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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Fuel Cell - Solid Oxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolyzer Research and Development Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid oxide diagram In an SOFC, oxygen from air is reduced to ions at the cathode, which diffuse through the...

2

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

3

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, which offers many advantages over traditional energy conversion systems including low emission and high efficiency, has become increasingly attractive to the utility, automotive, and defense industries (as shown in Figure 1). As an all solid-state energy conversion device, the SOFC operates at high temperatures (700-1,000 C) and produces electricity by electrochemically combining the fuel and oxidant gases across an ionically conducting oxide membrane. To build up a useful voltage, a number of cells or PENs (Positive cathode-Electrolyte-Negative anode) are electrically connected in series in a stack through bi-polar plates, also known as interconnects. Shown in Figure 2 (a) is a schematic of the repeat unit for a planar stack, which is expected to be a mechanically robust, high power-density and cost-effective design. In the stack (refer to Figure 2 (b)), the interconnect is simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing (fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas) environment on the anode side for thousands of hours at elevated temperatures (700-1,000 C). Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain sulfide impurities. Also, the interconnect must be stable towards any sealing materials with which it is in contact, under numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, the interconnect must also be stable towards electrical contact materials that are employed to minimize interfacial contact resistance, and/or the electrode materials. Considering these service environments, the interconnect materials should possess the following properties: (1) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation and corrosion) in both cathodic (oxidizing) and anodic (reducing) atmospheres. (2) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN and other adjacent components, all of which typically have a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the range of 10.5-12.0 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}. (3) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales. (4) Satisfactory bulk and interfacial mechanical/thermomechanical reliability and durability at the SOFC operating temperatures. (5) Good compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials. Until recently, the leading candidate material for the interconnect was doped lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3), which is a ceramic material which can easily withstand the traditional 1000 C operating temperature. However, the high cost of raw materials and fabrication, difficulties in obtaining high-density chromite parts at reasonable sintering temperatures, and the tendency of the chromite interconnect to partially reduce at the fuel gas/interconnect interface, causing the component to warp and the peripheral seal to break, have plagued the commercialization of planar SOFCs for years. The recent trend in developing lower temperature, more cost-effective cells which utilize anode-supported, several micron-thin electrolytes and/or new electrolytes with improved conductivity make it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2003-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, p. 209, Elsevier, NewI. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal and J.create connected nanostructured SOFC electrodes is reviewed.of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. Fuel cells are an energy user's dream: an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions that runs almost silently and has few

9

Microstructure Design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The porous heterogeneous cathode microstructure of solid Oxide fuel cells ... Computer Simulations of Realistic Multi-Phase Three-Dimensional Microstructures.

10

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

13

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) design that can be fabricated entirely using low-temperature, thin-film processing is described. Potential advantages of the cell are reduced materials costs and improved fuel-cell characteristics. The critical design feature is the use of thin (approximately equal to 50 nanometers), catalytically-active oxide layers on a < 10 micrometer thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supported electrolyte to minimize reaction overpotentials and ohmic losses. Doped ceria at th...

1995-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..............................................................................17 Figure 18: Truck Featuring a Delphi SOFC APU Solutions SOFC Solid oxide fuel cell kg Kilogram TGC The Gas Company km/h Kilometer per hour UAV Unmanned fuel cells (SOFC) for residential use. In South Korea, a new government program is supporting up to 80

16

Advanced Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced fuel cells have many potential utility applications including new multi-megawatt central power plants, repowering existing plants, and dispersed generation. A newly designed 25 kW planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system offers simplicity of construction, low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of by product heat, and straight-forward system integration.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An increasing worldwide demand for premium power, emerging trend towards electric utility deregulation and distributed power generation, global environmental concerns and regulatory controls have accelerated the development of advanced fuel cell based power generation systems. Fuel cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy through electrochemical oxidation of gaseous and/or liquid fuels ranging from hydrogen to hydrocarbons. Electrochemical oxidation of fuels prevents the formation of Nox, while the higher efficiency of the systems reduces carbon dioxide emissions (kg/kWh). Among various fuel cell power generation systems currently being developed for stationary and mobile applications, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) offer higher efficiency (up to 80% overall efficiency in hybrid configurations), fuel flexibility, tolerance to CO poisoning, modularity, and use of non-noble construction materials of low strategic value. Tubular, planar, and monolithic cell and stack configurations are currently being developed for stationary and military applications. The current generation of fuel cells uses doped zirconia electrolyte, nickel cermet anode, doped Perovskite cathode electrodes and predominantly ceramic interconnection materials. Fuel cells and cell stacks operate in a temperature range of 800-1000 *C. Low cost ($400/kWe), modular (3-10kWe) SOFC technology development approach of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative of the USDOE will be presented and discussed. SOFC technology will be reviewed and future technology development needs will be addressed.

Singh, Prabhakar; Pederson, Larry R.; Simner, Steve P.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Viswanathan, Vish V.

2001-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell demonstration activities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This reports on a solid oxide fuel cell demonstration program in which utilities are provided fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems. These field units serve to demonstrate to customers first hand the beneficial attributes of the SOFC, to expose deficiencies through experience in order to guide continued development, and to garner real world feedback and data concerning not only cell and stack parameters, but also transportation, installation, permitting and licensing, start-up and shutdown, system alarming, fault detection, fault response, and operator interaction.

Ray, E.R.; Veyo, S.E.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solid oxide fuel cell distributed power generation  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that oxidize fuel without combustion to convert directly the fuel`s chemical energy into electricity. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is distinguished from other fuel cell types by its all solid state structure and its high operating temperature (1,000 C). The Westinghouse tubular SOFC stack is process air cooled and has integrated thermally and hydraulically within its structure a natural gas reformer that requires no fuel combustion and no externally supplied water. In addition, since the SOFC stack delivers high temperature exhaust gas and can be operated at elevated pressure, it can supplant the combustor in a gas turbine generator set yielding a dry (no steam) combined cycle power system of unprecedented electrical generation efficiency (greater 70% ac/LHV). Most remarkably, analysis indicates that efficiencies of 60 percent can be achieved at power plant capacities as low as 250 kWe, and that the 70 percent efficiency level should be achievable at the two MW capacity level. This paper describes the individual SOFC, the stack, and the power generation system and its suitability for distributed generation.

Veyo, S.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies July 23, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling option, please visit: The NETL Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program Webpage Solid oxide fuel cells are among the cleanest, most efficient power-generating technologies now being developed. They provide excellent electrical efficiencies and are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels, from coal and natural gas to landfill waste and hydrogen. And with continued advancements, solid oxide fuel cells can provide clean

24

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

Adzic, Radoslav R. (Setauket, NY); Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. (Coram, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Open end protection for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (40) having a closed end (44) and an open end (42) operates in a fuel cell generator (10) where the fuel cell open end (42) of each fuel cell contains a sleeve (60, 64) fitted over the open end (42), where the sleeve (60, 64) extends beyond the open end (42) of the fuel cell (40) to prevent degradation of the interior air electrode of the fuel cell by fuel gas during operation of the generator (10).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Toms, James M. (Irwin, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Schmidt, Douglas S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sealant materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to complete the development of soft glass-ceramic sealants for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Among other requirements, the materials must soften at the operation temperature of the fuel cell (600--1,000 C) to relieve stresses between stack components, and their thermal expansions must be tailored to match those of the stack materials. Specific objectives included addressing the needs of industrial fuel cell developers, based on their evaluation of samples the authors supply, as well as working with commercial glass producers to achieve scaled-up production of the materials without changing their properties. Results from long-term stability testing, stability in voltage gradients, thermal expansion and softening, and scaled-up production methods are presented.

Kueper, T.W.; Krumpelt, M.; Meiser, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

30

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit  

SciTech Connect

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

J. Weber

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

32

Solid oxide fuel cell combined cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The integration of the solid oxide fuel cell and combustion turbine technologies can result in combined-cycle power plants, fueled with natural gas, that have high efficiencies and clean gaseous emissions. Results of a study are presented in which conceptual designs were developed for 3 power plants based upon such an integration, and ranging in rating from 3 to 10 MW net ac. The plant cycles are described and characteristics of key components summarized. Also, plant design-point efficiency estimates are presented as well as values of other plant performance parameters.

Bevc, F.P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Lundberg, W.L.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell developments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An overview of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development at Westinghouse is presented in this paper. The basic operating principles of SOFCs, evolution in tubular cell design and performance improvement, selection criteria for cell component materials, and cell processing techniques are discussed. The commercial goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 5 to 10 years. Results of cell test operated for more than 50,000 hours are presented. Since 1986, significant progress has been made in the evolution of cells with higher power, lower cost and improved thermal cyclic capability. Also in this period, successively larger multi-kilowatt electrical generators systems have been built and successfully operated for more than 7000 hours.

Bratton, R.J.; Singh, P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technology Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its most common configuration, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses an oxygen ion conducting ceramic electrolyte membrane, perovskite cathode and nickel cermet anode electrode. Cells operate in the 600-1000 C temperature range and utilize metallic or ceramic current collectors for cell-to-cell interconnection. Recent development in engineered electrode architectures, component materials chemistry, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes have led to significant improvement in the electrical performance and performance stability as well as reduction in the operating temperature of such cells. Large kW-size power generation systems have been designed and field demonstrated. This paper reviews the status of SOFC power generation systems with emphasis on cell and stack component materials, electrode reactions, materials reactions and corrosion processes

Singh, Prabhakar; Minh, Nguyen Q.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

38

FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

39

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Small cell size, thin ceramic components, and high operating temperature are the key features of the MSOFC. The small size of individual cells in the monolithic structure increases the active surface area. For example, an MSOFC with channels about 1 mm in diameter has a ratio of active surface area to volume of about 9.4 sq cm/cu cm. This is about seven times the ratio for conventional fuel cells. On this basis alone, an MSOFC with a channel diameter of 1 mm should produce the same power as a conventional fuel cell seven times as large. The high current density of the MSOFC results from the small cell size and ensuing low internal resistance. The current density is high at the fuel inlet end of the fuel channel where the thermodynamic driving force (Nernst potential) is highest. Similarly, the current density is low at the outlet end of the fuel channel where the Nernst potential is lowest. Because of the high operating temperature of the MSOFC (1000{degrees}C),hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed in the fuel channels. The reform reaction produces hydrogen which is consumed by the fuel cell. Catalytic reforming of methane and natural gas within a solid oxide fuel cell has been demonstrated.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Novel Anode Materials For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Dissertation committee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fabrication of alternative anodes for direct methane oxidation in SOFC". Publisher: Twente University Press, P cells (SOFC). The principles and materials employed for SOFC are described. Emphasis is on the anode (PAFC), · the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), · the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Each type of fuel

Verweij, Henk

43

Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs.

Armstrong, T.; Stevenson, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Sealants for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Basic requirements for a sealant are good bonding to the materials of interest, chemical stability in the operating environment, and low gas permeability. For high-temperature operation as in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), the sealant must also have a thermal expansion which is reasonably close to that of the other materials involved and must have some compliance, or softness, to allow for some mismatch between the components to be joined. In this paper, we discuss a family of glass-ceramic materials with mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties that are suitable for these demanding high-temperature applications.

Kueper, T.W.; Bloom, I.D.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to test fuel cell components at a scale and under conditions that can be accurately extrapolated to full system performance. This requires specially designed equipment that replicates the pressure (up to 6.5 bara), temperature (about 910 C), anode and cathode gas compositions, flows and power generation density of the full scale design. The SBTS fuel cell anode gas is produced through the reaction of pipeline natural gas with a mixture of steam, CO2, and O2 in a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor. Production of the fuel cell anode gas in this manner provides the capability to test a fuel cell with varying anode gas compositions ranging from traditional reformed natural gas to a coal-syngas surrogate fuel. Stark State College and RRFCS have a history of collaboration. This is based upon SSCAs commitment to provide students with skills for advanced energy industries, and RRFCS need for a workforce that is skilled in high temperature fuel cell development and testing. A key to this approach is the access of students to unique SOFC test and evaluation equipment. This equipment is designed and developed by RRFCS, with the participation of SSC interns. In the near-term, the equipment will be used by RRFCS for technology development. When this stage is completed, and RRFCS has moved to commercial products, SSC will utilize this equipment for workforce training. The RRFCS fuel cell design is based upon a unique ceramic substrate architecture in which a porous, flat substrate (tube) provides the support structure for a network of solid oxide fuel cells that are electrically connected in series. These tubes are grouped into a {approx}350-tube repeat configuration, called a stack/block. Stack/block testing, performed at system conditions, provides data that can be confidently scaled to full scale performance. This is the basis for the specially designed and developed test equipment that is required for advancing and accelerating the RRFCS SOFC power system development program. All contract DE-EE0003229 objectives were achieved and deliverables completed during the peri

Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Tubular screen electrical connection support for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel assembly is made of fuel cells (16, 16', 18, 24, 24', 26), each having an outer interconnection layer (36) and an outer electrode (28), which are disposed next to each other with rolled, porous, hollow, electrically conducting metal mesh conductors (20, 20') between the fuel cells, connecting the fuel cells at least in series along columns (15, 15') and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Jaszcar, Michael P. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes - Energy ...  

Ethanol and other alcohols are nearly ideal reactants for fuel cells. Unfortunately they are difficult to oxidize, requiring breaking of carbon-carbon bonds. This ...

49

Mechanical Stability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are devices that convert chemical energy into electricity with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In case...

50

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division Propulsion Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements Cleared For Public For Public Release: 88ABW-2010-0196 2...

51

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Miniaturizations Fabrication of TiN Nanoparticle Dispersed Si3N4 Ceramics by Wet Jet...

52

Thin film techniques for solid oxide fuel cells  

Thin film techniques for solid oxide fuel cells V.E.J. van Dieten and J. Schoonman Laboratory ... ticles stay in the hot temperature region can be ...

53

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Connections for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R&D Workshop August 11-12, 2011 Washington, DC Mark Richards, Eric Tang, Randy Petri Copyright 2011 Versa Power...

56

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inflat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings of theSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator...

59

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

5-kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report chronicles, as a case study, a project in which an Acumentrics 5-kW solid oxide fuel cell was installed at Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Ohio.

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Commercial Sector Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Business Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimated market potential for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in the commercial sector could be about 4 billion MWh from 2001 through 2015. This market, however, is highly sensitive to impacts deregulation will have on commercial retail rates.

1996-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells--- monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is currently under development for a variety of applications including coal-based power generation. The MSOFC is a design concept that places the thin components of a solid oxide fuel cell in lightweight, compact, corrugated structure, and so achieves high efficiency and excellent performance simultaneously with high power density. The MSOFC can be integrated with coal gasification plants and is expected to have high overall efficiency in the conversion of the chemical energy of coal to electrical energy. This report describes work aimed at (1) assessing manufacturing costs for the MSOFC and system costs for a coal-based plant; (2) modifying electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the electrochemical performance of the MSOFC; and (3) testing the performance of the MSOFC on hydrogen and simulated coal gas. Manufacturing costs for both the coflow and crossflow MSOFC's were assessed based on the fabrication flow charts developed by direct scaleup of tape calendering and other laboratory processes. Integrated coal-based MSOFC systems were investigated to determine capital costs and costs of electricity. Design criteria were established for a coal-fueled 200-Mw power plant. Four plant arrangements were evaluated, and plant performance was analyzed. Interfacial modification involved modification of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the MSOFC electrochemical performance. Work in the cathode and cathode/electrolyte interface was concentrated on modification of electrode porosity, electrode morphology, electrode material, and interfacial bonding. Modifications of the anode and anode/electrolyte interface included the use of additives and improvement of nickel distribution. Single cells have been tested for their electrochemical performance. Performance data were typically obtained with humidified H{sub 2} or simulated coal gas and air or oxygen. 68 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Thin-film solid-oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are energy conversion devices that would save billions of dollars in fuel costs alone each year in the United States if they could be implemented today for stationary and transportation applications (1-5). There are a wide variety of fuel cells available, e.g. molten carbonate, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane and solid-oxide. However, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) are potentially more efficient and less expensive per kilowatt of power in comparison to other fuel cells. For transportation applications, the energy efficiency of a conventional internal combustion engine would be increased two-fold as replaced with a zero-emission SOFC. The basic unit of a SOFC consists of an anode and cathode separated by an oxygen-ion conducting, electrolyte layer. Manifolded stacks of fuel cells, with electrical interconnects, enable the transport and combination of a fuel and oxidant at elevated temperature to generate electrical current. Fuel cell development has proceeded along different paths based on the configuration of the anode-electrolyte-cathode. Various configurations include the tubular, monolithic and planar geometries. A planar geometry for the anode-electrolyte-cathode accompanied by a reduction in layer thickness offers the potential for high power density. Maximum power densities will require yet additional innovations in the assembly of fuel cell stacks with all of the manifolding stipulations for gas flow and electrical interconnects.

