Liao; W. Y. Li; G. Zhang; C. Coddet…

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Structure degradation and redistribution of alloying elements in austenitic steel of current collectors of solid oxide fuel cells in service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The degradation of the 10Kh23N18 steel structure with and ... as a switchgear material of a solid oxide fuel cell. Structural studies have shown no significant differences...

M. V. Degtyarev; V. F. Chukharev…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The development of control strategy for solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid power system in ship application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and micro gas turbine (MGT) hybrid power system is a newly developed and promising power technology for ship power systems. Compared to conventional power plants on commercial sh...

Jiqing He; Peilin Zhou; David Clelland

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

Lim, Wendy

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

240

Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC-gas-shift equilibrium. Introduction Fifteen years ago, Hibino (1) has shown the feasibility of a fuel cell consisting

Boyer, Edmond

243

Compliant sealants for solid oxide fuel cells and other ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass or glass-ceramic sealant is described for a SOFC having a coefficient of thermal expansion in the range of from about 8 to about 13{times}10{sup {minus}6}/C and a viscosity of at least 10{sup 3}Pa-s at cell operating temperature. The sealant has a composition of SrO present in the range of from about 5 to about 60 mole percent, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range of from 0 to about 45 mole percent, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range of from about 15 mole percent to about 80 mole percent, and SiO{sub 2} present in the range of from 0 to about 40 mole percent, wherein the material is a viscous fluid at cell operating temperatures of from about 600 C to about 1000 C. The sealant may also be compounds of CaO present in the range of from 0 to about 35 mole percent, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range of from about 35 mole percent to about 85 mole percent, and SiO{sub 2} present in the range of from 0 to about 30 mole percent. 2 figs.

Bloom, I.D.; Ley, K.L.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

244

Compliant sealants for solid oxide fuel cells and other ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass or glass-ceramic sealant for a SOFC having a coefficient of thermal expansion in the range of from about 8 to about 13.times.10.sup.-6 /.degree.C. and a viscosity of at least 10.sup.3 Pa-s at cell operating temperature. The sealant has a composition of SrO present in the range of from about 5 to about 60 mole percent, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range of from 0 to about 45 mole percent, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range of from about 15 mole percent to about 80 mole percent, and SiO.sub.2 present in the range of from 0 to about 40 mole percent, wherein the material is a viscous fluid at cell operating temperatures of from about 600.degree. C. to about 1000.degree. C. The sealant may also be compounds of CaO present in the range of from 0 to about 35 mole percent, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range of from about 35 mole percent to about 85 mole percent, and SiO.sub.2 present in the range of from 0 to about 30 mole percent.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Ley, Kevin L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

246

MATERIALS SYSTEM FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

SciTech Connect

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2004-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.  

SciTech Connect

Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-­Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2S-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode is Ni-8-mole% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which performs very

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

249

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust...

250

Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Pore-Scale Investigation of Mass Transport and Electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect

The development and validation of a model for the study of pore-scale transport phenomena and electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode are presented in this work. This model couples mass transport processes with a detailed reaction mechanism, which is used to model the electrochemical oxidation kinetics. Detailed electrochemical oxidation reaction kinetics, which is known to occur in the vicinity of the three-phase boundary (TPB) interfaces, is discretely considered in this work. The TPB regions connect percolating regions of electronic and ionic conducting phases of the anode, nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively; with porous regions supporting mass transport of the fuel and product. A two-dimensional (2D), multi-species lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to describe the diffusion process in complex pore structures that are representative of the SOFC anode. This diffusion model is discretely coupled to a kinetic electrochemical oxidation mechanism using localized flux boundary conditions. The details of the oxidation kinetics are prescribed as a function of applied activation overpotential and the localized hydrogen and water mole fractions. This development effort is aimed at understanding the effects of the anode microstructure within TPB regions. This work describes the methods used so that future studies can consider the details of SOFC anode microstructure.

Grew, K. N.; Joshi, A. S.; Peracchio, A. A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

253

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells approaching the two-dimensional limit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We model electrochemical kinetics and physical conduction mechanisms for carrier transport in electrolyte membranes to determine the limits of dimensionality reduction (down to 1?nm) on maximum power output of solid oxide fuel cells with symmetric Pt electrodes. Using Y-doped ZrO2 we find a minimum thickness of ?6?nm to realize near ideal chemical potential in such fuel cells which is limited by electronic breakdown when approaching the dielectric breakdown strength. For larger electrolyte thicknesses the greatest source of electronic leakage influencing power loss is from Ohmic transport of minority carriers and emission of trapped carriers. For porous metallic electrodes an ideal microstructure with the particle size comparable to particle spacing dimensions is found to accurately model experimental results. The role of electronic trap states in the electrolyte band gap on power density characteristics is highlighted.

K. Kerman; S. Ramanathan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Performance and degradation of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells with impregnated electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFCs) containing porous 430L stainless steel supports, YSZ electrolytes and porous YSZ cathode backbones are fabricated by tape casting, laminating and co-firing in a reducing atmosphere. Nano-scale Ni and La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.9Sc0.1O3?? (LSFSc) coatings are impregnated onto the internal surfaces of porous 430L and YSZ, acting as the anode and the cathode catalysts, respectively. The resulting MS-SOFCs exhibit maximum power densities of 193, 418, 636 and 907 mW cm?2 at 650, 700, 750 and 800 °C, respectively. Nevertheless, a continuous degradation in the fuel cell performance is observed at 650 °C and 0.7 V during a 200-h durability measurement. Possible degradation mechanisms were discussed in detail.

Yucun Zhou; Xianshuang Xin; Junliang Li; Xiaofeng Ye; Changrong Xia; Shaorong Wang; Zhongliang Zhan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Comparison between two optimization strategies for solid oxide fuel cell–gas turbine hybrid cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper compares the performance characteristics of a combined power system with solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) working under two thermodynamic optimization strategies. Expressions of the optimized power output and efficiency for both the subsystems and the SOFC-GT hybrid cycle are derived. Optimal performance characteristics are discussed and compared in detail through a parametric analysis to evaluate the impact of multi-irreversibilities that take into account on the system behaviour. It is found that there exist certain new optimum criteria for some important design and operating parameters. Engineers should find the methodologies developed in this paper useful in the optimal design and practical operation of complex hybrid fuel cell power plants.

Yingru Zhao; Nilay Shah; Nigel Brandon

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature

Berning, Torsten

259

Polarization effects in intermediate temperature, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported sold oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) + YSZ cathode, and Ni + YSZ anode were fabricated and their performance was evaluated between 650 and 800 C with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities measured were {approximately} 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C and {approximately} 0.82 W/cm{sup 2} at 650 C. Voltage (V) vs. current density (i) traces were nonlinear; V vs. i exhibited a concave-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {ge} 0] at low values of i and a convex-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {le} 0] at higher values of i, typical of many low temperature fuel cells. Analysis of concentration polarization based on transport of gaseous species through porous electrodes, in part, is used to explain nonlinear V vs. i traces. The effects of activation polarization in the Tafel limit are also included. It is shown that in anode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature can be due either to activation or concentration polarization, or both. By contrast, in cathode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature is entirely due to activation polarization. From the experimentally observed V vs. i traces for anode-supported cells, effective binary diffusivity of gaseous species on the anodic side was estimated to be between {approximately} 0.1 cm{sup 2}/s at 650 C and {approximately} 0.2 cm{sup 2}/s at 800 C. The area specific resistance of the cell (ohmic part), varied between {approximately} 0.18 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 650 C and {approximately} 0.07 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 800 C with an activation energy of {approximately} 65 kJ/mol.

Kim, J.W.; Virkar, A.V.; Fung, K.Z.; Mehta, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

Nguyen Minh

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

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261

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Microstructure and properties of barium cerate based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Barium cerate based ceramics have been widely reported to have high ionic conductivity and hold promise as electrolyte materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC`s). Samples of niobium-doped barium cerate have been produced with a variety of microstructures. Many parameters affecting the final microstructure of the electrolyte materials have been systematically investigated. The conductivity of the electrolyte materials produced have been studied using impedance spectroscopy to understand the effect of microstructure on the desired properties of barium cerate based electrolytes.

Rauch, W.L.; Liu, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

264

A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro Micro-solid oxide fuel cell Thin films Butane reformation Chemical micro-reactors Thermally independent 2014 Accepted 8 February 2014 Available online xxx a b s t r a c t Low temperature micro-solid oxide

Daraio, Chiara

265

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held January 23-24, 2008 in Golden, Colorado.

266

NETL: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coal and Power Systems Fuel Cells SECA Logo Welcome to NETL's Fuel Cells Webpage. In partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, we are leading the research, development, and demonstration of high efficiency, fuel flexible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and coal-based SOFC power generation systems for stationary market large central power plants under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The SECA cost reduction goal is to have SOFC systems capable of being manufactured at $400 per kilowatt by 2010. Concurrently, the scale-up, aggregation, and integration of the technology will progress in parallel leading to prototype validation of megawatt (MW)-class fuel flexible products by 2012 and 2015. The SECA coal-based systems goal is the development of large

267

Application of LaSr2Fe2CrO9-in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Jacob M. Haag,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of LaSr2Fe2CrO9- in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Jacob M. Haag,a Brian D. Madsen composition LaSr2Fe2CrO9- was tested for application as an anode material for solid oxide fuel cells. Despite 28, 2008. Ni­yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ cermets are commonly used in solid oxide fuel cell SOFC

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

268

A general approach to develop reduced order models for simulation of solid oxide fuel cell stacks  

SciTech Connect

A reduced order modeling approach based on response surface techniques was developed for solid oxide fuel cell stacks. This approach creates a numerical model that can quickly compute desired performance variables of interest for a stack based on its input parameter set. The approach carefully samples the multidimensional design space based on the input parameter ranges, evaluates a detailed stack model at each of the sampled points, and performs regression for selected performance variables of interest to determine the responsive surfaces. After error analysis to ensure that sufficient accuracy is established for the response surfaces, they are then implemented in a calculator module for system-level studies. The benefit of this modeling approach is that it is sufficiently fast for integration with system modeling software and simulation of fuel cell-based power systems while still providing high fidelity information about the internal distributions of key variables. This paper describes the sampling, regression, sensitivity, error, and principal component analyses to identify the applicable methods for simulating a planar fuel cell stack.

Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Lo, Chaomei; Lai, Canhai; Agarwal, Khushbu; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Thermal Cyclability of Reactive Air Braze Seals in Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The popularity of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has increased in tandem with the ability to fabricate thinner gas-tight yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers, which can now be routinely produced on the order of 7 to 10 ?m thick. While this has significantly improved power output and decreased the required fuel cell operating temperatures, the ability to reliably seal fuel cells remains a concern. The seals must be hermetic and be robust enough to retain their hermeticity even under the extreme operating conditions of SOFCs. Perhaps the largest contributor to stresses experienced by the seal is the fact that the SOFC is an assembly of many different materials with different thermal expansion properties. Although every effort is made to minimize thermal expansion mismatches across the seals, the stresses developed during thermal cycling still jeopardize seal integrity. Reactive air brazing (RAB), a method of joining that employs a metallic, and therefore non-brittle, seal material has been used to seal electrolyte/anode bilayers, such as those in anode-supported SOFCs, to Crofer-22 alloy. The results of rupture strength testing will be reported for as-brazed and thermally cycled samples and the effect of thermal cycling on the RAB seal microstructure will be shown

Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Weil, K. Scott

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

BI-LAYER p-n JUNCTION INTERCONNECTIONS FOR COAL BASED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

In this report, a new approach for lower operating temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) interconnections (IC) consisting of a bi-layer structure is proposed and analyzed. The bi-layer structure consists of a p-type layer exposed to cathodic gas (air/oxygen) and an n-type layer exposed to anodic gas (fuel). It is theoretically shown that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure which is an important design variable, is dependent primarily on the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the IC, the low level oxygen conductivities of the two layers and is largely independent of their electronic conductivities and the total current density through the IC material. Experimental difficulties in fabricating bi-layer structures are presently being addressed.

Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

271

Effects of mesh and interconnector design on solid oxide fuel cell performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, three different nickel based meshes are investigated as an anode side current collector and flow-field for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce the fabrication cost. The same meshes are also tested on the conventional interconnectors with machined gas channels for comparison. Eight different short stacks are installed for this purpose. The characterizations of the short stacks are achieved via performance tests together with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses. The experimental results reveal that the woven nickel mesh provides the required current collection and can act as an anode flow-field. It is also found that the spot welding of this mesh significantly improves the cell performance due to the enhanced contact between the mesh and the interconnector. Therefore, the spot welded nickel mesh can be directly employed on the anode interconnector as an effective anode current collector and flow-field without machining gas channels to reduce the SOFC cell/stack fabrication cost.

Murat Canavar; Yuksel Kaplan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microstructural coarsening effects on redox instability and mechanical damage in solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In state-of-the-art high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) a porous composite of nickel and yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) is employed as the anode. The rapid oxidation of Ni into NiO is regarded as the main cause of the so-called reduction-oxidation (redox) instability in Ni/YSZ anodes due to the presence of extensive bulk volume changes associated with this reaction. As a consequence the development of internal stresses can lead to performance degradation and/or structural failure. In this study we employ a recently developed continuum formalism to quantify the mechanical deformation behavior and evolution of internal stresses in Ni/YSZ porous anodes due to re-oxidation. In our approach a local failure criterion is coupled to the continuum framework in order to account for the heterogeneous damage accumulation in the YSZ phase. The hallmark of our approach is the ability to track the spatial evolution of mechanical damage and capture the interaction of YSZ damaged regions with the local microstructure. Simulation results highlight the importance of the microstructure characterized by Ni to YSZ particle size ratio on the redox behavior and damage accumulation in as-synthesized SOFC anode systems. Moreover a redox-strain-to-failure criterion is developed to quantify the degree by which coarsened anode microstructures become more susceptible to mechanical damage during re-oxidation.

F. Abdeljawad; M. Haataja

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)… (more)

Arsalis, Alexandros

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote… (more)

Lin, Jiefeng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

276

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

277

Sputter deposition of cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe the structure and electrochemical properties of cermetthin films composed of 50 vol?% Ni and Y?stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) of interest for solid?oxidefuel cell(SOFC)electrode applications. The Ni–YSZ films—deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering of Ni–Zr–Y targets in Ar–O2 mixtures—were porous two?phase and exhibited an equiaxed structure with grain sizes of ?35 nm. The typical conductivity of 103 ??1?cm?1 was similar to that of bulk Ni–YSZ. Impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize reactions of H2/H2O fuel gases at the interfaces between Ni–YSZ films and YSZ electrolytes. The spectra typically showed two arcs attributed to charge transfer and gas diffusion. Either high sputter gas pressures of 40 mTorr or roughened YSZ substrate surfaces were necessary to obtain sufficient film porosity. Electrochemical resistance values of 0.15 to 0.35 ??cm2 were measured at 750?°C in 97% H2+3% H2O lower than those for bulk Ni–YSZ and low enough for high?power?density SOFC operation. The low resistance values were probably due to a small grain size. Using a 40 mTorr pressure and a roughened substrate led to film cracking apparently due to tensile stresses while using 20 mTorr and a polished substrate led to a too?dense film. Either change increased the electrochemical resistance by ?100 times.

T. Tsai; S. A. Barnett

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Creep analysis of solid oxide fuel cell with bonded compliant seal design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) requires good sealant because it works in harsh conditions (high temperature, thermal cycle, oxidative and reducing gas environments). Bonded compliant seal (BCS) is a new sealing method for planar SOFC. It uses a thin foil metal to bond the window frame and cell, achieving the seal between window frame and cell. At high temperature, a comprehensive evaluation of its creep strength is essential for the adoption of BCS design. In order to characterize the creep behavior, the creep induced by thermal stresses in SOFC with BCS design is simulated by finite element method. The results show that the foil is compressed and large thermal stresses are generated. The initial peak thermal stress is located in the thin foil because the foil acts as a spring stores the thermal stresses by elastic and plastic deformation in itself. Serving at high temperature, initial thermal displacement is partially recovered because of the creep relaxation, which becomes a new discovered advantage for BCS design. It predicts that the failures are likely to happen in the middle of the cell edge and BNi-2 filler metal, because the maximum residual displacement and creep strain are located.

Wenchun Jiang; Yucai Zhang; Yun Luo; J.M. Gong; S.T. Tu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Design consideration of micro thin film solid-oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Miniaturized planar solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and stacks can be fabricated by thin film deposition and micromachining. Serious thermal stresses, originating in fabrication and during operation, cause thermal–mechanical instability of the constituent thin films. In this paper, the effect of thin film geometry on thermal stress and mechanical stability is evaluated to optimize the structure of a thin film. A novel design of thin circular electrolyte films for SOFCs is presented by using corrugated structures, with which small thermal stresses and a broad design range of structure parameters can be obtained. Thermal transfer analysis shows that heat loss by solid conduction is serious in thin films with a small radius. But thermal convection and radiation dominate heat loss in large thin films with a radius of several millimetres. Scale-dependent thermal characteristics show the importance of film size and packaging in optimization of thermal isolation for micro SOFCs. A novel flip-flop stack configuration for micro SOFCs is presented. This configuration allows multiple cells to share one reaction chamber, helps to obtain uniform flow fields, and simplifies the flow field network for micro fuel cell stacks.

Yanghua Tang; Kevin Stanley; Jonathan Wu; Dave Ghosh; Jiujun Zhang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Multi objective optimization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks considering parameter effects: Fuel utilization and hydrogen cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the context of stationary power generation fuel cell based systems are being predicted as a valuable option to tabernacle the thermodynamic cycle based power plants. In this paper multi objective optimization approach is used to optimize the planer solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks performance using genetic algorithm technique. Multi objective optimization generates the most attractive operating conditions of a SOFC system. This allows performing the optimization of the system regarding to two different objectives. Two pairs of different objectives are considered in this paper as distinguished strategies. In the first strategy minimization of the breakeven per-unit energy cost ($/kWh) and maximization of the output power is considered. Similarly two other objectives are also considered in the second strategy as minimization of the breakeven per-unit energy cost ($/kWh) and maximization of the electrical efficiency. Optimization of the first strategy predicts a maximum power output of 108.33?kW at a breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.51 $/kWh and minimum breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.30 $/kWh at a power of 42.18?kW. In the second strategy maximum efficiency of 63.93% at a breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.42$/kWh is predicted while minimum breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.25 $/kWh at efficiency of 48.3% is obtained. At the end evaluation of parameter effects on multi objective optimization regarding different hydrogen costs and fuel utilization factors are presented. It is worthy to note that the sensitivity analysis for multi objective optimization can be considered both as an advanced analysis tool and as support to technology managers engineers and decision makers when working by such as systems.

Atefeh Behzadi Forough; Ramin Roshandel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Method of fabricating a monolithic core for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for forming a core for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that electrochemically combines fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support consisting instead only of the active anode, cathode, electrolyte and interconnect materials. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte and interconnect walls define a plurality of substantially parallel core passageways alternately having respectively the inside faces thereof with only the anode material or with only the cathode material exposed. In the wall structure, the electrolyte and interconnect materials are only 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and the cathode and anode materials are only 0.002-0.05 cm thick. The method consists of building up the electrolyte and interconnect walls by depositing each material on individually and endwise of the wall itself, where each material deposit is sequentially applied for one cycle; and where the depositing cycle is repeated many times until the material buildup is sufficient to formulate the core. The core is heat cured to become dimensionally and structurally stable.

Zwick, Stanley A. (Woodridge, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. The critical issues facing the development of economically competitive SOFC systems include lowering the operation temperature and creating novel anode materials and microstructures capable of efficiently utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m- thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing, and both Ni- and Cu-based anodes were prepared by a solution impregnation process. At 600 C, SOFCs fueled with humidified H{sub 2}, methane, and propane, reached peak power densities of 602, 519, and 433 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Both microstructure and composition of the anodes, as fabricated using a solution impregnation technique, greatly influence fuel cell performance. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C.

Shaowu Zha; Luis Aguilar; Meilin Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Global Failure Criteria for Positive/Electrolyte/Negative Structure of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of various layers in the positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly. In this paper, the global relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Multivariable robust control of a simulated hybrid solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built… (more)

Tsai, Alex, 1973-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Presentation covers stationary fuel cells...

287

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November...

288

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November 1, 2011. Fuel Cell...

