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1

Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

Martin, Katherine C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

3

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Title Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Leibowicz, Benjamin, Maria Roumpani, and Peter H. Larsen Journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy Volume 3 Start Page 60 Issue 1 Date Published 2013 Keywords foresight, MARKAL, nuclear electricity, value of information Abstract In this study we analyze the impact of a radical change in nuclear electricity costs on the optimal electricity generation technology mix (EGTM) and constrain the value of information (VOI) on future nuclear costs. We consider three nuclear cost events and four carbon emissions caps. We develop a two-stage framework for energy-economic model MARKAL to eliminate foresight of future nuclear cost movements. We examine how the EGTM responds to these movements under alternative caps and analyze how these movements affect the cost of each cap. We define the expected savings from perfect foresight (ESPF), an upper bound on the VOI. We found that with current technologies, carbon mitigation that does not rely heavily on nuclear electricity is economically insensible. The Strong Cap is extremely costly because it restricts flexibility to respond to cost signals in choosing among technologies. The ESPF is highest under the Medium Cap by a substantial margin.

4

Nitrous oxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of key operating parameters, the relative importance of coal type, and the potentially significant coal properties for producing N{sub 2}O emissions in an atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The generation of N{sub 2}O emissions is quantified in an empirical model based on the experimental data.

Mann, M.D.; Collings, M.E.; Young, B.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Nitrous oxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of key operating parameters, the relative importance of coal type, and the potentially significant coal properties for producing N[sub 2]O emissions in an atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The generation of N[sub 2]O emissions is quantified in an empirical model based on the experimental data.

Mann, M.D.; Collings, M.E.; Young, B.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

7

Exploring the Interaction Between California’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program and Complementary Emissions Reduction Policies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

California enacted Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32) to address climate change in 2006. It required the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to develop a plan to reduce the State’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. ARB developed a plan (i.e., the “Scoping Plan”) made up of a GHG emissions cap-and-trade program and regulatory measures known as “complementary policies” (CPs) to achieve the 2020 target. The CPs, which were designed to achieve climate policy and ...

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

8

Interactions of Cost-Containment Measures and Linking of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cap-and-trade proposals in the United States0150including proposals in the Northeast, California, and at the national level0150include specific measures designed to contain the potential compliance costs of the proposed programs. These cost-containment measures include "new" provisions not included in existing emissions trading programs0150notably a "safety valve" that would cap the allowance price0150as well as provisions such as banking or the use of offsets t...

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

9

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

nitrous oxide emisssions from industrial sources, 1990, 2005, 2008, and 2009 4.5. Waste management sources In 2009, treatment of residential and commercial wastewater produced 92...

10

High-energy emission from pulsars in polar-cap models with CR-induced cascades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a subclass of polar-cap models based on electromagnetic cascades induced by curvature radiation (CR) we calculate broad-band high-energy spectra of pulsed emission expected for classical and millisecond pulsars. The spectra are a combination of curvature and synchrotron components. The spectrum of curvature component breaks at 150MeV, and neither its slope nor level below this energy are compatible with phase-averaged spectra of pulsed X-ray emission inferred from observations. Spectral properties in the combined energy range of ROSAT and ASCA (0.1 - 10 keV) depend upon the location of cyclotron turnover energy epsilon_ct=\\hbar{e B \\over m_e c} /sin(psi) in the synchrotron component. Unlike in outer-gap models, the available range of pitch angles psi is rather narrow and confined to low values. For classical pulsars, a gradual turnover begins already at 1MeV, and the level of the synchrotron spectrum decreases. At 10keV the curvature component eventually takes over, but with photon index alpha = 2/3, in disagreement with observations. For millisecond pulsars, the X-ray spectra are dominated by synchrotron component with alpha \\simeq 1.5, and a sharp turnover into alpha \\simeq -1 at epsilon_ct \\sim 100eV. Relations of pulsed luminosity L_X to spin-down luminosity \\edot are presented for classical and millisecond pulsars. We conclude that spectral properties and fluxes of pulsed non-thermal X-ray emission of some objects, like the Crab or the millisecond pulsar B1821-24, pose a challenge to the subclass of polar-cap models based on curvature and synchrotron radiation alone.

B. Rudak; J. Dyks

1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

11

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evaluation of Borrowing as a Method to Contain Costs in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the potential ability of "borrowing" to help reduce the costs and the cost volatility of cap-and-trade programs for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Borrowing allows sources to emit more than the number of current (or banked) allowances available in the current period by utilizing allowances that otherwise could not be used until future years. Borrowing may be on an individual or system basis and it may be explicit or implicit.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

13

Signatures of Pulsar Polar-Cap Emission at the High-Energy Spectral Cut-off  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address four unique signatures in pulsar gamma-ray radiation as predicted by polar-cap models. These signatures are expected to be present nearby the spectral high-energy cutoff at around several GeV. Their magnitude and, therefore, their observability depends strongly on the orientational factors, the rotation, as well as on the details of the polar cap structure. These strong predictions are likely to be verified by the NASA's future gamma-ray mission GLAST.

J. Dyks; B. Rudak

2003-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

14

Thermally oxidized formation of new Ge dots over as-grown Ge dots in the Si capping layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Si-capped Ge quantum dot sample was self-assembly grown via Stranski-Krastanov mode in a molecular beam epitaxy system with the Si capping layer deposited at 300 deg. C. After annealing the sample in an oxygen atmosphere at 1000 deg. C, a structure, namely two layers of quantum dots, was formed with the newly formed Ge-rich quantum dots embedded in the oxidized matrix with the position accurately located upon the as-grown quantum dots. It has been found that the formation of such nanostructures strongly depends upon the growth temperature and oxygen atmosphere. A growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the nanostructure based on the Ge diffusion from the as-grown quantum dots, Ge segregation from the growing oxide, and subsequent migration/agglomeration.

Nie Tianxiao [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland QLD 4072 (Australia); Lin Jinhui; Shao Yuanmin; Wu Yueqin; Yang Xinju; Fan Yongliang; Jiang Zuimin [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen Zhigang [Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland QLD 4072 (Australia); Zou Jin [Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland QLD 4072 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland QLD 4072 (Australia)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

202-328-5000 www.rff.orgAllowance Allocation in a CO2 Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program for the Electricity Sector in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The regulation of greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector within a cap-and-trade system poses significant policy questions about how to allocate tradable emission allowances. Allocation conveys tremendous value and can have efficiency consequences. This research uses simulation modeling for the electricity sector to examine different approaches to allocation under a cap-and-trade program in California. The decision affects prices and other aspects of the electricity sector, as well as implications for the overall cost of climate policy. An important issue is the opportunity for emission reductions in California to be offset by emission increases in neighboring regions that supply electricity to the state. The amount of emission leakage (i.e. an increase in CO2 emissions outside of California as a result of the program) varies with the regulatory design of the program.

Karen Palmer Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Dallas Burtraw; Anthony Paul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs  

SciTech Connect

Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of MerCAP for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control URS Group and its test team will perform research to further develop the novel Mercury Control via Adsorption Process (MerCAP™). The general MerCAP™ concept is to place fixed structures into a flue gas stream to adsorb mercury and then periodically regenerate them and recover the captured mercury. EPRI has shown that gold-based sorbents can achieve high levels of mercury removal in scrubbed flue gases. URS is proposing tests at two power plants using gold MerCAP™, installed downstream of either a baghouse or wet scrubber, to evaluate mercury removal from flue gas over a period of 6 months. At Great River Energy’s Stanton Station, which burns North Dakota lignite, sorbent structures will be retrofitted into a single compartment in the Unit 10 baghouse enabling reaction with a 6 MWe equivalence of flue gas. At Southern Company Services’ Plant Yates, which burns Eastern bituminous coal, gold-coated plates will be configured as a mist eliminator (ME) located downstream of a 1 MWe pilot wet absorber , which receives flue gas from Unit 1.

18

Spatiotemporal modelling in estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from soil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nitrous oxide is a major greenhouse gas emission. The aim of this research was to develop and apply statistical models to characterize the complex spatial… (more)

Huang, Xiaodong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Integrated assessment of the spatial variability of ozone impacts from emissions of nitrogen oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the ozone (O{sub 3}) damages caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in different locations around the Atlanta metropolitan area during a summer month. Ozone impacts are calculated using a new integrated assessment model that links pollution emissions to their chemical transformation, transport, population exposures, and effects on human health. It was found that increased NOx emissions in rural areas around Atlanta increase human exposure to ambient O{sub 3} twice as much as suburban emissions. However, increased NOx emissions in central city Atlanta actually reduce O{sub 3} exposures. For downtown emissions, the reduction in human exposures to O{sub 3} from titration by NO in the central city outweighs the effects from increased downwind O{sub 3}. The results indicate that the marginal damage from NOx emissions varies greatly across a metropolitan area. The results raise concerns if cap and trade regulations cause emissions to migrate toward higher marginal damage locations. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Daniel Q. Tong; Nicholas Z. Muller; Denise L. Mauzerall; Robert O. Mendelsohn [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and is located in a county designated as nonattainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone submit emission statements. Any facility that is located in a county described above is exempt from these requirements. If NOx

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

22

On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES from motor vehicles because unlike emissions of CO2, which are relatively easy to estimate, emissions-related emissions. In the U.S., for example, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the production and use of motor

Kammen, Daniel M.

