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1

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

2

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

3

Engines - Emissions Control - cerium-oxide catalyst, diesel,...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Control Heavy duty diesel vehicles product particulate matter emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that heavy-duty diesel vehicles have...

4

Emissions & Emission Controls - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions and Emission Controls In conjunction with the research efforts at FEERC to improve fuel efficiency and reduce petroleum use, research on emissions is conducted with two...

5

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

6

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning is an in-furnace, combustion control technology for NOx reduction. Another environmental issue that needs to be addressed is the rapidly growing feedlot industry in the United States. The production of biomass from one or more animal species is in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered. It is expected to utilize biomass as a low-cost, substitute fuel and an agent to control emission. The successful development of this technology will create environment-friendly, low cost fuel source for the power industry, provide means for an alternate method of disposal of biomass, and generate a possible revenue source for feedlot operators. In the present study, the effect of coal, cattle manure or feedlot biomass, and blends of biomass with coal on the ability to reduce NOx were investigated in the Texas A&M University 29.31 kW (100,000 Btu/h) reburning facility. The facility used a mixture of propane and ammonia to generate the 600 ppm NOx in the primary zone. The reburn fuel was injected using air. The stoichiometry tested were 1.00 to 1.20 in the reburn zone. Two types of injectors, circular jet and fan spray injectors, which produce different types of mixing within the reburn zone, were studied to find their effect on NOx emissions reduction. The flat spray injector performed better in all cases. With the injection of biomass as reburn fuel with circular jet injector the maximum NOx reduction was 29.9 % and with flat spray injector was 62.2 %. The mixing time was estimated in model set up as 936 and 407 ms. The maximum NOx reduction observed with coal was 14.4 % and with biomass it was 62.2 % and the reduction with blends lay between that of coal and biomass.

Arumugam, Senthilvasan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

9

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

10

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

11

Nitrous oxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of key operating parameters, the relative importance of coal type, and the potentially significant coal properties for producing N{sub 2}O emissions in an atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The generation of N{sub 2}O emissions is quantified in an empirical model based on the experimental data.

Mann, M.D.; Collings, M.E.; Young, B.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Nitrous oxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of key operating parameters, the relative importance of coal type, and the potentially significant coal properties for producing N[sub 2]O emissions in an atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The generation of N[sub 2]O emissions is quantified in an empirical model based on the experimental data.

Mann, M.D.; Collings, M.E.; Young, B.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Advanced NOx Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Advanced NOx Emissions Control Adv....

14

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

15

Controlling diesel NOx & PM emissions using fuel components and enhanced aftertreatment techniques: developing the next generation emission control system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The following research thesis focuses on methods of controlling nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and particulate matter (PM) emissions emitted from a low temperature diesel exhaust. This… (more)

Gill, Simaranjit Singh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

controlling NOx emissions from lean engines is challenging. Traditionally, for the stoichiometric gasoline engine vehicles that dominate the U.S. passenger car market, a three-way...

17

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

nitrous oxide emisssions from industrial sources, 1990, 2005, 2008, and 2009 4.5. Waste management sources In 2009, treatment of residential and commercial wastewater produced 92...

18

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

19

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Emissions Control - Program Goals and Targets The Clean Coal Research Program (CCRP) is currently pursuing the demonstration of 1st-Generation Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)...

20

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D Emission Control R&D The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned hydrocarbons Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Particulate matter The energy required for emission control often reduces vehicle fuel economy and increases vehicle cost. VTO's Emission Control R&D focuses on developing efficient, durable, low-cost emission control systems that complement new combustion strategies while minimizing efficiency losses. VTO often leverages the national laboratories' unique capabilities and facilities to conduct this research.

22

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants CO2 Emissions Control RD&D Roadmap Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program: Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program Accomplishments DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Presentations DOE/NETL's Monthly Carbon Sequestration Newsletter Program Goals and Targets Pre-Combustion CO2 Control Post-Combustion CO2 Control Advanced Combustion CO2 Compression Other Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Reference Shelf Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. There are commercially available 1st-Generation CO2

23

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

M. J. Holmes

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

25

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

26

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

27

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Control Emissions Control Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Control Requirement Heavy-duty diesel vehicles used to perform federally funded state public works contracts must be powered by engines with Level 3 emissions control

29

Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design factors for SCR systems and aid in the development of urea control strategy for maximum NOx reduction with minimum NH3 slip. A durable co-fueling system was successfully built and tested, with the help of service station nozzle and dispenser manufacturers, for simultaneous delivery of diesel fuel and aqueous urea to the vehicle. The business case for an aqueous urea infrastructure in the US for light-duty vehicles was explored.

Lambert, Christine

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

Li, Liyu; King, David L.

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

31

Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 MAY 1999 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between: The U.S. Department of Energy and * The Babcock & Wilcox Company * Energy and Environmental Research Corporation * New York State Electric & Gas Corporation MAY 1999 Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Cover image: Schematic of reburning technology Source: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Executive Summary ..................................................................................................

32

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions from Multi-Burners Emissions from Multi-Burners The University of Utah working with Reaction Engineering International and Brigham Young University is investigating a project that consists of integrated experimental, theoretical and computational modeling efforts. The primary objective is to evaluate NOx formation/destruction processes as they occur in multi-burner arrays, a geometry almost always utilized in utility practice. Most controlled experimental work examining NOx has been conducted on single burners. The range of potential intra-burner interactions are likely to provide added degrees of freedom for reducing NOx. The resultant findings may allow existing utilities to arrange fuel and air distribution to minimize NOx. In new applications, orientation of individual burners within an array may also be altered to reduce NOx. Comprehensive combustion codes will be modified to incorporate the latest submodels of nitrogen release and heterogeneous chemistry. Comparison of pilot scale experiments and simulations will be utilized to validate/develop theory.

33

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Testing of Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama Subcontractor- ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller The overall goal of this project is to test the effectiveness of calcium-based sorbents and oxidizing agents for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plant boilers. ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, with EPA support, has developed calcium-based sorbents to remove SO2 and mercury simultaneously. The sorbents consist of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and an added oxidant and a silica-modified calcium (CaSiO3) with an added oxidant. The mercury capacity in ug Hg/g sorbent for the two sorbents is 20 and 110-150, respectively, verses a mercury capacity for the current standard sorbent, activated carbon, of 70-100. The advantages of a lime based sorbent verses carbon is lower cost, simultaneous removal of sulfur, and allowance of ash to be utilized for a cement additive.

34

Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Integrated Emissions Control -- Process Review Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update of multi-pollutant control processes previously evaluated in EPRI report 1006876, "Integrated Emissions Control -- Process Review."

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Spatiotemporal modelling in estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from soil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nitrous oxide is a major greenhouse gas emission. The aim of this research was to develop and apply statistical models to characterize the complex spatial… (more)

Huang, Xiaodong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Status of Integrated Emission Control Process Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the need for more stringent controls for power plant emissions increases, so does the need for more cost-effective approaches to reducing these pollutants.

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

38

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Analysis Systems Analysis DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Innovations for Existing Plants Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. This work includes technology, benefits, and current situation and trends analyses related to CO2 emissions control. Systems analyses and economic modeling of potential new processes are crucial to providing sound guidance to R&D efforts. Since the majority of new CO2 capture technologies are still at a bench scale level of development, a conceptual design is first generated with emphasis on mass and energy balances. Based on available data and/or engineering estimates, these systems are optimized, and "what-if" scenarios are evaluated to identify barriers to deployment and help the process developers establish system performance targets. Reports that have been generated describing systems analyses in support of carbon capture efforts are shown in the table below.

39

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

forms at high temperatures during fossil fuel combustion (see How NOx is Formed ). The primary sources of NOx emissions in the United States are motor vehicles, power plants,...

40

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Mercury Emissions Control in Wet FGD Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) and McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) have had a continuing program over the past decade for characterizing and optimizing mercury control in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. These efforts have led to the characterization of mercury emissions control at two utility installations and full-scale demonstration (55 MW and 1300 MW) of the effect of a mercury control performance enhancement additive for wet FGD systems. This paper presents the results of the mercury emissions control testing conducted at these two sites. The performance is related to EPA Information Collection Request (ICR) data from an FGD system supplier’s perspective, highlighting the need to consider the effects of system design and operation when evaluating mercury emissions control performance.

Paul S. Nolan; Babcock Wilcox; Kevin E. Redinger; Babcock Wilcox; Gerald T. Amrhein; Gregory A. Kudlac

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Air Pollution Control Systems for Stack and Process Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strict environmental regulations at the federal and local levels require that industrial facilities control emissions of particulates, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants. To comply with regulations, industries must either modify the processes or fuels they use to limit the generation of air pollutants, or remove the pollutants from the process gas streams before release into the atmosphere. This report provides a comprehensive disc...

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Post-Combustion CO2 Control Post-Combustion CO2 Control Post-combustion CO2 control systems separate CO2 from the flue gas produced by conventional coal combustion in air. The flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and has a CO2 concentration of 10-15 volume percent. Read More! Capturing CO2 under these conditions is challenging because: (1) the low pressure and dilute concentration dictate a high total volume of gas to be treated; (2) trace impurities in the flue gas tend to reduce the effectiveness of the CO2 separation processes; and (3) compressing captured CO2 from atmospheric pressure to pipeline pressure (1,200 - 2,200 pounds per square inch) represents a large parasitic energy load. Plant Picture DOE/NETL's post-combustion CO2 control technology R&D program includes

46

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and is located in a county designated as nonattainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone submit emission statements. Any facility that is located in a county described above is exempt from these requirements. If NOx

47

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

48

Multipollutant Emission Control Technology Options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the nation's land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the agency’s center for investigation of technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health and the environment. The focus of the laboratory's research program is on methods for the prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources, protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites and groundwater; and prevention and control of indoor air pollution. The goal of this research effort is to catalyze development and implementation of innovative, cost-effective environmental technologies; develop scientific and engineering information needed by EPA to support regulatory and policy decisions; and provide technical support and information transfer to ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations and strategies. This publication has been produced as part of the laboratory's strategic long-term research plan. It is published and made available by EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist the user community and to link researchers with their clients.

For Coal-fired Power Plants Foreword; Sally Gutierrez Director

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Eligibility Commercial...

50

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D to Emission Control R&D to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Emission Control R&D

51

Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars Two measures of car model malfunction probability, fraction of cars over 1% CO (y-axis) and average CO concentration of all cars (x-axis), demonstrate that five 1987-89 car models (14 year-model combinations) have a malfunction probability several times that of all other models. When an automobile's emissions control system fails, it may be because that model is more prone to failure than others, according to a study conducted by the Center's Energy Analysis Program and Marc Ross of the University of Michigan. This finding goes against the conventional wisdom that improper maintenance or deliberate disabling of the emissions systems by car owners is the cause of "high-emitting" vehicles. The results may provide clean-air

52

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Regulatory and legislative requirements have predominantly driven the need to develop NOx control technologies for existing coal-fired power plants. The first driver was the Title IV acid rain program, established through the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). This program included a two-phase strategy to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants – Phase I started January 1, 1996 and Phase II started January 1, 2000. The Title IV NOx program was implemented through unit-specific NOx emission rate limits ranging from 0.40 to 0.86 lb/MMBtu depending on the type of boiler/burner configuration and based on application of LNB technology.

53

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

Milner, J.R.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

54

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) brought about new awareness regarding the overall health-effects of stationary source fossil combustion emissions. Title III of the CAAA identified 189 pollutants, including mercury, as hazardous or toxic and required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate their emissions by source, health effects and environmental implications, including the need to control these emissions. These pollutants are collectively referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The provisions in Title III specific to electric generating units (EGU) were comprehensively addressed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaborative air toxic characterization programs conducted between 1990 and 1997. This work provided most of the data supporting the conclusions found in EPA's congressionally mandated reports regarding air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility boilers; the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1997)1 and the "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units -- Final Report to Congress" (1998).2 The first report identified coal-fired power plants as the largest source of human-generated mercury emissions in the U.S. and the second concluded that mercury from coal-fired utilities was the HAP of "greatest potential concern" to the environment and human health that merited additional research and monitoring.

55

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3 - Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 - Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3 - Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island)...

56

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

57

A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot) emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM); diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations) as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. © 2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.

R. Prasad; Venkateswara Rao Bella

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems CONSOL is evaluating the mercury removal co-benefits achieved by SCR-FGD combi nations. Specific issues that will be addressed include the effects of SCR, catalyst degradation, and load changes on mercury oxidation and capture. This objective will be achieved by measuring mercury removal achieved by SCR-FGD combinations at ten plants with such equipment configurations. These plants include five with wet limestone, three wet lime, and two with dry scrubbing. Material balance will be conducted. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - April 2006 [PDF-377KB] Topical Report # 11 - January 2006 [PDF-19MB] Topical Report # 9 - January 2006 [PDF-6MB]

59

Research on CO2 Emission Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Clean Energy Utilization of Clean Energy Utilization Zhejing University 29 th May, 2008 Status of CCS in China 2 nd U.S.-China Symposium on CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology, Hangzhou China 28 th -30 th , May, 2008 Prof. Zhongyang Luo Global CO 2 Emissions Country CO 2 Emissions (Million Tons Carbon) 1990 1997 2001 2010 USA 1345 1480 1559 1800 China 620 822 832 1109 Former USSR 1034 646 654 825 Japan 274 297 316 334 World 5836 6175 6522 8512 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2001 Global CO 2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in 2006 11.72 3,330 EU-15 5.75 1,620 Russia 4.3 1,210 Japan 20.17 5,680 China 20.42 5,750 USA 100 28,160 Total Percentage (%) CO 2 Emissions (1 million metric tons CO 2 ) Country BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2007 (http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=6914&contentI

60

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Preliminary Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications General Electric – Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a new technology that reduces the cost of mercury removal from flue gas by combining it with carbon reduction in a burnout system and simultaneously controlling nitrogen oxides emissions. Data on mercury removal at Western Kentucky Electric’s Green Station will be obtained and used to assess options to improve the efficiency of mercury removal. These options will be further investigated in pilot-scale testing on a 300 kW combustor. Related Papers and Publications: Preliminary Field Evaluation of Hg Control Using Combustion Modifications [PDF-732KB] - Presented at the 2004 Electric Utilities Environmental Conference, Tucson, AZ - January 19-22, 2004.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power plant emission control technologies Historical growthpower plant emission control technologies The environmental policy initiatives responsible for the substantial growthfired power plants. E.S. Rubin et al. Historical growth in

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Focus Area: Propane Topics: Socio-Economic Website: theicct.orgsitesdefaultfilespublications...

65

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Demonstration of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ALSTOM will test their proprietary activated carbon-based sorbent which promotes oxidation and capture of mercury via preparation with chemical additives. ALSTOM proposes to test the sorbents at three utilities burning different coals, PacificCorp’s Dave Johnston (PRB), Basin Electric’s Leland Olds (North Dakota Lignite) and Reliant Energy’s Portland Unit (bituminous). Other project partners include Energy and Environmental Research Center, North Dakota Industrial Commission and Minnkota Power who will be a non-host utility participant. Upon completion of this two year project, ALSTOM will demonstrate the capability of controlling mercury emissions from units equipped with electrostatic precipitators, a configuration representing approximately 75% of the existing units.

66

On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13...

69

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control R&D The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All...

70

Engine emissions control apparatus and method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an apparatus for reducing the emissions of a diesel engine. It comprises: a hydrous alcohol fuel of between about 33 percent and about 70 percent alcohol by volume and between about 30 percent and 67 percent water by volume; a fuel injector for delivering the hydrous alcohol fuel for combustion in the engine; and means for controlling the delivery of the fuel to the engine in response to operating conditions of the engine, such that the fuel is delivered for combustion only when the engine is being operated to increase the rate of engine revolutions and when the engine is being operated substantially to maintain the rate of engine revolutions.

Fosseen, D.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

71

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control  

SciTech Connect

This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

Gao, Pu-Xian

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control, Prepared byReduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)NOx removal technologies. Volume 1. Selective catalytic reduction.

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES from motor vehicles because unlike emissions of CO2, which are relatively easy to estimate, emissions-related emissions. In the U.S., for example, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the production and use of motor

Kammen, Daniel M.

74

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final project report describes a three-year long EPRI supplemental project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the United States and internationally.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/2, 2004 Experience curves for power plant emission controlcoal-fired electric power plants. In particular, we focus on2004) ‘Experience curves for power plant emission control

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

77

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the first two years of a three-year long project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project is investigating an innovative approach to developing large-scale and potentially cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that could be implemented across broad geographic areas of the U.S. and internationally. The tools and information developed in this project will broaden the GHG emissions offset ...

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

79

Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Survey of State-of-the-Art Emissions Control Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI initiated the investigation of the latest advancements in emissions control technology during 2005 and 2006. Suitable sites were identified by EPRI and Washington Group that incorporated these latest design upgrades into commercial and large-scale demonstration facilities. On-site discussions and observations were used to determine the impacts that these design upgrades were having on day-to-day performance of emissions control systems as well as balance-of-plant impacts following emissions control ...

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

WA_02_009_CONSOL_ENERGY_Multi_Pollutant_Emissions_Control-CL...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

02009CONSOLENERGYMultiPollutantEmissionsControl-CL.pdf WA02009CONSOLENERGYMultiPollutantEmissionsControl-CL.pdf WA02009CONSOLENERGYMultiPollutantEmissionsCon...