Jankowski, A.F.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Finite element analysis of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper investigates the stress and fracture behavior of a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) currently under joint development by Allied Signal Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory. The MSOFC is an all-ceramic fuel cell capable of high power density and tolerant of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, making it potentially attractive for stationary utility and mobile transportation systems. The monolithic design eliminates inactive structural supports, increases active surface area, and lowers voltage losses caused by internal resistance.

Saigal, A. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Finite element analysis of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper investigates the stress and fracture behavior of a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) currently under joint development by Allied Signal Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory. The MSOFC is an all-ceramic fuel cell capable of high power density and tolerant of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, making it potentially attractive for stationary utility and mobile transportation systems. The monolithic design eliminates inactive structural supports, increases active surface area, and lowers voltage losses caused by internal resistance.

Saigal, A. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Majumdar, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Application of Vacuum Deposition Methods to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of vacuum deposition techniques to the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell materials and structures are reviewed, focusing on magnetron sputtering, vacuum plasma methods, laser ablation, and electrochemical vapor deposition. A description of each method and examples of use to produce electrolyte, electrode, and/or electrical interconnects are given. Generally high equipment costs and relatively low deposition rates have limited the use of vacuum deposition methods in solid oxide fuel cell manufacture, with a few notable exceptions. Vacuum methods are particularly promising in the fabrication of micro fuel cells, where thin films of high quality and unusual configuration are desired.

Pederson, Larry R.; Singh, Prabhakar; Zhou, Xiao Dong

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Development of Reliable Methods for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the development of reliable methods for sealing solid oxide fuel cell stacks.

Loehman, R.; Brochu. M.; Gauntt, B.; Shah, R.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

McElroy, James F. (Hamilton, MA); Chludzinski, Paul J. (Swampscott, MA); Dantowitz, Philip (Peabody, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

1987-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

70

Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes Produced by a Combination of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. Plasma-spray coating ...

71

Mitigation of chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cell system by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants Mitigation of chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cell...

72

Neutron Sciences - Electrode Material for Solid-oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode material for solid-oxide fuel cells Research Contact: Ana B. Munoz-Garcia December 2012, Written by Agatha Bardoel Fuel cell technology is one potentially very efficient and environmentally friendly way to convert the chemical energy of fuels into electricity. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can convert a wide variety of fuels with simpler, cheaper designs than those used in liquid electrolyte cells. Using the Powder Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, researchers experimentally characterized the promising new SOFC electrode material strontium iron molybdenum oxide─Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ (SFMO). Combining the experimental results with insights from theory showed that the crystal structure is distorted from the ideal cubic simple perovskite

73

OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

Minh, Nguyen Q. (Fountain Valley, CA); Horne, Craig R. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pressurized SOFC Test Program is an integral part of the Cooperative Agreement between Westinghouse and DOE and was put into place to evaluate the effects of pressurization on SOFC performance. The goals of the SOFC pressurized test program are to obtain cell voltage versus current (VI) performance data as a function of pressure; to evaluate the effects of operating parameters such as temperature, air stoichiometry, and fuel utilization on cell performance, and to demonstrate long term stability of the SOFC materials at elevated pressures.

Ray, E.R.; Basel, R.A.; Pierre, J.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

Ellingson, W.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell prospect  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Driven by technological achievement and rational projection of commercial product cost, expectations for tubular SOFC commercialization are improving. Tubular SOFCs have surpassed 7 yrs operation and have recently demonstrated remarkable toughness in thermal cycling. Customer-owned systems with 25 kW stacks utilizing air electrode supported (AES) cells continue to operate directly on natural gas without degradation after multiple thermal cycles and over 4000 hrs operation. AES cell operation at elevated pressure corroborates theoretical estimates of performance gain without evidence of deleterious effect. Commercial class AES cell of 22 mm dia and 1500 mm length, is now in production for application to 100 kW, 50% efficient (ac/LHV), atmospheric pressure systems. This same cell applied to pressurized systems in combination with conventional turbo machinery (gas turbines) can yield an efficiency approaching 70% for power plants as small as 5 MW. Total installed system cost for commercial 5 MW SOFC/CT units for distributed power generation and on-site cogeneration should approach $1000/kW. A major challenge is formation of funded projects to demonstrate at the turn of the century prototype MW class SOFC/CT combined cycle power plants and to complete the development of commercial fuel cell manufacturing processes.

Veyo, S.E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells. Quarterly report, April--June 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Small cell size, thin ceramic components, and high operating temperature are the key features of the MSOFC. The small size of individual cells in the monolithic structure increases the active surface area. For example, an MSOFC with channels about 1 mm in diameter has a ratio of active surface area to volume of about 9.4 sq cm/cu cm. This is about seven times the ratio for conventional fuel cells. On this basis alone, an MSOFC with a channel diameter of 1 mm should produce the same power as a conventional fuel cell seven times as large. The high current density of the MSOFC results from the small cell size and ensuing low internal resistance. The current density is high at the fuel inlet end of the fuel channel where the thermodynamic driving force (Nernst potential) is highest. Similarly, the current density is low at the outlet end of the fuel channel where the Nernst potential is lowest. Because of the high operating temperature of the MSOFC (1000{degrees}C),hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed in the fuel channels. The reform reaction produces hydrogen which is consumed by the fuel cell. Catalytic reforming of methane and natural gas within a solid oxide fuel cell has been demonstrated.

Not Available

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

The low-temperature partial oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne`s partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) is a compact, lightweight, rapid-start, and dynamically responsive device to convert liquid fuels to H{sub 2} for use in automotive fuel cells. An APOR catalyst for methanol has been developed and tested; catalysts for other fuels are being evaluated. Simple in design, operation, and control, the APOR can help develop efficient fuel cell propulsion systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Solid oxide fuel cell commercialization in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses aspects of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology commercialization in the US. It provides the status of the major SOFC developments occurring in the US by addressing both intermediate- and high-temperature SOFC`s, several SOFC designs, including both planar and tubular, and SOFC system configurations. This paper begins with general characteristics, proceeds with designs and system configurations, and finishes with a discussion of commercialization, funding, and policies. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is the lead US DOE center for the implementation of a Research, Development, and Demonstration Program to develop fuel cells for stationary power. METC`s stakeholders include the electric power and gas industries, as well as fuel cell developers and others. This paper offers some new perspectives on SOFC development and commercialization which come from the broad consideration of the commercialization efforts of the entire fuel cell industry.

Williams, M.C.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the January to June 2004 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

Nguyen Minh

2004-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

88

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

90

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the January to June 2004 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

Nguyen Minh

2004-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

91

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

92

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode ...  

They are highly fuel-efficient and almost non-polluting, making them an attractive alternative for energy generation. ... Energy Innovation Portal Technologies.

93

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The MSOFC features of thin ceramic components, small cell size, and 1000{degree}C operating temperature combine to provide very high power densities of about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L for the MSOFC (fuel cell only, coflow version). This very high power density coupled with expected efficiencies of over 50 percent offers the possibility of successful competition with existing electrical generation systems. The ability of the MSOFC to reform hydrocarbon fuels within the fuel channels allows existing fuels and fuel distribution methods to be used with minor modifications for most applications. The power density of the MSOFC is high enough to meet the demands of many diverse applications such as aerospace, transportation, portable power systems, and micro-cogeneration systems, as well as more conventional utilities systems. The primary development challenge is to fabricate the MSOFC structure by co-sintering all four fuel cell materials into the corrugated honeycomb'' structure (stack). The objectives of the cost study are: To assess the manufacturing cost for the MSOFC assuming a nominal production rate of 200 MW/year for coal-based system applications. To define an integrated coal gasification MSOFC system with a potential for reducing plant heat rate and capital costs below 7,100 BTU/kWh and $1,300/kW, respectively.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having a weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

Bloom, I.D.; Hash, M.C.; Krumpelt, M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

than 50 kW; do not restrict fuel choice o Combined heat and power applications maximize SOFC benefit of high grade waste heat o Critical and remote power are good early market...

98

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of Ist European SOFC Forum, U. Bossel , Editor,on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C. Singhal etsolid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development is towards lower

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells * Made from low-cost nickel oxide * Uses available fuels: natural gas, propane, synthetic JP-8 * 41 units delivered to the field * Twice the efficiency of...

100

The Performance of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells using Hydrogen-depleted Coal Syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Since solid oxide fuel cells can operate on fuel containing both hydrogen and carbon monoxide, it may prove possible to remove hydrogen from syngas streams (more)

Burnette, David D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Glass-Ceramic Seal for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells - Energy ...  

Applications and Industries. Seal tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen generators, electrolyzers, and membrane reactors;

102

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power, Gas turbine, Hybrid, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell hal-00703135,version1-31May2012 Author manuscript

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Modeling Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design and Analysis Moe A Khaleel BJ Koeppel, W Liu, K Lai, KP Recknagle, EM Ryan, EV Stephens, X Sun Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 11 th Annual SECA Workshop Pittsburgh, PA July 27-29, 2009 1 PNNL SOFC Modeling Tools SOFC-MP Stack level model for fast analysis of co/counter-flow SOFC stack performance Detailed electrochemistry model Cell level model for the investigation of secondary reactions (degradation/contamination) mechanisms within the tri-layer Component-based design and performance modeling Contact material Interconnect Glass seal 2 SOFC-MP Stack Simulation Code Recent Accomplishments Major memory improvements of 3D model to accommodate 50-cell stacks on LINUX platform. Previously, developed a 2D (or stacked

104

Electrical contact structures for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrical output connection means is provided for a high temperature solid oxide electrolyte type fuel cell generator. The electrical connection of the fuel cell electrodes to the electrical output bus, which is brought through the generator housing to be connected to an electrical load line maintains a highly uniform temperature distribution. The electrical connection means includes an electrode bus which is spaced parallel to the output bus with a plurality of symmetrically spaced transversely extending conductors extending between the electrode bus and the output bus, with thermal insulation means provided about the transverse conductors between the spaced apart buses. Single or plural stages of the insulated transversely extending conductors can be provided within the high temperatures regions of the fuel cell generator to provide highly homogeneous temperature distribution over the contacting surfaces.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Myles, K.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the October 2002 to December 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The following activities have been carried out during this reporting period: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} Part-load performance analysis was conducted {lg_bullet} Primary system concept was down-selected {lg_bullet} Dynamic control model has been developed {lg_bullet} Preliminary heat exchanger designs were prepared {lg_bullet} Pressurized SOFC endurance testing was performed

Nguyen Minh; Faress Rahman

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the January 2002 to March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. For this reporting period the following activities have been carried out: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} System-level performance model was created {lg_bullet} Dynamic control models are being developed {lg_bullet} Mechanical properties of candidate heat exchanger materials were investigated {lg_bullet} SOFC performance mapping as a function of flow rate and pressure was completed

Nguyen Minh

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the July 2001 to September 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. An internal program kickoff was held at Honeywell in Torrance, CA. The program structure was outlined and the overall technical approach for the program was presented to the team members. Detail program schedules were developed and detailed objectives were defined. Initial work has begun on the system design and pressurized SOFC operation.

Unknown

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to solid oxide fuel power generators and is particularly directed to improvements in the assembly and coupling of solid oxide fuel cell modules. A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing. 17 figs.

Szreders, B.E.; Campanella, N.

1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

118

Development of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 250 kW External Fuel Processor was developed and tested that will supply the gases needed by a pipeline natural gas fueled, solid oxide fuel cell during all modes of operation. The fuel processor consists of three major subsystems--a desulfurizer to remove fuel sulfur to an acceptable level, a synthesis gas generator to support plant heat-up and low load fuel cell operations, and a start gas generator to supply a non-flammable, reducing gas to the fuel cell during startup and shutdown operations. The desulfurization subsystem uses a selective catalytic sulfur oxidation process that was developed for operation at elevated pressure and removes the fuel sulfur to a total sulfur content of less than 80 ppbv. The synthesis gas generation subsystem uses a waterless, catalytic partial oxidation reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich mixture from the natural gas and air. An operating window was defined that allows carbon-free operation while maintaining catalyst temperatures that will ensure long-life of the reactor. The start gas subsystem generates an oxygen-free, reducing gas from the pipeline natural gas using a low-temperature combustion technique. These physically and thermally integrated subsystems comprise the 250 kW External Fuel Processor. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was tested at the Rolls-Royce facility in North Canton, Ohio to verify process performance and for comparison with design specifications. A step wise operation of the automatic controls through the startup, normal operation and shutdown sequences allowed the control system to be tuned and verified. A fully automated system was achieved that brings the fuel processor through its startup procedure, and then await commands from the fuel cell generator module for fuel supply and shutdown. The fuel processor performance met all design specifications. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was shipped to an American Electric Power site where it will be tested with a Rolls-Royce solid oxide fuel cell generator module.

Daniel Birmingham; Crispin Debellis; Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

119

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. In this report, further measurements of the oxygen deficient double perovskite PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} are reported. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Preliminary measurements in symmetric cells have shown low ASR values at 600 C. Here we describe the first complete cell measurements on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells.

Allan J. Jacobson

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Glass Mica Composite Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel glass-mica composite seal was developed based on the previous concept of ''infiltrated'' mica seals for solid oxide fuel cells. A Ba-Al-Ca silicate sealing glass was mixed with mica flakes to form the glass-mica composite seals. The glass-mica composite seals were tested thermal cycle stability in terms of the high temperature leakage and compressive stresses. Post mortem analyses were used to characterize the fracture and leak path of the glass-mica composite seals.

Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

123

Recent progress in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The tubular design of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and the materials used therein have been validated by successful, continuous electrical testing over 69,000 h of early technology cells built on a calcia-stabilized zirconia porous support tube (PST). In the latest technology cells, the PST has been eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube. These air electrode supported (AES) cells have shown a power density increase of about 33% with a significantly improved performance stability over the previously used PST type cells. These cells have also demonstrated the ability to thermally cycle over 100 times without any mechanical damage or performance loss. In addition, recent changes in processes used to fabricate these cells have resulted in significant cost reduction. This paper reviews the fabrication and performance of the state-of-the-art AES tubular cells. It also describes the materials and processing studies that are underway to further reduce the cell cost, and summarizes the recently built power generation systems that employed state-of-the-art AES cells.

Singhal, S.C.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

The Effect of Operational Voltage on a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operating on Coal Syngas Containing Trace Amounts of Phosphine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Electrolyte-supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have been proven capable of generating usable electricity when supplied with various fuels, including a synthetic fuel (syngas) generated from (more)

Kaufman, Brian A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ceramic and Glass Composite Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Ceramic and Glass...

127

Develoment of Electrolyte Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Fuel Cells: Materials, Processing, Manufacturing, Balance of Plant and...

128

Pressurised Operation of Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Pressurised Operation of...

129

Quantum Mechanics Evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Quantum Mechanics...

130

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Integrated gasification fuel cell systems or IGFCs were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems.

Nguyen Minh

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

Proton Conductor based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 S. (Elango) Elangovan, Joseph Hartvigsen, Insoo Bay, and Feng Zhao High efficiency operation is one of the primary attractions to use solid oxide fuel cells as the energy conversion device. High efficiency requires maximizing of the product of operating voltage and fuel utilization. The maximum possible operating voltage however is limited by the Nernst potential near the fuel exhaust. In oxygen conducting electrolyte based fuel cells (O-SOFC) as the fuel utilization increases, the Nernst potential continues to decrease with the dilution of fuel by the reaction products. In contrast, in a proton conducting electrolyte based fuel cell (P-SOFC) the reaction product is formed on the cathode side allowing for high operating voltage at high fuel

133

Program Area of Interest: Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode--electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. In this report, the oxygen exchange kinetics of a P2 composition are described in detail. The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) have been determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Allan J. Jacobson

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

135

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells  

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells. BNL Reference Number: BSA 99-05. Summary. ... Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in ...

136

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalysts infiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)the demanding environment of SOFC electrodes. Introductioninfiltrated into already formed SOFC electrodes to enhance

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cells to Advance Zero-Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 percent, focus on solving the remaining issues in developing solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for commercial use. "The President's Hydrogen and Climate Initiatives envision...