24

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final project report describes a three-year long EPRI supplemental project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the United States and internationally.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the first two years of a three-year long project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project is investigating an innovative approach to developing large-scale and potentially cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that could be implemented across broad geographic areas of the U.S. and internationally. The tools and information developed in this project will broaden the GHG emissions offset ...

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

27

Influence of fuel sulfur content on emissions from diesel engines equipped with oxidation catalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are a viable exhaust aftertreatment alternative for alleviating regulated exhaust emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM)… (more)

Evans, Jason Carter.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update covers the first year of a three-year-long EPRI research project entitled Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production. The report provides a project overview and explains the preliminary results yielded from the first year of on-farm research.

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

29

Emissions Offsets: The Key Role of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets in a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For U.S. industries with operations that emit greenhouse gases (GHGs), climate policy is no longer a distant possibility it is being planned and, in some cases, implemented today. While debate on a federal GHG trade program continues in Congress, CO2 emission reduction requirements have been put in effect in Northeastern States (i.e., the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RGGI), are being developed in California (to implement the state's "Global Warming Solutions Act" AB32), and are being designed in th...

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

30

Engines - Emissions Control - cerium-oxide catalyst, diesel,...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Control Heavy duty diesel vehicles product particulate matter emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that heavy-duty diesel vehicles have...

31

Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 MAY 1999 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between: The U.S. Department of Energy and * The Babcock & Wilcox Company * Energy and Environmental Research Corporation * New York State Electric & Gas Corporation MAY 1999 Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Cover image: Schematic of reburning technology Source: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Executive Summary ..................................................................................................

32

Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

Saikawa, E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

EPA 402-R-00-004 CAP88-PC Version 2.0 UPDATED USER'S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radionuclide emissions to air. CAP-88 is composed of modified versions of AIRDOS- EPA (Mo79) and DARTAB (ORNL

34

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

State Energy Data System ... the program provided an economic incentive for coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions by installing pollution contro ...

35

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

36

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

Paltsev, Sergey V.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

Paltsev, Sergey

39

Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has… (more)

Limpaitoon, Tanachai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Effects of the Thickness of Niobium Surface Oxide Layers on Field Emission  

SciTech Connect

Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results* seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3 nm up to 460 nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The SFEM experimental results were analyzed in terms of surface morphology and oxide thickness of Nb samples and chemical composition and geographic shape of the emitters. A model based on the classic electromagnetic theory was developed trying to understand the experimental results. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.

A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production: Experience Validating a New GHG Offset Protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project report describes in part the second phase (years four through six, 2010–2012) of a two-phase, six-year long EPRI-sponsored research project entitled “Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions.” This project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the ...

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles and infrared emissivity study thereon  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles was carried out in water-acetone solution at volumetric ratio of 1:1 with pH value varying from 3.2 to 9.3. As indicated by TGA, maximum collagen adsorption to indium oxide nanoparticles occurred at pH of 3.2. It was proposed that noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions made main contributions to collagen adsorption. The IR emissivity values (8-14 {mu}m) of collagen-adsorbed indium oxide nanoparticles decreased significantly compared to either pure collagen or indium oxide nanoparticles possibly due to the interfacial interactions between collagen and indium oxide nanoparticles. And the lowest infrared emissivity value of 0.587 was obtained at collagen adsorption of 1.94 g/100 g In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the chance of improved compatibility with organic adhesives, the chemical activity of adsorbed collagen was further confirmed by grafting copolymerization with methyl methacrylate by formation of polymer shell outside, as evidenced by IR spectrum and transmission electron microscopy.

Zhou Yuming [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)], E-mail: fchem@seu.edu.cn; Shan Yun; Sun Yanqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Ju Huangxian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

44

ROTOR END CAP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

Rushing, F.C.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

CENTRIFUGE END CAP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

1960-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Zinc ion and neutral emission from single crystal zinc oxide during 193-nm excimer laser exposure  

SciTech Connect

Mass resolved time-of-flight measurements on neutral zinc atoms and zinc ions show energetic ions and neutrals during 193-nm irradiation of single crystals of semiconducting zinc oxide. Typical Zn+ kinetic energies are 3-5 eV. At fluences (energy per unit area per pulse) below 200 mJ/cm2, the ion intensities (per laser pulse) decrease monotonically to low values with laser pulse number. The depletion kinetics change from exponential to second order near 50 mJ/cm2. We attribute this change to the annihilation of defects yielding Zn+ emission when Zn+ or other surface defects become mobile. At fluences between 200 and 300 mJ/cm2, Zn+ emission becomes more sustained due to defects created by the laser. In this same fluence range, we observe the onset of detectable neutral atomic zinc emission. These neutral atoms display Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic energy distributions w th effective surface temperatures that approach 5000 K as the fluence is raised to 350 mJ/cm2. These high surface temperatures are remarkable given the low etch rates observed at these fluences, suggesting that heated layer is extremely thin. We propose emission mechanisms and experiments to resolve outstanding questions.

Kahn, E. H. [Washington State University; Langford, S. C. [Washington State University; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

2001-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

48

H/sub. cap alpha. / studies on TFTR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission is a useful indicator of hydrogen ionization since the energy required to excite hydrogen to the n = 3 level is approximately the same as to ionize the hydrogen atom. Other aspects of recycling, such as plasma scrape-off parameters, wall particle fluxes, and wall retention rates can be inferred from spatial distributions of H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission. There are two H/sub ..cap alpha../ diagnostics on TFTF observing the inner limiter: a relatively calibrated wide-angle TV camera, and the absolutely calibrated HAIFA diagnostic, both viewing the inner limiter. H/sub ..cap alpha../ observations by these instruments have been analyzed using the DEGAS neutral transport code. The core recycling rate, and ion and neutral particle limiter fluxes, have been deduced from the calculations. The results are very sensitive to the ion flux distribution, and therefore also provide information on the plasma scrape-off conditions. A survey was made of over 500 TFTR discharges. H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission appears to increase in proportion to /bar n//sub e//sup 2/. The ratio of core ionization to average H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission was calculated to be roughly constant over a large range of discharges. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Heifetz, D.B.; Ehrhardt, A.B.; Ramsey, A.T.; Dylla, H.F.; Budny, R.; McNeill, D.; Medley, S.; Ulrickson, M.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

50

ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

51

Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...

Morris, Jennifer

53

Operational Compliance Levers, Environmental Performance, and Firm Performance Under Cap and Trade Regulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cap and trade programs impose limits on industry emissions but offer individual firms the flexibility to choose among different operational levers toward compliance, including inputs, process changes, and the use of allowances to account for emissions. ... Keywords: cap and trade, empirical research, environmental compliance, environmental operations, public policy

James Kroes; Ravi Subramanian; Ramanath Subramanyam

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of transition metal oxides. The process comprises reacting a metal cupferron complex of the formula M Cup, wherein M is a transition metal, and Cup is a cupferron, with a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 250 to about 300 C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction.

Alivisatos, A Paul (Berkeley, CA); Rockenberger, Joerg (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Incomplete Environmental Regulation, Imperfect Competition, and Emissions Leakage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nia’ electricity sector under a source-based cap-and-tradeand-trade program limiting GHG emissions from electricityelectricity markets represent the majority of emissions currently targeted by regional cap-and-trade

Fowlie, Meredith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Neutron Emission Characteristics of Two Mixed-Oxide Fuels: Simulations and Initial Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate the neutron emission characteristics of two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and it's Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. This analysis used the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and energy spectra of the different neutron source terms within these fuels, and then used this data to simulate the detection and measurement of these emissions using an array of liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers. These calculations accounted for neutrons generated from the spontaneous fission of the actinides in the MOX fuel as well as neutrons created via (alpha,n) reactions with oxygen in the MOX fuel. The analysis was carried out to allow for characterization of both neutron energy as well as neutron coincidences between multiple detectors. Coincidences between prompt gamma rays and neutrons were also analyzed. Experiments were performed at INL with the same materials used in the simulations to benchmark and begin validation tests of the simulations. Data was collected in these experiments using an array of four liquid scintillators and a high-speed waveform digitizer. Advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms were developed and used to collect this data. Results of the simulation and modeling studies are presented together with preliminary results from the experimental campaign.