82

Health Impacts Research - Emissions & Emission Controls - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Impacts Research Health Impacts Research Another aspect of the emissions research at ORNL focuses on Health Impacts. This effort concentrates on analyzing exhaust for Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) or other unregulated exhaust species that have the potential to harm human health. MSATs are a group of chemical species defined by the U.S. EPA that may pose risk to humans; formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and toluene are some example species. Engines operated with new combustion modes and alternative fuels are studied for MSAT emissions to determine insure that the advanced technologies being developed pose no additional risk to humans. A large part of the Health Impacts research effort at ORNL focuses on particulate matter (PM) which is also defined as an MSAT by the U.S. EPA.

83

Gas Turbine/Combined Cycle Post-Combustion Emission Control Best Maintenance Practices Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most simple cycle and combined cycle gas turbines installed in the last ten years have been equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and are required to maintain outlet NOx emissions as low as 2.5 ppm (at 15 oxygen content). In addition, many of these units are equipped with catalyst to oxidize carbon monoxide (CO) by as much as 90 or more, lowering CO emissions to less than 5 ppm (also at 15 oxygen content). With many of these units having acquired more than 5...

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

84

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Influence of fuel sulfur content on emissions from diesel engines equipped with oxidation catalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are a viable exhaust aftertreatment alternative for alleviating regulated exhaust emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM)… (more)

Evans, Jason Carter.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Database Development for Modeling Emissions and Control ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 2 ln 5.0 exp )( b t t atS p a, b, tp = empirical coefficients “Wet” material emissions 3 Page 9. ...

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

87

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Testing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or without performance additives, to reduce mercury emissions from a Texas utility burning either Texas lignite or a blend of Texas lignite and subbituminous coals. Sorbents...

88

Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion and Emission Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and fuel formulation to arrive at the most cost-effective approach to optimizing advanced combustion engine efficiency and performance while reducing emissions to near-zero levels....

89

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Mercury Control For Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD URS Group, Inc., in collaboration with EPRI, Apogee Scientific, AEP, Texas Genco, and TXU Power, ADA-ES, will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control in an 85/15 blend Texas lignite/PRB derived flue gas, upstream of a cold-side ESP – wet FGD combination. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted with various sorbents and combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices (APCD) have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. For example, sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite, which represent approximately 10% of the annual U.S. power plant mercury emissions. The low and variable chloride content of Texas lignite may pose a challenge to achieving high levels of mercury removal with sorbent injection. Furthermore, activated carbon injection may render the fly ash unsuitable for sale, posing an economic liability to Texas lignite utilities. Alternatives to standard activated carbon, such as non-carbon sorbents and alternate injection locations (Toxecon II), have not been fully explored. Toxecon II involves sorbent injection in the middle field(s) of an ESP, thus preserving the integrity of the fly ash in the first fields.

90

Texture Control in Cerium Oxide Films (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conclusions are: (1) Texture control is possible in cerium oxide by epitaxial growth or adjusting the substrate angle; (2) Biaxial (111) texture emerges with inclined angle depositions on glass; and (3) Biaxial (200) texture emerges by epitaxial growth on YSZ.

van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Leenheer, A. J.; Perkins, J. D.; Teplin, C. W.; Ginley, D. S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Server selection for carbon emission control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud owners are allowing their users to specify the level of resources being used in the different geographical locations that make up the cloud. The carbon emissions caused by powering these resources can vary greatly between different geographical ... Keywords: carbon emission, relative price function, subgradient method

Joseph Doyle; Donal O'Mahony; Robert Shorten

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA for Cyclone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers The primary goal of this project was to evaluate a technology called advanced layered technology application (ALTA) as a means to achieve NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MMBtu in a cyclone boiler. Reaction Engineering International (REI) conducted field testing and combustion modeling to refine the process design, define the optimum technology parameters, and assess system performance. The ALTA NOx control technology combines deep staging from overfire air, rich reagent injection (RRI), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Field testing was conducted during May-June 2005 at AmerenUE's Sioux Station Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone boiler unit that typically burns an 80/20 blend of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. Parametric testing was also conducted with 60/40 and 0/100 blends. The testing also evaluated process impacts on balance-of-plant issues such as the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, slag tapping, waterwall corrosion, ammonia slip, and heat distribution.

93

Biological Air Emissions Control for an Energy Efficient Forest Products Industry of the Future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. wood products industry is a leader in the production of innovative wood materials. New products are taking shape within a growth industry for fiberboard, plywood, particle board, and other natural material-based energy efficient building materials. However, at the same time, standards for clean air are becoming ever stricter. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) during production of wood products (including methanol, formaldehyde, acetylaldehyde, and mercaptans) must be tightly controlled. Conventional VOC and HAP emission control techniques such as regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) and regenerative catalytic oxidation (RCO) require significant amounts of energy and generate secondary pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and spent carbon. Biological treatment of air emissions offers a cost-effective and sustainable control technology for industrial facilities facing increasingly stringent air emission standards. A novel biological treatment system that integrates two types of biofilter systems, promises significant energy and cost savings. This novel system uses microorganisms to degrade air toxins without the use of natural gas as fuel or the creation of secondary pollutants. The replacement of conventional thermal oxidizers with biofilters will yield natural gas savings alone in the range of $82,500 to $231,000 per year per unit. Widespread use of biofilters across the entire forest products industry could yield fuel savings up to 5.6 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year and electricity savings of 2.1 trillion Btu per year. Biological treatment systems can also eliminate the production of NOx, SO2, and CO, and greatly reduce CO2 emissions, when compared to conventional thermal oxidizers. Use of biofilters for VOC and HAP emission control will provide not only the wood products industry but also the pulp and paper industry with a means to cost-effectively control air emissions. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a novel sequential treatment technology that integrates two types of biofilter systems – biotrickling filtration and biofiltration – for controlling forest product facility air emissions with a water-recycling feature for water conservation. This coupling design maximizes the conditions for microbial degradation of odor causing compounds at specific locations. Water entering the biotrickling filter is collected in a sump, treated, and recycled back to the biotrickling filter. The biofilter serves as a polishing step to remove more complex organic compounds (i.e., terpenes). The gaseous emissions from the hardboard mill presses at lumber plants such as that of the Stimson Lumber Company contain both volatile and condensable organic compounds (VOC and COC, respectively), as well as fine wood and other very small particulate material. In applying bio-oxidation technology to these emissions Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TAMUK) and Bio•Reaction (BRI) evaluated the potential of this equipment to resolve two (2) control issues which are critical to the industry: • First, the hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions (primarily methanol and formaldehyde) and • Second, the fine particulate and COC from the press exhaust which contribute to visual emissions (opacity) from the stack. In a field test in 2006, the biological treatment technology met the HAP and COC control project objectives and demonstrated significantly lower energy use (than regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) or regenerative catalytic oxidizers (RCOs), lower water use (than conventional scrubbers) all the while being less costly than either for maintenance. The project was successfully continued into 2007-2008 to assist the commercial partner in reducing unit size and footprint and cost, through added optimization of water recycle and improved biofilm activity, and demonstration of opacity removal capabilities.

Jones, K; Boswell, J.

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update covers the first year of a three-year-long EPRI research project entitled Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production. The report provides a project overview and explains the preliminary results yielded from the first year of on-farm research.

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Heavy-Duty Emissions Control: Plasma-Facilitated vs Reformer-Assisted Lean NOx Catalysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has been made in the control of combustion processes to limit the formation of environmentally harmful species, but lean burn vehicles, such as those powered by diesel engines used for the majority of commercial trucking and off-road applications, remain a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Tighter control of the combustion process coupled with exhaust gas recirculation has brought emissions in line with 2004 targets worldwide. Additional modifications to the engine control system, somewhat limited NOx control, and PM filters will likely allow the 2007 limits to be met for the on-highway regulations for heavy-duty engines in the United States. Concern arises when the NOx emission limit of 0.2 g/bhphr set for the year 2010 is considered.

(1)Aardahl, C; (1)Rozmiarek, R; (1)Rappe, K; (1)Mendoza, D (2)Park, P

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Near-Zero Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Project No.: DE-NT0005341 Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment. Praxair Inc. will develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing coal-fired power plants retrofit with oxy-combustion technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury (Hg) will be reduced by at least 99 percent, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions will be reduced by greater than 90 percent without the need for wet flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Two separate processes are proposed depending on the sulfur content of the coal. For high-sulfur coal, SO2 and NOx will be recovered as product sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, and Hg will be recovered as

97

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Integrated Approach to Mercury Control This project will demonstrate a novel multi-pollutant control technology for coal-fired power plants that can reduce...

98

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0%

99

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCNR Field  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNCR Field Demonstration SNCR Field Demonstration American Electric Power (AEP), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, FuelTech, the Ohio Coal Development Office, and fourteen EPRI member utilities, performed a full-scale demonstration of a urea-based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system at Cardinal Unit 1. Cardinal Unit 1 is a 600MWe opposed-wall dry bottom pulverized coal-fired boiler that began service in 1967. This unit burns eastern bituminous high-sulfur coal, (3.72%S). This unit was retrofitted with low NOx burners (LNB's) during its scheduled fall 1998 outage and the SNCR system was installed concurrently. SNCR is a post-combustion NOx control process developed to reduce NOx emissions from fossil-fuel combustion systems. SNCR processes involve the injection of a chemical containing nitrogen into the combustion products, where the temperature is in the range of 1600°F - 2200°F (870°C - 1205°C). In this temperature range, the chemical reacts selectively with NOx in the presence of oxygen, forming primarily nitrogen and water. Although a number of chemicals have been investigated and implemented for SNCR NOx reduction, urea and ammonia have been most widely used for full-scale applications.

100

National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety Emissions-related research and outreach Sensing · Federal Test Procedures Laboratory · Light Duty Vehicles Capability · Engineering studies for kit & parts manufacturers · After-market devices and fuel additives testing · Testing of international

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 ) Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION FROM GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS Final Report Volume I Summary of Results F.C. Brown W.W. Harvey - . - ...

102

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Advanced...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004228 Akermin, Inc. is to conduct bench-scale testing...

103

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Project No.: DE-FC26-08NT0000749 (active), DE-FC21-90MC25140...

104

Impact of Air Emissions Controls on Coal Combustion Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal combustion products (CCPs) have been extensively studied and well characterized over the last 30 years. However, new air emissions control technologies at power plants will change the characteristics of some existing CCPs. These changes may affect the selection of appropriate management methods for high-volume CCPs with respect to both disposal and use. This report examines evolving air emissions controls and their likely impact on CCPs.

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using SCR and SNCR NOx Control Technologies Determination of the Speciated Mercury Inventory at Four Coal-Fired Boilers Using Continuous Hg Monitors Longer-Term Testing of...

106

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Modifications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Jointly funded by DOE and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), this project's purpose is to investigate novel approaches of capturing elemental and...

107

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Dense...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

air (ROFA(tm)) and ROTAMIX(tm) systems. Baseline NOx emission rates with the ROFA system ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 lbMMBtu. During DPRCS testing the micronized coal feed...

108

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

control technologies at the pilot scale that show promise for application at plants burning Gulf Coast lignite, or a blend with subbituminous coal. Gulf Coast lignite is one of...

109

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-House R&D In-House R&D The scrutiny of mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired utilities that began with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) resulted in a determination by the U.S. EPA that such emissions should be regulated. A number of techniques for control of mercury emissions from power plants have been evaluated at various scales. One technique that received a great deal of attention by the EPA, utilities, and technology developers was dry sorbent injection upstream of an existing particulate control device. The in-house, air toxics research effort at NETL consisted of two distinct efforts: the first was aimed at characterizing an existing pilot unit for distribution and fate of hazardous air pollutants, including mercury ; the second was examining sorbents and photochemical oxidation as means for mercury removal from flue gas at laboratory-scale.

110

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Model for NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Southern Research Institute is developing a validated tool or methodology to accurately and confidently design and optimize biomass-cofiring systems for full-scale utility boilers to produce the lowest NOX emissions and the least unburned carbon. The computer model will be validated through an extensive set of tests at the 6 MMBtu/hr pilot combustor in the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. Full-scale demonstration testing can be compared to the model for further validation. The project is designed to balance the development of a systematic and expansive database detailing the effects of cofiring parameters on NOx formation with the complementary modeling effort that will yield a capability to predict, and therefore optimize, NOx reductions by the selection of those parameters. The database of biomass cofiring results will be developed through an extensive set of pilot-scale tests at the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. The testing in this program will monitor NOx, LOI, and other emissions over a broad domain of biomass composition, coal quality, and cofiring injection configurations to quantify the dependence of NOx formation and LOI on these parameters. This database of cofiring cases will characterize an extensive suite of emissions and combustion properties for each of the fuel and injection configuration combinations tested.

111

POEM-PM: an emission model for secondary pollution control scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes the POEM-PM (POllutant Emission Model for gas and Particulate Matter) emission model design. The model, providing actual and alternative emission scenarios, represents a decision support tool to evaluate emission control strategy ... Keywords: Air pollution control, Emission model, Emission model validation, Multiphase modelling system

Claudio Carnevale; Veronica Gabusi; Marialuisa Volta

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

Saikawa, E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO{sub 2} and 85% for NO{sub x} were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO[sub 2] and 85% for NO[sub x] were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Particulate Controls for Near-Zero Emissions Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the ability of current and developing particulate control technologies to meet extremely low, continuous, particulate emission limits. Interest in this topic is due to concerns about the environmental impact of coal-fired power plants and the trend towards lower and lower particulate emission limits proposed by regulators and environmental groups. The report characterizes the capabilities of existing electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and fabric filters (FFs) and identifies several ...

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

116

Emission Control Options for Distributed Resource Generators: A White Paper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report analyzes the performance and cost of conventional and emerging emission control technologies for distributed resource generators (combustion turbines, microturbines, and reciprocating engines). The performance is benchmarked against the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) small generator certification standards for 2007, the most stringent of several emissions certification standards adopted or being considered. The costs are provided as capital cost and cost of electricity for emi...

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

State Energy Data System ... the program provided an economic incentive for coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions by installing pollution contro ...

120

Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level. 2 figs.

White, T.L.

1990-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Emissions Control - Advanced Diesel Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that on-highway diesel vehicles have filtration systems to reduce tail-pipe soot emissions, known as particulate matter (PM). Diesel particulate filtration (DPF) systems are currently the most efficient at directly controlling PM. Argonne researchers, working with Corning, Inc., and Caterpillar, Inc., through a cooperative research and development agreement, are exploiting previously unavailable technology and research results on diesel PM filtration and regeneration processes, aiming to the technology transfer of advanced PM emission control to industry. Argonne's Research In operation of DPF systems, the filtration and regeneration of particulate emissions are the key processes to be controlled for high efficiency. Due to difficulties in accessing the micro-scaled structures of DPF membranes and monitoring particulate filtration and high-temperature thermal processes, however, research has been limited to macroscopic observation for the product.

123

Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Cliffside 6 integrated emissions control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article takes an inside look into the environmental hardware going into one of the highest profile coal-fired power plants projects in the US, a new 800 MW supercritical coal-fired facility at Cliffside, NC, Unit C6. This is currently under construction and scheduled to be in commercial service in 2012. To evaluate the alternative air quality control system (AQCS) options, Duke Energy established a cross-functional team and used a decision analysis process to select the 'best balanced choice'. Alstom's integrated AQCS which combines dry and wet flue gas desulfurization systems was the best balanced choice. Replacing an ESP with a spray dryer absorber achieved major cost savings and eliminated the need for wastewater treatment. 1 ref., 2 photos.

McGinnis, D.G.; Rader, P.C.; Gansley, R.R.; Wang, W. [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Mercury...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Speciation from NOx Control University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) is addressing the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR),...

127

NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.

Betteridge, William J

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

128

Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2) Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION FROM GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS F i n a l Report - Volume I I L a b o r a t o r y R e s u l t s and P...

129

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR The overall objective of this project is to assess the potential for significant mercury control, between 50 and 90% above baseline, by sorbent injection for the challenging technical process configuration at Public Service of New Hampshire Company Merrimack Station Unit No. 2. The primary emphasis of this project is to evaluate the performance of mercury sorbent injection, but the effect of co-benefits from SO3 mitigation on mercury control will also be explored. Also in this program the performance capabilities of mercury measurement techniques in challenging flue-gas environment will be assessed and the impact of activated carbon injection on fly ash disposal options will be investigated.

130

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the burner design is to achieve homogeneity of the combustion products in the boiler. Not only does this create ideal conditions for combustion-related NOx control, it...

131

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Optimized Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimized Fuel Injector Design Optimized Fuel Injector Design This project includes fundamental research and engineering development of low NOx burners and reburning fuel injectors. The team of Reaction Engineering International (REI), the University of Utah, Brown University and DB Riley, Inc., will develop fundamental information on low NOx burners. The work has two phases. In the first phase, the University of Utah will examine two-phase mixing and near-field behavior of coal injectors using a 15-million Btu/hr bench-scale furnace, Brown University will examine char deactivation and effectiveness of reburning, and REI will develop a comprehensive burner model using the data produced by the University of Utah and Brown University. In the second phase, an optimized injector design will be tested at the 100-million Btu/hr Riley Coal Burner Test Facility. It is anticipated that this work will provide improved hardware designs and computer simulation models for reduced NOx emissions and minimized carbon loss.