138

A degradation model for solid oxide fuel cell anodes due to impurities in coal syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) offer great promise as a clean and efficient alternative to conventional power generation technologies. A major advantage of SOFCs in (more)

Cayan, Fatma Nihan.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A High Temperature Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operating on Phosphine Contaminated Coal Syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells that operate on phosphine contaminated coal syngas are subject to performance degradation due to alterations of the anode microstructure. Theoretical investigations (more)

De Silva, Kandaudage Channa R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Evaluation of Cathode Materials for Low Temperature (500-700C) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have gained a great deal of interest, due to their potential for high efficiency power generation and ability to (more)

Lassman, Alexander M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Coatings: Reaction Layer Microstructure, Chemistry and Formation Mechanisms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The implementation of improved electrolyte materials have led to modern solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) which operate at lower temperatures (600-800 C) than previously (more)

Magdefrau, Neal J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Advances in research for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells are attracting considerable interest among industrial organizations wanting to position themselves in a potentially important technology of the future. More than a dozen new organizations worldwide have begun SOFC development in the last few years. Most of this R and D activity is in the planar technology, because it represents a good compromise between the proven but IR-limited tubular configuration and the high-performance but difficult-to-fabricate monolithic structure. The challenges of developing the planar cell configurations are finding high-temperature edge and manifold seal materials that will make very flat ceramic trilayers of sufficiently large area, and minimize contact resistances in stacks of cells. Also, decreasing the operating temperature requires development of reliable thin-film fabrication methods for the electrolyte, and finding a metal with good oxidation resistance and a thermal expansion coefficient well matched with the different cell components. Finally, toughness and a thermal stress tolerance of stacks need to be improved.

Krumpelt, M.; Kueper, T.W.; Doshi, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Electrochemical Technology Program

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

144

Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 {Omega}-cm{sup 2}/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 [Omega]-cm[sup 2]/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. (Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

METAL INTERCONNECTS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interconnect development is identified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a key technical area requiring focused research to meet the performance and cost goals under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance initiative. In the Phase I SECA Core Technology Program, Ceramatec investigated a commercial ferritic stainless steel composition for oxidation resistance properties by measuring the weight gain when exposed to air at the fuel cell operating temperature. A pre-treatment process that results in a dense, adherent scale was found to reduce the oxide scale growth rate significantly. A process for coating the surface of the alloy in order to reduce the in-plane resistance and potentially inhibit chromium oxide evaporation was also identified. The combination of treatments provided a very low resistance through the scale. The resistance measured was as low as 10 milliohm-cm{sup 2} at 750 C in air. The oxide scale was found to be stable in humidified air at 750 C. The resistance value was stable over several thermal cycles. A similar treatment and coating for the fuel side of the interconnect also showed an exceptionally low resistance of one milliohm-cm{sup 2} in humidified hydrogen at 750 C, and was stable through multiple thermal cycles. Analysis of the scale after exposure to various atmospheres showed the presence of a stable composition. When exposed to a dual (air and hydrogen) atmosphere however, the scale composition contains a mixture of phases. Based on results to-date, the alloy selection and the treatment processes appear to be well suited for SOFC interconnect application.

S. Elangovan; S. Balagopal; M. Timper; I. Bay; D. Larsen; J. Hartvigsen

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Parameter Study of Transport Processes with Catalytic Reactions in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell is one of most promising types of fuel cells with advantages of high efficiencies, flexibility of usable fuel types. The performance of SOFC is strongly affected by cell overall parameters, e.g., temperature, pressure, reaction ... Keywords: parameter study, SOFC model, 3D CFD approach, refoming reactions

Chao Yang; Guogang Yang; Danting Yue; Jinliang Yuan

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600C to 1000C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Apparatus tube configuration and mounting for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator apparatus is made containing long, hollow, tubular, fuel cells containing an inner air electrode, an outer fuel electrode, and solid electrolyte there between, placed between a fuel distribution board and a board which separates the combustion chamber from the generating chamber, where each fuel cell has an insertable open end and in insertable, plugged, closed end, the plugged end being inserted into the fuel distribution board and the open end being inserted through the separator board where the plug is completely within the fuel distribution board. 3 figures.

Zymboly, G.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

Apparatus tube configuration and mounting for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator apparatus (10) is made containing long, hollow, tubular, fuel cells containing an inner air electrode (64), an outer fuel electrode (56), and solid electrolyte (54) therebetween, placed between a fuel distribution board (29) and a board (32) which separates the combustion chamber (16) from the generating chamber (14), where each fuel cell has an insertable open end and in insertable, plugged, closed end (44), the plugged end being inserted into the fuel distribution board (29) and the open end being inserted through the separator board (32) where the plug (60) is completely within the fuel distribution board (29).

Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

154

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

155

Status of NexTech's Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Key demonstrations achieved to date include achieving targeted stack power outputs under conditions of high voltage (0.75 volts per cell) and high fuel...

156

Testing of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation Diesel Reformer with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rural Alaska currently uses diesel generator sets to produce much of its power. The high energy content of diesel (i.e. ~140,000 BTU per gallon) makes it the fuel of choice because this reduces the volume of fuel that must be transported, stored, and consumed in generating the power. There is an existing investment in infrastructure for the distribution and use of diesel fuel. Problems do exist, however, in that diesel generators are not very efficient in their use of diesel, maintenance levels can be rather high as systems age, and the environmental issues related to present diesel generators are of concern. The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory at the University of Alaska -- Fairbanks is sponsoring a project to address the issues mentioned above. The project takes two successful systems, a diesel reformer and a tubular solid oxide fuel cell unit, and jointly tests those systems with the objective of producing a for-purpose diesel fueled solid oxide fuel cell system that can be deployed in rural Alaska. The reformer will convert the diesel to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used as a fuel by the fuel cell. The high temperature nature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is capable of using this mixture to generate electricity and provide usable heat with higher efficiency and lower emissions. The high temperature nature of the SOFC is more compatible with the arctic climate than are low temperature technologies such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells. This paper will look at the interaction of a SOFC system that is designed to internally reform methane and a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer. The diesel reformer produces a reformate that is approximately 140 BTU per scf (after removal of much of the reformate water) as compared to a methane based reformate that is over twice that value in BTU content. The project also considers the effect of altitude since the test location will be at 4800 feet with the consequential drop in oxygen content and necessary increases in flow rates.

Lyman Frost; Bob Carrington; Rodger McKain; Dennis Witmer

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Solid oxide fuel cells for stationary, mobile, and military applications.  

SciTech Connect

Among all designs of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the most progress has been achieved with the tubular design. However, the electrical resistance of tubular SOFCs is high, and specific power output (W/cm2) and volumetric power density (W/cm3) are low. These low power densities make tubular SOFCs suitable only for stationary power generation and not very attractive for mobile applications. Planar SOFCs, in contrast, are capable of achieving very high power densities. Additionally, sizeable cost reductions are possible through a concept called''mass customization'' that is being pursued in the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). This concept involves the development a 3-10 kW size core planar SOFC module that can be mass produced and then combined for different size applications in stationary power generation, transportation, and military market sectors, thus eliminating the need to produce custom-designed and inherently more expensive fuel cell stacks to meet a specific power rating. This paper discusses the recent work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the design and development of low-cost modular SOFC systems using lower temperature, anode-supported SOFCs.

Singhal, Subhash C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

158

Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

Singh, P.; George, R.A.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

160

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches One Year of Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 31, 2000 January 31, 2000 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches One Year of Operations Netherlands Test Boosts Confidence for Commercial Introduction by 2004 An experimental all solid-state fuel cell - the possible prototype for a future "combustion-less" power plant - has passed a key milestone in a joint public-private development effort. Schematic Diagram of Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell The Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell is a tubular arrangement of concentric ceramic electrodes and a solid-state electrolyte. Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corp., headquartered in Orlando, FL, announced this week that its 100-kilowatt solid oxide fuel cell power system, the world's largest, has completed one year of total operating time, the longest any fuel cell of this type and size has run. The milestone marked

162

Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

HIGH-TEMPERATURE TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

S.E. Veyo

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Development of Advanced Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrids for Distributed Power Market Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A project was initiated with Rolls-Royce PLC to assess the technical and economic feasibility of their advanced solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology and to better understand the development hurdles to achieving megawatt-scale commercial products. This effort was part of a series of projects in 2001 assessing solid oxide fuel cell technology.

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

165

Modeling for electrical characteristics of solid oxide fuel cell based on fractional calculus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It's vital for the research of electrochemical reaction in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to establish accurate dynamic model of its electrical characteristics. The inherent potential polarization of SOFC is analyzed, and integer order dynamic model is ... Keywords: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, equivalent circuit, fractional order dynamic model, genetic algorithm, integer order dynamic model, solid oxide fuel cell

HongLiang Cao; Li Xi; ZhongHua Deng; Qin Yi

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Genetic programming model of solid oxide fuel cell stack: first results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models that predict performance are important tools in understanding and designing solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Modelling of SOFC stack-based systems is a powerful approach that can provide useful insights into the nonlinear dynamics of ... Keywords: SOFC stack, genetic programming, modelling, nonlinear dynamics, simulation, solid oxide fuel cells

Uday K. Chakraborty

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Internal natural gas reformer-dividers for a solid oxide fuel cell generator configuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a fuel cell generator configuration. It comprises electrically connected, axially elongated, fuel cells, each cell having an outer and inner electrode with solid oxide electrolyte therebetween; where elongated dividers separate and are positioned between fuel cells, and where at least one of the elongated dividers is hollow, the hollow divider having solid elongated walls, a reformable fuel mixture entrance, and an exit allowing passage of reformed fuel to the fuel cells, and where the cross-section of the divider contains a catalytic reforming material.

Reichner, P.

1992-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator 510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell generators near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Final Environmental Assessment High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC) August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Finding of No Significant Impact

169

PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Hafnium-Praseodymium-Indium Oxide System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The HfO/sub 2/-PrO/sub 1.83/-In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system has been studied at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop alternative, highly electrically conducting oxides as electrode and interconnection materials for solid oxide fuel cells. A coprecipitation process was developed for synthesizing single-phase, mixed oxide powders necessary to fabricate powders and dense oxides. A ternary phase diagram was developed, and the phases and structures were related to electrical transport properties. Two new phases, an orthorhombic PrInO/sub 3/ and a rhombohedral Hf/sub 2/In/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase, were identified. The highest electronic conductivity is related to the presence of a bcc, In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solution (ss) containing HfO/sub 2/ and PrO/sub 1.83/. Compositions containing more than 35 mol % of the In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ss have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup /minus/1/ (ohm-cm)/sup /minus/1/, and the two or three phase structures that contain this phase appear to exhibit mixed electronic-ionic conduction. The high electrical conductivities and structures similar to the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/(HfO/sub 2/) electrolyte give these oxides potential for use as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells. 21 refs.

Bates, J.L.; Griffin, C.W.; Weber, W.J.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Diesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power units for heavy-duty vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper explores the potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) as 3--10 kW auxiliary power units for trucks and military vehicles operating on diesel fuel. It discusses the requirements and specifications for such units, and the advantages, challenges, and development issues for SOFCS used in this application. Based on system design and analysis, such systems should achieve efficiencies approaching 40% (lower heating value), with a relatively simple system configuration. The major components of such a system are the fuel cell stack, a catalytic autothermal reformer, and a spent gas burner/air preheater. Building an SOFC-based auxiliary power unit is not straightforward, however, and the tasks needed to develop a 3--10 kW brassboard demonstration unit are outlined.

Krause, T.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

174

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

NEW CATHODE MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study are perovskite oxides based on Sr substituted LaFeO{sub 3}, where significant data in single cell tests exists at PNNL for cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ, and of Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions. A key component of the research strategy is to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. Results on electrical conductivity relaxation measurements on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} samples are reported and compared with results from previous studies. Studies of the crystallization of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are reported. Such studies are a preliminary to the combinatorial synthesis approach described in the first report.

Allan J. Jacobson

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

176

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode - electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study are perovskite oxides based on Sr substituted LaFeO{sub 3}, where significant data in single cell tests exists at PNNL for cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ, and Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions. A key component of the research strategy is to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. Results on electrical conductivity relaxation measurements on additional compositions in the La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} series are presented in this report. Studies of the inter-diffusion of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} bilayer films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. Such studies are a preliminary to the combinatorial synthesis approach discussed in previous reports.

Allan J. Jacobson

2004-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

177

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology echnology Hydro- -Desulfurization T Funded by y Arm y y TARDEC Brass board, transportable system Ran 10 kW PEM fuel cell Demonstrated on JP-8 with...

178

Enhanced Power Stability for Proton Conducting Solid Oxides Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to provide the basis for a rational approach to improving the performance of Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolytes for proton conducting ceramic fuel cells, we carried out a series of coupled computational and experimental studies to arrive at a consensus view of the characteristics affecting the proton conductivity of these systems. The computational part of the project developed a practical first principles approach to predicting the proton mobility as a function of temperature and doping for polycrystalline systems. This is a significant breakthrough representing the first time that first principles methods have been used to study diffusion across grain boundaries in such systems. The basis for this breakthrough was the development of the ReaxFF reactive force field that accurately describes the structure and energetics of Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} as the proton hops from site to site. The ReaxFF parameters are all derived from an extensive set of quantum mechanics calculations on various clusters, two dimensionally infinite slabs, and three dimensionally infinite periodic systems for combinations of metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, pure and Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including chemical reaction pathways and proton transport pathways, structures. The ReaxFF force field enables molecular dynamics simulations to be carried out quickly for systems with {approx} 10,000 atoms rather than the {approx}100 or so practical for QM. The first 2.5 years were spent on developing and validating the ReaxFF and we have only had an opportunity to apply these methods to only a few test cases. However these simulations lead to transport properties (diffusion coefficients and activation energy) for multi-granular systems in good agreement with current experimental results. Now that we have validated the ReaxFF for diffusion across grain boundaries, we are in the position of being able to use computation to explore strategies to improve the diffusion of protons across grain boundaries, which both theory and experiment agree is the cause of the low conductivity of multi-granular systems. Our plan for a future project is to use the theory to optimize the additives and processing conditions and following this with experiment on the most promising systems. The experimental part of this project focused on improving the synthetic techniques for controlling the grain size and making measurements on the properties of these systems as a function of doping of impurities and of process conditions. A significant attention was paid to screening potential cathode materials (transition metal perovskites) and anode electrocatalysts (metals) for reactivity with Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, fabrication compatibility, and chemical stability in fuel cell environment. A robust method for fabricating crack-free thin membranes, as well as methods for sealing anode and cathode chambers, have been successfully developed. Our Pt|BYZ|Pt fuel cell, with a 100 {micro}m thick Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte layer, demonstrates the peak power density and short circuit current density of 28 mW/cm{sup 2} and 130mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These are the highest values of this type of fuel cell. All of these provide the basis for a future project in which theory and computation are combined to develop modified ceramic electrolytes capable of both high proton conductivity and excellent mechanical and chemical stability.

Boris Merinov; William A. Goddard III; Sossina Haile; Adri van Duin; Peter Babilo; Sang Soo Han

2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test March 19, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC --In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours. The device provides an alternative to running a truck's main diesel engine, or using a truck's batteries, to power auxiliary electrical loads during rest periods, thereby lowering emissions, reducing noise, and saving fuel. In testing at Peterbilt Motors Company Texas head-quarters, a Delphi

180

Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. The vanes, which each include a plurality of spaced slots along the facing edges thereof, may be pivotally displaced from a generally vertical orientation, wherein each jet air tube is positioned within and engaged by the aligned slots of a plurality of paired upper and lower vanes to facilitate their insertion in respective aligned SOFC tubes arranged in a matrix array, to an inclined orientation, wherein the jet air tubes may be removed from the positioning/insertion assembly after being inserted in the SOFC tubes. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing.

Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT); Campanella, Nicholas (O' Fallon, MO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Development of improved cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla conducted a 17 month research program focused on the development and evaluation of improved cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The objectives of this program were: (1) the development of cathode materials of improved stability in reducing environments; and (2) the development of cathode materials with improved electrical conductivity. The program was successful in identifying some potential candidate materials: Air sinterable (La,Ca)(Cr,Co)O{sub 3} compositions were developed and found to be more stable than La{sub .8}Sr{sub .2}MnO{sub 3} towards reduction. Their conductivity at 1000{degrees}C ranged between 30 to 60 S/cm. Compositions within the (Y,Ca)(Cr,Co,Mn)O{sub 3} system were developed and found to have higher electrical conductivity than La{sub .8}Sr{sub .2}MnO{sub 3} and preliminary results suggest that their stability towards reduction is superior.