289

A novel method for preparing anode cermets for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A new method for fabrication of metal-cermet anodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been developed. Highly porous, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were prepared using a mixture of zircon fibers (YSZp, Si-stabilized, and {lt}0.3% Si) and normal YSZ powders (YSZd). The films remained highly porous following calcination up to 1,550 C, after which either Cu or Ni could be incorporated by impregnation with the nitrate salts. For Cu cermets, the performance increased with metal loading to at least 40% Cu. At 800 C using H{sub 2} as the fuel and a 230 {micro}m, YSZ electrolyte, the current-voltage (I-V) curves for either a Cu- or Ni-cermet anode formed using this new method were found to be identical to the I-V curve for a Ni cermet formed using traditional methods. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the anode films remained porous even with addition of Cu, so that additional modification was possible. Tests of this concept through the addition of ceria by impregnation with the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} led to an additional increase in the cell performance.

Craciun, R.; Park, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Vohs, J.M.; Wang, C.; Worrell, W.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The State-of-the-Art in Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

One of the keys to developing viable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems is to first develop reliable and inexpensive stack sealing technology. Three general approaches are currently being pursued, including: rigid bonded sealing, compressive sealing, and compliant bonded sealing. This review highlights the advantages and limitations of each option, discusses some of the leading concepts, and outlines the future steps that need to be taken in their development. Given the number of different SOFC stack designs under development, the variety of potential applications/conditions in which these systems can be used, and the complexities of stack manufacture, it is likely that no one sealing technique will be suitable for all uses. Therefore continued progress in each general area, as well as the development of new concepts, is critical to the eventual success of SOFC technology.

Weil, K. Scott

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm 3 + and Nd 3 + were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancydiffusion thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of Sm x Nd x Ce 1 ? 2 x O 2 ? ? solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm 0.075 Nd 0.075 Ce 0.85 O 2 ? ? the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0 × 10 ? 3 S cm ? 1 at 550 ° C which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Shobit Omar; Eric D. Wachsman; Juan C. Nino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A phase-field model for describing three-phase electrode microstructure (i.e. electrode-phase electrolyte-phase and pore-phase) in solid oxide fuel cells is proposed using the diffuse-interface theory. Conserved composition and non-conserved grain orientation order parameters are simultaneously used to describe the coupled phase coarsening and grain growth in the three-phase electrode. The microstructural evolution simulated by the phase-field approach demonstrates the significant dependence of morphological microstructure and output statistic material features on the prescribed kinetic parameters and three-phase volume fractions. The triple-phase boundary fraction is found to have a major degradation in the early evolution.

Qun Li; Linyun Liang; Kirk Gerdes; Long-Qing Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal material, G18, are studied at high temperatures. Samples of G18 are aged for either 4h or 100h, resulting in samples with different crystallinity. Reduced modulus, hardness, and time-dependent behavior are measured by nanoindentation. The nanoindentation is performed at room temperature, 550, 650, and 750°C, using loading rates of 5 mN/s and 25 mN/s. Results show a decrease in reduced modulus with increasing temperature, with significant decrease above the glass transition temperature (Tg). Hardness generally decreases with increasing temperature, with a slight increase before Tg for the 4h aged sample. Dwell tests show that creep increases with increasing temperature, but decrease with further aging.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Al-Haik, Marwan; Harris, Adrian; Garmestani, Hamid

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Handbook of fuel cell performance  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm² degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm² degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

297

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell with three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode was fabricated for a zirconia based micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Three different cathodes (cathode A, no pore former; cathode B, with pore former (1.5 {micro}m in diameter); cathode C, with pore former (0.8 {micro}m in diameter)) were compared to investigate how the microstructure of it affected the cell performance at various operating temperatures. Micro-sized pores were well distributed within cathode B and C. The total porosity of cathode A is 35%, while it respectively reached 42 and 50% for cathodes B and C. At the same time, the specific surface area of them was 28.8 and 52.0% larger than that of the cathode A. As a result, the peak power density of the zirconia based cell, with cathode C, was 0.25 and 0.56 W cm{sup -2} at 550 and 600 C, while the respective value was just 0.11 and 0.30 W cm{sup -2} for the cell with cathode A. Thus, optimizing microstructure of cathode should be one of the best approaches for lowering the operating temperature for SOFCs.

Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sumi, H.; Fujishiro, Y.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Novel Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Vincent Wu, University of California, Berkeley, 2011 SURF Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California, Berkeley, 2011 SURF Fellow Advisor: Prof. Meilin Liu Graduate Mentors: Mingfei Liu, Ben Rainwater Introduction The need to develop new cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) is driven by the temperature conditions required for IT-SOFC operation. Designing SOFCs to operate at lower

Li, Mo

300

Platinum supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dioxide in the cathode exit stream during...exceptionally stable electrocatalyst that yields...PEM fuel cell cathodes during potential cycling...Ti0.7W0.3O2 electrocatalyst for proton-exchange...Popov BN ( 2009 ) Development of a titanium...oxide-supported platinum electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte...

Javier Parrondo; Taehee Han; Ellazar Niangar; Chunmei Wang; Nilesh Dale; Kev Adjemian; Vijay Ramani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

clean clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 power installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility

302

Batteries and Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collage of electric cars, plug, battery research lab Collage of electric cars, plug, battery research lab Batteries and Fuel Cells EETD researchers study the basic science and development of advanced batteries and fuel cells for transportation, electric grid storage, and other stationary applications. This research is aimed at developing more environmentally friendly technologies for generating and storing energy, including better batteries and fuel cells. Li-Ion and Other Advanced Battery Technologies Research conducted here on battery technology is aimed at developing low-cost rechargeable advanced electrochemical batteries for both automotive and stationary applications. The goal of fuel cell research is to provide the technologies for the successful commercialization of polymer-electrolyte and solid oxide fuel

303

Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bruce, Richard Catlow and Peter Edwards Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel...durability in fuel cells is to discover catalyst supports that do not corrode, or corrode...black support. fuel cells|oxides|catalyst supports|nanoparticles|conductivity...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

The effect of Mn on the oxidation behavior and electrical conductivity of Fe–17Cr alloys in solid oxide fuel cell cathode atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four Fe–17Cr alloys with various Mn contents between 0.0 and 3.0 wt.% are prepared for investigation of the effect of Mn content on the oxidation behavior and electrical conductivity of the Fe–Cr alloys for the application of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). During the initial oxidation stage (within 1 min) at 750 °C in air, Cr is preferentially oxidized to form a layer of Cr2O3 type oxide in all the alloys, regardless the Mn content, with similar oxidation rate and oxide morphology. The subsequent oxidation of the Mn containing alloys is accelerated caused by the fast outward diffusion of Mn ions across the Cr2O3 type oxide layer to form Mn-rich (Mn, Cr)3O4 and Mn2O3 oxides on the top. After 700 h oxidation a multi-layered oxide scale is observed in the Mn containing alloys, which corresponds to a multi-stage oxidation kinetics in the alloys containing 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% of Mn. The oxidation rate and ASR of the oxide scale increase with the Mn content in the alloy changes from 0.0 to 3.0 wt.%. For the application of metallic interconnects in SOFCs, Mn-free Fe–17Cr alloy with conducting Cr free spinel coatings is preferred.

Bin Hua; Yonghong Kong; Wenying Zhang; Jian Pu; Bo Chi; Li Jian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Dan Hennessy (Primary Contact), Jim Banna Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC 300 University Drive m/c 480-300-385 Auburn Hills, MI 48326 Phone: (248) 732-0656 Email: daniel.t.hennessy@delphi.com DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000478 Subcontractors: * Electricore, Inc., Valencia, CA * PACCAR, Inc., Bellevue, WA * TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO Project Start Date: August 1, 2009 Project End Date: April 30, 2013 Objectives

306

Selective Production of Hydrogen for Fuel Cells Via Oxidative Steam Reforming of Methanol Over CuZnAl Oxide Catalysts: Effect of Substitution of Zirconium and Cerium on the Catalytic Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

H2 fuel, for fuel cells, is traditionally produced from methanol by the endothermic steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which is highly exothermic, has also been suggested as ....

S. Velu; K. Suzuki

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Gas conversion impedance: A test geometry effect in characterization of solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of an extra arc in impedance spectra obtained on high performance solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes is recognized when experiments are conducted in a test setup where the working and reference electrodes are placed in separate atmospheres. A simple continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is used to illustrate how anodes measured with the reference electrode in an atmosphere separate from the working electrode are subject to an impedance contribution from gas conversion. The gas conversion impedance is split into a resistive and a capacitive part, and the dependences of these parameters on gas composition, temperature, gas flow rate, and rig geometry are quantified. The fuel gas flow rate per unit of anode area is decisive for the resistivity, whereas the capacitance is proportional to the CSTR volume of gas over the anode. The model predictions are compared to actual measurements on Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia cermet anodes for SOFC. The contribution of the gas conversion overpotential to dc current-voltage characteristics is deduced for H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and shown to have a slope of RT/2F in a Tafel plot.

Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Research Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

received an $800,000 Department of Energy grant to study how to make one type of fuel cell--solid oxide is now seeking just a 0.2 percent loss of output per 1,000 hours. Solid oxide fuel cells operate at high to the development of low-cost, modular and fuel-flexible solid oxide fuel cell technology. #12;

Rollins, Andrew M.

309

Combined Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Processes Determining Cathode Performance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980’s as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot’s cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

Kukla, Maija M.; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Merkle, R.; Mastrikov, Yuri; Maier, J.