132

Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

Study of Lean NOx Technology for Diesel Emission Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel engines because of their reliability and efficiency are a popular mobile source. The diesel engine operates at higher compression ratios and with leaner fuel mixtures and produces lower carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. The oxygen-rich environment leads to higher nitrogen oxides in the form of NO. Catalysts selectively promoting the reduction of NOx by HCs in a lean environment have been termed lean NOx catalyst ''LNC''. The two groups that have shown most promise are, Copper exchanged zeolite Cu/ZSM5, and Platinum on alumina Pt/Al2O3.

Mital, R.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Coal Direct Chemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants with In-Situ CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-NT0005289 Ohio State chemical looping metal carrier. Ohio State chemical looping metal carrier. The Ohio State University Research Foundation will further develop coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) technology. CDCL uses a patented iron oxide-based composite oxygen carrier and can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants. The development of the CDCL system will be conducted through experimental testing under bench- and sub-pilot scales. Related Papers and Publications: Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture [PDF-2.43MB] (July 2013) Presented by Samuel Bayham of the Ohio State University Research Foundation at the 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting.

135

Control of Gas Emission during Pyrolysis of Waste Printed Wiring ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moreover, the possibility of controlling toxic exhaust gases and recovering ... Chemical Changes and Surface Properties of Carbonated Waste Cement ... Flux for Basic Oxygen Steel Making Using Waste Oxides of Steel Plant ... Heat Treatment of Black Dross for the Production of a Value Added Material - A Preliminary Study.

136

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

Gao, Pu-Xian

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Neutron Emission Characteristics of Two Mixed-Oxide Fuels: Simulations and Initial Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate the neutron emission characteristics of two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and it's Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. This analysis used the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and energy spectra of the different neutron source terms within these fuels, and then used this data to simulate the detection and measurement of these emissions using an array of liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers. These calculations accounted for neutrons generated from the spontaneous fission of the actinides in the MOX fuel as well as neutrons created via (alpha,n) reactions with oxygen in the MOX fuel. The analysis was carried out to allow for characterization of both neutron energy as well as neutron coincidences between multiple detectors. Coincidences between prompt gamma rays and neutrons were also analyzed. Experiments were performed at INL with the same materials used in the simulations to benchmark and begin validation tests of the simulations. Data was collected in these experiments using an array of four liquid scintillators and a high-speed waveform digitizer. Advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms were developed and used to collect this data. Results of the simulation and modeling studies are presented together with preliminary results from the experimental campaign.

D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury; E. M. Gantz

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Options and Integration Control Options and Integration Reaction Engineering International (REI) is optimizing the performance of, and reduce the technical risks associated with the combined application of low-NOx firing systems (LNFS) and post combustion controls through modeling, bench-scale testing, and field verification. Teaming with REI are the University of Utah and Brown University. During this two-year effort, REI will assess real-time monitoring equipment to evaluate waterwall wastage, soot formation, and burner stoichiometry, demonstrate analysis techniques to improve LNFS in combination with reburning/SNCR, assess selective catalytic reduction catalyst life, and develop UBC/fly ash separation processes. The REI program will be applicable to coal-fired boilers currently in use in the United States, including corner-, wall-, turbo-, and cyclone-fired units. However, the primary target of the research will be cyclone boilers, which are high NOx producing units and represent about 20% of the U.S. generating capacity. The results will also be applicable to all U.S. coals. The research will be divided into four key components:

139

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

140

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

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141

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Second Generation Advanced Reburning Second Generation Advanced Reburning General Electric - Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) is carrying out a two Phase research program to develop novel Advanced Reburning (AR) concepts for high efficiency and low cost NOx control from coal-fired utility boilers. AR technologies are based on combination of basic reburning and N-agent/promoter injections. Phase I of the project was successfully completed and EER was selected to continue to develop AR technology during Phase II. Phase I demonstrated that AR technologies are able to provide effective NOx control for coal-fired combustors. Three technologies were originally envisioned for development: AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and Multiple Injection AR (MIAR). Along with these, three additional technologies were identified during the project: reburning plus promoted SNCR; AR-Lean plus promoted SNCR; and AR-Rich plus promoted SNCR. The promoters are sodium salts, in particular sodium carbonate. These AR technologies have different optimum reburn heat input levels and furnace temperature requirements. For full scale application, an optimum technology can be selected on a boiler-specific basis depending on furnace temperature profile and regions of injector access.

142

Evaluation of Stringent Emission Control Options for Pulverized Coal Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the results from one of a series of studies sponsored by the Canadian Clean Power Coalition (CCPC), EPRI, and the International Energy Agency (IEA). The CCPC established a goal to develop projects to demonstrate technology at a commercial utility scale for retrofit to existing plants, or for use in new coal-fired power plants, that would allow all emissions, including CO2, to be controlled to meet foreseeable new regulatory requirements. The purpose of this study conducted by Neill &...

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

143

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama Power’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRI’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

144

Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber  

SciTech Connect

We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Kim, Miyoung [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9. D. Jones, "Development Cost Estimates for Fuel Economy ofExhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-PricingExhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing

Wang, Quanlu; Kling, Catherine; Sperling, Daniel

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Controlled Synthesis of Highly Ordered Hafnium Oxide Nanotube ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide is of interest because it has high thermal, chemical and mechanical ... energy storage, solar energy conversion and sensors, through better control over ... Agricultural-Waste Biomass for Hydrogen Adsorption via Nano-Particle ...

148

FY2000 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2000 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies Approved by Steven Chalk November 2000 Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines FY 2000 Progress Report CONTENTS Page iii I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 II. EMISSION CONTROL SUBSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 A. Emission Control Subsystem Evaluation for Light-Duty CIDI Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

149

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Neural Predictive Controller Based Diesel Injection Management System for Emission Minimisation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid growth in production of automobiles has increased emissions. Automotive control engineers use innovative control techniques to meet the upcoming emission standards. This paper proposes a novel method of employing artificial neural network ANN based ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Network ANN, Common Rail System CRS, Control System Simulation, Emission Minimisation, Fuel Injection System, Green System Design, Green Technology

C. N. Arunaa; S. Babu Devasenapati; K. I. Ramachandran; K. Vishnuprasad; C. Surendra

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Integrated assessment of the spatial variability of ozone impacts from emissions of nitrogen oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the ozone (O{sub 3}) damages caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in different locations around the Atlanta metropolitan area during a summer month. Ozone impacts are calculated using a new integrated assessment model that links pollution emissions to their chemical transformation, transport, population exposures, and effects on human health. It was found that increased NOx emissions in rural areas around Atlanta increase human exposure to ambient O{sub 3} twice as much as suburban emissions. However, increased NOx emissions in central city Atlanta actually reduce O{sub 3} exposures. For downtown emissions, the reduction in human exposures to O{sub 3} from titration by NO in the central city outweighs the effects from increased downwind O{sub 3}. The results indicate that the marginal damage from NOx emissions varies greatly across a metropolitan area. The results raise concerns if cap and trade regulations cause emissions to migrate toward higher marginal damage locations. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Daniel Q. Tong; Nicholas Z. Muller; Denise L. Mauzerall; Robert O. Mendelsohn [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury is a leading concern among the air toxic metals addressed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) because of its volatility, persistence, and bioaccumulation as methylmercury in the environment and its neurological health impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals that are emitted in particulate form, mercury is released in vapor phase in elemental (Hg0) or oxidized (Hg2+, mainly HgCl2) form. To date, there is no post combustion treatment which can effectively capture elemental mercury vapor, but the oxidized form of mercury can be captured in traditional emission control devices such as wet flue gas defulrization (WFGD) units, since oxidized mercury (HgCl2) is soluble in water. The chlorine concentration present during coal combustion plays a major role in mercury oxidation, which is evident from the fact that plants burning coal having high chlorine content have less elemental mercury emissions. A novel method of co-firing blends of low chlorine content coal with high chlorine content cattle manure/biomass was used in order to study its effect on mercury oxidation. For Texas Lignite and Wyoming coal the concentrations of chlorine are 139 ppm and 309 ppm on dry ash free basis, while for Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass it is 2,691 ppm. Co-firing experiments were performed in a 100,000 BTU/hr (29.3 kWt) Boiler Burner facility located in the Coal and Biomass Energy laboratory (CBEL); coal and biomass blends in proportions of 80:20, 90:10, 95:5 and 100:0 were investigated as fuels. The percentage reduction of Hg with 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20 blends were measured to be 28- 50%, 42-62% and 71-75% respectively. Though cattle biomass serves as an additive to coal, to increase the chlorine concentration, it leads to higher ash loading. Low Ash and High Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass have 164% and 962% more ash than Wyoming coal respectively. As the fraction of cattle biomass in blend increases in proportion, ash loading problems increase simultaneously. An optimum blend ratio is arrived and suggested as 90:10 blend with good reduction in mercury emissions without any compromise on ash loading.

Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Carbon Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit with a Spray Drier and Fabric Filter The intent of DOE's Phase I and II field tests was to work with industry to evaluate the most promising mercury control technologies at full-scale in a variety of configurations. Although longer-term tests were conducted, the test period was not sufficient to answer many fundamental questions about long-term consistency of mercury removal and reliability of the system when integrated with plant processes. As the technologies move towards commercial implementation, it is critical to accurately define the mercury removal performance and costs so that power companies and policy makers can make informed decisions. Therefore, the overall objective of this Phase III project is to determine the mercury removal performance, long-term emissions variability, and associated O&M costs of activated carbon injection for >90% mercury control over a 10 to 12 month period on a unit that represents the combination of coal and emission control equipment that will be used for many new and existing power plants.

154

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of North Dakota,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table Of Contents for Field Testing Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems Mercury Oxidation Upstream of an ESP and Wet FGD Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems The scope of the project consists of attempting to control mercury at four different power plants using two novel concepts. The first concept is using furnace additives that will enhance the sorbent effectiveness for mercury capture. The other concept involves using novel treated carbons to significantly increase sorbent reactivity and resultant capture of Hg. The furnace additives will be tested at Leland Olds Station and Antelope Valley Station while the novel sorbents will be tested at Stanton Station Units 1 &10. Related Papers and Publications:

155

Effects of the Thickness of Niobium Surface Oxide Layers on Field Emission  

SciTech Connect

Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results* seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3 nm up to 460 nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The SFEM experimental results were analyzed in terms of surface morphology and oxide thickness of Nb samples and chemical composition and geographic shape of the emitters. A model based on the classic electromagnetic theory was developed trying to understand the experimental results. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.

A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production: Experience Validating a New GHG Offset Protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project report describes in part the second phase (years four through six, 2010–2012) of a two-phase, six-year long EPRI-sponsored research project entitled “Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions.” This project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the ...

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

157

Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for controlling H/sub 2/S emissions at geothermal power plants was evaluated in laboratory scale equipment and by process engineering analysis. The process is based on scrubbing geothermal steam with a metal salt solution to selectively remove and precipitate the contained H/sub 2/S. The metal sulfide is roasted or oxygen/acid leached to regenerate the metal salt, and sulfur is rejected from the system as elemental sulfur or as sulfate. Up to 95 percent removal of H/sub 2/S from simulated geothermal steams was obtained in a 2'' diameter scrubbing column packed with 3 feet of 5/8'' Flexirings by use of a recirculating slurry of copper sulfate/copper sulfide. Information is included on the chemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics and process control aspects of the process, scrubber system design, operation, and corrosion, and design proposals and cost estimates for a H/sub 2/S removal system. (LCL)

Harvey, W.W.; Brown, F.C.; Turchan, M.J.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

point source or emissions, which will obscure someone's view by 40%. For fossil fuel burning the maximum permissible emission of ash andor particulate matter shall be limited to...

159

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide Table 2-4 Overall Weighted Average Emission FactorsCarbon dioxide .. 18 Figure 2-4 PM 2.5 Mass Emission Factors

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Amended Silicates for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Amended Silicates for Mercury Control Amended Silicates for Mercury Control The project is designed to implement a comprehensive demonstration of the use of Amended Silicates for mercury control on a commercial-scale generating unit. Miami Fort Unit 6 burns eastern bituminous coal, has a nominal output of 175 MW, and a flue gas volumetric flow of 535,000 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) at full load. The demonstration includes a baseline phase with no injection of mercury control sorbents, injection of carbon to develop a mercury-control technology baseline for sorbent performance comparison, and the injection of Amended Silicates at several rates. All sorbent will be injected upstream of the existing electro-static precipitators (ESPs) on the host unit, providing a nominal 1-second contact time before the gas flow enters an ESP. Mercury measurements will be made upstream of the sorbent injection and downstream of the first ESP to characterize the performance of the sorbent technologies. In addition, samples of coal and fly ash will be collected and analyzed to provide data for a mercury mass balance for the unit. The mercury measurements will be made with continuous emissions monitors as well as with Ontario-Hydro wet-chemistry sampling. Samples of fly ash plus sorbent from demonstration cases which include Amended Silicate sorbent injection will be collected from ESP hoppers for use in concrete testing to confirm the suitability of the material as a portland cement replacement.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles and infrared emissivity study thereon  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles was carried out in water-acetone solution at volumetric ratio of 1:1 with pH value varying from 3.2 to 9.3. As indicated by TGA, maximum collagen adsorption to indium oxide nanoparticles occurred at pH of 3.2. It was proposed that noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions made main contributions to collagen adsorption. The IR emissivity values (8-14 {mu}m) of collagen-adsorbed indium oxide nanoparticles decreased significantly compared to either pure collagen or indium oxide nanoparticles possibly due to the interfacial interactions between collagen and indium oxide nanoparticles. And the lowest infrared emissivity value of 0.587 was obtained at collagen adsorption of 1.94 g/100 g In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the chance of improved compatibility with organic adhesives, the chemical activity of adsorbed collagen was further confirmed by grafting copolymerization with methyl methacrylate by formation of polymer shell outside, as evidenced by IR spectrum and transmission electron microscopy.

Zhou Yuming [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)], E-mail: fchem@seu.edu.cn; Shan Yun; Sun Yanqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Ju Huangxian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

163

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NOx emission samples

Elliott, Emily M.

164

Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations may apply to reciprocating engines, fuel-burning equipment, or waste combusting equipment which are either attached to major stationary sources of NOx or have high potential NOx...

166

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control - Energy Innovation ...  

Energy Innovation Portal Technologies. ... Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels;

167

Proposal to Designate an Emission Control Area for Nitrogen Oxides,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a massive scale. These processes include catalytic reforming (to increase the octane number), catalytic

Hanson, Thomas

168

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Non-Thermal Plasma...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Thermal Plasma Based Removal of Mercury Project Summary Powerspan Corp. will pilot test a multi-pollutant technology that converts mercury into mercuric oxide, nitrogen oxide...

170

Diesel Emissions Control- Sulfur Effects (DECSE): Summary of PM Results and Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NOx and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

Gorse, Jr. Robert A.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas  

SciTech Connect

A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

Schmidt, Darren D.

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - On-Site Production of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact The detrimental health effects of mercury are well documented. Furthermore, it has been reported that U.S. coal-fired plants emit approximately 48 tons of mercury a year. To remedy this, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) on March 15, 2005. A promising method to achieve the mandated mercury reductions is activated carbon injection (ACI). While promising, the current cost of ACI for mercury capture is expensive, and ACI adversely impacts the use of the by-product fly-ash for concrete. Published prices for activated carbon are generally 0.5-1 $/lb and capital costs estimates are 2-55 $/KW. Because of the high costs of ACI, Praxair started feasibility studies on an alternative process to reduce the cost of mercury capture. The proposed process is composed of three steps. First, a hot oxidant mixture is created by using a proprietary Praxair burner. Next, the hot oxidant is allowed to react with pulverized coal and additives. The resulting sorbent product is separated from the resulting syngas. In a commercial installation, the resulting sorbent product would be injected between the air-preheater and the particulate control device.

173

Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

Brookshear, D. William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Modeling and control of airport departure processes for emissions reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Taxiing aircraft contribute significantly to the fuel burn and emissions at airports. This thesis investigates the possibility of reducing fuel burn and emissions from surface operations through a reduction of the taxi ...

Simaiakis, Ioannis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Integrated Emissions Control - Process Review: Multi-Pollutant Process Cost Comparisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the need for more stringent controls for power plant emissions increases, so does the need for more cost effective approaches to reducing these pollutants. Current methods employ technologies designed to reduce specific pollutants, which require combinations of different emission control systems. Some air pollution control suppliers and utilities are developing technologies that have the potential to reduce the emission rates for multiple pollutants simultaneously with the goal of identifying integrat...

2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

176

Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

George Sverdrup

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORBź carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Enhanced High Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and In-Situ Active Carbon Generation for Low Cost Mercury Capture Mercury oxidation phenomenon and the studies of this phenomenon have generally focused on lower temperatures, typically below 650°F. This has been based on the mercury vapor equilibrium speciation curve. The baseline extents of mercury oxidation as reported in the ICR dataset and observed during subsequent tests has shown a tremendous amount of scatter. The objective of this project is to examine, establish and demonstrate the effect of higher temperature kinetics on mercury oxidation rates. Further, it is the objective of this project to demonstrate how the inherent mercury oxidation kinetics can be influenced to dramatically increase the mercury oxidation.