D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury; E. M. Gantz

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions  

SciTech Connect

The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

60

Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning is an in-furnace, combustion control technology for NOx reduction. Another environmental issue that needs to be addressed is the rapidly growing feedlot industry in the United States. The production of biomass from one or more animal species is in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered. It is expected to utilize biomass as a low-cost, substitute fuel and an agent to control emission. The successful development of this technology will create environment-friendly, low cost fuel source for the power industry, provide means for an alternate method of disposal of biomass, and generate a possible revenue source for feedlot operators. In the present study, the effect of coal, cattle manure or feedlot biomass, and blends of biomass with coal on the ability to reduce NOx were investigated in the Texas A&M University 29.31 kW (100,000 Btu/h) reburning facility. The facility used a mixture of propane and ammonia to generate the 600 ppm NOx in the primary zone. The reburn fuel was injected using air. The stoichiometry tested were 1.00 to 1.20 in the reburn zone. Two types of injectors, circular jet and fan spray injectors, which produce different types of mixing within the reburn zone, were studied to find their effect on NOx emissions reduction. The flat spray injector performed better in all cases. With the injection of biomass as reburn fuel with circular jet injector the maximum NOx reduction was 29.9 % and with flat spray injector was 62.2 %. The mixing time was estimated in model set up as 936 and 407 ms. The maximum NOx reduction observed with coal was 14.4 % and with biomass it was 62.2 % and the reduction with blends lay between that of coal and biomass.

Arumugam, Senthilvasan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Equilibrium magnetic states in individual hemispherical permalloy caps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetization distributions in individual soft magnetic permalloy caps on non-magnetic spherical particles with sizes ranging from 50 to 800 nm are investigated. We experimentally visualize the magnetic structures at the resolution limit of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). By analyzing the so-called tail contrast in XMCD-PEEM, the spatial resolution is significantly enhanced, which allowed us to explore magnetic vortices and their displacement on curved surfaces. Furthermore, cap nanostructures are modeled as extruded hemispheres to determine theoretically the phase diagram of equilibrium magnetic states. The calculated phase diagram agrees well with the experimental observations.

Streubel, Robert; Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Radiophysics Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Makarov, Denys [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kronast, Florian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

63

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: EnergyCAP Enterprise  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enterprise Enterprise EnergyCAP Enterprise logo. Designed to be the foremost energy information software available for total integration and management of an organization's diverse utility bill and energy management needs. EnergyCAP offers the full range of capabilities: bill tracking, manual and EDI entry, interface to A/P for bill payment, ENERGY STAR® automated data submittal, workflow system for user-defined bill approval processes, automatic bill auditing system, correct "to-the-penny" rate schedules, interval data tracking and analysis, tracking of production (or any other independent variables), greenhouse gas emissions tracking, cost avoidance calculations (measurement and verification [M&V]), submeter tracking, virtual meter formulas, tenant

64

Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies

J. Alan Beamon

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States). Sustainable Enterprise Program

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cells to Advance Zero-Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 percent, focus on solving the remaining issues in developing solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for commercial use. "The President's Hydrogen and Climate Initiatives envision...

67

Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Green emission at around 500 nm is observed in Gd2O3:Ce3+ nanoparticles and the intensity is highly dependent on the concentration of Ce3+ in the nanoparticles. The luminescence of this emission displays both picosecond and millisecond lifetimes. The msec lifetime is over four orders of magnitude longer than typical luminescence lifetimes (10-40 ns) of Ce3+ in traditional Ce3+ doped phosphors and therefore likely originates from defect states. The picosecond lifetime is shorter than the typical Ce3+ value and is also likely due to defect or surface states. When the samples are annealed at 700 oC, this emission disappears possibly due to changes in the defect moieties or concentration. In addition, a blue emission at around 430 nm is observed in freshly-prepared Gd2O3 undoped nanoparticles which is attributed to the stabilizer, polyethylene glycol biscarboxymethyl ether. Upon aging, the undoped particles show similar emission to the doped particles with similar luminescence lifetimes. When Eu3+ ions are co-doped in Gd2O3:Ce nanoparticles, both the green emission and the emission at 612 nm from Eu3+ are observed.

Woo, Boon K.; Joly, Alan G.; Chen, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Power Plant Emission Reductions Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard by J. Alan Beamon, Tom Leckey, and Laura Martin There are many policy instruments available for reducing power plant emissions, and the choice of a policy will affect compliance decisions, costs, and prices faced by consumers. In a previous analysis, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, assuming a policy instru- ment patterned after the SO 2 allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 1 This report compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard (GPS) as an instrument for reducing CO 2 emissions. 2 In general, the results of the two analyses are similar: to reduce

70

Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of vanadium oxides and related compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithium-ion battery comprises a lithium containing transition metal oxide (TMO) cathode,ion battery using a Li- TMO cathode [95] (e.g. LiCoO 2 ), lithium

Schmitt, Thorsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated, socioeconomic biogeophysical model is used to analyze the interactions of cap-and-trade legislation and the Renewable Fuels Standard. Five alternative policy scenarios were considered with the purpose of identifying policies that act in a synergistic manner to reduce carbon emissions, increase economic returns to agriculture, and adequately meet ethanol mandates. We conclude that climate and energy policies can best be implemented together by offering carbon offset payments to conservation tillage, herbaceous grasses for biomass, and by constraining crop residue removal for ethanol feedstocks to carbon neutral level. When comparing this scenario to the Baseline scenario, the agricultural sector realizes an economic benefit of US$156 billion by 2030 and emissions are reduced by 135 Tg C-equivalent (Eq) yr 1. Results also indicate that geographic location of cellulosic feedstocks could shift significantly depending on the final policies implemented in cap and trade legislation. Placement of cellulosic ethanol facilities should consider these possible shifts when determining site location.

Hellwinckel, Chad [Agricultural Policy Analysis Center, University of Tennessee; de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [University of Tennessee; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; West, T. O. [University of Maryland

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Emissions allowance prices for SO 2 and NO X remained low in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Emissions allowances are a component of policy tools used to reduce emissions of air pollutants such as SO 2 or NO X. Such programs cap the total ...

73

Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure generally resulting in decreased CO2 over land and increased CO2 over the oceans. Since these CO2 emissions are omitted or misrepresented in most inverse modeling work to date, their implementation in forward simulations should lead to improved inverse modeling estimates of terrestrial biospheric fluxes.

Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Wecht, K. J. [Harvard University; Yantosca, R. M. [Harvard University; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Machida, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Matsueda, H [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Long-Term Engineered Cap Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary Notes from 22 July 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Long-Term Engineered Cap Performance

76

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains a minimum of 92 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CAP Program Guidance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAP Program Guidance CAP Program Guidance CAP Program Guidance In 2002, the Department of Energy signed an interagency agreement with the Department of Defense's Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program (CAP) program to provide assistive/adaptive technology free of charge to DOE employees with disabilities. The following information regarding CAP is being provided to assist federal employees, managers and on- site disability coordinators with the CAP application process. CAP Program Guidance Responsible Contacts Suzanne Piper LEAD EMPLOYEE WORK LIFE SPECIALIST E-mail suzanne.piper@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-8515 More Documents & Publications DOE Reasonable Accommodation Procedures Desk Reference on DOE-Flex Operational Plan and Desktop Reference for the Disability Employment

80

CAP Program Guidance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAP Program Guidance CAP Program Guidance CAP Program Guidance In 2002, the Department of Energy signed an interagency agreement with the Department of Defense's Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program (CAP) program to provide assistive/adaptive technology free of charge to DOE employees with disabilities. The following information regarding CAP is being provided to assist federal employees, managers and on- site disability coordinators with the CAP application process. CAP Program Guidance Responsible Contacts Suzanne Piper LEAD EMPLOYEE WORK LIFE SPECIALIST E-mail suzanne.piper@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-8515 More Documents & Publications DOE Reasonable Accommodation Procedures Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Operational Plan and Desktop Reference for the Disability Employment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

John J. Conti

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

California’s first greenhouse gas emissions auction sells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel ... The Cap and Trade program intends to limit GHG emissions to an annual target of 427 million metric tons (mmt) ...

83

EPA rule requires SO 2 emissions reduction from Texas coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Starting in 2012, power plants in 23 states must meet new sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions caps in order to comply with the Cross State Air Pollution ...