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

310

Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases Zhiguang Zhu a , Fangfang Sun a , Xiaozhou Zhang a,d , Y.-H. Percival Zhang a,b,c,d,n a Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA b Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA c DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA d Gate Fuels Inc., 2200 Kraft Drive, Suite 1200B, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 12 January 2012 Received in revised form 26 March 2012 Accepted 4 April 2012 Keywords: Deep oxidation Enzymatic fuel cell Glucose biobattery Thermoenzyme

311

Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cell based on La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3--  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cell based-supported solid oxide fuel cells consisting of nickel-gadolinium doped ceria (NiO-CGO, 60:40 wt%) anode-CGO cathode 1. Introduction Single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) have received many attentions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

NETL: Fuel Cells/SECA News - Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells/Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Fuel Cells/Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) News Archive SECA Workshop Proceedings, Peer Reviews, and Annual Reports 2013 Archive 2012 Archive 2011 Archive Previous Highlights FuelCell Energy's Stack Boosts Power and Minimizes Degradation FuelCell Energy has developed a new solid oxide fuel cell stack design that boosts the overall power output of the fuel cell stack by nearly 50%. FuelCell Energy also achieved a voltage degradation rate of 1.3% per 1000 hours after testing the fuel cells for 26,000 hours of operation. This breakthrough by FuelCell Energy of greater power from the fuel cell stack while minimizing fuel cell degradation pushes it further towards meeting SECA's goal of a market ready, affordable solid oxide fuel cell ready by the year 2010. (5/05)

313

A NOVEL INTEGRATED STACK APPROACH FOR REALIZING MECHANICALLY ROBUST SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

SOFCs are a very promising energy conversion technology for utilization of fossil fuels. The proposed project is to improve the viability of SOFCs by introducing a novel stacking geometry. The geometry involved has all active SOFC components and the interconnect deposited as thin layers on an electrically insulating support. This allows the choice of a support material that provides optimal mechanical toughness and thermal shock resistance. The supports are in the form of flattened tubes, providing relatively high strength, high packing densities, and minimizing the number of seals required. The integration of SOFCs and interconnects on the same support has several other advantages including the reduction of electrical resistances associated with pressure contacts between the cells and interconnects, relaxation of fabrication tolerances required for pressure contacts, reduction of ohmic losses, and reduction of interconnect conductivity requirements. In this report, we describe the processing methodologies that have been developed for fabricating the integrated solid oxide fuel cell (ISOFC), along with results on characterization of the component materials: support, electrolyte, anode, cathode, and interconnect. Screen printing was the primary processing method developed. A centrifugal casting technique was also developed for depositing thin 8 mol % yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers on porous NiO-YSZ anode substrates. Dense pinhole-free YSZ coatings were obtained by co-sintering the bi-layers at 1400 C. After depositing La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM)-YSZ cathodes, single SOFCs produced near-theoretical open-circuit voltages and power densities of 0.55 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Initial stack operation results are also described.

Scott A. Barnett; Tammy Lai; Jiang Liu

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Insights into CO poisoning in high performance proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High performance anode supported proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (PC-SOFC) were fabricated and their performance in syngas was studied. PC-SOFC button cells produced a maximum power density of 812 mW cm?2 in H2 at 750 °C. It was found that the CO-containing feed streams could drastically degrade the performance of PC-SOFC. Based on the experimental results and the theoretical analysis, the detailed process of the CO-induced Ni catalyst deactivation was identified. This process could be divided into three distinguishable stages during the continuous exposure of the Ni catalyst in the CO-containing environment. The first stage could be described using the CO surface active site blocking mechanism, which was further confirmed by CO/H2 competitive adsorption model. The second stage deactivation was proposed to be related to the carbon deposition at TPB (Triple-phase Boundary). The deactivation during this stage was accelerated by the electrochemical conversion of H2. The last stage was attributed to the coking of Ni catalyst and the resulted metal dusting effect.

Ning Yan; Xian-Zhu Fu; Karl T. Chuang; Jing-Li Luo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Numerical Modeling of the Distributed Electrochemistry and Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A cell-level distributed electrochemistry (DEC) modeling tool has been developed to enable prediction of solid oxide fuel cell performance by considering the coupled and spatially varying multi-physics that occur within the tri-layer. The approach calculates the distributed electrochemistry within the electrodes, which includes the charge transfer and electric potential fields, ion transport throughout the tri-layer, and gas distributions within the composite and porous electrodes. The thickness of the electrochemically active regions within the electrodes is calculated along with the distributions of charge transfer. The DEC modeling tool can examine the overall SOFC performance based on electrode microstructural parameters, such as particle size, pore size, porosity factor, electrolyte and electrode phase volume fractions, and triple-phase-boundary length. Recent developments in electrode fabrication methods have lead to increased interest in using graded and nano-structured electrodes to improve the electrochemical performance of SOFCs. This paper demonstrates how the DEC modeling tool can be used to help design novel electrode microstructures by optimizing a graded anode for high electrochemical performance.

Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr. Evanston, IL 60208 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been the center of research activities with the goal of improving energy

Marks, Laurence D.

317

Low circumferential voltage gradient self supporting electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The porous, self-supporting, elongated electrode is made, having at least two chambers through its axial length, the chambers separated by an electronically conductive member. This electrode can be an air electrode of a fuel cell, having a superimposed solid electrolyte and fuel electrode.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid ...

Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

Characterization of a 5 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack using power electronic excitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cells have attracted great interest as a means of clean, efficient conversion of chemical to electrical energy. This paper demonstrates the identification of both non-parametric and lumped circuit models of our stack ...

Seger, Eric

320

Hydrous oxide species as inhibitors of oxygen reduction at platinum activated fuel cell cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The successful development of a methanol/air fuel cell requires optimum performance of the air/ oxygen cathode at about 0.8 V vs RHE. ... oxygen gas reduction on platinum (the best electrocatalyst for this reacti...

L. D. Burke; J. K. Casey; J. A. Morrissey…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Project Sponsors:National Fuel Cell Research Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the 25 kW SOFC system are to: · Provide long-term operating data on the tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell landfill and digester gas. SOLID OXIDE INTEGRATED FUEL CELL SYSTEMS SolidOxide_IntegratedFuelCellSystems.ppt.pptx OVERVIEW The Siemens Westinghouse 25 kW Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the first integrated SOFC

Mease, Kenneth D.

322

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is critical to several national initiatives. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) addresses the technology needs through its comprehensive programs on SOFC. A reliable and cost-effective seal that works at high temperatures is essential to the long-term performance of the SOFC for 40,000 hours at 800°C. Consequently, seals remain an area of highest priority for the SECA program and its industry teams. An innovative concept based on self-healing glasses was advanced and successfully demonstrated through seal tests for 3000 hours and 300 thermal cycles to minimize internal stresses under both steady state and thermal transients for making reliable seals for the SECA program. The self-healing concept requires glasses with low viscosity at the SOFC operating temperature of 800°C but this requirement may lead to excessive flow of the glass in areas forming the seal. To address this challenge, a modification to glass properties by addition of particulate fillers is pursued in the project. The underlying idea is that a non-reactive ceramic particulate filler is expected to form glass-ceramic composite and increase the seal viscosity thereby increasing the creep resistance of the glass-composite seals under load. The objectives of the program are to select appropriate filler materials for making glass-composite, fabricate glass-composites, measure thermal expansion behaviors, and determine stability of the glass-composites in air and fuel environments of a SOFC. Self-healing glass-YSZ composites are further developed and tested over a longer time periods under conditions typical of the SOFCs to validate the long-term stability up to 2000 hours. The new concepts of glass-composite seals, developed and nurtured in this program, are expected to be cost-effective as these are based on conventional processing approaches and use of the inexpensive materials.

Raj Singh

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Simulation of creep and damage in the bonded compliant seal of planar solid oxide fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operates at high temperature and requires a good creep strength to ensure the structure integrity. This paper presents a creep and damage analysis of a bonded compliant seal (BCS) structure of a planar SOFC considering the effect of as-bonded residual stress and thermal stress, as well as the effect of filler metal and foil thickness. A modified continuum creep-damage model is used in the finite element simulation. It demonstrates that the BCS structure meets the requirement of the long-term operation at the high temperature of 600 °C with an appropriate braze bonding process. The results show that the failure location is not in the region of maximum creep deformation due to the effect of high level multi-axial stress which drastically decreases the multi-axial ductility. Reasonably reducing the thickness of filler metal and foil can decrease the damage of the BCS structure. Based on the consideration of creep and damage, it is proposed that the thickness of filler metal and foil should not exceed 0.1 and 0.05 mm, respectively.

Yu-Cai Zhang; Wenchun Jiang; Shan-Tung Tu; Jian-Feng Wen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Li, Baozhen (Essex Junction, VT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO[sub 3]. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La[sub w]Ca[sub x]Ln[sub y]Ce[sub z]MnO[sub 3], wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics. 10 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.; Li, B.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

Novel Electrode Materials for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Composites electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm-2 at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m-thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of the deposition parameters. Highly porous, excellently bonded and nano-structured electrodes fabricated by combustion CVD exhibit extremely high surface area and remarkable catalytic activities. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the electrochemical-polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer.

Shaowu Zha; Meilin Liu

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Presentation by...

328

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition Overview of DOE's...

329

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 This program record from the...

330

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

SciTech Connect

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Relationship Between Particle and Plasma Properties and Coating Characteristics of Samaria-Doped Ceria Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Samaria-doped ceria (SDC) has become a promising material for the fabrication of high-performance, intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this study, the in-flight characteristics, such as pa...

Mark Cuglietta; Olivera Kesler

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Influence of steam injection through exhaust heat recovery on the design performance of solid oxide fuel cell — gas turbine hybrid systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzed the influence of steam injection on the performance of hybrid systems combining a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. Two different ... the effects of injecting steam, generated by recovering

Sung Ku Park; Tong Seop Kim; Jeong L. Sohn

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagnostics 4757 4.4. Model Validation 4758 4.5. Summary and Outlook 4760 5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 4760 5 electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). AlsoFundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang* Departments of Mechanical Engineering

336

Fuel Cell Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Links Fuel Cell Links The links below are provided as additional resources for fuel-cell-related information. Most of the linked sites are not part of, nor affiliated with, fueleconomy.gov. We do not endorse or vouch for the accuracy of the information found on such sites. Fuel Cell Vehicles and Manufacturers Chevrolet General Motors press release about the Chevrolet Fuel Cell Equinox Ford Ford overview of their hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Honda FCX Clarity official site Hyundai Hyundai press release announcing the upcoming Tucson Fuel Cell Mercedes-Benz Ener-G-Force Fuel-cell-powered concept SUV Nissan Nissan TeRRA concept SUV Toyota Overview of Toyota fuel cell technology Hydrogen- and Fuel-Cell-Related Information and Tools Fuel Cell Vehicles Brief overview of fuel cell vehicles provided by DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)

337

Study of oxygen reduction mechanism on Ag modified1 Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to oxygen dissociation and diffusion process.26 KEYWORDS: Solid oxide fuel cell; Silver infiltrationStudy of oxygen reduction mechanism on Ag modified1 Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell2 3 4 Li-Ping Sun1 -- Hui Zhao1 -- Qiang Li1 -- Li-Hua Huo1 -- Jean-Paul Viricelle*2 --5 Christophe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect

Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385°C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350°C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500°C to 750°C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650°C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2010-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Flow distribution analyzing for the solid oxide fuel cell short stacks with rectangular and discrete cylindrical rib configurations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The commercial software Ansys is utilized to simulate and compare the fuel and air flow distribution characteristics within the specific 10-cell solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks with different rib configurations, such as the rectangular, discrete symmetric cylindrical and staggered cylindrical rib configurations, respectively. The stack flow uniformity index and the standard flow deviation index are used to properly represent the flow distribution qualities among the piled cell units at stack level and among the rib channels within each cell unit, respectively. Part of the result shows that for a 10-cell short stack, the influences of different rib configurations on the flow uniformity at stack level are negligible, which further approves that a short modular stack as 10-cells is a proper choice in establishing the large power supplied SOFC system. A typical 10-cell modular SOFC using the rectangular rib configuration to establish the fuel rib channels and using the discrete symmetric cylindrical rib configuration to construct the air rib channels is concluded to be proper designing in achieving a good stack performance, while carefully considers the produced current collecting, flow distribution over the electrode surface and the reaction species transporting within the composite electrode.