179

Zinc ion and neutral emission from single crystal zinc oxide during 193-nm excimer laser exposure  

SciTech Connect

Mass resolved time-of-flight measurements on neutral zinc atoms and zinc ions show energetic ions and neutrals during 193-nm irradiation of single crystals of semiconducting zinc oxide. Typical Zn+ kinetic energies are 3-5 eV. At fluences (energy per unit area per pulse) below 200 mJ/cm2, the ion intensities (per laser pulse) decrease monotonically to low values with laser pulse number. The depletion kinetics change from exponential to second order near 50 mJ/cm2. We attribute this change to the annihilation of defects yielding Zn+ emission when Zn+ or other surface defects become mobile. At fluences between 200 and 300 mJ/cm2, Zn+ emission becomes more sustained due to defects created by the laser. In this same fluence range, we observe the onset of detectable neutral atomic zinc emission. These neutral atoms display Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic energy distributions w th effective surface temperatures that approach 5000 K as the fluence is raised to 350 mJ/cm2. These high surface temperatures are remarkable given the low etch rates observed at these fluences, suggesting that heated layer is extremely thin. We propose emission mechanisms and experiments to resolve outstanding questions.

Kahn, E. H. [Washington State University; Langford, S. C. [Washington State University; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NETL: IEP ? Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Biomimetric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Papers and Publications: Development of Biomimetic Membranes for Near Zero PC Power Plant Emissions, PDF-4MB (March 2011) Final Report. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture for...

182

Controlling Fugitive Emissions to Achieve GHG Reduction Goals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Josh Silverman Chair, DOE Fugitive Emissions Working Group Director, Office of Sustainability Support Office of Health, Safety, and Security Presented at ISM Workshop September...

183

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

184

OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

Sverdrup, George M.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

185

MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

2001-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

186

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Focus Area: Propane Topics: Socio-Economic Website: theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Retrosp_final_bilingual.p Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/overview-china's-vehicle-emission-con Language: "English,Chinese" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; 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Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volap√Âșk, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

187

Media for control of thermal emission and methods of applications thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of media for control of emission of thermal radiation from an object or part thereof is disclosed. These materials can be used for a wide variety of thermal control applications.

Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Control of CO2 Emissions of China under Kyoto Protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the paper explores the major factors that affect CO2 emissions by the analysis for time-series of China since Chinese innovation and opening. The analysis concludes that there is no inverse-U curve between economic development and CO2 emissions. The ...

Zhao Yong

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

High Throughput Screening for the Discovery of More Efficient Catalysts for Emissions Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-throughput synthesis and screening methods have been developed for the discovery of highly active catalysts for the control of emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Low temperature CO oxidation, CO methanation, NOx abatement and the destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) will be discussed. The discovery libraries for primary screening consisted of both 11x11 and 16x16 catalyst arrays on 3 inch and 4 inch quartz wafers, respectively. Catalysts were prepared by robotic liquid dispensing techniques and screened for catalytic activity in Symyx's Scanning Mass Spectrometer. The screening protocols encompassed mixed metal oxides, perovskites and supported base and noble metals. Active hits were further optimized in focus libraries using shallower compositional gradients. The ScanMS is a fast serial screening tool that uses flat wafer catalyst surfaces, local laser heating, a scanning/sniffing nozzle and a quadrupolar mass spectrometer to compare relative catalytic activities. The temperature range from 200C to 600C is accessible. Typically, 256 catalysts can be screened per day and about 100,000 experiments conducted annually.

Yaccato, Karin; Hagemeyer, Alfred; Volpe, Anthony; Weinberg, Henry

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

Moore, E.B.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

193

ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Testing of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX, will demonstrate at the pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project's pilot tests, conducted at electric generating plants using wet flue gas desulfurization systems and particulate collection systems, will be conducted for periods up to 14 months to provide data for future, full-scale designs. Mercury-oxidation potential will be measured periodically to provide long-term catalyst life data. The project is applicable to about 90,000 megawatts of generation capacity. Project partners are the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, which will co-manage and co-fund the pilot tests, and five utilities.

195

Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents  

SciTech Connect

This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains a minimum of 92 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from coal-fired electric powerReferences Soud, H.N. (1994) FGD Installations on Coal-FiredPlants, IEA Coal Research, London. Soud, H. (2001) Personal

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The role of rare-earth dopants in nanophase zirconia catalysts for automotive emission control.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rare earth (RE) modification of automotive catalysts (e.g., ZrO{sub 2}) for exhaust gas treatment results in outstanding improvement of the structural stability, catalytic functions and resistance to sintering at high temperatures. Owing to the low redox potential of nonstoichiometric CeO{sub 2}, oxygen release and intake associated with the conversion between the 3+ and 4+ oxidation states of the Ce ions in Ce-doped ZrO{sub 2} provide the oxygen storage capacity that is essentially to effective catalytic functions under dynamic air-to-fuel ratio cycling. Doping tripositive RE ions such as La and Nd in ZrO{sub 2}, on the other hand, introduces oxygen vacancies that affect the electronic and ionic conductivity. These effects, in conjunction with the nanostructure and surface reactivity of the fine powders, present a challenging problem in the development of better ZrO{sub 2}-containing three-way catalysts. We have carried out in-situ small-to-wide angle neutron diffraction at high temperatures and under controlled atmospheres to study the structural phase transitions, sintering behavior, and Ce{sup 3+} {leftrightarrow} Ce{sup 4+} redox process. We found substantial effects due to RE doping on the nature of aggregation of nanoparticles, defect formation, crystal phase transformation, and metal-support interaction in ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for automotive emission control.

Loong, C.-K.; Ozawa, M.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

203

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-scale Testing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrostatic precipitator for particulate control, and a wet FGD system for SO2 control. The FGD system has three modules, two of which are normally operated....

204

Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

205

Strategies of developing road transport by controlling automotives' emissions to reduce local and global environment impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research paper presents an overview of policies and methods of controlling the emissions caused by motor vehicles and road traffic to reduce local and global pollution. The main reason is the fact that individual mobility and modern freight transport ... Keywords: emission, engine, environment, modelling, noise, optimisation, pollution, traffic flows

Corneliu Cofaru

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reducing flare emissions from chemical plants and refineries through the application of fuzzy control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing legislative requirements on a global basis are driving the development of solutions to reduce emission. Flaring and venting of waste hydrocarbon gases is a known contributor to pollution and increasing pressure is being exerted onto operators ... Keywords: air assist, combustion, combustion efficiency, emissions, flare, fuzzy control, member ship function, steam injection, toxic gas

A. Alizadeh-Attar; H. R. Ghoohestani; I. Nasr Isfahani

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reducing flare emissions from chemical plants and refineries through the application of fuzzy control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing legislative requirements on a global basis are driving the development of solutions to reduce emission. Flaring and venting of waste hydrocarbon gases is a known contributor to pollution and increasing pressure is being exerted onto operators ... Keywords: air assist, combustion, combustion efficiency, emissions, flare, fuzzy control, member ship function, steam injection, toxic gas

A. Alizadeh-Attar; H. R. Ghoohestani; I. Nasr Isfahani

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Development of Comprehensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection DOE has identified technologies (based on past DOE and other R&D organizations' mercury measurement and control achievements) that are expected to be important in developing possible strategies on mercury control for the coal-fired electric utility industry. To address critical questions related to cost and efficiency of these mercury control technologies, DOE has funded the first of a kind large-scale initiative aimed at testing and evaluating large-scale mercury control technologies for coal-based power systems. These tests will collect cost and performance data with parametric and long term field experiments at power plants with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) utilized to control other pollutants as well as mercury in hopes of providing the cheapest control options for the utility industry in mid-term application (5 to 10 years).

209

Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Air Contaminants (Mississippi) Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Air Contaminants (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Air Emission Regulation for the Prevention, Abatement and Control of

210

NETL: IEP ? Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CO2 Capture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control CO2 Capture for PC-Boiler Using Flue-Gas Recirculation: Evaluation of CO2 CaptureUtilizationDisposal Options Project No.: FWP49539...

211

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Novel Solvent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0005799 ION Engineering Ionic Liquid ION Engineering Ionic...

212

Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System, A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Integrated Dry NO X SO 2 Emissions Control System A DOE Assessment October 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry...

213

Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The AEO2006 reference case assumes that States will comply with the requirements of the EPAs new CAMR regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

Information Center

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

215

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Gas Turbine/Combined-Cycle Emissions Control Technology and Regulatory Issues Handbook-2010 Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information pertaining to emissions from combustion turbines. Topics covered include low-NOx burner design and information on add-on control systems, including equipment used in practice as well as emerging technologies. Select air quality regulations that apply to new and existing combustion turbines are discussed, including requirements regarding best available control technology (BACT) (which also may represent the lowest-achievable emission rate or LAER) requirement. United State...

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

218

Controlling the emission from semiconductor quantum dots using ultra-small tunable optical microcavities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the control of spontaneous emission from CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots coupled to novel open-access optical microcavities. The cavities are fabricated by focused ion beam milling, and provide mode volumes less than a cubic micrometre. The quantum dot emission spectrum, spatial modes, and lifetime are all modified substantially by the presence of the cavity, and can be tuned by actively varying the cavity length. An increase in emission rate of 75% is achieved at room temperature, attributed to the Purcell effect in the 'bad emitter' regime. We demonstrate a high degree of control over the emission from the dots, including near single-mode operation and the ability to detect strong emission from individual nanocrystals.

Ziyun Di; Helene V. Jones; Philip R. Dolan; Simon M. Fairclough; Matthew B Wincott; Johnny Fill; Gareth M. Hughes; Jason M. Smith

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

219

Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

Shale, Correll C. (Morgantown, WV); Cross, William G. (Morgantown, WV)

1976-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

220

The role of the Federal Relighting Initiative in emission controls  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI), under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has developed a comprehensive process to assist federal agencies in meeting the nation`s energy mandate. This mandate states that federal facilities must use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption levels. Because lighting accounts for about 40% of total federal electricity consumption, the FRI was conceived to help reduce energy use in this important area while improving lighting quality and increasing productivity through relighting. Selected federal rules and regulations provide guidance on the types of energy efficiency techniques required, life-cycle costing methods and lighting levels that should be employed to achieve the federal mandate. Although the central focus of this paper is on the environment, this paper takes the perspective that the energy efficiency gains achieved through the FRI would produce both environmental and economic benefits for the United States. For example, improvements in energy efficiency would reduce electricity demand, and would consequently reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion for power production. These reduced emissions include carbon dioxide, which is associated with the potential for global climate change, and heavy metals, which pose a potential health threat to humans and aquatic ecosystems. Economic benefits of the FRI would include reduced federal expenditures on energy or, possibly, avoiding new power plant construction.This paper begins with a brief overview of the FRI process. Next, current lighting energy use in federal buildings is evaluated and the potential future energy savings achievable through full implementation of the FRI are estimated. The paper then translates these energy savings into avoided emissions of carbon dioxide and heavy metals and into avoided fuel expenditures.

Nicholls, A.K.; Purcell, C.W.; Friedman, J.R.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The role of the Federal Relighting Initiative in emission controls  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI), under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has developed a comprehensive process to assist federal agencies in meeting the nation's energy mandate. This mandate states that federal facilities must use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption levels. Because lighting accounts for about 40% of total federal electricity consumption, the FRI was conceived to help reduce energy use in this important area while improving lighting quality and increasing productivity through relighting. Selected federal rules and regulations provide guidance on the types of energy efficiency techniques required, life-cycle costing methods and lighting levels that should be employed to achieve the federal mandate. Although the central focus of this paper is on the environment, this paper takes the perspective that the energy efficiency gains achieved through the FRI would produce both environmental and economic benefits for the United States. For example, improvements in energy efficiency would reduce electricity demand, and would consequently reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion for power production. These reduced emissions include carbon dioxide, which is associated with the potential for global climate change, and heavy metals, which pose a potential health threat to humans and aquatic ecosystems. Economic benefits of the FRI would include reduced federal expenditures on energy or, possibly, avoiding new power plant construction.This paper begins with a brief overview of the FRI process. Next, current lighting energy use in federal buildings is evaluated and the potential future energy savings achievable through full implementation of the FRI are estimated. The paper then translates these energy savings into avoided emissions of carbon dioxide and heavy metals and into avoided fuel expenditures.

Nicholls, A.K.; Purcell, C.W.; Friedman, J.R.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control In this project, The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center...

223

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Plant Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

well. The facility will be composed of an air preheater, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to collect fine particulates, and an alkaline-sorbent injection system to control...

224

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-term Operation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Papers and Publications: Long-Term Evaluation of Activated Carbon Injection for Mercury Control Upstream of a COHPAC Fabric Filter PDF-298KB presented at Air Quality IV...

225

The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

Perez, Alberto, Jr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Low-Emissions Exhaust Quality Control System to Optimize  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use (Absorption Chiller, Boiler, others) Exhaust control unit (ExECU) integrated with a prime mover (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) systems or combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) systems this control technology to microturbines with absorption chillers. The project anticipates an improvement

227

Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993  

SciTech Connect

One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Sorbent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ADA Environmental Solutions will evaluate injection of activated carbon and other sorbents to remove mercury for a variety of coal and air pollution control equipment configurations. The scope of work is for 36 months and intended to gather operating data that will document actual performance levels and accurate cost information to assess the costs of controlling mercury from coal fired utilities. Testing will be conducted at four different host sites that represent a significant percentage of unit configurations. The subsequent cost analyses will include capital costs, by-product utilization issues, sorbent usage, any necessary enhancements, such as SO3 control or flue gas conditioning, balance of plant, manpower requirements and waste issues. The host sites are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station and American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Station.

229

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have demonstrated in this work (1) that methane is readily activated at mild conditions (100[degree]C, 1 torr) over a relatively noble metal, Pd. This was observed using a stepped and kinked Pd(679) crystal (1), and other crystal faces are now being investigated to establish whether the cracking of the C-H bond of methane on Pd is structure sensitive or structure insensitive. Oxygen chemisorption is extremely structure sensitive: weakly bonded, highly reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(100) surface (2), while strongly bonded, moderately reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(111) and Pd(679). Reaction of the weakly bonded oxygen with surface carbide gives rise to CO[sub 2] over clean Pd(100) but to CO over halogen-doped Pd(100) (3--5). The effect of halogens is primarily ensemble-controlling, or oxygen-supply restricting, but long range influence of surface Cl on the strength of the Pd-O bond has also been observed (3). Because the overall chemistry of methane activation with the subsequent oxidation gives rise to the very important oxidative reforming CH[sub 4] + 1/2 O[sub 2] [yields][sub Pd/Cl] CO + 2 H[sub 2], Pd/Cl we plan to continue our study of this reaction in detail over Pd(100) (completed), Pd(111) (initiated), Pd(311) (initiated), Pd(110) (to be initiated), and Pd(679) (completed), without and with the halogen modifiers.

Klier, K.; Simmons, G.W.; Herman, R.G.; Miller, A.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

231

STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

BENECKE MW

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

232

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

233

DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full- Scale Testing of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD The goal of this project is to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The two specific objectives of this project are 1) ninety percent (90%) total mercury removal and 2) costs below 1/4 to 1/2 of today's commercially available activated carbon mercury removal technologies. Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc's (B&W/MTI's) will demonstrate their wet scrubbing mercury removal technology (which uses very small amounts of a liquid reagent to achieve increased mercury removal) at two locations burning high-sulfur Ohio bituminous coal: 1) Michigan South Central Power Agency's (MSCPA) 55 MWe Endicott Station located in Litchfield, Michigan and 2) Cinergy's 1300 MWe Zimmer Station located near Cincinnati, Ohio.

236

Forecast and Control Methods of Landfill Emission Gas to Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main component of landfill gas is CH4, its release is a potential hazard to the environment. To understand the gas law and landfill gas production are the prerequisite for effective control of landfill gas. This paper selects three kinds of typical ... Keywords: Landfill gas, German model, IPCC model, Marticorena dynamic model

Wang Qi; Yang Meihua; Wang Jie

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Mercury Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Apogee Scientific, Inc. (Apogee) will lead a Team comprised of Southern Company Services, TXU, Tennessee Valley Authority, EPRI, URS Group, University of Illinois-Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Southern Research Institute (SRI), Calgon Carbon, and TDA Research, Inc., to evaluate a number of advanced sorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas that have minimal impact on by-product utilization and/or on existing particulate collection devices (PCD). The main objective of this program is to evaluate several advanced sorbents for removing mercury from coal-fired flue gas while posing minimal impact on plant operations through three advanced sorbent concepts: 1) Sorbents which minimize impact on concrete production through selective chemical passivation of activated carbon and use of non-carbon material, 2) sorbents that minimize baghouse pressure drop and ESP emissions, and 3) sorbents that can be recovered and reused.