84

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

85

A cheap and effective CO{sub 2} cap-and-trade for electricity  

SciTech Connect

Now that debate has shifted from regional toward federal cap-and-trade policy, it's time to reintroduce the idea of using reduction credits rather than allowances to drive emission reductions. A credit system appears to work well to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions with minimal compliance cost - and without windfall, wealth transfer, or market power concerns. It also provides a strong incentive for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and a ready means to harmonize a federal cap-and-trade with state and federal renewable energy portfolio requirements. (author)

Michel, Steven

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Capping of Water Wells for Future Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water wells that are not being used, but that might be needed in the future, can be sealed with a cap that covers the top of the well casing pipe to prevent unauthorized access and contamination of the well. This publication explains how to cap a well safely and securely.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

88

Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated, socioeconomic biogeophysical model is used to analyze the interactions of cap-and-trade legislation and the Renewable Fuels Standard. Five alternative policy scenarios were considered with the purpose of identifying policies that act in a synergistic manner to reduce carbon emissions, increase economic returns to agriculture, and adequately meet ethanol mandates.We conclude that climate and energy policies can best be implemented together by offering carbon offset payments to conservation tillage, herbaceous grasses for biomass, and by constraining crop residue removal for ethanol feedstocks to carbon neutral level.

Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Perlack, Robert D.

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

89

Population Files for use with CAP88 at Los Alamos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CAP88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988) is a computer model developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the potential dose from radionuclide emissions to air and to demonstrate compliance with the Clean Air Act. It has options to calculate either individual doses, in units of mrem, or a collective dose, also called population dose, in units of person-rem. To calculate the collective dose, CAP88 uses a population file such as LANL.pop, that lists the number of people in each sector (N, NNE, NE, etc.) as a function of distance (1 to 2 km, etc.) out to a maximum radius of 80 km. Early population files are described in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Environmental Reports for 1985 (page 14) and subsequent years. LA-13469-MS describes a population file based on the 1990 census. These files have been updated several times, most recently in 2006 for CAP88 version 3. The 2006 version used the US census for 2000. The present paper describes the 2012 updates, using the 2010 census.

McNaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

90

Wind Developer's Perspective on Incorporating Wind in Cap and Trade Program  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Developer's Perspective Developer's Perspective on Incorporating Wind in Cap & Trade Programs January 12, 2006 Kevin Rackstraw Clipper Windpower, Inc. Clipper Windpower, Inc. 301/263 301/263- -0028 0028 krackstraw@clipperwind.com krackstraw@clipperwind.com About Clipper Windpower * Founded by James Dehlsen, a wind energy pioneer and recognized world leader in the wind industry, and founder of the company that is now GE Wind * Team is one of the most experienced in the business * Both a developer of wind projects and manufacturer of large wind turbines * Over $1.5 billion of wind projects developed * Another $4 billion of wind projects in the development pipeline Motivations * Emissions reduction claims: * In cap and trade states, neither we nor our marketers can state that we reduce capped emissions w/out allowances

91

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Proto col for US Midwest Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Status: Published Citation: Millar, N; Robertson, GP; Grace, PR; Gehl, RJ; and Hoben, JP. 2010. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for US Midwest Agriculture. In Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change,Volume 15, Number 2, 2010, pp. 185-204. Link to Journal Publication: See Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

92

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Redu ction Protocol for U.S. Midwest Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Status: Published Citation: Millar, N; Robertson, GP; Grace, PR; Gehl, RJ; and Hoben; JP. 2010. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for U.S. Midwest Agriculture. In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Volume 15, Number 2, 2010, pp. 185-204. A peer-reviewed journal article that identifies, describes and analyzes socio-economic factors that may encourage or inhibit farmers from participat...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

94

EPA 402-B-92-001 USER'S GUIDE FOR CAP88-PC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions to air. CAP-88 is composed of modified versions of AIRDOS-EPA (Mo79) and DARTAB (ORNL5692 of Radionuclides", (Reprint of ORNL-5532), EPA 520/1-79-009, U.S. EPA Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D

95

WORKINGPAPER SERIES Number 150CAP AND DIVIDEND: HOW TO CURB GLOBAL WARMING WHILE PROTECTING THE INCOMES OF AMERICAN FAMILIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This essay examines the distributional effects of a “cap-and-dividend ” policy for reducing carbon emission in the United States: a policy that auctions carbon permits and rebates the revenue to the public on an equal per capita basis. The aim of the policy is to reduce U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide, the main pollutant causing global warming, while at the same time protecting the real incomes of middle-income and lower-income American families. The number of permits is set by a statutory cap on carbon emissions that gradually diminishes over time. The sale of carbon permits will generate very large revenues, posing the critical question of who will get the money. The introduction of carbon permits – or, for that matter, any policy to curb emissions – will raise prices of fossil fuels, Key words: Global warming; fossil fuels; climate change; carbon permits; cap-and-dividend; cap-and-auction; cap-and-trade. and have a regressive impact on income distribution, since fuel expenditures represent a larger fraction of income for lower-income households than for upper-income households. The net effect of carbon emission-reduction policies depends on who gets the money that households pay in higher prices. We find that a cap-and-dividend policy would have a strongly progressive net effect. Moreover, the majority of U.S. households would be net winners in purely monetary terms: that is, their real incomes, after paying higher fuel prices and receiving their dividends, would rise. From the standpoints of both distributional equity and political feasibility, a cap-and-dividend policy is therefore an attractive way to curb carbon emissions. s s

James K. Boyce; Matthew Riddle; James K. Boyce; Matthew Riddle

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The bumpy road to federal CO{sub 2} caps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January and February 2007 members of the US Congress introduced a number of carbon capture and trade bills that compete with each other to impose the most stringent standards possible. Soon after, the Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, called for consideration of a bill by the full House by the summer. Two issues have been resolved so far: any greenhouse gas reduction program almost certainly will be mandatory, and it appears likely that regulation of the electric power sector's CO{sub 2} emissions will be via a cap and trade system. Many other issues remain. Eight of these are discussed in the article. They include: where in the energy supply chain should greenhouse gas emissions be regulated? and, How should the burden of greenhouse gas reduction be shared with the electricity industry?

Gannett, C.; Adamson, D. [Davis Wright Tremaine LLP, Seattle, WA (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

See, Wee Chiang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

SciTech Connect

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

CapStar Health System Feedback Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and CapStar's daily briefings are patterned after those of a hotel industry leader. ... results on readmission rates shown in Figure 7.4-5, the utility of the ...

2013-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

CeCap LLP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name CeCap LLP Place London, United Kingdom Zip W1S 2LQ Product London-based investment boutique which provides investment advice to, and invests in, small to mediun size...

102

Will a Carbon Cap Undermine Standards?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Will a Carbon Cap Undermine Standards? Speaker(s): Steven Stoft Date: March 31, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Germany's Green Party realized over a year ago that "the EEG...

103

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

Li, Liyu; King, David L.

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

104

Effects of Emissions Reductions on Ozone Predictions by the Regional Oxidant Model during the July 1988 Episode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Oxidant Model, ROM2.2, was applied to a 2?10 July 1988 episode to test the regional episodic ozone response to different combinations of the across-the-board nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile ...

Shao-Hang Chu; William M. Cox

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH{sub 4}. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH{sub 4} oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m{sup 2} were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH{sub 4} load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH{sub 4} was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH{sub 4} emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH{sub 4} emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH{sub 4} mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Chanton, Jeffrey, E-mail: jchanton@fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, 117 N. Woodward Avenue, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306-4320 (United States); Pedersen, Gitte Bukh, E-mail: gbp@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Emissions & Emission Controls - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions and Emission Controls In conjunction with the research efforts at FEERC to improve fuel efficiency and reduce petroleum use, research on emissions is conducted with two...

107

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: EMISS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Three types of emission factors are currently included: carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide. Emissions factors are specified separately for six different end-use...

108

Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

Wagner, Martin G. (Wilmington, DE)

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

109

Sediment Capping Resource Guide for Manufactured Gas Plant Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes tools and techniques applicable to design and implementation of sediment capping remedies at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. It includes a number of practical case studies describing cap designs and cap construction experience. The report is intended as a sediment capping resource guide to be used with EPRI's 2007 Handbook of Remedial Alternatives for MGP Sites with Contaminated Sediments (EPRI report 1012592).

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers X Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment March 2000 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

111

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

112

Edge region hydrogen line emission in the PDX tokamak  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ line shape and of the spatial distribution of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ emissivity in the PDX tokamak are interpreted in terms of molecular dissociation reactions at the plasma edge. The influx of molecules is shown to be roughly proportional to the edge emission intensity over a wide range of temperatures. The H/sub 2/ particle lifetime is estimated for various types of discharges in PDX.