Shichuan Su; Huanhuan He; Daifen Chen; Wei Zhu; Yunxiong Wu; Wei Kong; Bo Wang; Liu Lu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fuel cell with internal flow control  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

Haltiner, Jr., Karl J. (Fairport, NY); Venkiteswaran, Arun (Karnataka, IN)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

2013 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cell (GFC), a modified solid oxide fuel cell, to test in extraction of oil from oil shale. 83 The 4.5 kW natural gas-fueled GFC was designed and built by Delphi for IEP...

344

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the membrane for a PEM fuel cell would cost $5/ft (1990$) inmass-produced PEM fuel cell could cost $10/kW or less. Totalparameter for PEM fuel cells: thinner membranes cost less

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$ b materials cost, % a Fuel cell stack cost only. Includesof the cost of fuel-cell stacks, 1990$° Cost item GE Swan cAnnual maintenance cost of fuel cell stack and auxiliaries (

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September byet al. , 1988,1989 HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES: TECHNICALIn the FCEV, the hydrogen fuel cell could supply the "net"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Oxidation states study of nickel in solid oxide fuel cell anode using x-ray full-field spectroscopic nano-tomography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Identifying the chemical state and coupling with morphological information in three dimensions are of great interest in energy storage materials which typically involve reduction-oxidation cycling and structural evolution. Here we apply x-ray nano-tomography with multiple x-ray energies to study oxidation states of nickel(Ni) and nickel oxide phases in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) a typical anodematerial of solid oxide fuel cells(SOFC). We present a method to quantitatively identify the nickel-based oxides from Ni-YSZ anodecomposite and obtain chemical mapping as well as associated microstructures at nanometer scale in three dimensions. NiO particles manually placed on a Ni-YSZ compositeanode were used for validation of the method while no nickel oxides were found to be present within the electrode structure as remnants of the cell fabrication process. The application of the method can be widely applied to energy storage materials including SOFCs Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors as well as other systems for oxidation and reduction study.

Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart; William M. Harris; Jeffrey J. Lombardo; Wilson K. S. Chiu; Jun Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fuel Cells at NASCAR  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cells at NASCAR Ned Stetson U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Catherine Kummer - NASCAR Green Norm Bessette - Acumentrics Question and Answer * Please...

349

Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with AFCC, a private joint venture company in Canada, formed by combining the automotive fuel cell business of Ballard Power Systems with the fuel cell stack development...

350

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition  

SciTech Connect

Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Energy and Environmental Solutions

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells ... After optimization for minimum activation polarization, the authors then produced impedance spectra to assess cell performance and achieved a peak power density of around 18 and 53 mW cm–2 at 700 and 800 °C, respectively. ... solid oxide fuel cell system under 600° just by optimizing the anode microstructure and operating conditions. ...

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Sukhvinder P. S. Badwal; Bradley P. Ladewig; Sankar Bhattacharya

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

354

Factors Affecting Limiting Current in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells or Debunking the Myth of Anode Diffusion Polarization  

SciTech Connect

Limiting current densities for solid oxide fuel cells were measured using both button cells and a flow-through cell. The cell anodes were supplied mixtures of humidified hydrogen and various inert gasses. It was demonstrated that the true limiting current in flow-through cells is reached when either: the hydrogen is nearly or completely depleted at the anode-electrolyte interface near the outlet; or when the concentration of steam at that interface becomes high enough to interfere with adsorption or transport of the remaining hydrogen near the triple-phase boundaries. Choice of inert gas had no effect on limiting currents in the flow-through tests, indicating that diffusion within the porous anode had no significant effect on cell performance at high currents. In the button cells, the apparent limiting currents were significantly changed by the choice of inert gas, indicating that they were determined by diffusion through the bulk gas within the support tube. It was concluded that the apparent limiting currents measured in button cells are influenced more by parameters of the experimental setup, such as the proximity of the fuel tube outlet, than by the physical properties of the anode.

Chick, Lawrence A.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Simner, Steven P.; Kirby, Brent W.; Powell, Michael R.; Canfield, Nathan L.

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

355

Thermodynamic Modeling and Optimum Design Strategy of a Generic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Based Hybrid System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(5, 17, 18) Here, we consider an indirectly combined system of a SOFC and a generic heat engine cycle, which is different from the coupling of high temperature fuel cells with Carnot heat engines, indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plants, or integration of a SOFC with a Stirling engine,(19-23) because it can be used to expound the general performance characteristics of a SOFC-based hybrid system, investigate the key irreversible losses of the hybrid system, and obtain the optimum criteria of the main performance parameters. ... The integration of a Stirling engine instead of the microturbine is a second possibility and the object of an ongoing study. ...

Xiuqin Zhang; Juncheng Guo; Jincan Chen

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

356

Compact fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel electrochemical cell which may be a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is disclosed where the cathodes (144, 140) may be exposed to the air and open to the ambient atmosphere without further housing. Current collector (145) extends through a first cathode on one side of a unit and over the unit through the cathode on the other side of the unit and is in electrical contact via lead (146) with housing unit (122 and 124). Electrical insulator (170) prevents electrical contact between two units. Fuel inlet manifold (134) allows fuel to communicate with internal space (138) between the anodes (154 and 156). Electrically insulating members (164 and 166) prevent the current collector from being in electrical contact with the anode.

Jacobson, Craig (Moraga, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA); Lu, Chun (Richland, WA)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fuel cell generating plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a fuel cell generating plant. It comprises a compressed fuel supply; a fuel cell system including fuel conditioning apparatus and fuel cells; a main fuel conduit for conveying fuel from the fuel supply to the fuel cell system; a turbo compressor having a turbine receiving exhaust products from the fuel cell system and a compressor for compressing air; a main air conduit for conveying air from the compressor to the fuel cell system; an auxiliary burner having a primary burner and a pilot; an auxiliary air conduit for conveying air from the compressed fuel supply to the auxiliary burner; an auxiliary exhaust conduit for conveying exhaust products from the auxiliary burner to the turbine; a check valve located between the fuel supply and the pilot; and a gas accumulator in the auxiliary fuel conduit located between the check valve and the pilot.

Sanderson, R.A.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell Technical Cell Technical Publications to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Hydrogen Fuel Cells Safety, Codes & Standards Market Analysis Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings

359

Effects of anode microstructures on durability of microtubular solid oxide fuel cells during internal steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract When hydrocarbons are used as a fuel in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), internal steam reforming increases the energy conversion efficiency and simplifies the system, including the balance-of-plant. However, conventional nickel–yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni–YSZ) anodes are prone to deterioration at high temperatures and high humidity. This paper focuses on effects in anode microstructure on performance and durability of microtubular SOFCs. The evaluations were conducted under high steam content and internal methane reforming conditions using Ni–YSZ anodes using acrylic resin and graphite pore formers. The initial cell performance was almost identical to that of \\{SOFCs\\} with anodes using acrylic resin and graphite pore formers in 40% H2–3% H2O at 700 °C. However, the anode using acrylic resin deteriorated rapidly in 40% H2–30% H2O over a period of 28 h. Furthermore, it generated almost no electric power by internal steam reforming of methane. The local oxidation of nickel particles was observed at the interface between the electrolyte and the deteriorated anodes. The anode using graphite pore former provided stable power generation in 40% H2–30% H2O, and was able to generate power in 10% CH4–30% H2O. The pore formers strongly affect fuel diffusivity in the SOFC anodes, which is an important factor in stable internal steam reforming of methane.

Hirofumi Sumi; Toshiaki Yamaguchi; Toshio Suzuki; Hiroyuki Shimada; Koichi Hamamoto; Yoshinobu Fujishiro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The effect of cerium surface treated ferritic stainless steel current collectors on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory scale solid oxide fuel cells (“button” cells) were operated with untreated or cerium surface treated Fe–22Cr–0.5Mn (composition by weight percent, wt%) ferritic stainless steel current collectors attached to the cathode. After a brief stabilization (or “burn-in”) period, the power density of a cell with the untreated current collector rapidly decreased. By contrast, there was little degradation in power density during testing of cells with the cerium surface treated current collectors. The difference in degradation was attributed to differences in Cr build-up within the cathode. It should be emphasized that the duration of the tests were quite short and longer duration testing is required, however, this initial assessment indicates the treatment may benefit the performance of SOFC with steel interconnects.

D.E. Alman; C.D. Johnson; W.K. Collins; P.D. Jablonski

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Fuel cell system for transportation applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Evanston, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Fuel cell system for transportation applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell and receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and uses water and air for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor. 3 figures.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1993-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell`s operating environment. Stainless steels rich in Cr, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers. 6 figs.

Li, Y.; Meng, W.J.; Swathirajan, S.; Harris, S.J.; Doll, G.L.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Selective production of hydrogen for fuel cells via oxidative steam reforming of methanol over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell powered vehicles using hydrogen (H2) as a fuel are currently being developed in an effort to mitigate the emissions of green house gases such as CO2, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The H2 fuel is extracted from methanol onboard a vehicle by steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reaction. A considerable amount of CO is produced as a by-product, which is a poison to the Pt anode of the fuel cell. Very recently, we have demonstrated that a combined SRM and partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which we labeled as “oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM)” reaction is more efficient for the selective production of H2 relatively at a lower temperature of around 230°C over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts derived from hydroxycarbonate precursors containing hydrotalcite (HT)-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/aurichalcite phases. There are several operating parameters such as catalyst composition, reaction temperature, O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios and methanol injection rate that are need to be optimized in order to produce H2 suitable for fuelling a fuel cell. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of these variable parameters on the catalytic performance over a series of CuZnAl- and CuZnAlZr-oxide catalysts. Our study indicated that among the CuZn-based catalysts, those containing Zr were the most active. The optimum O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios should be in the ranges 0.20–0.30 and 1.3–1.6, respectively, in order to achieve a better catalytic performance. Studies of the effect of methanol contact time on the catalytic performance over a Zr-containing catalyst revealed that the OSRM reaction proceeds through the formation of formaldehyde intermediate. CO was produced as a secondary product by the decomposition of formaldehyde and it is subsequently transformed into CO2 and H2 by the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction.