Anderson, H.U.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study were perovskite oxides based on substituted LaFeO{sub 3} (P1 compositions), where significant data in single cell tests exist at PNNL for example, for La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ. The materials selection was then extended to La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions (K1 compositions), and then in a longer range task we evaluated the possibility of completely unexplored group of materials that are also perovskite related, the ABM{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}. A key component of the research strategy was to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. In the initial phase, we did this in parallel with the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity relaxation and isotope exchange and depth profiling and confirm the high electronic conductivit

Allan J. Jacobson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

184

Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LSIs fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The companys Fuel Cell on a Chip technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

Alan Ludwiszewski

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

185

MODELING AND DESIGN FOR A DIRECT CARBON FUEL CELL WITH ENTRAINED FUEL AND OXIDIZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The novel molten carbonate fuel cell design described in this report uses porous bed electrodes. Molten carbonate, with carbon fuel particles and oxidizer entrained, is circulated through the electrodes. Carbon may be reacted directly, without gasification, in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The cathode reaction is 2CO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} 4e{sup -} {yields} 2CO{sub 3}{sup =}, while the anode reaction can be either C + 2CO{sub 3}{sup =} {yields} 3CO{sub 2} + 4e{sup -} or 2C + CO{sub 3}{sup =} {yields} 3CO + 2e{sup -}. The direct carbon fuel cell has an advantage over fuel cells using coal-derived synthesis gas in that it provides better overall efficiency and reduces equipment requirements. Also, the liquid electrolyte provides a means for transporting the solid carbon. The porous bed cell makes use of this carbon transport ability of the molten salt electrolyte. A one-dimensional model has been developed for predicting the performance of this cell. For the cathode, dependent variables are superficial O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes in the gas phase, superficial O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes in the liquid phase, superficial current density through the electrolyte, and electrolyte potential. The variables are related by correlations, from the literature, for gas-liquid mass transfer, liquid-solid mass transfer, cathode current density, electrode overpotential, and resistivity of a liquid with entrained gas. For the anode, dependent variables are superficial CO{sub 2} flux in the gas phase, superficial CO{sub 2} flux in the liquid phase, superficial C flux, superficial current density through the electrolyte, and electrolyte potential. The same types of correlations relate the variables as in the cathode, with the addition of a correlation for resistivity of a fluidized bed. CO production is not considered, and axial dispersion is neglected. The model shows behavior typical of porous bed electrodes used in electrochemical processes. Efficiency is comparable to that of membrane electrode fuel cells. Effective bed depths are on the order of 1-5 centimeter, giving power/volume lower than for membrane electrode cells. The porous bed design, however, uses less expensive materials and is more resistant to fouling by coal impurities. The model will be used in the second phase of the project to design a laboratory-scale prototype cell. The prototype cell will demonstrate the concept and provide experimental data for improving the model.

Alan A. Kornhauser; Ritesh Agarwal

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

187

ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ON-CELL REFORMATION MODELING FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL STACKS  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Providing adequate and efficient cooling schemes for solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC) stacks continues to be a challenge coincident with the development of larger, more powerful stacks. The endothermic steam-methane reformation reaction can provide cooling and improved system efficiency when performed directly on the electrochemically active anode. Rapid kinetics of the endothermic reaction typically causes a localized temperature depression on the anode near the fuel inlet. It is desirable to extend the endothermic effect over more of the cell area and mitigate the associated differences in temperature on the cell to alleviate subsequent thermal stresses. In this study, modeling tools validated for the prediction of fuel use, on-cell methane reforming, and the distribution of temperature within SOFC stacks, are employed to provide direction for modifying the catalytic activity of anode materials to control the methane conversion rate. Improvements in thermal management that can be achieved through on-cell reforming is predicted and discussed. Two operating scenarios are considered: one in which the methane fuel is fully pre-reformed, and another in which a substantial percentage of the methane is reformed on-cell. For the latter, a range of catalytic activity is considered and the predicted thermal effects on the cell are presented. Simulations of the cell electrochemical and thermal performance with and without on-cell reforming, including structural analyses, show a substantial decrease in thermal stresses for an on-cell reforming case with slowed methane conversion.

Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jarboe, Daniel T.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Korolev, Alexander; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Energy Technology Laboratorys Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, inhouse patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R D issues.

Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R&D issues.

Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XXXXX XXXXX Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells GA Whyatt LA Chick April 2012 PNNL-XXXXX Electrical Generation for More- Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells GA Whyatt LA Chick April 2012 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Summary This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate

192

MANGANESE OXIDE AS A NEW CATHODE CATALYST IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS (MFCs).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focused on manganese oxides with a cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) structure to replace platinum as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells (more)

Li, Xiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Networked control of distributed energy resources: application to solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a model-based networked control approach for managing Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) over communication networks. As a model system, we consider a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that communicates with the central controller ...

Yulei Sun; Sathyendra Ghantasala; Nael H. El-Farra

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Seven Projects That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by DOE for Further Development Seven Projects That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by DOE for Further Development July 27, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Seven projects that will help develop low-cost solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for environmentally responsible central power generation from the Nation's abundant fossil energy resources have been selected for further research by the Department of Energy (DOE). The projects, managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), are valued at a total of $4,391,570, with DOE contributing $3,499,250 and the remaining cost provided by the recipients. Four of the selected projects will pursue advances in cathode performance,

195

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.

YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTROLYTES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Defects and Flaws control the structural and functional property of ceramics. In determining the reliability and lifetime of ceramics structures it is very important to quantify the crack growth behavior of the ceramics. In addition, because of the high variability of the strength and the relatively low toughness of ceramics, a statistical design approach is necessary. The statistical nature of the strength of ceramics is currently well recognized, and is usually accounted for by utilizing Weibull or similar statistical distributions. Design tools such as CARES using a combination of strength measurements, stress analysis, and statistics are available and reasonably well developed. These design codes also incorporate material data such as elastic constants as well as flaw distributions and time-dependent properties. The fast fracture reliability for ceramics is often different from their time-dependent reliability. Further confounding the design complexity, the time-dependent reliability varies with the environment/temperature/stress combination. Therefore, it becomes important to be able to accurately determine the behavior of ceramics under simulated application conditions to provide a better prediction of the lifetime and reliability for a given component. In the present study, Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of 9.6 mol% Yttria composition was procured in the form of tubes of length 100 mm. The composition is of interest as tubular electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Rings cut from the tubes were characterized for microstructure, phase stability, mechanical strength (Weibull modulus) and fracture mechanisms. The strength at operating condition of SOFCs (1000 C) decreased to 95 MPa as compared to room temperature strength of 230 MPa. However, the Weibull modulus remains relatively unchanged. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameter, n = 17 evaluated at room temperature in air was representative of well studied brittle materials. Based on the results, further work was planned to evaluate the strength degradation, modulus and failure in more representative environment of the SOFCs.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells. Quarterly report, July--September 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The MSOFC features of thin ceramic components, small cell size, and 1000{degree}C operating temperature combine to provide very high power densities of about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L for the MSOFC (fuel cell only, coflow version). This very high power density coupled with expected efficiencies of over 50 percent offers the possibility of successful competition with existing electrical generation systems. The ability of the MSOFC to reform hydrocarbon fuels within the fuel channels allows existing fuels and fuel distribution methods to be used with minor modifications for most applications. The power density of the MSOFC is high enough to meet the demands of many diverse applications such as aerospace, transportation, portable power systems, and micro-cogeneration systems, as well as more conventional utilities systems. The primary development challenge is to fabricate the MSOFC structure by co-sintering all four fuel cell materials into the corrugated ``honeycomb`` structure (stack). The objectives of the cost study are: To assess the manufacturing cost for the MSOFC assuming a nominal production rate of 200 MW/year for coal-based system applications. To define an integrated coal gasification MSOFC system with a potential for reducing plant heat rate and capital costs below 7,100 BTU/kWh and $1,300/kW, respectively.

Not Available

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 24) of fuel cells (16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30), each having an outer interconnection (36) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions (40) and bottom shoulder portions (42), where the top crown portion (40) contacts outer interconnections (36) of the fuel cells (16, 18, 20) in a first row (14), and the bottom shoulder portions (42) contacts outer electrodes (32) of the fuel cells in a second row (24), said mesh electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA); Antol, Ronald F. (North Huntingdon, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Increasing the CO tolerance of PEM fuel cells via current pulsing and self-oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the effect of cell current pulsing and "self-oxidation" in increasing the CO tolerance of a PEM fuel cell. The most effective pulsing parameter values were also determined. Current pulsing involves periodically demanding positive current pulses from the fuel cell to create an anode over-potential, while "self-oxidation" or sustained potential oscillations is achieved when the anode catalyst becomes so saturated with CO that the anode over-potential increases to a value at which CO is oxidized from the catalyst surface. The CO tolerance of a fuel cell system with a Pt-Ru anode was tested using 50 and 496 ppm CO in the anode fuel. The performance of the system declined with an increase in CO concentration. Current pulses of various amplitude, frequency, and duty cycle were applied to the cell while CO was present in the anode fuel. With 50 ppm CO in the anode fuel, the most effective pulse in increasing CO tolerance while maintaining normal cell operation was 1.0 A/cm2, 0.25 Hz, and a 5% duty cycle. A pulse (120 Hz, 50% duty cycle) similar to the ripple current often generated when converting DC to single-phase 60 Hz AC had a positive effect on the CO tolerance of the system, but at frequencies that high, the pulse duration was not long enough to completely oxidize the CO from the catalyst surface. With 496 ppm CO in the anode fuel, a pulse of 1.0 A/cm2, 0.5 Hz, and a 20% duty cycle proved most effective. When the cell was exposed to 496 ppm CO, without employing pulsing, "self-oxidation" occurred and CO was periodically oxidized from the catalyst surface. However, pulsing allowed the cell to operate at the desired voltage and power a higher percentage of the time than "self-oxidation"; hence, pulsing was more effective.

Thomason, Arthur Hugh

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes and to establish structure-property relations for these cathodes in order to further improve their properties and design new structures. Nanostructured cathode thin films with vertically-aligned nanopores (VANP) were processed using PLD. These VANP structures enhance the oxygen-gas phase diffusivity, thus improve the overall TF-SOFC performance. La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) and La0.4Sr0.6Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCFO) were deposited on various substrates (YSZ, Si and pressed Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) disks). Microstructures and properties of the nanostructured cathodes were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. A thin layer of vertically-aligned nanocomposite (VAN) structure was deposited in between the CGO electrolyte and the thin film LSCO cathode layer for TF-SOFCs. The VAN structure consists of the electrolyte and the cathode materials in the composition of (CGO) 0.5 (LSCO) 0.5. The self-assembled VAN nanostructures contain highly ordered alternating vertical columns formed through a one-step thin film deposition using a PLD technique. These VAN structures significantly increase the interface area between the electrolyte and the cathode as well as the area of active triple phase boundary (TPB), thus improving the overall TF-SOFC performance at low temperatures, as low as 400oC, demonstrated by EIS measurements. In addition, the binary VAN interlayer could act as the transition layer that improves the adhesion and relieves the thermal stress and lattice strain between the cathode and the electrolyte. The microstructural properties and growth mechanisms of CGO thin film prepared by PLD technique were investigated. Thin film CGO electrolytes with different grain sizes and crystal structures were prepared on single crystal YSZ substrates under different deposition conditions. The effect of the deposition conditions such as substrate temperature and laser ablation energy on the microstructural properties of these films are examined using XRD, TEM, SEM, and optical microscope. CGO thin film deposited above 500 C starts to show epitaxial growth on YSZ substrates. The present study suggests that substrate temperature significantly influences the microstructure of the films especially film grain size.

Yoon, Jongsik

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VII, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alkaline fuel cells (AFCs), phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs cells are considered the leading contenders for automotive and small stationary applications, with SOFC

Hiskens, Ian A.

204

Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Biomass Fuel Cell Systems - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Utilize ceramic microchannel reactor technology for * reforming of natural gas and biogas fuels for subsequent electrochemical oxidation within a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC)....

206

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) University of Cincinnati  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)-University of Cincinnati Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

207

The potential application of fuel cell cogeneration systems in petroleum refineries. [Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The market potential for fuel cell cogeneration systems within the petroleum refinery industry is evaluated. Phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells were considered. Conventional competitive systems now available including purchased power plus boiler-generated steam, gas turbine combined cycle, and a relatively new coke fluidized bed-boiler were characterized. Refineries use large quantities of steam at pressures ranging from about 15 to 650 psig. PAFCs can only meet a limited number of steam requirements because of their relatively low operating temperature. The high temperature MCFC and SOFC are technically much more attractive for this application. However, current estimates of their capital costs are too large to make the technologies competitive. The capital costs of MCFCs and SOFCs would have to decrease approx.50% from their present estimated $1300/kWe. If costs could be decreased to give a 10% energy cost advantage to fuel cells, the industry projects that fuel cells might supply about 300 MWe by the year 2000, and modules in the 5- to 20-MWe size would be of interest. The market opportunities in refineries are varied - the industry is large, each plant is unique, thermal energy consumption is large, and both domestic and international competitiveness is intense. 10 refs., 26 figs., 17 tabs.

Altseimer, J.H.; Roach, F.; Anderson, J.M.; Krupka, M.C.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9, 2009 9, 2009 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test DOE, Delphi, Peterbilt Join to Test Auxiliary Power Unit for Commercial Trucks Washington, DC -In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours. The device provides an alternative to running a truck's main diesel engine, or using a truck's batteries, to power auxiliary electrical loads during rest periods, thereby lowering emissions, reducing noise, and saving fuel. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test

209

Fuel Composition Effects and Other Operational Parameters on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition Effects and Other Composition Effects and Other Operational Parameters on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance DOE/NETL-401/093010 September 30, 2010 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

210

Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Auxiliary Power Units (APUs), driven by truck engines, consume over 800 million gallon of diesel fuel while idling. Use of separate SOFC based APUs are an excellent choice to reduce the cost and pollution associated with producing auxiliary power. However, diesel fuel is a challenging fuel to use in fuel cell systems because it has heavy hydrocarbons that can transform into carbon deposits and gums that can block passages and deactivate fuel reformer and fuel cell reactor elements. The work reported herein addresses the challenges associated with the diesel fuel sulfur and carbon producing contaminants in a Fuel Preprocessor (FPP). FPP processes the diesel fuel onboard and ahead of the reformer to reduce its carbon deposition tendency and its sulfur content, thus producing a fuel suitable for SOFC APU systems. The goal of this DOE supported Invention and Innovation program was to design, develop and test a prototype Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) that efficiently and safely converts the diesel fuel into a clean fuel suitable for a SOFC APU system. The goals were achieved. A 5 kWe FPP was designed, developed and tested. It was demonstrated that FPP removes over 80% of the fuel sulfur and over 90% of its carbon residues and it was demonstrated that FPP performance exceeds the original project goals.

M. Namazian, S. Sethuraman and G. Venkataraman

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

212

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Oxidation Resistance of Low Carbon Stainless Steel for Applications in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Alloys protected from corrosion by Cr2O3 (chromia) are recognized as potential replacements for LaCrO3based ceramic materials currently used as bipolar separators (interconnects) in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Stainless steels gain their corrosion resistance from the formation of chromia, when exposed to oxygen at elevated temperatures. Materials for interconnect applications must form uniform conductive oxide scales at 600800o C while simultaneously exposed to air on the cathode side and mixtures of H2 - H2O, and, possibly, CHx and CO - CO2 on the anode side. In addition, they must possess good physical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Type 316L stainless steel was selected for the baseline study and development of an understanding of corrosion processes in complex gas environments. This paper discusses the oxidation resistance of 316L stainless steel exposed to dual SOFC environment for ~100 hours at ~900oK. The dual environment consisted of dry air on the cathode side of the specimen and a mixture of H2 and 3% H2O on the anode side. Post - corrosion surface evaluation involved the use of optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses.

Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Matthes, Steven A.; Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.; Singh, P. (PNNL)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Effects of Water Vapor on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels Under Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Exposure Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of ferritic stainless steels has been studied under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect ''dual'' exposure conditions, i.e. simultaneous exposure to air on one side of the sample, and fuel (hydrogen) on the other. It was found that, under the dual exposures, the oxidation behavior of the stainless steels at the airside differed significantly from that observed during exposure to air at both sides. Increased water vapor partial pressure in the air at the airside further accelerated the anomalous oxidation, resulting in nucleation and growth of hematite in the scale that led to a localized attack. The accelerated oxidation and growth of the hematite nodules was a result of combined effects of hydrogen transport from the fuel side to the airside and the presence of increased water vapor.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Assessment of methanol electro-oxidation for direct methanol-air fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of a methanol-air fuel cell for transportation application. The approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory converts the methanol fuel to a hydrogen-rich gas in a reformer, then operates the fuel cell on hydrogen and air. The reformer tends to be bulky (raising vehicle packaging problems), has a long startup period, and is not well suited for the transient operation required in a vehicle. Methanol, however, can be oxidized electrochemically in the fuel cell. If this process can be conducted efficiently, a direct methanol-air fuel cell can be used, which does not require a reformer. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of developing a suitable catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The primary conclusion of this study is that no acceptable catalysts exist can efficiently oxidize methanol electrochemically and have the desired cost and lifetime for vehicle applications. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of methanol oxidation indicates that a predictive base can be developed to search for methanol oxidation catalysts and can be used to methodically develop improved catalysts. Such an approach is strongly recommended. The study also recommends that until further progress in developing high-performance catalysts is achieved, research in cell design and testing is not warranted. 43 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Fritts, S.D.; Sen, R.K.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Preparation and characterization of solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--June 30, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this period, attempts were made to measure the surface and electrochemical properties of rare-earth dopants in ceria for solid oxide fuel cells and cathodic electrodes.

Rambabu, B.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Energy Production from Coal Syngas Containing H2S via Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Utilizing Lanthanum Strontium Vanadate Anodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lanthanum strontium vanadate (LSV), a perovskite ceramic electrocatalyst suitable for use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode, has shown significant activity toward the (more)

Cooper, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

high conductivity) for this application include tin oxide, indium tin oxide, and zinc oxide. Contact: Bryan Pivovar 303-275-3809 Printable Version Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Research...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Application of ionic and electronic conducting ceramics in solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a pollution-free technology to electrochemically generate electricity at high efficiencies. These fuel cells consist of an oxygen ion conducting electrolyte, electronic or mixed electronic and ionic conducting electrodes, and an electronic conducting interconnection. This paper reviews the ceramic materials used for the different cell components, and discusses the performance of cells fabricated using these materials. The paper also discusses the materials and processing studies that are underway to reduce the cell cost, and summarizes the recently built power generation systems that employed state-of-the-art SOFCs.

Singhal, S.C.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

223

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant & Stack Component Integration Norman Bessette Acumentrics Corporation March 16, 2010 Acumentrics Corporation *Based in Westwood, Mass. *~40,000 sq. ft facility *Profitable * Critical disciplines in-house El t i l E i i Strategic Partners Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Chemical Engineering Thermal Modeling Ceramics Processing Manufacturing Sales & Marketing Automation Finance Scalable, Ruggedized Power - Combat Proven Take Almost Any Generator Plug into Clean Power Provided by Acumentrics RUPS And Be Ready For Continuous Communications

226

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

Singh, Raj

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

228

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in collaboration with government agencies and industries, is actively engaged in the development, testing, and characterization of high efficiency, low cost modular solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems for stationary, automotive and military applications. Advanced SOFC systems are being developed which will offer ease of operation on a variety of gaseous liquid hydrocarbon and coal-derived fuels as well as "zero emissions" capability. SOFC R&D activities at PNNL continue in the areas of cell component materials, electrochemistry, cell design and modeling, high temperature corrosion, and fuel processing. Specific activities include development of optimized materials and cost effective fabrication techniques for high power density anode-supported cells operating at temperatures below 800 degrees C, characterization of processes responsible for high electrical performance and long term performance degradation, optimization and cell and stack designs using computational engineering models, and hydrocarbon fuel processing using micro technology.

Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Baskaran, Suresh; Chick, Lawrence A.; Chou, Y. S.; Deibler, John E.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Marina, Olga A.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Paxton, Dean M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Simner, Steve P.; Sprenkle, Vince L.; Weil, K. Scott; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; McVay, Gary L.

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Novel Support Structure for Ceramic ...  

Coal gasification ; Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons ; ADVANTAGES: Economical ; Increased reliability : ABSTRACT: Berkeley Lab ...

230

Fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam reforming processes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) micro combined heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam reforming processes for solid recirculation are used along with steam methane reforming. Further Steam Methane Reforming process produces Cell fueled by natural gas with two different types of pre-reforming systems, namely Steam Reforming

Liso, Vincenzo

233

Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? There is a growing interest in fuel cells for hybrid system. Fuel cells when combined with conventional turbine power plants offer high fuel efficiencies. (more)

Srivastava, Nischal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

235

Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Evaluation of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Utility Applications in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of integrated solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine power plants indicates that these plants have the potential to maintain very high efficiencies over a broad range of load conditions. They may provide attractive utility applications for peaking, load following, and cogeneration if cost goals are achieved.

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

237

A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings Florian Zink a,*, Yixin Lu b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

online 7 November 2006 Abstract This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption heating and cooling system used for buildings. The inte- grated system can provide heating/cooling and of a pre-commercial SOFC system and a commercial LiBr absorption system, is performed. In the case study

238

Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

239

Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Distributed the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells September 29, 2013 DOE/NETL- 342/093013 NETL Contact: Katrina Krulla Analysis Team: Arun Iyengar, Dale Keairns, Dick Newby Contributors: Walter Shelton, Travish Shulltz, Shailesh Vora OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY Table of Contents Executive Summary .........................................................................................................................1 1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................2 2 DG Market Opportunity ................................................................................................................3 3 SOFC Technology Development Plan ..........................................................................................6

240

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

Grimble, R.E.

1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

244

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

246

Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperature resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC. 11 figs.

Parry, G.W.

1988-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells...

248

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

249

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications News Release Release Date: July 23, 2013 National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies SOFC Solid oxide fuel cells are among the...

250

Thermal-hydraulic model of a solid-oxide fuel cell. [17. 5 watts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the electrochemistry and thermal hydraulics in a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC). Dividing a single cell layer into a number of nodes, the model sets up the steady-state heat and mass transfer equations for each node in a cell layer. Based on the average thermal and compositional conditions at each node and a specified cell voltage, the model calculates the Nernst potential and the resultant current, heat generation, and heat removal rates at each node. These calculations yield the temperature and the fuel and oxidant compositions and partial pressure matrices for the entire cell. The simulation also provides related performance data for the fuel cell stack, such as energy efficiency, fuel utilization, and power density. The model can be used to simulate operation with different fuel gases, such as hydrogen, coal gas, and methanol reformate. A mathematical model such as this can be used to examine the effects of changing one or more of the various design variables and to evaluate the effectiveness of fabrication improvements in technology development. In the design phase, the model can be used to determine the size of the stack that will be required for a given power rating and to make design decisions regarding structure-specific parameters, such as the thicknesses of the anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect layers and dimensions of the flow channels in the anode and the cathode. The model can also be helpful to the fuel cell system operator. For example, given a particular stack, the most favorable operating conditions can be determined by determining a priori the effects of altering process variables, such as flow rates and feed conditions. 6 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Market Impacts of Rare Earth Element Use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contract Number: DE-FE0004002 (Subcontract: S013-JTH-PPM4002 MOD 00) Summary Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical to the function and performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) 1. Given the concentration of commercially minable REE deposits and production in China (and especially given recent tightening of its export quota), the US Department of Energy is interested in understanding how REE demand for SOFC applications could impact REE markets and vice versa. Yttria (yttrium oxide), lanthanum oxide, and ceria (cerium oxide) are important materials in the ceramic cells that form the core of any solid oxide fuel cell, imparting on the functional layers of the cells ionic conductivity, electronic conductivity, and/or structural strength. Gadolinium, scandium, and samarium are also used in some SOFC designs. The amounts of REEs contained in state-of-the-art SOFC are modest, and represent less than 5% of annual production (Table 1). Spent SOFC stacks and production waste will likely be recycled for their metal and REE content, which would reduce REE demand for stack replacements by

J. Thijssen Llc

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

253

Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.

Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A. (Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Assessment of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur D. Little, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planar Solid Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Arthur D. Little, Inc. Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference 39463-02 Report to: DOE FETC October 1999 EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 2 Table of Contents 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1 Project Objectives "Low Temperature" Planar SOFC Cost Analysis 2 Executive Summary EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 3 3 Background 4 Planar SOFC Technology Assessment 5 1 Project Objectives "Low Temperature" Planar SOFC Cost Analysis 2 Executive Summary EC39463 SOFC 1015 R3 4 Project Objectives DOE FETC Fuel Cell Program In support of the 21st Century Fuel Cell Concept Team, we have assessed planar architectures for SOFC technology. Tasks Tasks Tasks * Literature Review of Planar SOFC Programs * Interviews with Major Developers

255

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate1 temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid start-up is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research are to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal.

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work performed during the period February 21, 2006 through August 21, 2006 is summarized herein. During this period, efforts were focused on 5 kWe bundle testing, development of on-cell reformation, the conceptual design of an advanced module, and the development of a manufacturing roadmap for cells and bundles. A 5 kWe SOFC system was built and delivered to the Pennsylvania State University; fabrication of a second 5 kWe SOFC for delivery to Montana State University was initiated. Cell testing and microstructural analysis in support of these efforts was also conducted.

Joseph F. Pierre

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

257

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

Isenberg, A.O.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

259

Role of solid oxide fuel cell distributed generation for stationary power application.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on an availabe fuel cell dyanmical model, an inportant concept feasible operating area is introduced. Fuel cell based distributed generator is studied to solve (more)

Li, Yonghui.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the tubular SOFC development program from August 22, 1997 to September 30, 2007 under the Siemens/U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement. The technical areas discussed include cell manufacturing development, cell power enhancement, SOFC module and system cost reduction and technology advancement, and our field unit test program. Whereas significant progress has been made toward commercialization, significant effort remains to achieve our cost, performance and reliability targets for successful commercialization.

Joseph Pierre

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell is described that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell . The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units.

McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.; Myles, Kevin M.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROGRAM | 2013 PROJECT PORTFOLIO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROGRAM | 2013 PROJECT PORTFOLIO 2 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROGRAM | 2013 PROJECT PORTFOLIO 3 Disclaimer DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not neces-

264

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid systems because they work high operating temperature and when combined with conventional turbine power plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power system model is developed. Two models have been developed based on simple thermodynamic expressions. The simple models are used in the preliminary part of the study and a more realistic based on the performance maps. A comparative study of the simulated configurations, based on an energy analysis is used to perform a parametric study of the overall hybrid system efficiency. Some important observations are made by means of a sensitivity study of the whole cycle for the selected configuration. The results of the selected model were compared to an earlier model from an available literature.

Penyarat Chinda; Pascal Brault

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

Unknown

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Components Using Electromagnetic Model-Based Sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this Phase I SBIR, the contractor demonstrated a number of capabilities of model-based sensors such as MWM sensors and MWM-Arrays. The key results include (1) porosity/microstructure characterization for anodes, (2) potential for cathode material characterization, (3) stress measurements in nickel and cobalt, and (4) potential for stress measurements in non-magnetic materials with a ferromagnetic layer. In addition, potential applications for manufacturing quality control of nonconductive layers using interdigitated electrode dielectrometers have been identified. The results indicate that JENTEK's MWM technology can be used to significantly reduce solid oxide fuel cell production and operating costs in a number of ways. Preliminary investigations of solid oxide fuel cell health monitoring and scale-up issues to address industry needs have also been performed.

Zilberstein, Vladimir; Craven, Chris; Goldfine, Neil

2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

A Comparison of Molten Sn and Bi for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molten Sn and Bi were examined at 973 and 1073 K for use as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. Cells were operated under battery conditions, with dry He flow in the anode compartment, to characterize the electrochemical oxidation of the metals at the YSZ interface. For both metals, the open-circuit voltages (OCVs) were close to that expected based on their oxidation thermodynamics, ~0.93 V for Sn and ~0.48 V for Bi. With Sn, the cell performance degraded rapidly after the transfer of approximately 0.5-1.5 Ccm{sup 2} of charge due to the formation of a SnO{sub 2} layer at the YSZ interface. At 973 K, the anode impedance at OCV for freshly reduced Sn was approximately 3 {ohm}cm{sup 2} but this increased to well over 250 {ohm}cm{sup 2} after the transfer of of charge. Following the transfer of 8.2 Ccm{sup 2} at 1073 K, the formation of a 10{micro}m thick SnO{sub 2} layer was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. With Bi, the OCV anode impedance at 973 K was less than 0.25 {ohm}cm{sup 2} and remained constant until essentially all of the Bi had been oxidized to BiO{sub 2}. Some implications of these results for direct carbon fuel cells are discussed.

Jayakumar, A.; Lee, Sang Bok; Horns, A.; Vohs, J. M.; Gorte, R. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

270

Technical Assessment: Advanced Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrids for Distributed Power Market Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCs) are under intense development in the U.S., Japan, and Europe. The U.S. DOE solid energy convergence alliance (SECA) has invested in SOFC technology for distributed power markets and for future applications involving integrated coal gasification. SOFC hybrid systems which incorporate the use of small turbines or turbo-charging have potentially high efficiencies near 60% LHV. Rolls Royce, GE Power Systems, Siemens, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries are developin...

2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

271

Assessment of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology: Comparison of Alternative Design Approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents a potential breakthrough in performance and cost in stationary power generation. SOFC developers, who are pursuing a variety of stack architectures and manufacturing methods, each claim their designs will lead to this low-cost / high-performance scenario. To put these claims in perspective, this report analyzes the differences in stack designs and their potential impact on the technical viability and prospective manufactured cost of each configuration.

2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

272

Development and Testing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Cogeneration Applications: FY 2000 Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim technical progress report describes efforts to develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems that provide both electric power generation and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). Since SOFC systems operate at high temperature (650 to 1000 degrees Celsius), cogeneration seems to be a natural fit. In SOFC-HVAC systems, the exhaust heat from the SOFC is used to drive heat-actuated HVAC subsystems such as absorption chillers or boilers. SOFC-HVAC...

2000-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

273

Processing of LaCrO{sub 3} for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives of this project is to produce LaCrO{sub 3} for the interconnect in solid oxide fuel cells. The project is divided into three areas: reproducible powder synthesis, sintering of LaCrO{sub 3}-based powders, and co-sintering of LaCrO{sub 3}-based powders with cathode and electrolyte materials. The project has been in place for 3 months; construction is underway for the spray pyrolysis system and studies initiated on the organometallic precursor.

Huebner, W.; Nasrallah, M.M.; Anderson, H.U.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Significance of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Technology to Ion Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the research, history, and demonstration of pressurized solid oxide fuel cells (PSOFC)-gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems and compares and contrasts their evolution with ion transport membranes (ITM). There exists a wealth of available documentation on the PSOFC hybrid technology including multiple Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports documenting these systems. This report incorporates the findings of the EPRI reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

275

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Stationary Power Application Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were to: (1) Develop a reliable, cost-effective, and production-friendly technique to apply the power-enhancing layer at the interface of the air electrode and electrolyte of the Siemens SOFC; (2) Design, build, install, and operate in the field two 5 kWe SOFC systems fabricated with the state-of-the-art cylindrical, tubular cell and bundle technology and incorporating advanced module design features. Siemens successfully demonstrated, first in a number of single cell tests and subsequently in a 48-cell bundle test, a significant power enhancement by employing a power-enhancing composite interlayer at the interface between the air electrode and electrolyte. While successful from a cell power enhancement perspective, the interlayer application process was not suitable for mass manufacturing. The application process was of inconsistent quality, labor intensive, and did not have an acceptable yield. This program evaluated the technical feasibility of four interlayer application techniques. The candidate techniques were selected based on their potential to achieve the technical requirements of the interlayer, to minimize costs (both labor and material), and suitably for large-scale manufacturing. Preliminary screening, utilizing lessons learned in manufacturing tubular cells, narrowed the candidate processes to two, ink-roller coating (IRC) and dip coating (DC). Prototype fixtures were successfully built and utilized to further evaluate the two candidate processes for applying the interlayer to the high power density Delta8 cell geometry. The electrical performance of interlayer cells manufactured via the candidate processes was validated. Dip coating was eventually selected as the application technique of choice for applying the interlayer to the high power Delta8 cell. The technical readiness of the DC process and product quality was successfully and repeatedly demonstrated, and its throughput and cost are amenable to large scale manufacturing. Two 5 kWe-class SOFC power systems were built and installed for the purpose of testing and evaluating state-of-the-art tubular cell and bundle technologies, advanced generator and module design features, balance-of-plant components, and cost reduction measures. Installed at the Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, a system operated for more than 17,500 hrs, delivering electrical power to the on-site grid and thermal energy in form of hot water for onsite utilization. Operation was typically autonomous, requiring minimal operator intervention, and achieved an overall availability of greater than 85%. Outages were primarily due to an unstable local grid, two weather related outages were experienced, and very few reliability issues were encountered despite harsh operating conditions. No repairs to the stack, module, or balance-of-plant were required. A second system was designed, built, delivered, and installed at a Siemens facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. Operational issues associated with the balance-of-plant were encountered during startup and prevented the system from operating.