McNeill, D.H.; Bell, M.G.; Grek, B.; LeBlanc, B.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Edge region hydrogen line emission in the PDX tokamak  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ line shape and of the spatial distribution of H/sub ..cap alpha../ emissivity in the PDX tokamak are interpreted in terms of molecular dissociation reactions at the plasma edge. The in-flux of molecules is shown to be roughly proportional to the edge emission intensity over a wide range of temperatures. The H/sub 2/ particle lifetime is estimated for various types of discharges in PDX.

McNeill, D.H.; Bell, M.G.; Grek, B.; LeBlanc, B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Place Cape May Court House, New Jersey Zip 8210 Product The CMCMUA was created to design, construct and operate efficient wastewater treatment facilities. References Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority is a company located in Cape May Court House, New Jersey . References ↑ "Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Cap_May_County_Municipal_Utilities_Authority&oldid=343207"

115

Energy Efficiency in CO2 Emissions Trading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update explores methods to account for carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reductions specifically associated with the implementation of energy efficiency programs into greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading or offset markets. It focuses on how to understand, account for, quantify, verify, and optimize how electricity savings may both reduce CO2 emissions and potentially be granted credits for CO2 savings that may be traded in cap-and-trade regimes.

2008-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

116

Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

117

MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report  

SciTech Connect

Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

Livingston, Jamie T. (Simpsonville, SC); Driver, Howard D. (Greer, SC); van Breugel, Sjef (Enschede, NL); Jenkins, Thomas B. (Cantonment, FL); Bakhuis, Jan Willem (Nijverdal, NL); Billen, Andrew J. (Daarlerveen, NL); Riahi, Amir (Pensacola, FL)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of the surface chemical and electronic states of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystal films after plasma treatments using H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar gases  

SciTech Connect

Surface chemical bonding and the electronic states of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystal films were evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy before and after plasma treatments using H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar gases from the viewpoint of studying the effects of surface capping organic molecules and surface oxidation. Surface capping organic molecules could be removed during the plasma treatment due to the chemical reactivity, ion energy transfer, and vacuum UV (VUV) of the plasma gases. With O{sub 2} plasma treatment, surface capping organic molecules were effectively removed but substantial oxidation of CdSe occurred during the plasma treatment. The valence band maximum energy (E{sub VBM}) of CdSe nanocrystal films mainly depends on the apparent size of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystals, which controls the interparticle distance, and also on the oxidation of CdSe nanocrystals. Cd-rich surface in O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treatments partially would compensate for the decrease in E{sub VBM}. After Ar plasma treatment, the smallest value of E{sub VBM} resulted from high VUV photon flux, short wavelength, and ion energy transfer. The surface bonding states of CdSe had a strong influence on the electronic structure with the efficient strip of capping molecules as well as different surface oxidations and surface capping molecule contents.

Wang, Seok-Joo; Kim, Hyuncheol; Park, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Young-Su; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Chang, Ho Jung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Materials Science and Technology Research Division, KIST, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electronics Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan-Si Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Capital Access Program (CAP) (Michigan) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAP) (Michigan) CAP) (Michigan) Capital Access Program (CAP) (Michigan) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Michigan Program Type Loan Program The Capital Access Program (CAP), utilizes public resources to generate private financing for small business in Michigan seeking access to capital.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Blacks and the family cap: pregnancy, abortion, and spillovers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 29, 2006 ... reduction in nonmarital birth rates, particularly among black women. This .... rates are 21% lower among blacks impacted by the family cap.

122

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

123

Cold cap subsidence for in situ vitrification and electrodes therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode for use in in situ vitrification of soil comprises a molybdenum rod received within a conductive sleeve or collar formed of graphite. Electrodes of this type are placed on either side of a region containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil between the electrodes. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the electrode, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing the formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is filled with a conductive ceramic powder of a type that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as the graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquifies at operating temperatures. The molybdenum rod in the former case may be coated with an oxidation protectant, e.g. of molybdenum disilicide. As insulative blanket is suitably placed on the surface of the soil during processing to promote subsidence by allowing off-gassing and reducing surface heat loss. In other embodiments, connection to vitrification electrodes is provided below ground level to avoid loss of connection due to electrodes deterioration, or a sacrificial electrode may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes can be utilized to square up the vitrified area. Further, the center of the molybdenum rod can be made hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquifies at operating temperatures. In one embodiment, the molybdenum rod and the graphite collar are physically joined at the bottom.

Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Carter, John G. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); FitzPatrick, Vincent F. (Richland, WA); Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Morgan, William C. (Richland, WA); Oma, Kenton H. (Richland, WA); Timmerman, Craig L. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Property:CapRockLithology | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CapRockLithology CapRockLithology Jump to: navigation, search Property Name CapRockLithology Property Type String Description Condensed description of the lithology of the cap rock. Subproperties This property has the following 6 subproperties: B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area D Desert Peak Geothermal Area E East Mesa Geothermal Area H Heber Geothermal Area S Salton Sea Geothermal Area Pages using the property "CapRockLithology" Showing 6 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + volcanic; lacustrine sediments + B Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + Hydrothermal alteration layer + G Geysers Geothermal Area + Hydrothermal alteration layer + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + Overlapping a'a' and pahoehoe flows + L Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area + Metasedimentary Landslide Block; Hydrothermal Alteration Layer +

125

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,  nitrogen dioxide, emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, 

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concerning Cap and Trade Programs in Electricity: the CaseCap and Trade Regulation on Congested Electricity Marketcap and trade regu- lation on congested electricity market

Limpaitoon, Tanachai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Proto-Type Global System?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Prototype Global System?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

129

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: EnergyCAP Professional  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Professional Professional EnergyCAP Professional logo. Online software for domestic public school districts (see EnergyCAP Enterprise and Express for other organizations) that need straightforward utility bill tracking, energy management reports and calculation of the cost avoidance attributable to energy management activities. A typical Professional client has 50–1,000 utility accounts and pays $500,000 to $10 million per year. Professional Online is primarily used from one energy management or utilities management office. It uses Microsoft's SQL Server database. Multiple users can access the data simultaneously. EnergyCAP Professional Online is perfect for school districts that need: Verification of utility bills. EnergyCAP's exclusive Bill Auditor checks each bill more than 50 ways for reasonableness.

130

Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach: Incorporating Wind in Cap and Trade  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Incorporating Wind in Cap and Trade Programs Incorporating Wind in Cap and Trade Programs There are various methods of allocating allowances to renewable energy sources under cap and trade programs, such as renewable energy set asides and output-based approaches. Background materials and presentations from the January 12, 2006 Webcast below, provide information on why it is important to include wind and other renewables in cap and trade programs and how best to incorporate them. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, April 2007. January 12, 2006 Webcast: Incorporating Renewable Energy under the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Co-Sponsors American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) U.S. DOE/NREL Wind Powering America

131

Wind blade spar cap and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.

Mohamed, Mansour H. (Raleigh, NC)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cap-and-Trade Properties under Different Scheme Designs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the key design mechanisms of existing and proposed cap-and-trade markets. First, it is shown that the hybrid systems under investigation (safety-valve with offsets, price floor using a subsidy, price ...

Taschini, Luca

133

Property:Incentive/AggrCapLimit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AggrCapLimit AggrCapLimit Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/AggrCapLimit Property Type Text Description Aggregate Capacity Limit. Pages using the property "Incentive/AggrCapLimit" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A APS - Net Metering (Arizona) + 15 MW American Samoa - Net Metering (American Samoa) + 5% of utility's peak demand Ames Electric Department - Net Metering (Iowa) + Carried month to month at retail rate, granted to utility after 12 months Ashland Electric - Net Metering (Oregon) + No limit specified Aspen Electric - Net Metering (Colorado) + Credited to customer's next bill Austin Energy - Net Metering (Texas) + No limit specified (program will be re-evaluated after 1% of load is met) Avista Utilities - Net Metering (Idaho) + 0.1% of utility's peak demand in 1996 (in Idaho)

134

CinCap V LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name CinCap V LLC Place Indiana Utility Id 3539 Utility Location Yes Ownership W NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO NE Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References...

135

Resource Adequacy Requirement: Reserve Margin, Contract Cover, and Price Caps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In setting RARs, some state agencies are proposing reserve margins greater than the pre-restructuring levels. But it would be a mistake to reach this conclusion unless other factors are explicitly considered. A simulation indicates that decisions on the reserve margin, the percentage of forward contract cover, and the level of price caps should not be made in isolation. The results support the conjecture that the higher the contract coverage, the less justifiable are high reserve margins or low price caps.