S Velu; K Suzuki; M.P Kapoor; F Ohashi; T Osaki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

FUEL CELLS – MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS | Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) emerged during the twentieth century as one of the key fuel cell types. It uses an electrolyte of alkali metal carbonates, operates typically at 650 °C, and is best suited to hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, coal gas, or biogas. The high operating temperature enables such fuels to be fed directly to the MCFC stacks, leading to conversion efficiencies greater than 50%. Molten carbonate fuel cell systems are ideally suited to applications that need continuous base load power. The first commercial systems, at the 300 kW scale, are therefore being used in applications such as hospitals and hotels.

A.L. Dicks

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL ALLOY TiC-Ni-Ni3Al FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials must meet stringent requirements. Such interconnects must operate at temperatures approaching 800 C while resisting oxidation and reduction, which can occur from the anode and cathode materials and the operating environment. They also must retain their electrical conductivity under these conditions and possess compatible coefficients of thermal expansion as the anode and cathode. Results are presented in this report for fuel cell interconnect candidate materials currently under investigation based upon nano-size titanium carbide (TiC) powders. The TiC is liquid phase sintered with either nickel (Ni) or nickel-aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) in varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of the submicron grain TiC-metal materials is presented as a function weight change versus time at 700 C and 800 C for varying content of metal/intermetallic in the system. Electrical conductivity at 800 C as a function of time is also presented for TiC-Ni to demonstrate the vitality of these materials for interconnect applications. TGA studies showed that the weight gain was 0.8 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)-Ni(30wt.%) after 100 hours in wet air at 800 C and the weight gain was calculated to be 0.5205 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)- Ni(10 wt.%) after 100 hours at 700 C and 100 hours at 800 C. At room temperature the electrical conductivity was measured to be 2444 1/[ohm.cm] for TiC-Ni compositions. The electrical conductivities at 800 C in air was recorded to be 19 1/[ohm.cm] after 125 hours. Two identical samples were supplied to PNNL (Dr. Jeff Stevenson) for ASR testing during the pre-decision period and currently they are being tested there. Fabrication, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity studies indicate that TiC-Ni-Ni{sub 3}Al ternary appears to be a very important system for the development of interconnect composition for solid oxide fuel cells.

Rasit Koc; Geoffrey Swift; Hua Xie

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fuel cell electric power production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Modelling microscale fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this work is to investigate transport phenomena in recently developed microscale fuel cell designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two microscale fuel… (more)

Bazylak, Aimy Ming Jii

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cells Key Benefits Very High Efficiency Reduced CO 2 Emissions Reduced Oil Use Reduced Air Pollution Fuel Flexibility * 40 - 60% (electrical) * > 70% (electrical, hybrid fuel...

373

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

374

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation by Chris White of the California Fuel Cell Partnership provides information about alternative fuels research.

378

Platinum supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of Pt-based alloy catalysts for fuel cell applications...on carbon corrosion of PEMFC electrodes . J Electrochem...carbon monoxide on PEFC catalyst carbon support degradation...2006 ) PEM fuel cell cathode carbon corrosion due to...of carbon support in PEMFC at fuel starvation . ECS...

Javier Parrondo; Taehee Han; Ellazar Niangar; Chunmei Wang; Nilesh Dale; Kev Adjemian; Vijay Ramani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Identification of bimetallic electrocatalysts for ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidation: Probing C2-pathway and activity for hydrogen oxidation for indirect hydrogen fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrogen, in the ethanol molecule, can be utilized in indirect hydrogen fuel cells. In this device, ethanol can be dehydrogenated producing H2 and acetaldehyde in an external fuel processor, and the H2 molecules are electro-oxidized in the anode. The anode electrocatalyst can, additionally, be active for the electro-oxidation of residual ethanol or acetaldehyde, but must catalyze the reaction via the C2-pathway (intact CC bond), in order to avoid the formation poisoning species. This work investigated potential materials that are active for H2 and catalyze the selective electro-oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde via the C2-pathway. The bimetallic electrocatalysts were formed by W, Ru and Sn-modified Pt nanoparticles. The reaction products were followed by on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments. The results showed that Ru/Pt/C and Sn/Pt/C presented higher overall reaction rate when compared to the other studied materials. However, they were non-selective, even at different atomic proportions, and catalyzed the reaction in parallel pathways producing CO2 and acetaldehyde, with Ru/Pt/C presenting the highest average current efficiency for CO2 formation (16.6%). On the other hand, W/Pt/C with high W content was more selective to the C2 route, evidenced by the absence of the DEMS signals for molecules with one carbon atom such as CH4 and CO2. Additionally, this material was active and stable for H2 electro-oxidation, even in the presence of acetaldehyde in solution, contrarily to what was observed for Pt/C, and this was associated to its activity for H2 oxidation and its inability for the CC dissociation, as evidenced by the DEMS measurements. The high selectivity obtained for the W/Pt/C material to the C2-pathway, and its capability for hydrogen electro-oxidation, is an important novelty in this work, as it turns into a potential electrocatalyst for application in the anode of indirect hydrogen fuel cells powered by ethanol, mainly for those that operates as auxiliary power units of internal combustion engine cars.

A.C. Queiroz; W.O. Silva; I.A. Rodrigues; F.H.B. Lima

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen J. (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary L. (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells G. J. K. Acres G. A. Hards The...physical composition of the catalysts used in fuel cells are determined by the type of cell...operating conditions. The six types of fuel cell presently in use or under development...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES  

SciTech Connect

A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cell Seminar & Energy Exposition Columbus, Ohio Dr. Sunita Satyapal Director Fuel Cell Technologies Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

384

Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the nation's energy portfolio and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nation,...

385

Fuel Cell Buses | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Buses Fuel Cell Buses Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Fuel Cell Buses" held on September 12, 2013. Fuel Cell Buses...

386

Comparison between pressurized design and ambient pressure design of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell–gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design performances of the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)–gas turbine (GT) system have been investigated. A pressurized system and an indirectly heated ambient pressure system were analyzed and their performances were compared. In the baseline layout, the basic performance characteristics of the two system configurations were analyzed, with the cell operation temperature and the pressure ratio as the main design parameters. The pressurized system exhibits a better efficiency owing to not only the higher cell voltage but also more effective utilization of gas turbine, i.e., a larger GT power contribution due to a higher turbine inlet temperature. Independent setting of the turbine inlet temperature was simulated by using the additional fuel supply as well as the air bypass. Increasing the pressure ratio of the gas turbine hardly improves the system efficiency, but the efficiency becomes less sensitive to the turbine inlet temperature. In the ambient pressure system, the available design parameter range is much reduced due to the limit on the recuperator temperature. In particular, design of the ambient pressure hybrid system with a gas turbine of a high pressure ratio does not seem quite feasible because the system efficiency that can be achieved at the possible design conditions is even lower than the efficiency of the SOFC only system.

S.K. Park; T.S. Kim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market Transformation Market Transformation Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on AddThis.com... Early Adoption of Fuel Cells Early Market Applications for Fuel Cells

389

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell...

390

Catalysts and materials development for fuel cell power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic processing of fuels was explored in this thesis for both low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell as well as high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Novel catalysts were ...

Weiss, Steven E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the first quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) The determination of the role of ionic conductor morphology, used in composite cathodes, on the ionic conductivity of the ionic conductor. It was shown that if the particles are not well sintered, the necks formed between particles will be very narrow, and the resulting conductivity will be too low (resistivity will be too high). Specifically, a mathematical equation was derived to demonstrate the singular nature of conductivity. (2) Nanosize powders of Sc-doped CeO{sub 2} were prepared by combustion synthesis. The rationale is that the particle size of the composite electrode must be as small as possible to ensure a high ionic conductivity--and resulting in high performance in fuel cells. Di-gluconic acid (DGA) was used as fuel. The process led to the formation of nanosize Sc-doped CeO{sub 2}. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (3) Samples were sintered to form materials containing various levels of porosity, from {approx}3% to {approx}43%. Conductivity was measured over a range of temperatures by four probe DC method. It was observed that in highly porous samples, the conductivity was far lower than can be expected purely based on total porosity. The difference could be rationalized on the basis of the theoretical model developed.

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

FUEL CELLS RALLY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FUEL CELLS RALLY ... No, this car has composite tanks capable of storing 8 kg of hydrogen. ... It's General Motors' Sequel, a fuel-cell concept car unveiled earlier this month at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. ...

ALEXANDER H. TULLO

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

fuel cells | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel cells fuel cells Leads No leads are available at this time. The Molecular Bond: October 2014 The Molecular Bond newsletter banner October 2014 FROM THE DIRECTOR Read more...

394

Oxygen Electrocatalysis on Epitaxial La[subscript 0.6]Sr[subscript 0.4]CoO[subscript 3-?] Perovskite Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hetero-structured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit reactivity characteristics remarkably different from bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active fuel cell catalysts for oxygen ...

Crumlin, Ethan J.

395

Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Performance and Durability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Department: Fuel Cells and SolidSolid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Anne Hauch Risø-PhD-37(EN) Risø : Images from transmission electron microscopy investigation of the H2 electrode for the solid oxide cell

396

Power Generation from an Integrated Biomass Reformer and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SBIR Phase III) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Quentin Ming (Primary Contact), Patricia Irving InnovaTek, Inc. 3100 George Washington Way, Suite 108 Richland, WA 99354 Phone: (509) 375-1093 Email: ming@innovatek.com DOE Managers HQ: Charles Russomanno Phone: (202) 586-7543 Email: Charles.Russomanno@ee.doe.gov HQ: Kathi Epping Martin Phone: (202) 586-7425 Email: Kathi.Epping@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0004535 Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: September 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Establish the requirements and design for an integrated * fuel cell and fuel processor that will meet the technical and operational needs for distributed energy production. Develop and integrate key system components - *

397

Webinar: Fuel Cell Buses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Fuel Cell Buses, originally presented on September 12, 2013.

398

Project Sponsors:National Fuel Cell Research Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Sponsors:National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu SOLID OXIDE SIEMENS WESTINGHOUSE: 25 KW TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL FIRST SOFC PRE-COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE AND RESEARCH PLATFORM data on the tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) design. · Test component designs including inverters

Mease, Kenneth D.