238

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

Not Available

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

240

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Low-Cost Options for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control ADA- Environmental Solutions will test two new technologies for mercury control. The TOXECON II(tm) technology injects activated carbon directly into the downstream collecting fields of an electrostatic precipitator. The benefit of this technology is that the majority of the fly ash is collected in the upstream collecting fields which results in only a small portion of carbon-contaminated ash. Additionally, the TOXECON II(tm) technology requires minimal capital investment as only minor retrofits to the electrostatic precipitator are needed. The second technology is injection of novel sorbents for mercury removal on units with hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Mercury removal from hot-side electrostatic precipitators is difficult as their high operating temperature range keeps the mercury in the vapor phase and prevents the mercury from adsorbing onto sorbents. The TOXECON II(tm) technology will be tested at Entergy's Independence Station which burns PRB coal. The novel sorbents for hot-side ESPs technology will be tested at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center and MidAmerican's Louisa Station, both of which burn PRB coal. Additional project partners include EPRI, MidAmerican, Entergy, Alliant, ATCO Power, DTE Energy, Oglethorpe Power, Norit Americas Inc., Xcel Energy, Southern Company, Arch Coal, and EPCOR.

242

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration of Mer-Cure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control ALSTOM Power, Inc. – U.S. Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM-PPL) proposes herein a consortium-based program to demonstrate ALSTOM-PPL's Mer-Cure™ technology – a novel, sorbent-based (Mer-Clean™ ) mercury control technology in coal-fired boilers. The program objective is (i) to demonstrate at a full scale greater than 90% mercury capture based on baseline mercury level (ii) at a cost significantly less than 50% of the $60,000/lb of mercury removed. The proposed full-scale demonstration program is to perform two- to six-month test campaigns in three independent host sites with various boiler configurations over a two-year period. The demonstration program will include a two- to four-week short-term field test followed by two- to six-month long-term demonstration for each of the three selected sites.

243

Networked control of distributed energy resources: application to solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a model-based networked control approach for managing Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) over communication networks. As a model system, we consider a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that communicates with the central controller ...

Yulei Sun; Sathyendra Ghantasala; Nael H. El-Farra

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Hybrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004787 Gas Technology Institute is partnering with PoroGen Corporation and Aker Process Systems in a three-year effort to develop a hybrid technology for CO2 capture from flue gases based on a combination of solvent absorption and hollow fiber membrane technologies. The technology could also apply to removal of numerous other gas pollutants such as NOx and SOx, separation of CO2 from hydrogen in refinery streams, and separation of CO2 from natural gas (natural gas sweetening). The technology increases interfacial gas/liquid area by a factor of ten over conventional packed or tray columns, thus increasing mass transfer. The selectivity is controlled by the chemical affinity of CO2 with a hindered amine. The process results in lower steam regeneration energy, and the CO2 is generated at pressure, reducing compression costs. The project includes bench-scale testing on a 25 kWe-equivalent slipstream at Midwest Generation's Joliet Power Station.

245

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

NETL: IEP-In-House Post Combustion CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - In-House Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP - In-House Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control CO2 Capture Chemical Sorbents Chemical Solvents Membranes Miscellaneous The objective of this National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development (ORD) multi-faceted project is to develop carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for coal-based power plants that lower the costs and energy penalty associated with those systems. Research and development in the capture area is aimed at developing systems that are low in capital cost, have low parasitic load, can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and can be integrated within the power generation system. A majority of the research will occur on laboratory- and bench-scale reactors. Further information on ORD's CO2 capture projects can be found by using the links found in the adjacent blue box.

247

Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SCE has developed and implemented a research program for customer retention through VOC emission control. Following characterization of problematic emission sources, SCE has identified and evaluated a number of alternative solutions and is currently implementing four demonstrations for promising technologies. The SCE program focuses on three major strategies: (1) reformulation, (2) application improvements, and (3) add-on controls. Vendors were identified, contacted, and evaluated for system performance. Industrial targets were selected based on need for assistance, magnitude of emissions, and number of facilities affected. Many facility operators were approached, interviewed, and analyzed. Three technologies were selected for installation at four host sites, with continuous monitoring of inlet and outlet VOC quantities. SCE intends to continue this demonstration project and to develop an effective technology transfer program to our industrial and commercial customers.

Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.

Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

249

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxygen-Based PC Boiler Project No.: FC26-04NT42207 & FC26-03NT41736 Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Foster Wheeler North America Corporation will conduct to two projects to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology by developing a conceptual pulverized coal-fired boiler system design using oxygen as the combustion medium. Using oxygen instead of air produces a flue gas with a high CO2 concentration, which will facilitate CO2 capture for subsequent sequestration. The first project will develop modeling simulations that will lead to a conceptual design that addresses costs, performance, and emissions, and

250

DOE/NETL's Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions Control Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program LRC and Lignite Industry Meeting August 27-28, 2002 Bismarck, ND Thomas J. Feeley, III, Product Manager Innovations for Existing Plants LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Presentation Outline * About NETL * IEP Program * Hg Background * Hg and lignite coals * Hg Control R&D LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 About NETL LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Electric Power Using Coal Clean Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Production Environmental Control V21 Next Generation Carbon Sequestration Exploration & Production Refining &

251

Control of Chlorine inductively coupled plasma using optical-emission spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magneto-resistive random access memory (MRAM) technology is recognized as one of the next key advances in computer memory. To create MRAM, various metals are successively laid down by sputtering to create stacks, which are then etched into suitable patterns. ... Keywords: ICP, MRAM, OES, chlorine, dry etching, inductively coupled plasma, online control, optical-emission spectroscopy, plasma-induced damage

R. B. Young; T. L. Scott; K. A. Prisbrey

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control David Gabriel* and Marc A. Deshusses Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University required much larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. We converted an existing full-scale chem

253

Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOx Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Discusses the emission results of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst and a diesel particle filter in a medium-duty, diesel pick-up truck.

Thornton, M.; Webb, C. C.; Weber, P. A.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies

J. Alan Beamon

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

256

The Evaluation of Mercury Emissions and Control Options for Ontario Power Generation Nanticoke Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Canada-wide standards for mercury are being developed, and draft requirements will likely be available in 2002 (with a revised version by 2005) for potential implementation in the 2007 to 2010 period. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are also likely to be subjected to regulatory control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing proposed mercury regulations and plans to issue final regulations on mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers by December 15, 2004 for full comp...

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

257

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Development of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Development of Oxygen-Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers for Greenhouse Gas Control Project No.: FC26-04NT42205 & FC26-01NT41146 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Alstom's Multi-Use Test Facility (MTF). Alstom Power Inc. will conduct two projects using a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for economic evaluations of the recovery of carbon dioxide (CO2). The projects will involve preparation of the facility and test equipment, conducting the comprehensive pilot-scale testing and analysis, and application of test results in re-evaluation and refinement of commercial oxygen-fired CFB designs. The project goal is to determine if CO2 can be recovered at an avoided cost of no more than $10 per ton of carbon avoided, using a CFB combustor that burns coal with a mixture of

258

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cells to Advance Zero-Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 percent, focus on solving the remaining issues in developing solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for commercial use. "The President's Hydrogen and Climate Initiatives envision...

259

Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Green emission at around 500 nm is observed in Gd2O3:Ce3+ nanoparticles and the intensity is highly dependent on the concentration of Ce3+ in the nanoparticles. The luminescence of this emission displays both picosecond and millisecond lifetimes. The msec lifetime is over four orders of magnitude longer than typical luminescence lifetimes (10-40 ns) of Ce3+ in traditional Ce3+ doped phosphors and therefore likely originates from defect states. The picosecond lifetime is shorter than the typical Ce3+ value and is also likely due to defect or surface states. When the samples are annealed at 700 oC, this emission disappears possibly due to changes in the defect moieties or concentration. In addition, a blue emission at around 430 nm is observed in freshly-prepared Gd2O3 undoped nanoparticles which is attributed to the stabilizer, polyethylene glycol biscarboxymethyl ether. Upon aging, the undoped particles show similar emission to the doped particles with similar luminescence lifetimes. When Eu3+ ions are co-doped in Gd2O3:Ce nanoparticles, both the green emission and the emission at 612 nm from Eu3+ are observed.

Woo, Boon K.; Joly, Alan G.; Chen, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D{prime} or A{prime} units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted multidimensional ICT while providing for spatial control of emission localization. Such route could be extended to more intricate (dendritic) and multipolar systems (3D).

Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications Project No.: DE-NT0005290 Alstom oxy-combustion test facility Alstom oxy-combustion test facility. Alstom will develop an oxyfuel firing system design specifically for retrofit to tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers and provide information to address the technical gaps for commercial boiler design. Several oxyfuel system design concepts, such as internal flue gas recirculation and various oxygen injection schemes, will be evaluated for cost-effectiveness in satisfying furnace design conditions in a T-fired boiler. The evaluation will use an array of tools, including Alstom's proprietary models and design codes, along with 3-D computational fluid dynamics modeling. A

263

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Metal Monolithic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Metal Monolithic Amine-Grafted Zeolites for CO2 Capture Project No.: FC26-07NT43086 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE CO2 capture unit with metal monolithic amine-grafted zeolites. The University of Akron is investigating a new sorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture that involves the novel integration of metallic monolith structures coated with amine-grafted zeolites. This sorbent would eliminate the use of corrosive liquid amine and decrease the energy required for sorbent regeneration. The metal monoliths consist of straight channels: one row of channels coated with amine-grated zeolite and one used for heat transfer media for either cooling for adsorption or heating for regeneration. In combination with the innovative applications of metal monoliths as an

264

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Microporous Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks Project No.: FC26-07NT43092 Examples of several MOFs under investigation Examples of several MOFs under investigation UOP LLC is conducting research for separating carbon dioxide (CO2) using novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). In the first project, NT42121, UOP partnered with the University of Michigan and Northwestern University to evaluate MOFs in both pre-combustion and post-combustion applications. In the second project, NT43092, UOP is collaborating with Vanderbilt University and the University of Edinburgh, as well as the University of Michigan and Northwestern University, in a more focused effort on MOFs in post-combustion applications. MOFs are an extraordinary

265

FY2001 Progress Report for Combusion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTION AND COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CONTROL FOR ADVANCED CIDI ENGINES 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Argonne National Laboratory and QSS Group, Inc., for their artistic, editorial and technical contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to thank all our program participants for their contributions to the programs and all the authors who prepared the project abstracts that comprise this report. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2001 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines

266

Controlling Power Plant CO2 Emissions: A Long-Range View  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO 2 EMISSIONS: A LONG RANGE VIEW John Marion (john.l.marion@power.alstom.com; 860-285-4539) Nsakala ya Nsakala (nsakala.y.nsakala@power.alstom.com; 860-285-2018) ALSTOM Power Plant Laboratories 2000 Day Hill Road Windsor, CT 06095, USA Timothy Griffin (timothy.griffin@power.alstom.com; +41 56/486 82 43) Alain Bill (alain.bill@power.alstom.com; +41 56/486 81 07) ALSTOM Power Technology Center 5405 Baden-Daettwil, Switzerland ABSTRACT ALSTOM Power (ALSTOM) is an international supplier of power generation with concern for the environment. We are aware of the present scientific concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and the role of fossil fuel use for power generation. Although the scientific and policy dialogue on global climate change is far from conclusive, ALSTOM continues to

267

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CANMET CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control CANMET CO2 Consortium-O2/CO2 Recycle Combustion Project No.: IEA-CANMET-CO2 (International Agreement) Photograph of CANMET's Vertical Combustor Research Facility. Photograph of CANMET’s Vertical Combustor Research Facility. The CANMET carbon dioxide (CO2) consortium will conduct research to further the development of oxy-combustion for retrofit to coal-fired power plants. Research activities include: (1) modeling of an advanced, supercritical pressure oxy-coal plant, including an analysis of the impact of oxygen (O2) purity and O2 partial enrichment, overall process performance, and cost; (2) testing of pilot-scale CO2 capture and compression; (3) investigating CO2 phase change at liquid and supercritical states in gas mixtures

268

Effects of Air Emissions Controls on Coal Combustion Products: Interim Data Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is collecting information describing the effects of air emissions controls on coal combustion products (CCPs) as they pertain to disposal and use. Specifically, data are being collected to assess the impacts of calcium bromide (CaBr2) addition to coal, refined coal, halogen injection in the boiler, brominated activated carbon injection (BrACI) in the flue gas, dry sorbent injection (DSI) in the flue gas, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) ...

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

269

The Use of Photochemical Air Quality Models for Evaluating Emission Control Strategies: A Synthesis Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report outlines conditions under which gridded photochemical air quality models are legitimate tools for determining the types of emission controls (VOC, NOx, or both) that would be most effective for reducing ozone concentration. In doing so, it emphasizes that models should not be used indiscriminately by pointing out their limitations and the resulting consequences. It also suggests ways to make models made more suitable for regulatory purposes by formulating results probabilistically.

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

270

Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of vanadium oxides and related compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithium-ion battery comprises a lithium containing transition metal oxide (TMO) cathode,ion battery using a Li- TMO cathode [95] (e.g. LiCoO 2 ), lithium

Schmitt, Thorsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

x Abatement and Control. IEA Coal Research: London, UnitedM. Air Pollution Control Costs for Coal-Fired PowerStations; IEA Coal Research: London, UK, 1995. 25. Arrow, K.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Integrated Emissions Control - Process Review: Multi-Pollutant Control Technology Descriptions and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A few air pollution control suppliers are developing processes that may reduce several pollutants simultaneously in a configuration that is lower in cost than the total cost of using existing devices for each pollutant. It would benefit the industry if an independent organization that is technically knowledgeable about all the components of such multi-pollutant controls evaluated the opportunities these processes offer.

2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tinmaterial systems such as indium oxide, gallium oxide and tinand Characterization A. Indium Oxide Nanowires Indium oxide

Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure generally resulting in decreased CO2 over land and increased CO2 over the oceans. Since these CO2 emissions are omitted or misrepresented in most inverse modeling work to date, their implementation in forward simulations should lead to improved inverse modeling estimates of terrestrial biospheric fluxes.

Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Wecht, K. J. [Harvard University; Yantosca, R. M. [Harvard University; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Machida, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Matsueda, H [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Ultra Low-NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra Low NOx Integrated System Ultra Low NOx Integrated System TFS 2000(tm) Low NOx Firing System Project Summary: ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important,

278

Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Tradeable CO sub 2 emission permits for cost-effective control of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Many current global warming mitigation policy proposals call for large, near-term reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, thereby entailing high initial carbon emission tax rates or permit prices. This paper claims that these high initial tax rates or permit prices are not cost-effective in achieving the desired degree of climate change control. A cost-effective permit system is proposed and described that, under certain assumptions, would allow markets to optimally lead permit prices along a gradually increasing trajectory over tie. This price path presents the Hotelling result and would ease the abrupt, inefficient, and costly adjustments imposed on the fossil fuel and other industries in current proposals. This finding is demonstrated using the Argonne Model, a linear programming energy- environmental-economic model that allows for intertemporal optimization of consumer energy well-being. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kosobud, R.F.; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS  

SciTech Connect

The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

Thomas K. Gale

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}8, July 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in Babcock and Wilcox`s state-of-the-art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; and establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

Evans, A.P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Plenary lecture 1: strategies of developing road transport by controlling automotives' emissions to reduce local and global environment impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research paper presents an overview of policies and methods of controlling the emissions caused by motor vehicles and road traffic to reduce local and global pollution. The main premise is the fact that individual mobility and modern freight transport ...

Corneliu Cofaru

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions  

SciTech Connect

Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

1976-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Adaptive PI control of NOx? emissions in a Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System using system identification models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Urea SCR System has shown great potential for implementation on diesel vehicles wanting to meet the upcoming emission regulations by the EPA. The objective of this thesis is to develop an adaptive controller that is ...

Ong, Chun Yang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Reburning renewable biomass for emissions control and ash deposition effects in power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cattle biomass (CB) has been proposed as a renewable, supplementary fuel for co-firing and reburning. Reburning coal with CB has the potential to reduce NOx and Hg emissions from coal fired systems. The present research focuses on three areas of combustion: 1) Biomass reburning experiments are conducted to determine the optimum operating conditions for the NOx reduction using blends of coal and CB as reburn fuels. 2) Since CB contains higher ash contents compared to coals, the fouling behavior is also investigated under the transient and short-time operation. 3) Finally CB contains higher Cl compared to coals, which oxidizes Hg to HgCl2. To understand the Hg oxidation behavior, a fundamental study of Hg oxidation in coal combustion is conducted using a plug flow reactor (PFR). The main parameters investigated are types of the reburn fuel, reburn equivalence ratios (ERRBZ), O2 concentrations in the reburn gas, injection angles of the reburn fuel, cross-sectional geometries of the reburn nozzles, symmetric and asymmetric reburn injections, reburn heat inputs, baseline NOx concentrations, and presence and absence of the heat exchangers (HEX). The results of reburning show that CB is a very effective fuel in NOx reduction, and the extent of NOx reduction is strongly dependent to the ERRBZ. The optimum conditions of the boiler operation for biomass reburning are as follows: ERRBZ = 1.1, 45° upward circular reburn nozzles, 12.5% O2 in the reburn gas, symmetric injection, and presence of HEXs. To make an effective reburn process, the baseline NOx concentrations must be higher than 230 g/GJ (0.5 lb/mmBTU) and the reburn heat input higher than 20%. The results of ash fouling show the presence of ash in the hotter region of the furnace seems to promote heat radiation thus augmenting the heat transfer to the HEX. The growth of the layer of ash depositions over longer periods typically lowers overall heat transfer coefficients. The addition of HCl to Hg containing gases in the PFR significantly increases Hg oxidations. The addition of NO inhibited the overall reaction and shifted the reaction temperature higher while the addition of O2 promoted Hg oxidations and lowered the reaction temperature. For heterogeneous cases, the use of the VWT catalyst promotes the reduction of Hg0 and shifted the reaction temperatures lower than those for homogeneous cases.