Joseph Pierre

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

276

Basic properties of a liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An unconventional high temperature fuel cell system, the liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell(LTA-SOFC), is discussed. A thermodynamic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with a liquid metal anode is developed. Pertinent thermo chemical and thermo physical properties of liquid tin in particular are detailed. An experimental setup for analysis of LTA-SOFC anode kinetics is described, and data for a planar cell under hydrogen indicated an effective oxygen diffusion coefficient of 5.310?5 cm2 s?1 at 800 ?C and 8.910?5 cm2 s?1 at 900 ?C. This value is similar to previously reported literature values for liquid tin. The oxygen conductivity through the tin, calculated from measured diffusion coefficients and theoretical oxygen solubility limits, is found to be on the same order of thatofyttria-stabilizedzirconia(YSZ), a traditional SOFC electrolyte material. As such,the ohmicloss due to oxygen transport through the tin layer must be considered in practical system cell design since the tin layer will usually be at least as thick as the electrolyte.

Harry Abernathy; RandallGemmen; KirkGerdes; Mark Koslowske; ThomasTao

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

277

Micro fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

280

Compliant sealants for solid oxide fuel cells and other ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass or glass-ceramic sealant for a SOFC having a coefficient of thermal expansion in the range of from about 8 to about 13.times.10.sup.-6 /.degree.C. and a viscosity of at least 10.sup.3 Pa-s at cell operating temperature. The sealant has a composition of SrO present in the range of from about 5 to about 60 mole percent, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range of from 0 to about 45 mole percent, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range of from about 15 mole percent to about 80 mole percent, and SiO.sub.2 present in the range of from 0 to about 40 mole percent, wherein the material is a viscous fluid at cell operating temperatures of from about 600.degree. C. to about 1000.degree. C. The sealant may also be compounds of CaO present in the range of from 0 to about 35 mole percent, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B.sub.2 O.sub.3 present in the range of from about 35 mole percent to about 85 mole percent, and SiO.sub.2 present in the range of from 0 to about 30 mole percent.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Ley, Kevin L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Compliant sealants for solid oxide fuel cells and other ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass or glass-ceramic sealant is described for a SOFC having a coefficient of thermal expansion in the range of from about 8 to about 13{times}10{sup {minus}6}/C and a viscosity of at least 10{sup 3}Pa-s at cell operating temperature. The sealant has a composition of SrO present in the range of from about 5 to about 60 mole percent, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range of from 0 to about 45 mole percent, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range of from about 15 mole percent to about 80 mole percent, and SiO{sub 2} present in the range of from 0 to about 40 mole percent, wherein the material is a viscous fluid at cell operating temperatures of from about 600 C to about 1000 C. The sealant may also be compounds of CaO present in the range of from 0 to about 35 mole percent, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range from 0 to about 15 mole percent, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} present in the range of from about 35 mole percent to about 85 mole percent, and SiO{sub 2} present in the range of from 0 to about 30 mole percent. 2 figs.

Bloom, I.D.; Ley, K.L.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

282

Microstructure, residual stress, and mechanical properties of thin film materials for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The microstructure and residual stress of sputter-deposited films for use in microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells are presented. Much of the work focuses on the characterization of a candidate solid electrolyte: Yttria ...

Quinn, David John, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

MATERIALS SYSTEM FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2004-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Animation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on...

285

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

Eric D. Wachsman

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this DOE project is to demonstrate that the performance and long-term stability of the state-of-the-art LSCF cathode can be enhanced by a catalytically active coating (e.g., LSM or SSC). We have successfully developed a methodology for reliably evaluating the intrinsic surface catalytic properties of cathode materials. One of the key components of the test cell is a dense LSCF film, which will function as the current collector for the electrode material under evaluation to eliminate the effect of ionic and electronic transport. Since it is dense, the effect of geometry would be eliminated as well. From the dependence of the electrode polarization resistance on the thickness of a dense LSCF electrode and on partial pressure of oxygen, we have confirmed that the surface catalytic activity of LSCF limits the performances of LSCF-based cathodes. Further, we have demonstrated, using test cells of different configurations, that the performance of LSCF-based electrodes can be significantly enhanced by infiltration of a thin film of LSM or SSC. In addition, the stability of LSCF-based cathodes was also improved by infiltration of LSM or SSC. While the concept feasibility of the electrode architecture is demonstrated, many details are yet to be determined. For example, it is not clear how the surface morphology, composition, and thickness of the coatings change under operating conditions over time, how these changes influence the electrochemical behavior of the cathodes, and how to control the microscopic details of the coatings in order to optimize the performance. The selection of the catalytic materials as well as the detailed microstructures of the porous LSCF and the catalyst layer may critically impact the performance of the proposed cathodes. Further, other fundamental questions still remain; it is not clear why the degradation rates of LSCF cathodes are relatively high, why a LSM coating improves the stability of LSCF cathodes, which catalysts would be most effective for LSCF, and how to achieve further enhancement of the performance and stability of SOFC cathodes.

Lei Yang; Ze Liu; Shizhone Wang; Jaewung Lee; Meilin Liu

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

The electrochemical performance of thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several benefits are realized by lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from 1000C to temperatures in the 600 to 800C range. Among the advantages are decreased reaction between fuel cell components, shorter startup times, and the possibility of using metals in stack construction; however, the achievable power density in conventional SOFCs is too low. A strategy for overcoming this limitation is to decrease the thickness of this layer by approximately an order of magnitude. Thin (5 {mu}m) electrolyte SOFCs have recently been fabricated by Allied-Signal Aerospace Systems and Equipment Company (ASASE). The electrochemical performance of these cells has been studied and is discussed in this paper.

Zurawski, D.; Kueper, T.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fuel Cells & Renewable Portfolio Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.....................................................12 SOFC Battery Range Extender Auxiliary Power Unit (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements" (presentation, DOD-DOE Workshop on Fuel Cells in Aviation cell plasma lighting demonstration, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) battery range extender APU

291

Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

292

Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

293

Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

294

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

Not Available

1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices.

296

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

297

Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure the area-specific resistance (ASR) to estimate the electrical degradation of the interconnect. In addition to the baseline study of pure nickel, steps were taken to decrease the ASR through alloying and surface modifications. Finally, high conductivity composite systems, consisting of nickel and silver, were studied. These systems utilize high conductivity silver pathways through nickel while maintaining the mechanical stability that a nickel matrix provides.

Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperture resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. The piping thus forms a manfold for directing fuel and air to each module in a string and makes electrical contact with the module's anode and cathode to conduct the DC power generated by the SOFC. The piping also provides structureal support for each individual module and maintains each string of modules as a structurally integral unit for ensuring high strength in a large 3-dimensional array of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC.

Parry, Gareth W. (East Windsor, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

Nguyen Minh

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main disadvantage of SOFCs is their high operating temperature (~1000C for conventional SOFCs) which leads to cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds at electrolyte/electrode interfaces. Therefore, intermediate temperature SOFCs (ITSOFCs) in the range of 500-700 C has attracted extensive research interests. To achieve high cell performance at reduced temperatures, it requires high-catalytic activity, high ionic conductivity, and comparable thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of the cell components. To address the above issues, the research focuses on two main approaches (i.e., the interlayer approach and the electrolyte approach) in order to improve the overall cell performance. First, the design of a thin layer of a vertically-aligned nanocomposite (VAN) structure as an interlayer between the electrolyte and cathode is demonstrated. The development of the VAN structures consisted of the cathode material as a perovskite or ordered double perovskite structure, La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) or PrBaCo2O5 delta (PBCO), and the electrolyte material as a fluorite structure, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO or GDC), were achieved for thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFCs). The VAN structure significantly improves the overall performance of the TFSOFC by increasing the interfacial area between the electrolyte and cathode and also acts as a transition layer that improves adhesion and relieves both thermal stress and lattice strain. Second, microstructural and electrical properties of Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) thin films electrolyte are studied for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The GDC thin film electrolytes with different grain sizes and grain morphologies were prepared by varying the deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, oxygen partial pressure, target repetition rate, and laser ablation energy. The electrical property of the GDC thin film is strongly affected by the grain size. Third, bilayer electrolytes composed of a gadolinium-doped CeO2 (GDC) layer (~6 micrometer thickness) and an yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) layer with various thicknesses (~330 nm, ~440 nm, and ~1 micrometer) are achieved by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique for thin film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs). One effective approach is to incorporate YSZ thin film as a blocking layer in between the GDC and anode for preventing chemical reduction of GDC and electrical current leakage. This bilayer approach effectively improves the GDC's chemical/ mechanical stability and reduces the OCV loss under reducing conditions. The results suggest that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer for preventing electrical current leakage in the GDC layer and also provides chemical, mechanical, and structural integrity in the cell, which leads to the overall enhanced performance.

Cho, Sungmee

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

303

Molten carbonate fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Molten carbonate fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

1986-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

305

LOW COST MULTI-LAYER FABRICATION METHOD FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Under this program, Technology Management, Inc, is evaluating the economic advantages of a multi-pass printing process on the costs of fabricating planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The technique, still unproven technically, uses a ''green-field'' or build-up approach. Other more mature processes were considered to obtain some baseline assumptions. Based on this analysis, TMI has shown that multi-pass printing can offer substantial economic advantages over many existing fabrication processes and can reduce costs. By impacting overall production costs, the time is compressed to penetrate early low volume niche markets and more mature high-volume market applications.

Dr. Christopher E. Milliken; Dr. Robert C. Ruhl

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Corrosion behavior of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topography and phase composition of the scales formed on commercial ferritic stainless steel and two experimental nickel-based alloys were studied in atmospheres simulating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) environments. Corrosion experiments were carried out under SOFC dual environment conditions with air on one side of the sample and hydrogen on the other side for 100 h at 700 C. Post-corrosion surface characterization techniques of the air side of each material included scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Singh, Prabhakar (PNL)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide as a feedstock in a solid oxide fuel cell is discussed. A system configuration of an SOFC combined to the SOFC. The exhaust fuel gas of the SOFC is after-burned with exhaust air from the SOFC, and the heat

308

Fuel cell stack arrangements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Deposition of Porous Anode Film of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Spray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Fuel Cells: Materials, Processing, Manufacturing, Balance of Plant and...

310

Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 7878 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the effect of elevated pressure and to represent the expected enhancement obtained using a promising cell material set which has been tested in button cells but not yet used to produce full-scale stacks. The predictions for the effect of pressure on stack performance were based on literature. As part of this study, additional data were obtained on button cells at elevated pressure to confirm the validity of the predictions. The impact of adding weight to the 787-8 fuel consumption was determined as a function of flight distance using a PianoX model. A conceptual design for a SOFC power system for the Boeing 787 is developed and the weight estimated. The results indicate that the power density of the stacks must increase by at least a factor of 2 to begin saving fuel on the 787 aircraft. However, the conceptual design of the power system may still be useful for other applications which are less weight sensitive.

Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

NETL: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coal and Power Systems Fuel Cells SECA Logo Welcome to NETL's Fuel Cells Webpage. In partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, we are leading the research, development, and demonstration of high efficiency, fuel flexible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and coal-based SOFC power generation systems for stationary market large central power plants under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The SECA cost reduction goal is to have SOFC systems capable of being manufactured at $400 per kilowatt by 2010. Concurrently, the scale-up, aggregation, and integration of the technology will progress in parallel leading to prototype validation of megawatt (MW)-class fuel flexible products by 2012 and 2015. The SECA coal-based systems goal is the development of large

313

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming, autothermal reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming are the three major fuel of an activated carbon bed. Prior to enter the SOFC stack, the fuel is pre-reformed (methane is partially

Liso, Vincenzo

314

www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption heating and cooling system used for buildings. The integrated system can provide heating/cooling and/or hot water for buildings while consuming natural gas. The aim of this study is to give an overall description of the system. The possibility of such an integrated system is discussed and the configuration of the system is described. A system model is presented, and a specific case study of the system, which consists of a pre-commercial SOFC system and a commercial LiBr absorption system, is performed. In the case study, the detailed configuration of an integrated system is given, and the heat and mass balance and system performance are obtained through numerical calculation. Based on the case study, some considerations with respect to system component selection, system configuration and design are discussed. Additionally, the economic and environmental issues of this specific system are evaluated briefly. The results show that the combined system demonstrates great advantages in both technical and environmental aspects. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating and cooling systems, it is very likely that such a combined system will become increasingly feasible within the following decade.

Florian Zink A; Yixin Lu B; Laura Schaefer C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

Conditioning effects on La1-xSrxMnO3-Yttria stabilized Zirconia electrodes for thin-film solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings 5th Intern. Symp. SOFC, Aachen, Germany, Juneof a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). LSM surface contaminationthin-film onto porous SOFC electrodes/substrates have

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Optimization and Demonstration of a Solid Oxide Regenerative Fuel Cell System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single cell solid oxide regenerative fuel cells (SORFCs) have been demonstrated for over 1000 hours of operation at degradation rates as low as 0.5% per thousand hours for current densities as high as 300mA/cm{sup 2}. Efficiency levels (fuel cell power out vs. electrolysis power in) have been demonstrated in excess of 80% at 100mA/cm{sup 2}. All testing has been performed with metallic based interconnects and non-noble metal electrodes in order to limit fabrication costs for commercial considerations. The SORFC cell technology will be scaled up to a 1kW sized stack which will be demonstrated in Year 2 of the program. A self contained SORFC system requires efficient thermal management in order to maintain operating temperatures during exothermic and endothermic operational modes. The use of LiF as a phase change material (PCM) was selected as the optimum thermal storage medium by virtue of its superior thermal energy density by volume. Thermal storage experiments were performed using LiF and a simulated SORFC stack. The thermal storage concept was deemed to be technically viable for larger well insulated systems, although it would not enable a high efficiency thermally self-sufficient SORFC system at the 1 kW level.

James F. McElroy; Darren B. Hickey; Fred Mitlitsky

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

Five kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project: Case Study: Exit Glacier Nature Center Acumentrics Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study documents the demonstration experiences and lessons learned from a 5 kW solid oxide fuel cell system operating on propane at the Kenai Fiords National Park at the Exit Glacier Visitor Center, Seward, Alaska. The case study is one of several fuel cell project case studies under research by EPRI's Distributed Energy Resources Program. This case study is designed to help utilities and other interested parties understand the early applications of fuel cell systems to help them in their resour...

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

319

A solid oxide fuel cell power system: 1992--1993 field operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse has deployed fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems in order to obtain useful customer feedback. Recently, Westinghouse has deployed 20 kW class natural gas fueled SOFC generator modules integrated into two 25 kW SOFC systems, the first with The UTILITIES, a Japanese consortium. The UTILITIES 25 kW SOFC system is the focus of this paper. The unit was shipped to the Rokko Island Test Center for Advanced Energy Systems (near Kobe, Japan) operated by Kansai Electric Power Co.; testing was initiated February 1992. Module A operated for 2601 hours at an ave output 16.6 kW dc; final shutdown was induced by current stability problems with dissipator (restart not possible because of damaged cells). Module B operated for 1579 hours at ave output 17.8 kWdc. The unit was damaged by operation at excessively high fuel utilization > 91%. It was rebuilt and returned to Rokko Island. This module B2 operated for 1843 hours on PNG; shutdown was cuased by air supply failure. After a new blower and motor were installed July 1993, the system was restarted August 5, 1993 and operated continuously until November 10, 1993, when an automatic shutdown was induced as part of a MITI licensing inspection. After restart, the unit passed 6000 hours of operation on desulfurized PNG on January 25, 1994. Westinghouse`s future plans are outlined.

Veyo, S.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Kusunoki, A.; Takeuchi, S. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Kaneko, S. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yokoyama, H. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than...

323

Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Richland, WA)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

324

Processing of LaCrO{sub 3} for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla is performing a 5 year research program dedicated towards the development of LaCrO{sub 3}-based interconnect powders which densify when in contact with anode and cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). During the course of this program the authors investigated compositions within the pseudo-ternary LaCrO{sub 3}-LaMnO{sub 3}-LaCoO{sub 3} system. Their expanded studies on the processing and sintering of LaCrO{sub 3} to make dense interconnects using LaCrO{sub 3}-based oxides at temperatures less than 1,500 C in an air atmosphere and in contact with both anode and cathode oxides. The specific objectives of this research program are to: Develop a novel technique which reproducibly yields LaCrO{sub 3}-based powders with the desired particle characteristics; Fully understand the liquid phase sintering mechanism; Clearly identify the reason why LaCrO{sub 3} does not densify in the presence of electrolyte and cathode materials; Systematically solve this problem through judicious control over the liquid phase; and Incorporate materials developed in this program into planar cells and measure their performance. Results are discussed on porosity and skrinkage, and sintering and melting behaviors.