Rochlin, Cliff; Huang, Jeff

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1994, July 1994--September 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NOx reduction technologies: Advanced overfire air (AOFA), Low NOx burners (LNB), LNB, with AOFA, and Advanced Digital Controls and Optimization Strategies. Baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB plus AOFA test segments have been completed. Based on a preliminary analysis, approximately 17 percent of the incremental change in NOx emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations is the result of AOFA, the balance of the NOx reduction resulting from other operational adjustments. Preliminary diagnostic testing was conducted during August and September. The purpose of these tests was to determine the emissions and performance characteristics of the unit prior to activation of the advanced control/optimization strategies. Short-term, full load NOx emissions were near 0.47 lb/MBtu, slightly higher than that seen during the LNB+AOFA test phase. Long-term NO{sub x} emissions for this quarter averaged near 0.41 lb/MBtu. Due to turbine problems, a four week outage has been planned for Hammond 4 starting October 1. Two on-line carbon-in-ash monitors are being installed at Hammond Unit 4 as part of the Wall-Fired Project. These monitors will be evaluated as to their accuracy, repeatability, reliability, and serviceability.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2004  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2002  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2005  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1994  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1999  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1997  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1998  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2003  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Proceedings: In Situ Contaminated Sediment Capping Workshop: Cincinnati, Ohio, May 12-14, 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In Situ Contaminated Sediment Capping Workshop was designed to provide the most current information and bring about consensus in understanding of a technology that offers one of the few options for remediation of contaminated sediments. These electronic proceedings document workshop sessions on various capping issues, such as site assessment; cap suitability, performance, and design; site monitoring; and research and development in capping.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

150

The interaction of 193-nm excimer laser radiation with single-crystal zinc oxide: The generation of atomic Zn line emission at laser fluences below breakdown  

SciTech Connect

The production of gas phase atomic and ionic line spectra accompanying the high laser fluence irradiation of solid surfaces is well known and is most often due to the production and interaction of high densities of atoms, ions, and electrons generated from laser-induced breakdown. The resulting plasma expands and moves rapidly away from the irradiated spot and is accompanied by intense emission of light. This type of plume is well studied and is frequently exploited in the technique of chemical analysis known as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Here, we describe a similar but weaker emission of light generated in vacuum by the laser irradiation of single crystal ZnO at fluences well below breakdown; this emission consists entirely of optical line emission from excited atomic Zn. We compare the properties of the resulting laser-generated gas-phase light emission (above and below breakdown) and describe a mechanism for the production of the low-fluence optical emission resulting from a fortuitous choice of material and laser wavelength.

Kahn, E. H. [Washington State University, Pullman; Langford, S. C. [Washington State University, Pullman; Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University, Pullman; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter, 1994, October 1994--December 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NOx reduction technologies: Advanced overfire air (AOFA), Low NOx burners (LNB), LNB with AOFA, and Advanced Digital Controls and Optimization Strategies. The project has completed the baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB+AOFA test segments, fulfilling all testing originally proposed to DOE. Analysis of the LNB long-term data collected show the full load NOx emission levels to be near 0.65 lb/MBtu. This NOx level represents a 48 percent reduction when compared to the baseline, full load value of 1.24 lb/MBtu. These reductions were sustainable over the long-term test period and were consistent over the entire load range. Full load, fly ash LOI values in the LNB configuration were near 8 percent compared to 5 percent for baseline. Results from the LNB+AOFA phase indicate that full load NOx emissions are approximately 0.40 lb/MBtu with a corresponding fly ash LOI value of near 8 percent. Although this NOx level represents a 67 percent reduction from baseline levels, a substantial portion of the incremental change in NOx emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations was the result of operational changes and not the result of the AOFA system. Phase 4 of the project is now underway.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions Reductions on Ozone Air Quality over the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone is produced by chemical interactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. At high concentrations, ground-level ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health and to the environment. ...

Edith Gégo; P. Steven Porter; Alice Gilliland; S. Trivikrama Rao

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study  

SciTech Connect

Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Price caps for standard offer service: A hidden stranded cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some utility commissions or legislatures, concerned about mis-estimating the market line when calculating stranded costs, are choosing to require a price-capped standard offer service (SOS) to be offered by utilities in the competitive marketplace. This grants to customers the flexibility to switch from a fixed-price alternative with the utility to (or even to and from) a non-utility power supplier. Given the enormous uncertainty in future power market prices, this flexibility, which is being bestowed free-of-charge to customers, may prove to be of considerable value. Valuation of this SOS flexibility using call option techniques shows that this can be a non-trivial fraction of total stranded costs. The costs of price-capped SOS can be ameliorated through the structure of the price cap. This article describes the option-based techniques for valuing SOS and some approaches to limiting its cost to utilities.

Graves, F.; Liu, P. [Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Brattle Group, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Brattle Group, London (United Kingdom)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cirriform Rotor Cloud Observed on a Canadian Arctic Ice Cap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thin rotor cloud was observed on the lee side of Penny Ice Cap in the Canadian Arctic on 21 April 1996. The cloud consisted of thin cirriform layers, so that its motion was clearly observed. By means of time-lapse camera photography, the ...

Hisashi Ozawa; Kumiko Goto-Azuma; Koyuru Iwanami; Roy M. Koerner

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Bringing Transportation into a Cap-and-Trade Regime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. may at some point adopt a national cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases, and if and when that happens the system of CAFE regulation of vehicle design very likely could still be in place. Imposed independently ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

160

The Physics of the Marine Stratocumulus-Capped Mixed Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to simulate the stratocumulus-capped mixed layer, a one-dimensional stratocumulus model is developed. This model consists of five major points: 1) a one-dimensional (1D) option of the CSU Cloud/Mesoscale Model, 2) a partially diagnostic ...

Chaing Chen; William R. Cotton

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Electron Emission From Slightly Oxidized Delta-stabilized Plutonium Generated by its Radioactivity, and Radiation Induced Ionization and Dissociation of Hydrogen at its Surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy dependent electron emission between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of plutonium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron spectral intensity decreases continuously except for a distinctive feature of unknown origin at approximately 180eV. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases and literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2} second, found to be about 8*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. These results are to be used with caution until complementary measurements can be made, e.g. independent measurement of the total emitted electron current, since the results here are based on the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine angular distribution. That is unlikely to be correct.

Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electron Emission from Slightly Oxidized Depleted Uranium Generated by its Own Radioactivity Measured by Electron Spectroscopy, and Electron-Induced Dissociation and Ionization of Hydrogen Near its Surface.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy dependent electron emission (counts per second) between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of uranium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron intensity decreases continuously with energy, but at different rates in different energy regimes, suggesting that a variety of processes may be involved in producing the observed electron emission. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e-/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The flux decreased rapidly from {approx}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s in the energy range from zero to 200 eV, and then more slowly from {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}3*10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2} s in the range from 200 to 1400 eV. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases together with literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2}s within the inelastic mean free path of electrons, and found to be about 1.3*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. An estimate of the number of ionization and dissociation reactions occurring within the total range, rather than the mean free path of electrons in gases resulted in 6.2*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.3*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively. The total energy flux carried by electrons from the surface is suspiciously close to the total possible energy generated by one gram of uranium. A likely source of error is the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine distribution. Angular distribution measurements of the electron emission would check that assumption, and actual measurement of the total current emanating from the surface are needed to confirm the value of the current calculated in section II. These results must therefore be used with caution - until they are confirmed by other measurements.

Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

163

"Case Name","CO2 Fees",,"Cap and Trade","Fee/Allowance Revenue...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Table 1. CO2 FeeCap and Trade Runs for AEO Supplement" "Case Name","CO2 Fees",,"Cap and Trade","FeeAllowance Revenue Treatment",,,"Offsets" ,"Start ()","Real Rate of...

164

Gas turbine plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

Many cogeneration facilities use gas turbines combined with heat recovery boilers, and the number is increasing. At the start of 1986, over 75% of filings for new cogeneration plants included plans to burn natural gas. Depending on the geographic region, gas turbines are still one of the most popular prime movers. Emissions of pollutants from these turbines pose potential risks to the environment, particularly in geographical areas that already have high concentrations of cogeneration facilities. Although environmental regulations have concentrated on nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in the past, it is now necessary to evaluate emission controls for other pollutants as well.