Oh, Hyuk Jin

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

292

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has included (1) construction and installation of an ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer (UPS) with power supply and pumping system that has been added as an attachment to the SCIENTA ESCA-300 instrument, (2) modification of the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS) to produce a stable ultra high vacuum (UHV) environment for initial experiments with a Pd(311) single crystal, (3) construction of a separate high vacuum system for preparation of surface doped model catalysts by chemical vapor deposition and pretreatment of a Pd(100) single crystal in this system, (4) carried out detailed experiments of methane activation and oxidation on Pd(679) using a high pressure reaction cell contained in a third ultra high vacuum system, (5) completion of adsorption/desorption studies of H{sub 2}, CO, and O{sub 2} on Pd(679), (6) utilized angle-resolved XPS to probe the diffraction characteristics and structure of the Pd(100) surface, (7) determination of the electronic surface structure of Pd(100) using angle-resolved UPS, and (8) computational analysis of oxygen overlayers on the PD(100) surface. Each of these is discussed in further detail below.

Klier, K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Integration of Advanced Emissions Controls to Produce Next-Generation Circulating Fluid Bed Coal Generating Unit (withdrawn prior to award)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

contacts contacts Brad tomer Director Office of Major Demonstrations National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-4692 brad.tomer@netl.doe.gov PaRtIcIPant Colorado Springs Utilities Colorado Springs, CO aDDItIonaL tEaM MEMBERs Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. Clinton, NJ IntegratIon of advanced emIssIons controls to Produce next-generatIon cIrculatIng fluId Bed coal generatIng unIt (wIthdrawn PrIor to award) Project Description Colorado Springs Utilities (Springs Utilities) and Foster Wheeler are planning a joint demonstration of an advanced coal-fired electric power plant using advanced, low-cost emission control systems to produce exceedingly low emissions. Multi- layered emission controls will be

296

Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions  

SciTech Connect

A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effects of engineering controls on radioactive air emissions from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under federal regulations set forth in 40 CFR 61, releases of radioactive airborne effluents from a Department of Energy facility must be limited so that no member of the public receives more than 0. IO miflisievert (IO milhrem) effective dose equivalent annually. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has implemented engineering controls to ensure that emissions remain below this limit. At the accelerator beam stop, a delay line was constructed to delay exhaust air releases, and thereby allow for decay of any radioactivity prior to release. Also, an air scrubber was built at the beam stop to remove excess water, acids, triti@ and carbon dioxide from the air stream. This thesis describes the effectiveness of these emissions control efforts. Using a flow-through ionization chamber and high-purity germanium (HPGE) detector, the delay line was shown to reduce overall facility emissions by 29%. The scrubber effectiveness at removing tritium was found by collecting grab samples of the air stream on silica gel, both upstream and downstream of the scrubber. Results of liquid scintillation analysis show the tritium removal effectiveness to be greater than 95%. Removal of carbon-I I was determined by two methods. First, air samples upstream and downstream of the scrubber were collected on a carbon dioxide absorber and analyzed with a sodium iodide detector. The second method used a bench-top model scrubbing system to analyze scrubber performance with an BPGE detector. Different scenarios were examined with this model system, including varying the pH of the scrubber water and using catalytic conversion to convert all carbon in the air to carbon dioxide. The highest removal effectiveness of the model system was greater than 95%, under high pH and complete conversion of all carbon forms to C02-

Fuehne, David Patrick

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

06 06 a n n u a l p r o g r e s s r e p o r t L e s s d e p e n d e n c e o n f o r e i g n o i l t o d a y, a n d t r a n s i t i o n t o a p e t r o l e u m - f r e e , e m i s s i o n s - f r e e v e h i c l e t o m o r r o w . F r e e d o m C A r A n d V e h i C l e T e C h n o l o g i e s P r o g r A m AdvAnced combustion, emission controls, HeAltH impActs, And Fuels merit review And peer evAluAtion Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2006 Dear Colleague: This document summarizes the comments provided by the Review Panel for the FY 2006 Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Combustion, Emission Controls, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, the "ACE Review," held on May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The raw evaluations and comments of the panel were provided (with reviewers' names deleted) to the presenters in early June and were used by national laboratory

299

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Particulate Matter and Visible Emissions (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations set emissions opacity standards for stationary sources with opacity continuous emissions monitoring equipment, stationary sources without such equipment, and mobile sources. The...

300

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly reports 1 through 15. Results for each of the tasks in Phase 1 are presented.

Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

electricity emission factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emission factors emission factors Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

302

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

303

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

SciTech Connect

During the second reporting period, the project team focused on identifying promising technologies that can then be used to monitor and control emissions from E&P engines. These technologies include control and monitoring technologies and in most cases can be used to monitor engine performance as well as control and monitor engine emissions. The project team also identified three potential sources to receive a Cooper Ajax engine that is approximately 100 bhp. The goal is to have this engine delivered to the project team by the end of the calendar year 2003. This will then allow the team to prepare the engine for testing at Ricardo in early 2004.

Kirby S. Chapman

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1994, July 1994--September 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NOx reduction technologies: Advanced overfire air (AOFA), Low NOx burners (LNB), LNB, with AOFA, and Advanced Digital Controls and Optimization Strategies. Baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB plus AOFA test segments have been completed. Based on a preliminary analysis, approximately 17 percent of the incremental change in NOx emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations is the result of AOFA, the balance of the NOx reduction resulting from other operational adjustments. Preliminary diagnostic testing was conducted during August and September. The purpose of these tests was to determine the emissions and performance characteristics of the unit prior to activation of the advanced control/optimization strategies. Short-term, full load NOx emissions were near 0.47 lb/MBtu, slightly higher than that seen during the LNB+AOFA test phase. Long-term NO{sub x} emissions for this quarter averaged near 0.41 lb/MBtu. Due to turbine problems, a four week outage has been planned for Hammond 4 starting October 1. Two on-line carbon-in-ash monitors are being installed at Hammond Unit 4 as part of the Wall-Fired Project. These monitors will be evaluated as to their accuracy, repeatability, reliability, and serviceability.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO sub 2 emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nuclear power currently reduces CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO{sub 2} emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO{sub 2} emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

MULTI-PHASE HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS AND PROGRESS IN CONTROLLED OXIDATION FOR FUNCTIONAL AND PROTECTIVE SURFACES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-phase strengthened Fe-base alloys for improved elevated temperature strength in fossil energy system components-temperature strength is a major issue for hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems-containing environments such as those encountered in advanced fossil energy steam plants. Controlled Oxidation for Near

307

REDUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN EMISSIONS FROM WASTE-TO-ENERGY FACILITIES WITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compromising combustion ef ficiency. Further research to determine the potential for NOx reduction via to a lower level by applying combustion control for the reduction of NOx, while still maintaining acceptable, resulting in a 30% reduction of NOx' The techniques developed from this test program are used today

Columbia University

308

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

Control of emissions from cofiring of coal and RDF. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research has been conducted toward developing technology for co-firing of coal with municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce emissions of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Previous bench- and pilot-scale research has shown that presence of SO{sub 2} can inhibit the PCDD and PCDF formation, and suggested co-firing high-sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel (RDF) to reduce the emissions. The objective of this research is to identify the effect of process and co-firing options in reducing PCDD and PCDF yield from waste combustion. Two types of municipal waste based fuels were used: a fluff refuse-derived fuel (simply referred to as RDF) and a densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF). The coal used was high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. Experiments were conducted in US EPA`s recently constructed Multi-Fuel Combustor (MFC), a state-of-the-art facility with fuel handling and combustion release rates representative of large field units. The MFC was fired, at varying rates, with RDF/dRDF and coal, and sampled for PCDD and PCDF. Tests were conducted over a range of process variables such as lime injection, HCl concentration, flue gas temperature, quench, and residence time so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of waste combustors. The data are used for developing a comprehensive statistical model for PCDD and PCDF formation and control.

Raghunathan, K.; Bruce, K.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

MODELING POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITHE FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITH FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS Joseph R. V. Flora Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 Richard A. Hargis, William J. O'Dowd, Henry W. Pennline National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box, 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 Radisav D. Vidic * Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 ABSTRACT A two-stage mathematical model for mercury removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter was developed, with the first stage accounting for removal in the ductwork and the second stage accounting for additional removal due to the

311

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Bench-Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004360 The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will evaluate the Hot Carbonate Absorption Process (Hot-CAP) process with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping. The Hot-CAP is an absorption-based, post-combustion CO2 technology that uses a carbonate salt (K2CO3 or Na2CO3) as a solvent. The process integrates a high temperature (70-80°C) CO2 absorption column, a slurry-based high pressure (up to 40atm) CO2 stripping column, a crystallization unit to separate bicarbonate and recover the carbonate solvent, and a reclaimer to recover CaSO4 as the byproduct of the SO2 removal.

312

Additives for NOx emissions control from fixed sources. Final report, Aug 88-Feb 89  

SciTech Connect

This project tested several additives and catalysts as potential additive/catalyst combinations for a new NOx abatement process. The goal was to identify an effective, economical NOx emissions control process for application to post combustion, exhaust gas streams from jet engine test cells (JETC) and incinerators. The most useful results from this project are that: (1) an additive was identified that achieved gas-phase removal, with no catalyst, of NOx at temperatures as low as 350 deg C, and (2) good NOx removals can be achieved with additive: NOx ratios less than one. These results offer good possibilities for new low-temperature (350 to 500 deg C) gas phase NOx reduction processes of the selective noncatalytic reduction (SNR) type for both JETCs and incinerators.

Ham, D.O.; Moniz, G.; Gouveia, M.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Gas turbine plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

Many cogeneration facilities use gas turbines combined with heat recovery boilers, and the number is increasing. At the start of 1986, over 75% of filings for new cogeneration plants included plans to burn natural gas. Depending on the geographic region, gas turbines are still one of the most popular prime movers. Emissions of pollutants from these turbines pose potential risks to the environment, particularly in geographical areas that already have high concentrations of cogeneration facilities. Although environmental regulations have concentrated on nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in the past, it is now necessary to evaluate emission controls for other pollutants as well.

Davidson, L.N.; Gullett, D.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}4, July 1--September 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B and W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

Farthing, G.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

THE DEVELOPMENT AND ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE FOUR-WAY EMISSION CONTROL SCRT{trademark} SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

legislation worldwide necessitates the development of pollution control systems capable of enabling engines to meet the incoming legislative requirements. It is clear that to maximize the benefit to the environment, as well as to meet the very stringent future standards (especially the US 2010 limits), systems capable of high simultaneous conversions of all four major pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), are required. Very high conversions of CO, HC and PM are achieved using catalyst-based Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems, such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology, CRT{reg_sign}, system. High NOx conversions can be obtained using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, in which ammonia (generated from urea) is used to selectively reduce the NOx. This paper summarizes the key steps in the development of the four-way SCRT system, which comprises the CRT system followed by an SCR system. Engine bench results obtained during the development of this system are presented and discussed. However, the key to real-world emissions benefit is the actual on-road performance of such systems. It is well established that the CRT system provides very high and durable conversions of CO, HC and PM, so the focus of this current work was to demonstrate the NOx conversion capability and durability of the SCRT system. The SCRT unit was installed on a long-haul truck powered by a 15 litre Cummins engine. On-road NOx emissions performance was measured using NOx sensors located upstream and downstream of the SCRT unit. Over an 850 km evaluation route, the average on-road NOx conversion obtained was up to 82%, even when the urea injection quantity was set to give a maximum NOx conversion of around 85%. The durability of the system has also been assessed. Over the course of 150,000 km, no reduction in the NOx conversion efficiency of the system was observed. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the SCRT system provides very high on-road NOx conversion, and that the system has excellent durability within real-world applications.

Cooper, BJ; McDonald, AC; Walker, AP; Sanchez, M

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use. 12 figs.

Ray, S.P.

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use.

Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxice Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2000/1111 2000/1111 Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal- Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment August 1998 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Federal Energy Technology Center Morgantown, WV/Pittsburgh, PA 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or respon- sibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

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321

Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution  

SciTech Connect

A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

Schefer, Robert W. (Alamo, CA); Keller, Jay O (Oakland, CA)

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Radon-222 emissions and control practices for licensed uranium mills and their associated tailings piles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report is organized into five main sections. The conclusions of the effort are summarized in Chapter 2. A general description of current milling and tailings management practices and a summary of the site-specific characteristics of operating and standby uranium mills are contained in Chapter-3. The sources and emission rates of radon-222 at licensed mills and their associated tailings piles are contained in Chapter 4 along with the results of an effort to develop generic procedures to estimate radon-222 emissions for milling operations and tailings disposal. Control practices that are being or could be applied to the milling operation and tailings disposal areas and their estimated cost and effectiveness in reducing radon-222 emissions are presented in Chapter 5. The appendices contain detailed information on mill site data and emission estimates.

Not Available

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Emission Control and Elimination Through The Use Of Condensation and Heat Recovery Technologies- A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing regulatory air requirements have created potential restrictions on current and future plant operations. Any process design that allows for the elimination of discharge points and the reduction of emissions at a major source can affect the strategic planning for the facility. This can provide critical flexibility, especially in fast-paced markets. Such a process design and implementation were undertaken at a ceramic capacitor manufacturing facility. This facility utilizes multiple small-scale solvent drying processes that emit volatile organic compounds (VOC's). These exhausts could be recirculated for the purposes of emission point elimination, heat recovery and solvent reuse. The aim was to create an environmental control process which would pay for itself within two to three years. An assessment of the alternatives was completed and standard HVAC-type condensation was selected. The unit operations for the proposed process consisted of a high efficiency air-to-air heat exchanger, cooling coil and a chiller. The air passing across the heat exchanger and coil would begin to dehumidify. In addition, solvents contained in the air stream would begin to condense to some equilibrium level and would be absorbed in the condensing water. Eventually, since there would be no addition of water in the process, the level of water in the condensate would fall off dramatically. A prototype unit capable of handling three ovens with a total air flow of 1200 ft3/min (cfm) was installed. The unit performed as expected with the exception that condensate concentrations remained low. Product testing was undertaken to ensure that returning air containing a low level of solvent would not adversely affect drying operations or product qualities. No adverse effects were found. Monitoring of the air stream verified solvent levels well below 5% of the lower explosive limit. Finally, a large-scale unit was constructed capable of handling up to 171 ovens at up to 68,000 cfm at a cost of $1.2M. At current levels of integration, cost avoidance (savings) performance is within 2% of predicted values. Projected payback is 18 months. Estimated volatile organic compound emission reduction is 100 tons per year.

Madewell, A. E.; Bullock, W. N.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Key Issues in the Design of NOx Emission Trading Programs to Reduce Ground-Level Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As NOx control requirements grow more stringent and expensive, interest in emission trading as a means of controlling costs and increasing flexibility has risen. This report provides background information for and analysis of the design of emission trading programs for control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from stationary sources, including fossil fuel electric generating plants.

1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Proto col for US Midwest Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Status: Published Citation: Millar, N; Robertson, GP; Grace, PR; Gehl, RJ; and Hoben, JP. 2010. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for US Midwest Agriculture. In Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change,Volume 15, Number 2, 2010, pp. 185-204. Link to Journal Publication: See Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Redu ction Protocol for U.S. Midwest Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Status: Published Citation: Millar, N; Robertson, GP; Grace, PR; Gehl, RJ; and Hoben; JP. 2010. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for U.S. Midwest Agriculture. In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Volume 15, Number 2, 2010, pp. 185-204. A peer-reviewed journal article that identifies, describes and analyzes socio-economic factors that may encourage or inhibit farmers from participat...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

328

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min Ś 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

329

Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace with two hot zones holds multiple analysis tubes. Each tube has a separable sample-packing section positioned in the first hot zone and a catalyst-packing section positioned in the second hot zone. A mass flow controller is connected to an inlet of each sample tube, and gas is supplied to the mass flow controller. Oxygen is supplied through a mass flow controller to each tube to either or both of an inlet of the first tube and an intermediate portion between the tube sections to intermingle with and oxidize the entrained gases evolved from the sample. Oxidation of those gases is completed in the catalyst in each second tube section. A thermocouple within a sample reduces furnace temperature when an exothermic condition is sensed within the sample. Oxidized gases flow from outlets of the tubes to individual gas cells. The cells are sequentially aligned with an infrared detector, which senses the composition and quantities of the gas components. Each elongated cell is tapered inward toward the center from cell windows at the ends. Volume is reduced from a conventional cell, while permitting maximum interaction of gas with the light beam. Reduced volume and angulation of the cell inlets provide rapid purgings of the cell, providing shorter cycles between detections. For coal and other high molecular weight samples, from 50% to 100% oxygen is introduced to the tubes.

LaCount, Robert B. (403 Arbor Ct., Waynesburg, PA 15370)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-Scale Field Trial of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process CONSOL R&D, PPL, Lechler, and Martin Marietta propose to conduct a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process at Unit 1 of the PPL Martins Creek Station. LTMC has the ability to reduce mercury emissions by over 90% as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41181. The next step is to demonstrate the performance, operability, and economics on a full-scale utility boiler. In addition this project will demonstrate that magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 ) slurry injection into the flue gas reduces SO3 concentration sufficiently to avoid corrosion at the low-temperature conditions, and will demonstrate that water spray humidification can maintain ESP performance under low-SO3 conditions.