399

A Low-Cost Soft-Switched DC/DC Converter for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A highly efficient DC to DC converter has been developed for low-voltage high-current solid oxide fuel cells. The newly developed 'V6' converter resembles what has been done in internal combustion engine that split into multiple cylinders to increase the output capacity without having to increase individual cell size and to smooth out the torque with interleaving operation. The development was started with topology overview to ensure that all the DC to DC converter circuits were included in the study. Efficiency models for different circuit topologies were established, and computer simulations were performed to determine the best candidate converter circuit. Through design optimization including topology selection, device selection, magnetic component design, thermal design, and digital controller design, a bench prototype rated 5-kW, with 20 to 50V input and 200/400V output was fabricated and tested. Efficiency goal of 97% was proven achievable through hardware experiment. This DC to DC converter was then modified in the later stage to converter 35 to 63 V input and 13.8 V output for automotive charging applications. The complete prototype was tested at Delphi with their solid oxide fuel cell test stand to verify the performance of the modified DC to DC converter. The output was tested up to 3-kW level, and the efficiency exceeded 97.5%. Multiple-phase interleaving operation design was proved to be reliable and ripple free at the output, which is desirable for the battery charging. Overall this is a very successful collaboration project between the SECA Core Technology Team and Industrial Team.

Jason Lai

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

400

Microfluidic fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microfluidic fuel cell architectures are presented in this thesis. This work represents the mechanical and microfluidic portion of a microfluidic biofuel cell project. While the… (more)

Kjeang, Erik

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Multidisciplinary Modeling, Control, and Optimization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Power System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes a systematical study, including multidisciplinary modeling, simulation, control, and optimization, of a fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system that aims… (more)

Abbassi Baharanchi, Atid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Effects of ionic conductivities of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of platinum anodes in solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

To find a clue for the design of high-performance electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the polarization properties of Pt electrodes attached to zirconia electrolytes with various ionic conductivities were investigated at 800-1000[degree]C. The IR-free anodic polarization in hydrogen was greatly affected by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, and it obeyed the Tafel equation. The exchange current density increased in proportion to the square of the ionic conductivity for all electrolytes operated at 800-1000[degree]C, while the transfer coefficient (n[alpha][sub o] = 2) was independent of the temperature and of the conductivity of electrolytes. According to our analysis, the rate-determining step is not a simple electron transfer from oxide ions but a recombination step involving discharged oxygen atoms adsorbed on the Pt electrode/electrolyte interface; an increase in the rate of transport of oxide ions to the interface, for example, by using an electrolyte with higher-ionic conductivity, reduces the anodic overpotential greatly. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu; Watanabe, Masahiro (Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan))

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

404

Effect of Nickel-Phosphorus Interactions on Structural Integrity of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

An integrated experimental/modeling approach was utilized to assess the structural integrity of Ni - yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) porous anode supports followed the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation on coal gas containing trace amounts of phosphorus impurities. Phosphorus was chosen as a typical impurity exhibiting strong interactions with the nickel followed by second phase formation. Tests were performed using Ni-YSZ anode-supported button cells exposed to 0.5-10 ppm of phosphine in synthetic coal gas at 700-800oC. The extent of Ni-P interactions was determined by a post-test scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Severe damage to the anode support due to nickel phosphide phase formation and extensive crystal coalescence was revealed, resulting in electric percolation loss. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual anode support microstructures to assist in degradation mechanism explanation. Volume expansion induced by the Ni phase alteration was found to produce high stress levels such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode became possible under the operating conditions. These results emphasize the need for extensive coal gas cleanup when used as a fuel for SOFCs.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Carbon-based Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

Steven S. C. Chuang

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

407

Modeling of the Effective Elastic and Thermal Properties of Glass-Ceramic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Materials  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effective elastic properties and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of a glass-ceramic were predicted using homogenization techniques. Using G18, a glass-ceramic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealant as an initial reference material, the effectiveness of different homogenization models was investigated for a two-phase glass-ceramic. The elastic properties and CTEs of the G18 amorphous phase are currently unknown. Thus, estimated values were used as an input to the models. The predictive model offers accurate macroscopic values on both the elastic modulus and the CTE of glass-ceramic materials, providing the estimated amorphous values are reasonable. This model can be used in designing glass-ceramic SOFC seal materials for its specific operation conditions.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Ahzi, Said; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Graphite coated with manganese oxide/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites as anodes in marine benthic microbial fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving anode performance is of great significance to scale up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) for its marine application to drive oceanography instruments. In this study, manganese oxide (MnO2)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are prepared to be as novel anodes in the \\{BMFCs\\} via a direct redox reaction between permanganate ions (MnO4?) and MWCNTs. The results indicate that the MnO2/MWCNTs anode has a better wettability, greater kinetic activity and higher power density than that of the plain graphite (PG) anode. It is noted that the MnO2 (50% weight percent)/MWCNTs anode shows the highest electrochemical performance among them and will be a promising material for improving bioelectricity production of the BMFCs. Finally, a synergistic mechanism of electron transfer shuttle of Mn ions and their redox reactions in the interface between modified anode and bacteria biofilm are proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance.

Yubin Fu; Jian Yu; Yelong Zhang; Yao Meng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

SciTech Connect

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5×10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fuel Cells & Alternative Fuels | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cells & Alternative Fuels Fuel Cells & Alternative Fuels Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and...

413

Fuel Cells Team  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Judith Valerio at one of our 31 single-cell test stands Fuel Cell Team The FC team focus is R&D on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for commercial and military applications. Our program has had ongoing funding in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells since 1977 and has been responsible for enabling breakthroughs in the areas of thin film electrodes and air bleed for CO tolerance. For more information on the history of fuel cell research at Los Alamos, please click here. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power the nation and the world. The FC team is exploring the potential of fuel cells as energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible alternatives that will

414

Fuel Cell 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell 101 Fuel Cell 101 Don Hoffman Don Hoffman Ship Systems & Engineering Research Division March 2011 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fuel Cell Operation * A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical power source * It supplies electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically without combustion. * It is configured like a battery with anode and cathode. * Unlike a battery, it does not run down or require recharging and will produce electricity and will produce electricity, heat and water as long as fuel is supplied. 2H + + 2e - O 2 + 2H + + 2e - 2H 2 O H 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 FUEL FUEL CONTROLS Fuel Cell System HEAT & WATER CLEAN CLEAN EXHAUST EXHAUST

415

Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel via Fractional Evaporation and Subsequent Hydrodesulfurization Upstream a Fuel Cell System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are favored for application in the foreseeable future. ... For fuel cells to be fuelled with liquid fuels as per Figure 1, an upstream desulfurization step is mandatory. ... fuel?recovered ...

Markus Brune; Rainer Reimert

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

416

Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual-Mode Operation with Low Degradation - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Eric Tang, Tony Wood, Sofiane Benhaddad, Casey Brown, Hongpeng He, Jeff Nelson, Oliver Grande, Ben Nuttall, Mark Richard, Randy Petri (Primary Contact) Versa Power Systems 10720 Bradford Road #110 Littleton, CO 80127 Phone: (303) 226-0762 Email: randy.petri@versa-power.com DOE Managers HQ: Kathi Epping Martin Phone: (202) 586-7425 Email: Kathi.Epping@ee.doe.gov

417

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Joint Fuel Cell Bus Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings Webinars

418

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market Transformation Market Transformation Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on AddThis.com...

419

Fuel Cells publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells » Fuel Cells Publications Fuel Cells publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Chemistry Communications Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

420

Fuel Cells Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pat Davis 2 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Goal : Develop and demonstrate fuel cell power system technologies for transportation, stationary, and portable applications. 3 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Objectives * Develop a 60% efficient, durable, direct hydrogen fuel cell power system for transportation at a cost of $45/kW (including hydrogen storage) by 2010. * Develop a 45% efficient reformer-based fuel cell power system for transportation operating on clean hydrocarbon or alcohol based fuel that meets emissions standards, a start-up time of 30 seconds, and a projected manufactured cost of $45/kW by

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421

Definition: Fuel cell | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel cell Fuel cell Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fuel cell An electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity. View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen/air to sustain the chemical reaction; however, fuel cells can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. In 1838, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein invented the first

422

Bonding of Silicon Nitride Using a Preceramic Polymer and Germanium Powders with a Potential Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCs) with fewThe attraction of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is based onof the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) concept has

Han, Young Hwan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Effects of proton-conducting electrolyte microstructure on the performance of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three kinds of proton-conducting electrolyte powder BaCe0.8Sm0.2O2.9 (BCS) with different microstructures are synthesized by three different methods: EDTA-citrate method EDTA-citrate and ball-milling method and hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the BCS powders and electrochemical measurements and impedance spectroscopy are employed to analyze electrical characteristics of the electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is found that the performance of electrolyte-supported SOFCs strongly depends upon the electrolyte microstructure which is dominated by the synthesis methods. At the operating temperature of 650?°C the highest SOFC performance (80?mW/cm2) is obtained from the cell with nanostructured proton conducting electrolyte powder synthesized by the hydrothermal method while the lowest performance (17?mW/cm2) is the cell with the largest grain powder synthesized by the EDTA-citrate method without ball-milling treatment.

Jing Sui; Lei Cao; Qianqian Zhu; Liyan Yu; Qian Zhang; Lifeng Dong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

425

Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we report the microstructural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H2 over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hacket, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Zueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine trigeneration system for marine applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shipping contributes 4.5% to global CO2 emissions and is not covered by the Kyoto Agreement. One method of reducing CO2 emissions on land is combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) or trigeneration, with typical combined thermal efficiencies of over 80%. Large luxury yachts are seen as an ideal entry point to the off-shore market for this developing technology considering its current high cost. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining a SOFC-GT system and an absorption heat pump (AHP) in a trigeneration system to drive the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and electrical base-load systems. A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the system, with various configurations and cooling loads. Measurement of actual yacht performance data forms the basis of this system simulation. It is found that for the optimum configuration using a double effect absorption chiller in Ship 1, the net electric power increases by 47% relative to the electrical power available for a conventional SOFC-GT-HVAC system. This is due to more air cooled to a lower temperature by absorption cooling; hence less electrical cooling by the conventional HVAC unit is required. The overall efficiency is 12.1% for the conventional system, 34.9% for the system with BROAD single effect absorption chiller, 43.2% for the system with double effect absorption chiller. This shows that the overall efficiency of a trigeneration system is far higher when waste heat recovery happens. The desiccant wheel hardly reduces moisture from the outdoor air due to a relative low mass flow rate of fuel cell exhaust available to dehumidify a very large mass flow rate of HVAC air, Hence, desiccant wheel is not recommended for this application.