Davidson, L.N.; Gullett, D.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Long-Run Equilibrium Modeling of Alternative Emissions Allowance Allocation Systems in Electric Power Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

periods: T = 20 periods per year, each Ht = 438 hours in length • Demands: dt(pt) = at ? btpt, with at = 500t and bt = t/2 • Nonpower emission: eNP (pe) = 0 • Generator types: i = 1 (coal steam), 2 (natural gas-fired combined cycle), and 3 (natural gas... -fired combustion turbine) • Minimal generation: CAP1 = 0 MW, CAP2 = 0 MW, and CAP3 = 0 MW • Marginal costs: MC1 = 20 $/MWh, MC2 = 40 $/MWh, and MC3 = 80 $/MWh • Investment costs: F1 = 120, 000 $/MW/yr, F2 = 75, 000 $/MW/yr, and F3 = 50, 000 $/MW/yr • Firms...

Schulkin, Jinye Z; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Pang, Jong-Shi

167

Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Incorporating Wind Generation in Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs Joel Bluestein Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. Elizabeth Salerno American Wind Energy Association Lori Bird and Laura Vimmerstedt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-500-40006 July 2006 Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs Joel Bluestein Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. Elizabeth Salerno American Wind Energy Association Lori Bird and Laura Vimmerstedt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. WER6 6006 Technical Report NREL/TP-500-4006 July 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

168

Gamma-ray Pulsars in a Modified Polar Cap Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a polar-cap model which incorporates a likely acceleration of Sturrock pairs with their subsequent contribution to gamma-ray luminosity L_gamma. This model reproduces L_gamma for seven pulsars detected with Compton Gamma Ray Observatory experiments, avoiding at the same time the problem of the empirical gamma-ray death line of Arons (1996). Also, we estimate the efficiency of reversing newly created positrons by residual longitudinal electric field. Over the wide range of spin-down luminosity values the predicted polar-cap X-ray luminosity L_X(pc) goes as L_sd^{0.6}. Model calculations for B0823+26, B0950+08, B1929+10, and J0437-4715 are compared with existing observational constraints on thermal X-ray components.

B. Rudak; J. Dyks

1997-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

169

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor (CAP). Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power systems operations and maintenance currently face an ever-increasing need for a high level of computerized support. This paper is the final report of a research and development effort undertaken by the Bonneville Power Administration to develop a computerized decision support system to aid operations and maintenance personnel isolate and diagnose faults on a microwave communication system used for centralized dispatch operations. The system, called CAP for Communication Alarm Processor, provides statistical analysis of microwave communication system alarms, as well as an expert system capability for fault isolation and diagnosis. CAP is implemented on a DEC VAX Station 3100 computer, utilizing both knowledge-based programming principles as well as conventional programming techniques.

MacGregor, D.G. [MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (United States); Goeltz, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Are price caps the answer for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

There is no widely acceptable alternative to traditional rate-base/rate-of-return regulation. The industry is keenly interested in the experiment currently unfolding in the telephone industry: the price cap approach being followed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in regulating AT and T, and by many states in regulating local telephone companies. This approach offers an interesting and possibly useful alternative to traditional utility regulation.

Silverman, L.P. (McKinsey and Co., Washington, DC (United States)); Wenner, D.L.; Peters, R.S. (McKinsey and Company, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1991-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

EIA - AEO2010 - Emissions projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions Projections Emissions Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Emissions Projections Figure 93. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 94. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 95. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Growth of carbon dioxide emissions slows in the projections Federal and State energy policies recently enacted will stimulate increased use of renewable technologies and efficiency improvements in the future, slowing the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions through 2035. In the Reference case, emissions do not exceed pre-recession 2007 levels until 2025. In 2035, energy-related CO2 emissions total 6,320 million metric tons, about 6 percent higher than in 2007 and 9 percent higher than in 2008 (Figure 93). On average, emissions in the Reference case grow by 0.3 percent per year from 2008 to 2035, compared with 0.7 percent per year from 1980 to 2008.

172

Just the Basics: Vehicle Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Are Exhaust Are Exhaust Emissions? In most heavily settled areas of the U.S., the personal automobile is the single greatest producer of harmful vehicle exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are generated by the fuel-air mixture burning in internal combus- tion engines, both gasoline-powered and diesel-powered. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation within the vehicle when it is stopped, and again during fueling. The constituents of car (gasoline and diesel) and truck (diesel) emissions vary depending on fuel type and indi- vidual vehicle operating characteris- tics. The bulk of vehicular emissions are composed of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen (in unconsumed air). There are other pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel, and

173

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

174

ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

175

Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

Carl Richardson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

Perez, Alberto, Jr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007) Long?term changes in emissions of nitrogen oxides and of alternative fuel  vehicles: emissions, energy,  and cost Its Effect On CO 2   Emissions.  Transport Policy, 1, 125?

Sathaye, Nakul; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000 Executive Summary  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Executive Summary on the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions | ENERGY...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methane, and nitrous oxide) from on-site fuel combustion and purchased electricity and district heating and cooling. Portfolio Manager also enables tracking of avoided emissions...

180

electricity emission factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emission factors emission factors Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

182

New England Wind Forum: Pollutant Emission Reduction Policies  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Pollutant Emission Reduction Policies Pollutant Emission Reduction Policies Emissions Markets Emission markets are a tool used on a state, regional, national, or global basis to limit emissions of various pollutants and greenhouse gases, typically in an approach referred to as "cap-and-trade". Several programs are in place or being developed that apply to electric generation sources in New England. In some of these programs, a wind generator can apply for and receive a form of tradable emission rights (usually in the form of set-aside allowances) in recognition of emissions a wind generator displaces on the system. In these cases, tradable emission rights have a market value and can be sold to bring a supplemental revenue stream to a wind generator. In other programs (such as the federal sulfur dioxide (SO2) program) in which participation is limited to emitters, wind generators cannot directly participate in programs, but the program drives up the cost of all emitting generation technologies, making wind power more competitive. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management has information about clean-air activities and initiatives in New England. The Environmental Protection Agency provides information about state and regional cap-and-trade programs for various pollutants.

183

MFTF-. cap alpha. +T end plug magnet design  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the end-plug magnets for MFTF-..cap alpha..+T is described. MFTF-..cap alpha..+ T is a near-term upgrade of MFTF-B, which features new end plugs to improve performance. The Fusion Engineering Design Center has performed the engineering design of MFTF-..cap alpha..+T under the overall direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Each end plug consists of two Yin-Yang pairs, each with approx.2.5:1 mirror ratio and approx.5-T peak field on axis; two transition coils; and a recircularizing solenoid. This paper describes the end-plug magnet system functional requirements and presents a conceptual design that meets them. The peak field at the windings of the end-plug coils is approx.6-T. These coils are designed using the NbTi MFTF-B conductor and cooled by a 4.2K liquid helium bath. All the end-plug magnets are designed to operate in the cryostable mode with adequate quench protection for safety. Shielding requirements are stated and a summary of heat loads is provided. Field and force calculations are discussed. The field on axis is shown to meet the functional requirements. Force resultants are reported in terms of winding running loads and resultant coil forces are also given. The magnet structural support is described. A trade study to determine the optimum end-cell coil internal nuclear shield thickness and the resulting coil size based on minimizing the end-cell life cycle cost is summarized.

Srivastava, V.C.; O'Toole, J.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Controlling diesel NOx & PM emissions using fuel components and enhanced aftertreatment techniques: developing the next generation emission control system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The following research thesis focuses on methods of controlling nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and particulate matter (PM) emissions emitted from a low temperature diesel exhaust. This… (more)

Gill, Simaranjit Singh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

186

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

187

Zero emission coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Assessment of soil capping for phosphogypsum stack reclamation at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Phosphogypsum (PG), an acidic byproduct of phosphoric acid production during phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked on the facilities and capped with soil at decommissioning.… (more)

Jackson, Mallory E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Diesel hybridization and emissions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Organically Capped Silicon Nanoparticles with Blue Photoluminescence Prepared by Hydrosilylation Followed by Oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-11 plasma decomposition of silane,12,13 and vapor-phase thermal decomposition of silane or disilane.14-16 Si

Swihart, Mark T.

191

Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The AEO2006 reference case assumes that States will comply with the requirements of the EPAs new CAMR regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

Information Center

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Performance oriented packaging report for M6 electric blasting cap. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This POP report is for the M6 Electric Blasting Cap which is packaged 180/ Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted. Performance Oriented Packaging, POP, M6 Electric Blasting Cap, Mil-B-2427 wood box.

Sniezek, F.M.

1992-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

193

Performance oriented packaging report for M7 non-electric blasting cap. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This POP report is for the M7 Non-Electric Blasting Cap which is packaged 480/Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted. Performance Oriented Packaging, POP, M7 Non-Electric Blasting Cap, Mil-B-2427 Wood box.

Sniezek, F.M.