331

Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasoline consumption and pollutant emissions from transportation are costly and have serious, demonstrated environmental and health impacts. Downsized, turbocharged direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines ...

Cedrone, Kevin David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development: A status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the last progress report, a 500 acfm system treating a slip stream from a single cylinder CWS fuel diesel engine was designed, constructed and tested. The system, as installed in the engine test laboratory, is shown in Figure 1. The system consists of a 6 in. diameter pipe with a flow control valve which diverts up to 500 acfm of exhaust gas from the single cylinder engine exhaust manifold. A gravity feeder injects sorbent into the exhaust gas stream which flows into the filter. In addition, anhydrous ammonia is injected into the gas stream from a pressurized cylinder to control NO[sub x] emission. The gas enters the filter housing from the top. Turning vanes direct the flow downwards toward the filter elements. The gas leaves the filter from the side. A detailed drawing of the filter, a filter element and compressed air system for cleaning the filters elements are shown in Figure 2. The filter media elements are closely spaced to increase the surface area-to-cloth ratio and to meet the space constraints. The filter media is composed of fiber metal with 3-5 micron fibers exhibiting good filtration characteristics. The fiber metal elements are relatively light and are constructed of Iconel or 316 SS, and can operate in the exhaust gas environment. High removal efficiency of particulate matter and S0[sub 2] was achieved using the barrier filter. The NO[sub x] removal efficiency was somewhat lower than was achieved in the bench scale tests, yet more than 85 % reduction of NO[sub x] level could be achieved.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M; van Kleunen, W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development: A status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the last progress report, a 500 acfm system treating a slip stream from a single cylinder CWS fuel diesel engine was designed, constructed and tested. The system, as installed in the engine test laboratory, is shown in Figure 1. The system consists of a 6 in. diameter pipe with a flow control valve which diverts up to 500 acfm of exhaust gas from the single cylinder engine exhaust manifold. A gravity feeder injects sorbent into the exhaust gas stream which flows into the filter. In addition, anhydrous ammonia is injected into the gas stream from a pressurized cylinder to control NO{sub x} emission. The gas enters the filter housing from the top. Turning vanes direct the flow downwards toward the filter elements. The gas leaves the filter from the side. A detailed drawing of the filter, a filter element and compressed air system for cleaning the filters elements are shown in Figure 2. The filter media elements are closely spaced to increase the surface area-to-cloth ratio and to meet the space constraints. The filter media is composed of fiber metal with 3-5 micron fibers exhibiting good filtration characteristics. The fiber metal elements are relatively light and are constructed of Iconel or 316 SS, and can operate in the exhaust gas environment. High removal efficiency of particulate matter and S0{sub 2} was achieved using the barrier filter. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency was somewhat lower than was achieved in the bench scale tests, yet more than 85 % reduction of NO{sub x} level could be achieved.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M; van Kleunen, W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter, 1994, October 1994--December 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NOx reduction technologies: Advanced overfire air (AOFA), Low NOx burners (LNB), LNB with AOFA, and Advanced Digital Controls and Optimization Strategies. The project has completed the baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB+AOFA test segments, fulfilling all testing originally proposed to DOE. Analysis of the LNB long-term data collected show the full load NOx emission levels to be near 0.65 lb/MBtu. This NOx level represents a 48 percent reduction when compared to the baseline, full load value of 1.24 lb/MBtu. These reductions were sustainable over the long-term test period and were consistent over the entire load range. Full load, fly ash LOI values in the LNB configuration were near 8 percent compared to 5 percent for baseline. Results from the LNB+AOFA phase indicate that full load NOx emissions are approximately 0.40 lb/MBtu with a corresponding fly ash LOI value of near 8 percent. Although this NOx level represents a 67 percent reduction from baseline levels, a substantial portion of the incremental change in NOx emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations was the result of operational changes and not the result of the AOFA system. Phase 4 of the project is now underway.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls  

SciTech Connect

Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems  

SciTech Connect

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.

Dharmarajan, Kavita V., E-mail: dharmark@mskcc.org [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)] [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

Wang, M.Q.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Regulatory Control of Vehicle and Power Plant Emissions: How Effective and at What Cost?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passenger vehicles and power plants are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. While economic analyses generally indicate that a broader market-based approach to greenhouse gas reduction would be less costly and more ...

Paltsev, S.

344

Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

Nam, Junsang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 6- Continuous Emissions Monitors and Opacity Monitors (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Stationary sources, including fossil fuel fired steam or hot water generating units, may be required to install and operate a continuous emissions monitoring system equipped with an opacity monitor...

346

NETL: IEP ? Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Novel Dual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

amine modified membrane capable of economically and efficiently removing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The use of such an...

347

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3- Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations limit particulate emissions into the atmosphere by process weight per hour, where process weight is the total weight of all materials introduced into any specific process which...

348

Development of HCNG Blended Fuel Engine with Control of NOx Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, research on reducing exhaust emissions, reducing fuel consumption, reducing engine noise and increasing specific outputs has become the major researching aspect in combustion ...

K. R. Patil; P. M. Khanwalkar; S. S. Thipse; K. P. Kavathekar; S. D. Rairikar

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar Lett (2010) 30:331–338 Fig. 3 Coal Oil Point seep field,hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California. Marhydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field,

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Mercury Oxidation Performance of Advanced SCR Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts to oxidize mercury is an important aspect of many utilities’ mercury control strategies. Improved SCR mercury oxidation will facilitate its capture in downstream wet–flue gas desulfurization systems and will generally result in lower emission rates. Recently, catalyst manufacturers have attempted to maximize mercury oxidation through advanced catalyst formulations.This study documents the performance of an advanced ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Controller Synthesis of Metastable Oxides Utilizing Epitaxy and Epitaxial Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has achieved unparalleled control in the integration of semiconductors at the nanometer. These advances were made through the use of epitaxy, epitaxial stabilization, and a combination of composition-control techniques including adsorption-controlled growth and RHEED-based composition control that we have developed, understood, and utilized for the growth of oxides. Also key was extensive characterization (utilizing RHEED, four-circle x-ray diffraction, AFM, TEM, and electrical characterization techniques) in order to study growth modes, optimize growth conditions, and probe the structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the materials grown. The materials that we have successfully engineered include titanates (PbTiO3, Bi4Ti3O12), tantalates (SrBi2Ta2O9), and niobates (SrBi2Nb2O9); layered combinations of these perovskite-related materials (Bi4Ti3O12-SrTiO3 and Bi4Ti3O12-PbTiO3 Aurivillius phases and metastable PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices), and new metastable phases (Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases). The films were grown by reactive MBE and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Many of these materials are either new or have been synthesized with the highest perfection ever reported. The controlled synthesis of such layered oxide heterostructures offers great potential for tailoring the superconducting, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of these materials. These properties are important for energy technologies.

Schlom, Darrell

2003-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

353

Diesel hybridization and emissions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

354

Effects of Emissions Reductions on Ozone Predictions by the Regional Oxidant Model during the July 1988 Episode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Oxidant Model, ROM2.2, was applied to a 2?10 July 1988 episode to test the regional episodic ozone response to different combinations of the across-the-board nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile ...

Shao-Hang Chu; William M. Cox

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade increasing concern over the potential environmental impact associated with the emissions of both gaseous and particulate pollutants has resulted in the promulgation of strict regulatory standards governing such emissions. In this regard, particular attention has been placed upon the control of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from major fuel burning installations. The provisions of the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which relate to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) have made consideration of this problem of significant additional importance in the context of increased coal utilization. There exist three general methods for the control of sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime or limestone into the firebox, or a spray dryer operated with nonregenerable alkaline sorbents coupled with a fabric filter collector. Equipment requirements, SO2 removal criteria, general economics, and potential applications of these latter two approaches within category (3) will be discussed.

Schwartz, M. H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Assessment of SO2 Emissions Control Achieved in Practice During Startup and Shutdown  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a better understanding of the capability of modern flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to comply with the typical emission limitations for sulfur dioxide (SO2). These SO2 limitations have been included in some recently issued permits for new electric utility pulverized coal (PC)-fired boilers to apply during periods of boiler startup and shutdown.

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Leslie Eudy ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a U.S. government agency. As such, this information is in the public domain, may be copied and otherwise accessed freely, and is not subject to copyright laws. These papers were previously published in hard copy form by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

358

Proceedings of the 17th Biennial Waste Processing Conference CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the other half is deposited locally, presumably due to the presence of reactive Hg in flue gases. We of the Hg in combustion flue gases is ionic in nature, in both the gaseous and particulate phases). MUNTHEJ. (1992) The aqueous oxidation of elemental of mercury by ozone. Atmos. Environ. 26A, 146I- 1468

Columbia University

359

Integrated powertrain control to meet future CO2 and Euro-6 emissions targets for a diesel hybrid with SCR-deNOx system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new concept is introduced to optimize the performance of the entire powertrain: Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC). In this concept, the synergy between engine, driveline and aftertreatment system is exploited by integrated energy and emission management. ...

Frank Willems; Darren Foster

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Low Cost Sorbent for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005497 TDA sorbent test equipment TDA sorbent test equipment. TDA Research Inc. will produce and evaluate a low-cost solid sorbent developed in prior laboratory testing. The process uses an alkalized alumina adsorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) at intermediate temperature and near ambient pressure. The physical adsorbent is regenerated with low-pressure steam. Although the regeneration is primarily by concentration swing, the adsorption of steam on the sorbent during regeneration also provides approximately 8°C to 10°C of temperature swing, further enhancing the regeneration rate. The sorbent is transferred between two moving bed reactors. Cycling results in gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: EMISS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Three types of emission factors are currently included: carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide. Emissions factors are specified separately for six different end-use...

362

Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to… (more)

Shewalla, Umesh.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Jet Induced Boosted Suction System for Roof-Vent Emission Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimensional Analysis in Cold Water Model Experiments of New Cathode Structure ... Effective Insulation Control Monitoring System: The CANDI™ Solution for a ...

365

Getting performance without sacrificing economy or emissions control in a heavy-duty LPG engine  

SciTech Connect

A commercial 637 CID liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) engine was evaluated as a candidate powerplant for new bus purchases and/or as a replacement for obsolete LPG engines currently being used in metropolitan Chicago bus service. Limited route service experience with LPG conversion of a gasoline engine indicated both its potential and the need for its optimization in order to take advantage of the unique characteristics of LPG. The engine-dynamometer study, with emphasis on fuel system-ignition relationships, led to substantial improvement in fuel economy without depreciation of engine power. The 637 CID LPG engine fuel economy was increased from an average of 1.77 mpg for 1965 to 1971 to 2.60 mpg for the Dec. 1971 to April 1972 period in Chicago field tests. Cylinder head redesign permitted lean mixture operation that reduced exhaust emissions to levels calculated to conform to the 1973 Federal standards and the 1973-1974 California Air Resources Board requirements for heavy-duty engines. The exhaust emissions data obtained with the optimized 7.5:1 CR engine based on the California 13-mode cycle were 8.3 g/bhp/hr carbon monoxide and 9.9 g/bhp/hr hydrocarbons plus nitrogen dioxide.

Mengelkamp, R.A.; Linnard, R.E.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The use Na, Li, K cations for modification of ZSM-5 zewolite to control hydrocarbon cold-start emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of controlling hydrocarbon emissions from cold-start of engines by investigating the adsorbents which could adsorb the hydrocarbons at cold temperatures and hold them to 250-300 ?. The materials, that has been studied, are based on the modification of ZSM-5 (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 35) zeolite with Li, K, Na cations. It has been shown that the introduction of Li, Na and K in an amount that is equivalent to the content of Al in zeolite results in occurrence of toluene temperature desorption peaks at high-temperatures. The toluene temperature desorption curves for 5%Li-ZSM-5 and 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolites are identical and have peak toluene desorption rate between 200 to 400 ?. Upon analysis of toluene adsorption isotherms for 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 and 5%Li-ZSM-5, it was concluded that the toluene diffusion inside of the modified zeolites channels is extremely slow and the sorption capacity of 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 is higher than with 5%Li-ZSM-5. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 didn't change toluene temperature programmed desorption (TPD) rate of curve after the treatment in environment with 10% ?{sub 2}? at 750-800 ? for about 28 h. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is very promising as adsorbent to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions.

Golubeva V.; Rohatgi U.; Korableva, A.; Anischenko, O.; Kustov, L.; Nissenbaum, V; Viola, M.B.

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model, Version 6. 0. User's manual. Report for November 1984-August 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report is a user's manual for the Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model. It summarizes user options and software characteristics, and describes both the input data files and procedures for operating the model. It discusses proper formatting of files and creation of job-control language. The model projects for each state the emissions of sulfur oxides, sulfates, and nitrogen oxides from fossil-fuel combustion in industrial boilers. Emissions and costs of boiler generation, including emission-control costs, are projected for the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2020, and 2030.

Hogan, T.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers X Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment March 2000 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

369

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

370

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CO2 Capture Membrane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Project No.: DE-NT0005313 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International is researching fluorinated polymer membranes for carbon dioxide capture. RTI's research effort includes membrane materials development, module design, and process design. RTI is pursuing the development of two hollow-fiber membrane materials. First, RTI is working with Generon to develop a membrane material constructed of polycarbonate-based polymers. Lab-scale membrane modules are being studied with simulated flue-gas mixtures with and without flue gas emission contaminants. Two larger-scale polycarbonate membrane module prototypes are being tested with a slipstream of actual flue gas from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Multipollutant

371

Growth of SrTiO{sub 3}(110) film by oxide molecular beam epitaxy with feedback control  

SciTech Connect

By controlling the growth of complex oxide films with atomic precision, emergent phenomena and fascinating properties have been discovered, and even been manipulated. With oxide molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) we grow high-quality SrTiO{sub 3}(110) films by evaporating Sr and Ti metals with separate controls of the open/close timing of the shutters. The incident electron beam angle of the reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is adjusted to make the (01) beam sensitive to surface chemical concentration. By monitoring such an intensity, we tune the shutter timing to synchronize the evaporation amount of Sr and Ti in real-time. The intensity is further used as a feedback control signal for automatic growth optimization to fully compensate the possible fluctuation of the source flux rates upon extended growth. A 22 nm-thick film is obtained with the precision of metal cation stoichiometry better than 0.5%.

Feng Jiagui; Yang Fang; Yang Yang; Gu Lin; Guo Jiandong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed-Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhiming [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed-Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/134, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Zhang Jiandi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Integrated Emissions Control Cost Estimating Workbook (IECCOST) Version 3.1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IECCOST economic analysis workbook produces rough-order-of-magnitude cost estimates of the installed capital and levelized annual operating costs for standalone and integrated environmental control systems installed on coal-fired power plants. The model allows for the comparison ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Control and Advanced Emissions Modeling for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the development of new control strategies and models for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) by the Ohio State University. The report indicates results from models created in NREL's ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR 3.2), and results of a scalable IC Engine model, called in Willan's Line technique, implemented in ADVISOR 3.2.

Rajagopalan, A.; Washington, G.; Rizzoni, G.; Guezennec, Y.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Dry Integrated Emissions Control Technology Options: EMO, DryFining, NeuStream-DR and DSI State-of-the-Art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical update provides a series of enhanced Level 1 analyses of multiple dry integrated emissions reduction technology options for use at coal-fired, utility-scale generating plants. The report also contains a section covering the current state-of-the-art for Duct Sorbent Injection systems (DSI). This document also includes an updated listing of the Integrated Emissions Control (IEC) technologies that have been proposed in the past for use at ...

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

375

Proceedings: 2000 NOx Controls Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2000 EPRI workshop on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls for utility boilers provided a medium for member utilities to augment their knowledge of recent operating experience and developments on NOx control technologies. The event focused on improving methods of compliance with emission regulations mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 without jeopardizing efficiency and plant performance.

2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control  

SciTech Connect

It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

Li, Liyu; King, David L.

2010-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

377

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D Photo Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-House R&D - Photo Gallery In-House R&D - Photo Gallery In-House R&D - Photo Gallery 500 LB/HR Pilot Combustor and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter Most of the research on mercury measurement and control has been conducted on a pilot combustion unit with a design rate of 500 pounds of coal per hour and a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate control. P S Analytical Sir Gallahad CEM Installed on Pilot Combustion Unit Filter Oven and Sample Line Analyzer with Computer, Switching Box and Calibration Module Conditioning Box Recently, an on-line analyzer for mercury measurement was purchased and installed to obtain near-real-time readings of mercury concentration and speciation in flue gas. Typical Output of CEM The on-line analyzer shows trends in total mercury concentration as a function of time.