Lawrence Kar Chung Tse; Steven Wilkins; Niall McGlashan; Bernhard Urban; Ricardo Martinez-Botas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Fuel Cells Fact Sheet | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cells Fact Sheet Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen fuel cell technology. Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications...

429

NREL: Learning - Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells and their ability to cleanly produce electricity from hydrogen and oxygen are what make hydrogen attractive as a "fuel" for transportation use particularly, but also as a general energy carrier for homes and other uses, and for storing and transporting otherwise intermittent renewable energy. Fuel cells function somewhat like a battery-with external fuel being supplied rather than stored electricity-to generate power by chemical reaction rather than combustion. Hydrogen fuel cells, for instance, feed hydrogen gas into an electrode that contains a catalyst, such as platinum, which helps to break up the hydrogen molecules into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged electrons. The electrons flow from the electrode to a terminal that

430

Preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance with CO contamination of the H.sub.2 fuel stream is substantially improved by injecting O.sub.2 into the fuel stream ahead of the fuel cell. It is found that a surface reaction occurs even at PEM operating temperatures below about 100.degree. C. to oxidatively remove the CO and restore electrode surface area for the H.sub.2 reaction to generate current. Using an O.sub.2 injection, a suitable fuel stream for a PEM fuel cell can be formed from a methanol source using conventional reforming processes for producing H.sub.2.

Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Conducting oxide formation and mechanical endurance of potential solid-oxide fuel cell interconnects in coal syngas environment  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation properties of potential SOFCs materials Crofer 22 APU, Ebrite and Haynes 230 exposed in coal syngas at 800 °C for 100 h were studied. The phases and surface morphology of the oxide scales were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The mechanical endurance and electrical resistance of the conducting oxides were characterized by indentation and electrical impedance, respectively. It was found that the syngas exposure caused the alloys to form porous oxide scales, which increased the electrical resistant and decreased the mechanical stability. As for short-term exposure in syngas, neither carbide nor metal dusting was found in the scales of all samples.

Liu, Kejia; Luo, Junhang; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo; Lang, J.; Mao, S.X.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Composite electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm{sup -2} at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters of combustion CVD, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of deposition parameters. Symmetrical cells were fabricated by depositing cathode materials on both sides of GDC electrolytes.

X. Lu; C. Xia; Y. Liu; W. Rauch; M. Liu

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a fuel in solid oxide fuel cells,” J. Power Sources 118:in Electricity in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” Proceedings ofthe 6th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, Lucerne,

Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Fuel Cells Energy Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen DOE Hydrogen and and Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting Fuel Cell Coordination Meeting June 2-3, 2003 Electricity Users Kathi Epping Kathi Epping Objectives & Barriers Distributed Energy OBJECTIVES * Develop a distributed generation PEM fuel cell system operating on natural gas or propane that achieves 40% electrical efficiency and 40,000 hours durability at $400-750/kW by 2010. BARRIERS * Durability * Heat Utilization * Power Electronics * Start-Up Time Targets and Status Integrated Stationary PEMFC Power Systems Operating on Natural Gas or Propane Containing 6 ppm Sulfur 40,000 30,000 15,000 Hours Durability 750 1,250 2,500 $/kWe Cost 40 32 30 % Electrical Efficiency Large (50-250 kW) Systems 40,000 30,000 >6,000 Hours Durability 1,000 1,500 3,000

435

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

436

Computational fluid dynamics model development on transport phenomena coupling with reactions in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3D model is developed to describe an anode-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by ANSYS/Fluent evaluating reactions including methane steam reforming (MSR)/water-gas shift (WGSR) reactions in thick anode layer and H2-O2/CO-O2 electrochemical reactions in anode active layer coupled with heat mass species momentum and ion/electron charges transport processes in SOFC. The predicted results indicate that electron/ion exchange appears in the very thin region in active layers (0.018?mm in anode and 0.01?mm in cathode) based on three phase boundary operating temperature and concentration of reactants (mainly H2). Active polarization happening in active layers dominates over concentration and ohmic losses. High gradient of current density exists near interface between electrode and solid conductor due to the block by gas channel. It is also found the reaction rates of MSR and WGSR along main flow direction and cell thickness direction decrease due to low concentration of fuel (CH4) caused by mass consumption. With increasing operating temperature from 978?K to 1088?K the current density and the reaction rate of MSR are increased by 10.8% and 5.4% respectively. While ion current density is 52.9% higher than in standard case and H2 is consumed by 5.1% more when ion conductivity is doubled. CO-O2 has been considered in charge transfer reaction in anode active layer and it is found that the current density and species distributions are not sensitive but WGSR reaction will be forced backwards to supply more CO for CO-O2 electrochemical reaction.

Chao Yang; Guogang Yang; Danting Yue; Jinliang Yuan; Bengt Sunden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics  

SciTech Connect

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Life Prediction of Coated and Uncoated Metallic Interconnect for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation reaction of the ferritic stainless interconnects in a typical SOFC working environment is unavoidable and the thickness of the oxide scale will continue to grow with operating time, even with protective coatings. The interfacial strength of the various interfaces for the uncoated and coated ferritic interconnects is crucial to long term performance of SOFCs. In this paper, we employ an integrated experimental/modeling approach to quantify the interfacial strength and to further predict the life of Crofer 22 APU as SOFC interconnect under isothermal cooling condition. The life of Crofer 22 APU was predicted by comparing the predicted interfacial strength, interfacial stresses induced by the cooling process from the operating temperature to room temperature, together with the growth kinetics of oxide scale with and without spinel coating. It was found that the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate decreases with the growth of the oxide scale. The interfacial strength of the oxide scale and spinel coating is much higher than that of the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate. With the spinel coating, the predicted life of the Crofer 22 APU is significantly longer than that of the uncoated Crofer 22 APU.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces Around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction was used to measure the crystallographic distribution of the electrochemically relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, both before and after mild electrochemical loading. All distributions were observed to be nearly isotropic, but non-random textures above the detection threshold were observed. The distributions differ between the two cells, as do the phase fractions and the electrochemical history. The different distributions are interpreted as evidence that steady-state distributions vary locally with phase fractions or that they evolve during the initial operation of the fuel cell. The rates at which triple lines, pore surfaces, and interface boundaries in the porous mixture approach a steady-state value appear to decrease with the average amount of mass transport required to reorient that specific feature. This work provides initial insights into the crystallography of interfaces in a multiphase ceramic material.

Dillon, Shen; Helmick, Lam; Miller, Herbert M.; Johnson, Christopher; Wilson, Lane; Gemmen, Randall; Petrova, Rumyana; Barmak, Katayun; Gerdes, Kirk; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Salvador, Paul A.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect

The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

442

Fuel Cell Financing Options  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Financing Fuel Cell Installations, August 30, 2011.

443

Fuel Cell Case Study  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells for Supermarkets, April 4, 2011.

444

Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

445

Suitability of Metallic Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FeCr model alloys with variation of chromium content, reactive element addition and spinel forming elements were studied in respect to oxidation resistance at 800°C. Additionally, in-situ studies were carried ...

W. J. Quadakkers; J. Piron-Abellan…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Fuel Cell Development Status  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development Status Michael Short Systems Engineering Manager United Technologies Corporation Research Center Hamilton Sundstrand UTC Power UTC Fire & Security Fortune 50 corporation $52.9B in annual sales in 2009 ~60% of Sales are in building technologies Transportation Stationary Fuel Cells Space & Defense * Fuel cell technology leader since 1958 * ~ 550 employees * 768+ Active U.S. patents, more than 300 additional U.S. patents pending * Global leader in efficient, reliable, and sustainable fuel cell solutions UTC Power About Us PureCell ® Model 400 Solution Process Overview Power Conditioner Converts DC power to high-quality AC power 3 Fuel Cell Stack Generates DC power from hydrogen and air 2 Fuel Processor Converts natural gas fuel to hydrogen

447

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

George, Thomas J. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, Part II: sealing glass stability, microstructure and interfacial reactions.  

SciTech Connect

A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing methods under realistic conditions. Part I of the work addressed the stack fixture, seal system and cell performance of a 3-cell short stack tested at 800oC for 6000h. Commercial NiO-YSZ anode-supported thin YSZ electrolyte cells with LSM cathodes were used for assessment and were tested in constant current mode with dilute (~50% H2) fuel versus air. Part II of the work examined the sealing glass stability, microstructure development, interfacial reactions, and volatility issues. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell degradation. After 6000h of testing, the refractory sealing glass YSO77 (Ba-Sr-Y-B-Si) showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ electrolyte in that no discernable interfacial reaction was identified, consistent with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, no glass penetration into the thin electrolyte was observed. At the aluminized AISI441 interface, the protective alumina coating appeared to be corroded by the sealing glass. Air side interactions appeared to be more severe than fuel side interactions. Metal species such as Cr, Mn, and Fe were detected in the glass, but were limited to the vicinity of the interface. No alkaline earth chromates were found at the air side. Volatility was also studied in a similar glass and weight loss in a wet reducing environment was determined. Using the steady-state volatility data, the life time (40,000h) weight loss of refractory sealing glass YSO77 was estimated to be less than 0.1 wt%.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method of making straight fuel cell tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and an apparatus for making straight fuel cell tubes are disclosed. Extruded tubes comprising powders of fuel cell material and a solvent are dried by rotating the extruded tubes. The rotation process provides uniform circumferential drying which results in uniform linear shrinkage of the tubes. The resultant dried tubes are very straight, thereby eliminating subsequent straightening steps required with conventional processes. The method is particularly useful for forming inner air electrode tubes of solid oxide fuel cells.

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A fundamental model exhibiting nonlinear oscillatory dynamics in solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...without the need for combustion. The device can...high-grade waste heat during regular operation...range of experimental data on SOFC oscillatory...and experimental data. The early stage...SOFC, a variety of hydrocarbon fuels can be used...Further work As the data on oscillations in...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

How Fuel Cells Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Fuel Cells Work How Fuel Cells Work Diagram: How a PEM fuel cell works. 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell. 2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons. 3. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode. The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current. 4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.

453

Small-Scale Low Cost Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Progress in tasks seeking greater cell power density and lower cost through new cell designs, new cell materials and lower operating temperature is summarized. The design of the program required Proof-of-Concept unit of residential capacity scale is reviewed along with a summary of results from its successful test. Attachment 1 summarizes the status of cell development. Attachment 2 summarizes the status of generator design, and Attachment 3 of BOP design.

S. D. Vora

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Miniature ceramic fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z