Huebner, W.; Anderson, H.U.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Chrystal defects of ytria stabilized zirconia in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and their evolution upon cell operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes must be crystallographically and chemically stable in typical operating environments, while also possessing high ionic and low electronic conductivities. Cubic fluorite structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), in which ion conduction is provided by oxide ion vacancies, is a proven oxide ion conductor fulfilling such requirements. In the present work, the microstructural and crystallographic defects of YSZ in the anode (Ni/YSZ), cathode (LSM/YSZ), and electrolyte of commercial SOFC cells were studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Comparisons were made between an as-received cell and a cell operated at 800 C for 550 h using syngas as fuel. Examination of the YSZ electron diffraction pattern of the cathode reveals a typical cubic fluorite crystal structure. However, weak diffraction spots, where diffractions should be absent according to the structure factor of the cubic fluorite phase, are present in the patterns taken from the YSZ in the anode and the electrolyte. The appearance of kinematically forbidden spots in YSZ is unchanged after cell operation. Such weak diffraction spots can be interpreted as arising from a nanoscale (210 nm) irregularly-shaped tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) domain that is randomly distributed in the cubic YSZ (c-YSZ) matrix. However, larger t-YSZ domains with thicknesses of 510 nm and lengths of 30 nm are observed by the Ni/YSZ interfaces in cells operated at 800 C in coal-derived syngas for 550 h. The layered t-YSZ domains are accompanied by the c-YSZ domains, implying the migration of Y along the Ni/YSZ interface in response to cell operation.

Chen, Song; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Hackett, Gregory; Gerdes, Kirk

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

326

Thin-film electrolytes for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells produce electricity at very high efficiency and have very low to negligible emissions, making them an attractive option for power generation for electric utilities. However, conventional SOFC`s are operated at 1000{degrees}C or more in order to attain reasonable power density. The high operating temperature of SOFC`s leads to complex materials problems which have been difficult to solve in a cost-effective manner. Accordingly, there is much interest in reducing the operating temperature of SOFC`s while still maintaining the power densities achieved at high temperatures. There are several approaches to reduced temperature operation including alternative solid electrolytes having higher ionic conductivity than yttria stabilized zirconia, thin solid electrolyte membranes, and improved electrode materials. Given the proven reliability of zirconia-based electrolytes (YSZ) in long-term SOFC tests, the use of stabilized zirconia electrolytes in reduced temperature fuel cells is a logical choice. In order to avoid compromising power density at intermediate temperatures, the thickness of the YSZ electrolyte must be reduced from that in conventional cells (100 to 200 {mu}m) to approximately 4 to 10 {mu}m. There are a number of approaches for depositing thin ceramic films onto porous supports including chemical vapor deposition/electrochemical vapor deposition, sol-gel deposition, sputter deposition, etc. In this paper we describe an inexpensive approach involving the use of colloidal dispersions of polycrystalline electrolyte for depositing 4 to 10 {mu}m electrolyte films onto porous electrode supports in a single deposition step. This technique leads to highly dense, conductive, electrolyte films which exhibit near theoretical open circuit voltages in H{sub 2}/air fuel cells. These electrolyte films exhibit bulk ionic conductivity, and may see application in reduced temperature SOFC`s, gas separation membranes, and fast response sensors.

Visco, S.J.; Wang, L.S.; De Souza, S.; De Jonghe, L.C.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Method of fabricating a monolithic core for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for forming a core for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that electrochemically combines fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support consisting instead only of the active anode, cathode, electrolyte and interconnect materials. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte and interconnect walls define a plurality of substantially parallel core passageways alternately having respectively the inside faces thereof with only the anode material or with only the cathode material exposed. In the wall structure, the electrolyte and interconnect materials are only 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and the cathode and anode materials are only 0.002-0.05 cm thick. The method consists of building up the electrolyte and interconnect walls by depositing each material on individually and endwise of the wall itself, where each material deposit is sequentially applied for one cycle; and where the depositing cycle is repeated many times until the material buildup is sufficient to formulate the core. The core is heat cured to become dimensionally and structurally stable.

Zwick, Stanley A. (Woodridge, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. The critical issues facing the development of economically competitive SOFC systems include lowering the operation temperature and creating novel anode materials and microstructures capable of efficiently utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m- thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing, and both Ni- and Cu-based anodes were prepared by a solution impregnation process. At 600 C, SOFCs fueled with humidified H{sub 2}, methane, and propane, reached peak power densities of 602, 519, and 433 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Both microstructure and composition of the anodes, as fabricated using a solution impregnation technique, greatly influence fuel cell performance. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C.

Shaowu Zha; Luis Aguilar; Meilin Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LemonsR. A. ( 1990) Fuel Cells for Transportation. Jour- DC,M. A. (1992). Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles. Re- koebensteinsolid tember. oxide fuel cell development. Journal of

DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fuel processing for fuel cell powered vehicles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of auto companies have announced plans to have fuel cell powered vehicles on the road by the year 2004. The low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells to be used in these vehicles require high quality hydrogen. Without a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, these vehicles need to convert the available hydrocarbon fuels into a hydrogen-rich gas on-board the vehicle. Earlier analysis has shown that fuel processors based on partial oxidation reforming are well suited to meet the size and weight targets and the other performance-related needs of on-board fuel processors for light-duty fuel cell vehicles (1).

Ahmed, S.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Lee, S. H. D.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

331

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fuel cell market applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

Williams, M.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Formic acid oxidation in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: A real-time mass-spectrometry study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electro-oxidation of formic acid was studied in a direct-oxidation polymer-electrolyte fuel cell at 170 C using real-time mass spectrometry. The results are compared with those obtained for methanol oxidation under the same conditions. Formic acid was electrochemically more active than methanol on both Pt-black and Pt-Ru catalysts. The polarization potential of formic acid oxidation was ca. 90 to 100 mV lower than that of methanol. The oxidation of formic acid was dependent on the water/formic acid mole ratio. The best anode performance was obtained using a water/formic acid mole ratio of {approximately}2. In addition, Pt/Ru catalyst was more active than Pt-black for formic acid oxidation. The mass spectrometric results showed that CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product of formic acid oxidation. The results are discussed in terms of possible formic acid oxidation mechanisms.

Weber, M.; Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Global Failure Criteria for Positive/Electrolyte/Negative Structure of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of various layers in the positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly. In this paper, the global relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Processing and interactions of materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. The overall approach for this research and development is to: minimize the number of cations in the electrode, electrolyte, and interconnection by developing yttrium compounds, such as Y(Ca)CrO{sub 3} as the interconnection, and Y(M{prime})MnO{sub 3} as the air electrode; develop advanced synthesis and fabrication processes for air sintering, below 1,500 C, of chromite interconnections through (1) the use of sintering aids; and (2) the synthesis of submicrometer powders; establish methods for the simultaneous processing and consolidation of air-sinterable powders; electrochemically evaluate interface reactions (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) for both the alternate and state-of-the-art materials and cell components developed under this program; and evaluate the chemical reactivity and interdiffusion effects that take place between the various fuel cell components: electrolyte/cathode, interconnect/cathode, and interconnect/anode. This paper describes a comprehensive study that assessed the processing of air-sinterable chromites, the sintering mechanism of chromites, and the chemical reactivity and interdiffusional effects between the interconnect, air, and fuel electrodes. Materials evaluated were La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.29}CrO{sub 3}, (Y{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}){sub 1.05}Cr{sub 0.95}O{sub 3}, La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}.

Bates, J.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Chick, L.A.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Magnetic Analysis of Nickel Nano-Particles in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During operation of the fuel cell in reducing environments, nickel particle formation ... of Advanced Ferritic Creep Resistant Steels for Fossil Energy Applications.

337

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOFC from ~1000 C to ~750 C may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Commercialization of fuel-cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O'Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal at high temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal material, G18, are studied at high temperatures. Samples of G18 are aged for either 4h or 100h, resulting in samples with different crystallinity. Reduced modulus, hardness, and time-dependent behavior are measured by nanoindentation. The nanoindentation is performed at room temperature, 550, 650, and 750C, using loading rates of 5 mN/s and 25 mN/s. Results show a decrease in reduced modulus with increasing temperature, with significant decrease above the glass transition temperature (Tg). Hardness generally decreases with increasing temperature, with a slight increase before Tg for the 4h aged sample. Dwell tests show that creep increases with increasing temperature, but decrease with further aging.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Al-Haik, Marwan; Harris, Adrian; Garmestani, Hamid

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Crack Growth in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials: From Discrete to Continuum Damage Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the cracking problem of glass and ceramic materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Analyses of an internal crack and of an interface crack between dissimilar materials were conducted using a modified boundary layer modeling approach. In this approach, fracture is allowed to occur in a small process window situated at an initial crack tip. Elastic displacement crack-tip fields are prescribed as remote boundary conditions. Crack propagation was first modeled discretely. Next, a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for brittle materials was developed to capture damage and crack growth in the process window. In particular, the damage model was applied to a glass-ceramic material that had been developed in-house for sealing purposes. Discrete and continuum damage solutions were then compared. Finally, the CDM model was used to determine the crack propagation direction as a function of a mode mixity measure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Singh, Prabhakar

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nano-structured solid oxide fuel cell design with superior power output at high and intermediate operation temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte was developed and tested. This novel SOFC shows a similar multilayer set-up as other current anode-supported SOFCs and is composed of a Ni/8YSZ anode, a gas-tight ...

Tim Van Gestel; Feng Han; Doris Sebold; Hans Peter Buchkremer; Detlev Stver

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Dan Hennessy (Primary Contact), Jim Banna Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC 300 University Drive m/c 480-300-385 Auburn Hills, MI 48326 Phone: (248) 732-0656 Email: daniel.t.hennessy@delphi.com DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000478 Subcontractors: * Electricore, Inc., Valencia, CA * PACCAR, Inc., Bellevue, WA * TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO Project Start Date: August 1, 2009 Project End Date: April 30, 2013 Objectives

346

Field Test and Demonstration of 5-kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cell power systems have very high fuel efficiencies and low environmental emissions. They can be used to serve local end-use loads as distributed generators, thus helping to relieve distribution system constraints. As the cost of new central power generation systems continue to rise, delivered electricity and retail energy rates are also likely to rise, making electricity generated by fuel cell systems potentially as efficient and cost-effective as electricity delivered from large central power stat...

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

347

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOFC Technology R& D Needs Steven Shaffer Chief Engineer ­ Fuel Cell Development DOE Pre) to define system level requirements for a Fuel Cell (SOFC) based Auxiliary Power Unit (APU SOFC X #12;9 DOE Pre-Solicitation Workshop, Golden CO Field Office SOFC Stack Development Key Stack

348

Handbook of fuel cell performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Batteries and Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collage of electric cars, plug, battery research lab Collage of electric cars, plug, battery research lab Batteries and Fuel Cells EETD researchers study the basic science and development of advanced batteries and fuel cells for transportation, electric grid storage, and other stationary applications. This research is aimed at developing more environmentally friendly technologies for generating and storing energy, including better batteries and fuel cells. Li-Ion and Other Advanced Battery Technologies Research conducted here on battery technology is aimed at developing low-cost rechargeable advanced electrochemical batteries for both automotive and stationary applications. The goal of fuel cell research is to provide the technologies for the successful commercialization of polymer-electrolyte and solid oxide fuel

350

Corrosion behavior of stainless steel in solid oxide fuel cell simulated gaseous environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) from {approx}1000 C to {approx} 750 C may permit the replacement of currently used ceramic interconnects by metallic interconnects in planar SOFCs (PSOFC). The use of metallic interconnects will result in a substantial cost reduction of PSOFCs. The interconnects operate in severe gaseous environments, in which one side of the interconnect can be exposed to hydrogen and the other side to air or oxygen at temperatures up to 800 C. Similar environmental conditions can exist in devices used for separating hydrogen from CO after reforming methane and steam. Type 304 stainless steel was selected for this base line study aimed at understanding corrosion processes in dual gas environments. This paper discusses the oxidation resistance of 304 stainless steel exposed to a dual environment gas at 800 C. The dual environment consisted of air on one side of the specimen and 1% hydrogen in nitrogen on the other side. The surface characterization techniques used in this study were optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as various x-ray techniques.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Matthes, Steven A.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.; Singh, P.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

clean clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 power installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility

352

Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases Zhiguang Zhu a , Fangfang Sun a , Xiaozhou Zhang a,d , Y.-H. Percival Zhang a,b,c,d,n a Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA b Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA c DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA d Gate Fuels Inc., 2200 Kraft Drive, Suite 1200B, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 12 January 2012 Received in revised form 26 March 2012 Accepted 4 April 2012 Keywords: Deep oxidation Enzymatic fuel cell Glucose biobattery Thermoenzyme

353

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

354

A NOVEL INTEGRATED STACK APPROACH FOR REALIZING MECHANICALLY ROBUST SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOFCs are a very promising energy conversion technology for utilization of fossil fuels. The proposed project is to improve the viability of SOFCs by introducing a novel stacking geometry. The geometry involved has all active SOFC components and the interconnect deposited as thin layers on an electrically insulating support. This allows the choice of a support material that provides optimal mechanical toughness and thermal shock resistance. The supports are in the form of flattened tubes, providing relatively high strength, high packing densities, and minimizing the number of seals required. The integration of SOFCs and interconnects on the same support has several other advantages including the reduction of electrical resistances associated with pressure contacts between the cells and interconnects, relaxation of fabrication tolerances required for pressure contacts, reduction of ohmic losses, and reduction of interconnect conductivity requirements. In this report, we describe the processing methodologies that have been developed for fabricating the integrated solid oxide fuel cell (ISOFC), along with results on characterization of the component materials: support, electrolyte, anode, cathode, and interconnect. Screen printing was the primary processing method developed. A centrifugal casting technique was also developed for depositing thin 8 mol % yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers on porous NiO-YSZ anode substrates. Dense pinhole-free YSZ coatings were obtained by co-sintering the bi-layers at 1400 C. After depositing La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM)-YSZ cathodes, single SOFCs produced near-theoretical open-circuit voltages and power densities of 0.55 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Initial stack operation results are also described.

Scott A. Barnett; Tammy Lai; Jiang Liu

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6) Demonstration of novel processes for composite cathode and cermet anode materials. Track 2--ORNL's development work focused solely on making anode-supported planar cells by tape casting of a porous anode substrate, screen printing of a YSZ electrolyte film, co-sintering of the bi-layer element, and screen-printing of an opposite cathode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale-up of anode tape casting and lamination processes; (2) Development of proprietary ink vehicle for screen-printing processes; (3) Development of screen-printing process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer anode-supported elements; and (5) Development of cathode screen-printing process. Track 3--UMR's process development work involved fabrication of a micro-porous cathode substrate, deposition of a nano-porous interlayer film, deposition of nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films from polymeric precursor solutions, and deposition of an anode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale up of tape casting and sintering methods for cathode substrates; (2) Deposition of nano-porous ceria interlayer films on cathode substrates; (3) Successful deposition of dense YSZ films on porous cathode substrates; and (4) Identification of several anode material options.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

Processing of LaCrO{sub 3} for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla is performing a 5 year research program with two primary objectives: (1) developing LaCrO{sub 3}-based interconnect powders which densify when in contact with anode and cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and (2) developing high performance cathodes, anodes and interfaces for use in planar SOFC`s. With regard to the processing and sintering of LaCrO{sub 3}, the specific objectives of this research program are to: (1) develop a non-liquid phase sintered LaCrO{sub 3}-based material sinterable in air; (2) improve and control the properties requisite of LaCrO{sub 3} utilizing a B-site acceptor dopant; (3) optimize and control the processing conditions associated with LaCrO{sub 3}; and (4) incorporate materials developed in this program into planar cells and measure their performance. With regard to developing high performance materials for use in planar SOFC`s, the specific objectives of this research program over the last year have been to: (1) fabricate single cells with controlled microstructures for operation at 1,000 C; (2) gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in improving cell performance via electrochemical and impedance techniques; and (3) developing processing {leftrightarrow} microstructure {leftrightarrow} property relations of electrodes and their corresponding interfacial reactions. This report is divided into two primary sections: (1) LaCrO{sub 3} sintering studies and (2) SOFC performance studies. Results from these studies are presented in the following sections.