378

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}6 for the period: January 1 to March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self- consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

Farthing, George A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to develop effective Hg0 capture or oxidation technologies. In coal combustion flue gases, Hg0 is oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured and hydrogen bromide gas16 to flue gas was demonstrated to enhance Hg0 oxidation, but the extent of enhancement

Li, Ying

380

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of MerCAP for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control URS Group and its test team will perform research to further develop the novel Mercury Control via Adsorption Process (MerCAP™). The general MerCAP™ concept is to place fixed structures into a flue gas stream to adsorb mercury and then periodically regenerate them and recover the captured mercury. EPRI has shown that gold-based sorbents can achieve high levels of mercury removal in scrubbed flue gases. URS is proposing tests at two power plants using gold MerCAP™, installed downstream of either a baghouse or wet scrubber, to evaluate mercury removal from flue gas over a period of 6 months. At Great River Energy’s Stanton Station, which burns North Dakota lignite, sorbent structures will be retrofitted into a single compartment in the Unit 10 baghouse enabling reaction with a 6 MWe equivalence of flue gas. At Southern Company Services’ Plant Yates, which burns Eastern bituminous coal, gold-coated plates will be configured as a mist eliminator (ME) located downstream of a 1 MWe pilot wet absorber , which receives flue gas from Unit 1.

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381

Controlled photon emission and Raman transition experiments with a single trapped atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present recent results on the coherent control of an optical transition in a single rubidium atom, trapped in an optical tweezer. We excite the atom using resonant light pulses that are short (4 ns) compared with the lifetime of the excited state (26 ns). By varying the intensity of the laser pulses, we can observe an adjustable number of Rabi oscillations, followed by free decay once the light is switched off. To generate the pulses we have developed a novel laser system based on frequency doubling a telecoms laser diode at 1560 nm. By setting the laser intensity to make a pi-pulse, we use this coherent control to make a high quality triggered source of single photons. We obtain an average single photon rate of 9600 s-1 at the detector. Measurements of the second-order temporal correlation function show almost perfect antibunching at zero delay. In addition, we present preliminary results on the use of Raman transitions to couple the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of our trapped atom. This will allow us to prepare and control a qubit formed by two hyperfine sub-levels.

M. P. A. Jones; B. Darquie; J. Beugnon; J. Dingjan; S. Bergamini; Y. Sortais; G. Messin; A. Browaeys; P. Grangier

2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

382

Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

383

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

386

Work function control at metal high-dielectric-constant gate oxide interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been difficulty in finding metals of sufficiently large or small effective work function to act as metal electrodes on high-dielectric-constant gate oxides. To understand the factors affecting the effective work function, we have calculated ... Keywords: High K oxides, Metal gates

K. Tse; J. Robertson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Atomic scale control of catalytic process in oxidation of Pb thin films  

SciTech Connect

Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate that oxidation on Pb films is greatly enhanced by atomic Cs catalysts. With only a minute concentration of isolated Cs substitutional atoms in the surface layer (0.004 ML coverage), surface oxidation rates are greatly enhanced. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that a substitutional Cs atom strongly increases O2 binding on the surface. Then, with additional oxygen exposure this substitutional Cs-initiated oxidation process results in growth of PbO layers in an auto-catalytic manner. Furthermore, we investigate the role of temperature in the oxidation of the Pb films with and without Cs, and we explore the overall morphology of the resultant oxide layers.

Kim, Jisun [University of Texas, Austin; Khajetoorians, Alexander Ako [University of Texas, Austin; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ICQD, University of S& T, Hefei, China; Shih, Chih-Kang [University of Texas, Austin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

McClintock, Carlee [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Nuraral Gas, Coal,Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_. Ries. LTRs. , Aug.acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in its

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to close the gap on unregulated greenhouse gas emissions.a higher lifecycle greenhouse gas content than conventionalIN- FORMATION ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONs AssocIATEIDn wrri

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young Unit 2 and TXU Monticello Unit 3. The work involves establishing Hg oxidation levels upstream of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with those removal rates, investigating the possibility of the APCD acting as a multipollutant control device, quantifying the balance of plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization.

Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids Project No.: FC26-07NT43091 Model of CO2 absorption by an ionic liquid. Model of CO2 absorption by an IL. The model shows that the anions are controlling absorption in ILs. The green units represent anions and the grey units represent cations. The University of Notre Dame is conducting the Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture project (FC26-07NT43091), that builds on the work of its earlier project (FG26-04NT42122), to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids (ILs) - for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Initial efforts focused on "proof-of-concept" exploration, followed by a laboratory-/bench-scale effort. ILs include a broad category

393

Pilot-scale HCl control by dry alkaline injection for emissions from refuse incinerators. Technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One method of removing the HCl in an exhaust-gas stream is to directly inject finely divided sorbent particles into the gas stream upstream from particulate collection equipment, allowing enough time for the HCl to react with the sorbent in the duct. The study proposed to provide data on HCl removal from a simulated incinerator exhaust stream as a function of the in-duct reaction/residence time, the reaction temperature, and the sorbent-to-gas ratio. A 500-acfm pilot-scale HCl control system utilizing dry powdered sorbent was tested at the University of Washington. Powdered alkaline reagents including sodium bicarbonate and calcium hydroxide were injected into boiler flue gas spiked with hydrogen chloride gas. The acid gas reacts with the injected sorbent in a 20-inch diameter by 26-foot high vertical, down-flow vessel. HCl removal efficiency was measured as a function of sorbent stoichiometry, gas residence time in reactor, and reaction temperature.

Moore, D.; Pilat, M.

1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

Sivakumar, Vikram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

399

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

400

Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. Zhou (2007), “Distributed Generation with Heat RecoveryCO 2 emissions, distributed generation, energy management,1]. Although thermal distributed generation (DG) units are

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

402

CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

403

Kinetics, FTIR and controlled atmosphere EXAFS study of the effect of chlorine on Pt supported catalysts during oxidation reactions.  

SciTech Connect

The poisoning effect of Cl on the activity of Pt-supported catalysts for CO, methane, and ethane oxidation has been investigated by kinetic studies and in situ IR and controlled atmosphere EXAFS spectroscopies. Catalysts containing 1.5% Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by incipient wetness from H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} precursors. The reduced catalysts have similar dispersion (0.8) as estimated by H{sub 2} chemisorption. The Cl-free catalyst was 10 times more active than the Cl-containing catalyst during CO and ethane oxidation. Addition of HCl to the Cl-free catalyst rendered its activity identical to the catalyst prepared from Cl-containing precursors. The presence of Cl also affects the activity of 2% Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalysts, but to a lower extent. On the Cl-free oxidation catalyst, Pt-Pt and Pt-O bonds were detected using EXAFS, suggesting that the reduced metal particles are not fully oxidized under the reaction conditions. Additionally, chemisorption of CO by the oxidized catalyst indicates that a portion of the reduced Pt atoms is exposed to the reactants. On the Cl-containing catalyst, there are also Pt-Cl as well as Pt-Pt and Pt-O bonds. The later catalyst, however, does not chemisorb CO, indicating that there are no reduced surface Pt atoms. The effect of Cl poisoning on the oxidation activity of Pt supported on silica is similar to that on alumina. IR results show that chlorine significantly reduces the amount of CO adsorbed on metallic Pt sites. At low temperature there is little CO adsorbed on the Cl-containing Pt/silica catalyst, while at higher temperature the amount of adsorbed CO increases, likely due to reduction of the oxidized surface. The catalyst activities correlate well with the amount of reduced surface sites, and a model is proposed to explain the mechanism of chloride poisoning, which is shown to occur mainly by site blocking.

Gracia, F. J.; Wolf, E. E.; Miller, J. T.; Kropf, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Notre Dame; BP Research Center

2002-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

404

Mercury and Dioxin Control for Municipal Waste Combustors Anthony Licata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and elemental mercury (Hg«» under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream of the refuse incinerator), sulfur dioxide (S02)' nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), PCDDs/PCDFs, cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg emission regulations. Mercury Control in MWCs The capture of Hg in flue gas cleaning devices depends on the

Columbia University

405

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7- Emission of Air Contaminants Detrimental to Person or Property (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

No person shall emit any contaminant which either alone or in connection with other emissions, by reason of their concentration or duration, may be injurious to human, plant or animal life, or...

406

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from coal- or natural gas-fired power plants occur "up-of natural gas is lost before reaching the power plant." 30power plant. Yet, when it comes to upstream emissions, the lifecycle for natural gas

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

High-tech controls for energy and environment. Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains reports which were presented at a symposium for adaptive control systems. Topics were concerned with fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, adaptive processes control, nonlinear component analysis, and processes control and efficiency applied to reducing nitrogen oxides emissions and to a column flotation unit. Individual reports (22 reports) are processed separately for the data bases.

Biondo, S.J. [ed.] [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Drummond, C.J. [ed.] [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

409

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,  nitrogen dioxide, emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, 

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Ozone Modeling for Compliance Planning: A Synopsis of "The Use of Photochemical Air Quality Models for Evaluating Emission Control Strategies--A Synthesis Report"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that many nonattainment areas use gridded, photochemical air quality models to develop compliance plans for meeting the ambient ozone standard. This report reviews the status of photochemical air models--the computer simulation programs that will be used to set emission control programs to meet ground level (tropospheric) ozone standards currently in use for regulatory planning. Regulatory application guidelines are discussed, as are the limitations and reliabili...

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rational control over the morphology and the functional properties of inorganic nanostructures has been a long-standing goal in the development of bottom-up device fabrication processes. We report that the geometry of ...

Joo, Jaebum

413

DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

414

Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Technology for the control of particulates and sulfur oxides by electrostatic techniques. Final report, Aug 85-Jul 90  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report summarizes research performed by Southern Research Institute on several aspects of the E-SOx Process, invented by EPA to jointly control particulate matter and SO2 in coal-fired boiler emissions by retrofitting an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP), formerly used only for particulate removal. The report covers research on potential ESP sites for process application, process economics, characterization of process solid waste collected in the ESP, measurement and modeling of prechargers in the retrofitted ESP, and effectiveness of the process with respect to SO2 removal. Experiment results described in the report confirm original EPA laboratory work and were influential in the decision to proceed with a large pilot evaluation of E-SOx. Research emphasis was on ESP performance, under E-SOx conditions, to verify that this essential equipment process component could retain its primary function of particle removal at a level equal to removal prior to modifications necessary for E-SOx. Further research is suggested.

Dismukes, E.B.; Gooch, J.P.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane. Technical progress report, June 15, 1990--December 14, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have demonstrated in this work (1) that methane is readily activated at mild conditions (100{degree}C, 1 torr) over a relatively noble metal, Pd. This was observed using a stepped and kinked Pd(679) crystal (1), and other crystal faces are now being investigated to establish whether the cracking of the C-H bond of methane on Pd is structure sensitive or structure insensitive. Oxygen chemisorption is extremely structure sensitive: weakly bonded, highly reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(100) surface (2), while strongly bonded, moderately reactive oxygen overlayers form on Pd(111) and Pd(679). Reaction of the weakly bonded oxygen with surface carbide gives rise to CO{sub 2} over clean Pd(100) but to CO over halogen-doped Pd(100) (3--5). The effect of halogens is primarily ensemble-controlling, or oxygen-supply restricting, but long range influence of surface Cl on the strength of the Pd-O bond has also been observed (3). Because the overall chemistry of methane activation with the subsequent oxidation gives rise to the very important oxidative reforming CH{sub 4} + 1/2 O{sub 2} {yields}{sub Pd/Cl} CO + 2 H{sub 2}, Pd/Cl we plan to continue our study of this reaction in detail over Pd(100) (completed), Pd(111) (initiated), Pd(311) (initiated), Pd(110) (to be initiated), and Pd(679) (completed), without and with the halogen modifiers.

Klier, K.; Simmons, G.W.; Herman, R.G.; Miller, A.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Forecasting US CO2 Emissions Using State-Level Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

curve for air pollution emissions, Journal of EnvironmentalInformation Agency: 2004, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in1999, Controlling Carbon Emissions in China, Environment and

Steinhauser, Ralf; Auffhammer, Maximilian

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors  

SciTech Connect

Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

Noh, Joo Hyon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Noh, Jiyong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kreit, Eric [University of Cincinnati; Heikenfeld, Jason [University of Cincinnati; Rack, Philip D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2004  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

420

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2002  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission controls" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2005  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

422

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1994  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1999  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1997  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1998  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2003  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Mechanisms and controlling characteristics of the catalytic oxidation of methane. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has included (1) construction and installation of an ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer (UPS) with power supply and pumping system that has been added as an attachment to the SCIENTA ESCA-300 instrument, (2) modification of the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS) to produce a stable ultra high vacuum (UHV) environment for initial experiments with a Pd(311) single crystal, (3) construction of a separate high vacuum system for preparation of surface doped model catalysts by chemical vapor deposition and pretreatment of a Pd(100) single crystal in this system, (4) carried out detailed experiments of methane activation and oxidation on Pd(679) using a high pressure reaction cell contained in a third ultra high vacuum system, (5) completion of adsorption/desorption studies of H{sub 2}, CO, and O{sub 2} on Pd(679), (6) utilized angle-resolved XPS to probe the diffraction characteristics and structure of the Pd(100) surface, (7) determination of the electronic surface structure of Pd(100) using angle-resolved UPS, and (8) computational analysis of oxygen overlayers on the PD(100) surface. Each of these is discussed in further detail below.

Klier, K.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Tailoring Selectivity for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution on Ruthenium Oxides by Zn Substitution  

SciTech Connect

Controlling gas emissions: Versatile control of the selectivity of an oxide electrocatalyst in the oxygen- and chlorine-evolution reactions was demonstrated by Zn substitution in RuO{sub 2}. The incorporation of Zn into the rutile structure alters the cation sequence along the [001] direction and modifies the structure of the active sites for both gas-evolution processes.

Petrykin, V.; Macounova, K; Shlyakhtin, O; Krtil, P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL USE OF CHEMISTRY BASED EMISSION PREDICTIONS FOR REAL-TIME CONTROL OF MODERN DIESEL ENGINES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Adding the model to the overall engine and aftertreatment control and diagnostics strategy. "NOx prediction in diesel engines for aftertreatment control," ASME 2003-41196. [5] Aithal SM. 2008-TIME CONTROL OF MODERN DIESEL ENGINES. S. M. Aithal Mathematics and Computer Science Division Argonne National

434

Improved catalyst materials and emission control systems. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL 92-0115  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this CRADA was the improvement of performance and/or development of alternate systems for conventional fuel, flex-fuel, and alternate fuel vehicles in order to meet stringent future emission standards. The objectives had three major thrusts: (1) the characterization of the structural and chemical evolution of the precious metals and washcoat during aging under bench flow reactor, engine dynamometer, and vehicle conditions; (2) the correlation of measured catalyst performance and degradation over time with details of microstructural changes under bench flow reactor and engine dynamometer conditions; and (3) the simulation and testing of an in-cylinder catalyst system to determine the effect on emissions of a single-cylinder engine. Catalyst formulations for both gasoline and natural gas applications were studied. The emission testing and structural characterization were performed on alternate formulations and processing variables in order to evaluate the relative conversion efficiency, lifetime, and stability. The aging parameters were correlated with the evolving structure and properties of the tested catalytic converters. A major portion of the second thrust area was the construction and validation of both the bench flow reactor and engine dynamometer test facility and the identification of deactivation/regeneration mechanisms associated with alternative fuels relative to those for conventional fuel. A number of microstructural changes were identified that could contribute to the deactivation of the catalyst during aging. The stability of several catalyst formulations and alternate processing procedures relative to these microstructural changes and changes in conversion efficiency and lifetime were studied.

Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; Domingo, N.; Storey, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W.; Beckmeyer, R.F.; Theis, J.R. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The interaction of 193-nm excimer laser radiation with single-crystal zinc oxide: The generation of atomic Zn line emission at laser fluences below breakdown  

SciTech Connect

The production of gas phase atomic and ionic line spectra accompanying the high laser fluence irradiation of solid surfaces is well known and is most often due to the production and interaction of high densities of atoms, ions, and electrons generated from laser-induced breakdown. The resulting plasma expands and moves rapidly away from the irradiated spot and is accompanied by intense emission of light. This type of plume is well studied and is frequently exploited in the technique of chemical analysis known as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Here, we describe a similar but weaker emission of light generated in vacuum by the laser irradiation of single crystal ZnO at fluences well below breakdown; this emission consists entirely of optical line emission from excited atomic Zn. We compare the properties of the resulting laser-generated gas-phase light emission (above and below breakdown) and describe a mechanism for the production of the low-fluence optical emission resulting from a fortuitous choice of material and laser wavelength.

Kahn, E. H. [Washington State University, Pullman; Langford, S. C. [Washington State University, Pullman; Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University, Pullman; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers  

SciTech Connect

Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a Ï?-complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term â??ring-walkingâ?, and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent stereoregularity and molecular weight distributions with polydispersities that are consistent with a living polymerization sequence. Another important objective of this program concerned the use of these new catalysts and improved mechanistic insight for the synthesis of specific polymeric materials with prespecified properties.

Bazan, Guillermo C

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions Reductions on Ozone Air Quality over the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone is produced by chemical interactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. At high concentrations, ground-level ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health and to the environment. ...

Edith Gégo; P. Steven Porter; Alice Gilliland; S. Trivikrama Rao

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

MODERN TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE EMISSIONS OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM WASTE INCINERATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of mercury from MWC flue gases. After MACT controls reduce total mercury emission rates by 90% or greater not address any chemical transformations affecting mercury in soil, water or sediments (oxidation, reduction Speciation in Flue Gases: Overcoming the Analytical Difficulties," Brooks Rand Ltd., Seattle, WA, Fall 1991

Columbia University