Huebner, W.; Anderson, H.U.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Low circumferential voltage gradient self supporting electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The porous, self-supporting, elongated electrode is made, having at least two chambers through its axial length, the chambers separated by an electronically conductive member. This electrode can be an air electrode of a fuel cell, having a superimposed solid electrolyte and fuel electrode.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based on YSZ Thin ...  

Aluminum: Properties, Physical Metallurgy and Phase Diagrams, p. 210, ASM, Metals Park, OH (1967). 4. H ... Fuel cell testing assembly diagram. 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 ...

359

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Fuel Cells Photo of...

360

Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Zhang, Gong (Murrysville, PA)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

NETL: Fuel Cells/SECA News - Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells/Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Fuel Cells/Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) News Archive SECA Workshop Proceedings, Peer Reviews, and Annual Reports 2013 Archive 2012 Archive 2011 Archive Previous Highlights FuelCell Energy's Stack Boosts Power and Minimizes Degradation FuelCell Energy has developed a new solid oxide fuel cell stack design that boosts the overall power output of the fuel cell stack by nearly 50%. FuelCell Energy also achieved a voltage degradation rate of 1.3% per 1000 hours after testing the fuel cells for 26,000 hours of operation. This breakthrough by FuelCell Energy of greater power from the fuel cell stack while minimizing fuel cell degradation pushes it further towards meeting SECA's goal of a market ready, affordable solid oxide fuel cell ready by the year 2010. (5/05)

362

Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is critical to several national initiatives. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) addresses the technology needs through its comprehensive programs on SOFC. A reliable and cost-effective seal that works at high temperatures is essential to the long-term performance of the SOFC for 40,000 hours at 800°C. Consequently, seals remain an area of highest priority for the SECA program and its industry teams. An innovative concept based on self-healing glasses was advanced and successfully demonstrated through seal tests for 3000 hours and 300 thermal cycles to minimize internal stresses under both steady state and thermal transients for making reliable seals for the SECA program. The self-healing concept requires glasses with low viscosity at the SOFC operating temperature of 800°C but this requirement may lead to excessive flow of the glass in areas forming the seal. To address this challenge, a modification to glass properties by addition of particulate fillers is pursued in the project. The underlying idea is that a non-reactive ceramic particulate filler is expected to form glass-ceramic composite and increase the seal viscosity thereby increasing the creep resistance of the glass-composite seals under load. The objectives of the program are to select appropriate filler materials for making glass-composite, fabricate glass-composites, measure thermal expansion behaviors, and determine stability of the glass-composites in air and fuel environments of a SOFC. Self-healing glass-YSZ composites are further developed and tested over a longer time periods under conditions typical of the SOFCs to validate the long-term stability up to 2000 hours. The new concepts of glass-composite seals, developed and nurtured in this program, are expected to be cost-effective as these are based on conventional processing approaches and use of the inexpensive materials.

Raj Singh

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Exploration of alloy 441 chemistry for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloy 441 stainless steel (UNS S 44100) is being considered for application as an SOFC interconnect material. There are several advantages to the selection of this alloy over other iron-based or nickel-based alloys: first and foremost alloy 441ss is a production alloy which is both low in cost and readily available. Second, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) more closely matches the CTE of the adjoining ceramic components of the fuel cell. Third, this alloy forms the Laves phase at typical SOFC operating temperatures of 600800 C. It is thought that the Laves phase preferentially consumes the Si present in the alloy microstructure. As a result it has been postulated that the long-term area specific resistance (ASR) performance degradation often seen with other ferritic stainless steels, which is associated with the formation of electrically resistive Si-rich oxide subscales, may be avoidable with alloy 441ss. In this paper we explore the physical metallurgy of alloy 441, combining computational thermodynamics with experimental verification, and discuss the results with regards to Laves phase formation under SOFC operating conditions. We show that the incorporation of the Laves phase into the microstructure cannot in itself remove sufficient Si from the ferritic matrix in order to completely avoid the formation of Si-rich oxide subscales. However, the thickness, morphology, and continuity of the Si-rich subscale that forms in this alloy is modified in comparison to non-Laves forming ferritic stainless steel alloys and therefore may not be as detrimental to long-term SOFC performance.

Paul D. Jablonski; Christopher J. Cowen; John S. Sears

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Li, Baozhen (Essex Junction, VT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

A Partial Oxidation Technique for Fuel-Cell Anode Exhaust-Gas Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the performance of a gas generator used to synthesize the exhaust gas from the anode of a molten-carbonate fuel cell. The composition of this gas is estimated to be that of equilibrium at 1,250 F and 1 atm: 48% CO2 , 39% H2O, 5% CO, and 8% H2, with an energy content of approximately 39 Btu/scf (higher heating value). To synthesize a range of gas compositions around this point, the gas generator partially oxidizes a mixture of CH4 , O2 , and CO2 to generate energy densities between 20 and 60 Btu/scf at temperatures between 1,198 and 1,350 F. Results show that the technique provides a relatively high ratio of CO to H2 concentrations compared with the target composition (CO:H2 of 2, versus 0.71). A detailed chemical model shows that the likely cause is quenching of the CO and H2 chemistry below 2,000 F.

Edward H. Robey, Jr.; Randall S. Gemmen

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

369

Development of improved cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla conducted a 17 month research program focused on the development and evaluation of improved cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The objectives of this program were: (1) the development of cathode materials of improved stability in reducing environments; and (2) the development of cathode materials with improved electrical conductivity. The program was successful in identifying some potential candidate materials: Air sinterable (La,Ca)(Cr,Co)O{sub 3} compositions were developed and found to be more stable than La{sub .8}Sr{sub .2}MnO{sub 3} towards reduction. Their conductivity at 1000{degrees}C ranged between 30 to 60 S/cm. Compositions within the (Y,Ca)(Cr,Co,Mn)O{sub 3} system were developed and found to have higher electrical conductivity than La{sub .8}Sr{sub .2}MnO{sub 3} and preliminary results suggest that their stability towards reduction is superior.

Anderson, H.U.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Novel refractory alkaline earth silicate sealing glasses for planar solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel refractory Sr-Ca-Y-B-Si sealing glass (glass-ceramic) was developed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objective was to develop sealing glass with desired thermal properties and minimal interfacial reactions with SOFC components, ceramic electrolyte and metallic interconnect. The current glass was different from conventional sealing glass in that the sealing temperatures were targeted higher (>950 degree C) and hence more refractory. Six glasses were formulated and made by conventional glass-making process. Thermal properties were characterized in the glass state and the sintered (crystallized) state. The effect of formulation on thermal properties was discussed. Candidate glasses were also aged for 1000 to 2000 h at elevated temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements showed minimal change after aging. A candidate glass (YSO-1) was used in sealing ceramic electrolyte to a metallic interconnect from 900 degree C to 1050 degree C in air. The interfacial microstructure was characterized and SrCrO4 was identified near the metal interface. Possible reaction mechanism for the chromate formation was discussed.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Novel Electrode Materials for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Composites electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm-2 at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m-thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of the deposition parameters. Highly porous, excellently bonded and nano-structured electrodes fabricated by combustion CVD exhibit extremely high surface area and remarkable catalytic activities. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the electrochemical-polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer.

Shaowu Zha; Meilin Liu

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

372

Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Processing of LaCrO{sub 3} for solid oxide fuel cell applications. April 1994--April 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 5-yr program has the objectives of developing LaCrO{sub 3}-based interconnect powders which densify when in contact with anode and cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells and developing high- performance cathodes, anodes, and interfaces for planar SOFCs. This report is divided into LaCrO{sub 3} sintering studies and SOFC performance studies. Major achievements during the past year included: Developing processing skills for fabricating single cells, incorporating a Pt reference electrode into the electrolyte for separating electrode effects, developing processing-microstructure- property relations for a number of anodes, and developing experimental techniques for measuring cell performance.

Huebner, W.; Anderson, H.U.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Continuum and Quantum-Chemical Modeling of Oxygen Reduction on the Cathode in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have several advantages over other types of fuels cells such as high-energy efficiency and excellent fuel flexibility. To be economically competitive, however, new materials with extraordinary transport and catalytic properties must be developed to dramatically improve the performance while reducing the cost. This article reviews recent advancements in understanding oxygen reduction on various cathode materials using phenomenological and quantum chemical approaches in order to develop novel cathode materials with high catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. We summarize a variety of results relevant to understanding the interactions between O2 and cathode materials at the molecular level as predicted using quantum-chemical cal-culations and probed using in situ surface vibrational spectroscopy. It is hoped that this in-depth understanding may provide useful insights into the design of novel cath-ode materials for a new generation of SOFCs.

Choi, Yongman; Mebane, David S.; Wang, Jeng-Han; Liu, Meilin

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

offering cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil fuels. Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal-combustion engine in...

378

Electronically conducting proton exchange polymers as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and methanol oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of supported catalysts were prepared by the chemical deposition of Pt and Pt-Ru particles on chemically prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and PEDOT/polyvinylsulfate (PVS) composites. The polymer particles were designed to provide a porous, proton-conducting and electron-conducting catalyst support for use in fuel cells. These polymer-supported catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. Their catalytic activities toward hydrogen and methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell-type gas diffusion electrodes. Activities for oxygen reduction comparable to that obtained with a commercial carbon-supported catalyst were observed, whereas those for hydrogen and methanol oxidation were significantly inferior, although still high for prototype catalysts.

Lefebvre, M.C.; Qi, Z.; Pickup, P.G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Variable area fuel cell process channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having a non-uniform distribution of fuel and oxidant flow paths, on opposite sides of an electrolyte matrix, sized and positioned to provide approximately uniform fuel and oxidant utilization rates, and cell conditions, across the entire cell.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500C to 750C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2010-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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381

Fuel Cell Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Links Fuel Cell Links The links below are provided as additional resources for fuel-cell-related information. Most of the linked sites are not part of, nor affiliated with, fueleconomy.gov. We do not endorse or vouch for the accuracy of the information found on such sites. Fuel Cell Vehicles and Manufacturers Chevrolet General Motors press release about the Chevrolet Fuel Cell Equinox Ford Ford overview of their hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Honda FCX Clarity official site Hyundai Hyundai press release announcing the upcoming Tucson Fuel Cell Mercedes-Benz Ener-G-Force Fuel-cell-powered concept SUV Nissan Nissan TeRRA concept SUV Toyota Overview of Toyota fuel cell technology Hydrogen- and Fuel-Cell-Related Information and Tools Fuel Cell Vehicles Brief overview of fuel cell vehicles provided by DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)

382

Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 600 C with Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cracking (reaction VII) CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2 steam reforming (reaction VIII) CH4 + CO2 2CO + 2H2 dry.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane analyses of anode reduction are performed at 700°C. Carbon deposition is observed under diluted methane

385

Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variation during the operation. The analysis will consider an average profile for heat and power demand gross electricity generation in 2010 by doubling the generation capacity and increasing the plant load and degrades the fuel cells. To counteract the degradation, the system has not to be stressed with rapid load

Liso, Vincenzo

386

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect

Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program is being conducted by a team consisting of AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems & Equipment (ASE) (formerly AiResearch Los Angeles Division) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Optimized cell configurations for stable LSCF-based solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lanthanum strontium cobalt iron oxides (La(1-x)SrxCoyFe1-yO3-f; (LSCF) have excellent power density (>500 mW/cm2 at 750.degree. C.). When covered with a metallization layer, LSCF cathodes have demonstrated increased durability and stability. Other modifications, such as the thickening of the cathode, the preparation of the device by utilizing a firing temperature in a designated range, and the use of a pore former paste having designated characteristics and combinations of these features provide a device with enhanced capabilities.

Kim, Jin Yong (Richland, WA); Sprenkle, Vincent L. (Richland, WA); Canfield, Nathan L. (Richland, WA); Meinhardt, Kerry D. (Kennewick); WA, Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

389

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Fuel Cells Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for...

390

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operation of a Solid Polymer Fuel Cell: A Parametric Model,"1991). G. Bronoel, "Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cells Without PreciousG. Abens, "Development of a Fuel Cell Power Source for Bus,"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

NETL: Fuel Cells - Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel CellsSolid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Contacts For information on the Fuel CellsSECA program, contact: Fuel Cells Technology Manager: Shailesh Vora 412-386-7515...

392

Fuel-Cell Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Fuel cell Approximate operating temperature °C °F Polymer electrolyte (PEFC) 80 175 Alkaline (AFC) 100 212 Phosphoric acid (PAFC) 200 390 Molten carbonate (MCFC) 650 1200 Solid oxide (SOFC) 600??1000 1110??1830...

393

An advanced fuel cell simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cell power generation systems provide a clean alternative to the conventional fossil fuel based systems. Fuel cell systems have a high e?ciency and use easily available hydrocarbons like methane. Moreover, since the by-product is water, they have a very low environmental impact. The fuel cell system consists of several subsystems requiring a lot of e?ort from engineers in diverse areas. Fuel cell simulators can provide a convenient and economic alternative for testing the electrical subsystems such as converters and inverters. This thesis proposes a low-cost and an easy-to-use fuel cell simulator using a programmable DC supply along with a control module written in LabVIEW. This simulator reproduces the electrical characteristics of a 5kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack under various operating conditions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed simulator closely matches the voltage-current characteristic of the SOFC system under varying load conditions. E?ects of non-electrical parameters like hydrogen ?ow rate are also modeled and these parameters are taken as dynamic inputs from the user. The simulator is customizable through a graphical user interface and allows the user to model other types of fuel cells with the respective voltage-current data. The simulator provides an inexpensive and accurate representation of a solid oxide fuel cell under steady state and transient conditions and can replace an actual fuel cell during testing of power conditioning equipment.

Acharya, Prabha Ramchandra

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fuel cell with internal flow control  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

Haltiner, Jr., Karl J. (Fairport, NY); Venkiteswaran, Arun (Karnataka, IN)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

395

2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

membrane R&D research and development RD&D research, development, and demonstration SOFC solid oxide fuel cell UPS uninterruptible power supply USFCC U.S. Fuel Cell Council 2...

396

Factors Affecting Limiting Current in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells or Debunking the Myth of Anode Diffusion Polarization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Limiting current densities for solid oxide fuel cells were measured using both button cells and a flow-through cell. The cell anodes were supplied mixtures of humidified hydrogen and various inert gasses. It was demonstrated that the true limiting current in flow-through cells is reached when either: the hydrogen is nearly or completely depleted at the anode-electrolyte interface near the outlet; or when the concentration of steam at that interface becomes high enough to interfere with adsorption or transport of the remaining hydrogen near the triple-phase boundaries. Choice of inert gas had no effect on limiting currents in the flow-through tests, indicating that diffusion within the porous anode had no significant effect on cell performance at high currents. In the button cells, the apparent limiting currents were significantly changed by the choice of inert gas, indicating that they were determined by diffusion through the bulk gas within the support tube. It was concluded that the apparent limiting currents measured in button cells are influenced more by parameters of the experimental setup, such as the proximity of the fuel tube outlet, than by the physical properties of the anode.

Chick, Lawrence A.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Simner, Steven P.; Kirby, Brent W.; Powell, Michael R.; Canfield, Nathan L.

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Energy and Environmental Solutions

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

A finite element analysis modeling tool for solid oxide fuel cell development: coupled electrochemistry, thermal and flow analysis in MARC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3D simulation tool for modeling solid oxide fuel cells is described. The tool combines the versatility and efficiency of a commercial finite element analysis code, MARC{reg_sign}, with an in-house developed robust and flexible electrochemical (EC) module. Based upon characteristic parameters obtained experimentally and assigned by the user, the EC module calculates the current density distribution, heat generation, and fuel and oxidant species concentration, taking the temperature profile provided by MARC{reg_sign} and operating conditions such as the fuel and oxidant flow rate and the total stack output voltage or current as the input. MARC{reg_sign} performs flow and thermal analyses based on the initial and boundary thermal and flow conditions and the heat generation calculated by the EC module. The main coupling between MARC{reg_sign} and EC is for MARC{reg_sign} to supply the temperature field to EC and for EC to give the heat generation profile to MARC{reg_sign}. The loosely coupled, iterative scheme is advantageous in terms of memory requirement, numerical stability and computational efficiency. The coupling is iterated to self-consistency for a steady-state solution. Sample results for steady states as well as the startup process for stacks with different flow designs are presented to illustrate the modeling capability and numerical performance characteristic of the simulation tool.

Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Lin, Zijing; Singh, Prabhakar; Surdoval, Wayne; Collin, D

2004-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

400

Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

31, 2013 Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Supported by Research Funding...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide fuel cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.