1992-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

194

Novel dielectric capping layer approach for advanced copper interconnects using chemical grafting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its low bulk resistivity copper has become the material of choice for ULSI interconnects. However its high diffusivity in dielectrics and weak chemical bonding to low-k materials require a capping layer as diffusion barrier and to improve adhesion. ... Keywords: Adhesion, Capping, Chemical grafting, Electromigration

I. Bispo; B. Couturier; P. H. Haumesser; P. Mangiagalli; H. Monchoix; G. Passemard; C. Peyne; S. Roy; N. Thieriet; P. Rabinzohn; C. Bureau

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Call Pre-Announcement for the first ERA-CAPS joint research call  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Call Pre-Announcement for the first ERA-CAPS joint research call: "Expanding the European Research in national policies whilst continuing to fund excellent research in this area by means of two joint calls. In this first joint ERA-CAPS call, 14 funding organisations from 14 countries are participating1

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

196

Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy technologies? To investigate this question I focus on how a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) interacts

197

TurboCap: A Batteryless, Supercapacitor-based Power Supply for Mini-FDPM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TurboCap: A Batteryless, Supercapacitor-based Power Supply for Mini-FDPM Chulsung Park1 , KeunsikCap, a batteryless, supercapacitor-based power supply subsystem for a handheld, laser-based breast cancer detector on the selection of supercapacitor topology for conversion efficiency and for form- factor minimization

Shinozuka, Masanobu

198

PGCapping: exploiting power gating for power capping and core lifetime balancing in CMPs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimizing the performance of a chip multiprocessor (CMP) within a power cap has recently received a lot of attention. However, most existing solutions rely solely on DVFS, which is anticipated to have only limited actuation ranges in the future. Power ... Keywords: chip multiprocessor, control theory, lifetime balancing, power capping, power control, power gating

Kai Ma; Xiaorui Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

CO{sub 2} Cap-and-Trade: should industry speak up or sign on?  

SciTech Connect

Should the energy community support cap-and-trade and work for a common sense method of regulation? If cap-and-trade can be expected to be a major policy blunder, would the wiser course be to support a carbon tax rather than become enablers to a failure that later may be laid at the door of the energy community? (author)

Winters, Tobey

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Charge Transfer through Terthiophene End-Capped Poly(arylene ethynylene)s  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transfer through Terthiophene End-Capped Poly(arylene ethynylene)s Transfer through Terthiophene End-Capped Poly(arylene ethynylene)s Alison M. Funston, Eric E. Silverman, John R. Miller, and Kirk S. Schanze J. Phys. Chem. B, 108, 1544 - 1555 (2004). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Two poly(arylene ethynylene)s (PAEs) that are end-capped with a-terthiophene (T3) groups were prepared and structurally characterized by proton NMR, GPC, and optical spectroscopy. One of the polymers (T3PPE13) features a backbone structure that alternates phenylene ethynylene and bis(alkoxy)phenylene ethynylene repeat units. The second T3 end-capped polymer (T3PBpE12) features an alternating structure with biphenylene ethynylene and bis(alkoxy)phenylene ethynylene repeats. The absorption spectra of the T3 end-capped polymers are almost the same as those of the

202

Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, stored, and potentially emitted. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2011, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.01 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included about 90 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley lab operations. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer codes, CAP88-PC and COMPLY, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI).

Wahl, Linnea

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

204

Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles powered by internal combustion engines, which include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and propane vehicles. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A number of factors determine the composition of emissions, including the vehicle's fuel, the engine's technology, the vehicle's exhaust aftertreatment system, and how the vehicle operates. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation during fueling or even when vehicles are

205

Version 2 Global Fire Emissions Database Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Fire Emissions Database Available Global Fire Emissions Database Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2)." This data set, which supersedes and replaces the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 1 (GFEDv1), consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 - December 2004. For more information or to access this data set, please see the Vegetation

206

EIA - AEO2010 - Updated State air emissions regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Updated State air emissions regulations Updated State air emissions regulations Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Updated State air emissions regulations Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast States that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their CO2 emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 mega-watts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted [30]. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009. Each participating State was provided a CO2 budget consisting of a history-based baseline with a cushion for emissions growth, so that meeting the cap is expected to be relatively easy initially and become more stringent in subsequent years. The requirements are expected to cover 95 percent of CO2 emissions from the region's electric power sector. Overall, the RGGI States as a whole must maintain covered emissions at a level of 188 million tons CO2 for the next 4 years, after which a mandatory 2.5-percent annual decrease in CO2 emissions through 2018 is expected to reduce the total for covered CO2 emissions in the RGGI States to 10 percent below the initial calculated bud-get. Although each State was given its own emissions budget, allowances are auctioned at a uniform price across the entire region.

207

Mechanical Stability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are devices that convert chemical energy into electricity with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In case ...

208

Regulatory sequences within DQ. cap alpha. and DQ. beta  

SciTech Connect

The Class II Histocompatibility Antigen DQ is characterized by tissue specific expression, relatively late appearance in development and modulation of expression in response to gamma interferon, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and prostaglandins of the E series. They have utilized the sensitive reporter function of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) in transient expression assays to screen for the presence of regulatory regions within the DQ..cap alpha.. and DQ..beta.. genes. Two regions have been identified which stimulate CAT transcription in transfected cells. One region includes the first intron of DQ..beta.. and the other region brackets the first exon of DQ/sup 2/. These regions are both tissue specific in their stimulation of CAT transcription i.e., both regions stimulate transcription more effectively in a DQ expressing B cell line (BJAB) than in a DQ negative T cell line (Jurkat). Additionally, the CAT plasmids containing the first intron of DQ..beta.. appear to be gamma interferon responsive. Transfection of these plasmids into BJAB followed by treatment of the cells with gamma interferon for 24 hours results in a doubling of the CAT transcription. This increase is analogous to the endogenous DQ response to gamma interferon. These two regions undoubtedly contribute to the complex regulation of DQ expression.

Sullivan, K.; Peterlin, B.M.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

209

A sampling device with a capped body and detachable handle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a device for sampling radioactive waste and more particularly to a device for sampling radioactive waste which prevents contamination of a sampled material and the environment surrounding the sampled material. During vitrification of nuclear wastes, it is necessary to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters filled with radioactive glass. After removal of contamination, a sampling device is used to test the surface of the canister. The one piece sampling device currently in use creates a potential for spreading contamination during vitrification operations. During operations, the one piece sampling device is transferred into and out of the vitrification cell through a transfer drawer. Inside the cell, a remote control device handles the sampling device to wipe the surface of the canister. A one piece sampling device can be contaminated by the remote control device prior to use. Further, the sample device can also contaminate the transfer drawer producing false readings for radioactive material. The present invention overcomes this problem by enclosing the sampling pad in a cap. The removable handle is reused which reduces the amount of waste material.

Jezek, Gerd-Rainer

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

MC4523 Sealed Cap: Component & characteristics development report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The MC4523 Sealed Cap is a WW42C1 Percussion Primer that is pressed into a steel cylinder. Hermaticity of the input end is then provided by welding a thin steel closure disk on the input end of the MC4523. Thus, the user is provided with a component that is prequalified in terms of ignition sensitivity and hermeticity. The first customer is the Thermal Battery Department (1522). The MC4523 will be used on the MC2736A Thermal Battery which in turn will be used on the W78 JTA. Attachment of the MC4523 to the battery is with a laser weld. Combined test results of four production lots at a commercial supplier (PPI, TMS, WR1, and WR2) show an all-fire ignition sensitivity (.999 @ 50%) of approximately 60 millijoules of mechanical energy with a 2.2 gram firing pin. The firing pin had an impact tip with a radius of 0.020 inch. This firing pin is like that to be used in the W78 JTA application. Approximately 112 millijoules of mechanical energy will be supplied in the application, thus the design margin is more than adequate.

Begeal, D.R.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

HFC Emissions Estinating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Dioxide Emissions Reporting Year: January – December, 200x Agent Type GWP Total Emission by Agent Type, kg Equivalent CO2 Emission by ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

213

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

CO2 Emissions - Gibraltar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gibraltar CO2 Emissions from Gibraltar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Gibraltar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Gibraltar...

215

CO2 Emissions - Mozambique  

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Mozambique Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mozambique Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mozambique image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mozambique...

216

CO2 Emissions - Macau  

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Far East Macau CO2 Emissions from Macau Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Macau image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Macau...

217

CO2 Emissions - Guadeloupe  

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Guadeloupe Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guadeloupe Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guadeloupe image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guadeloupe...

218

CO2 Emissions - Ghana  

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Africa Ghana Graphics CO2 Emissions from Ghana Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Ghana image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Ghana...

219

CO2 Emissions - Ireland  

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Ireland CO2 Emissions from Ireland Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Ireland image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Ireland...

220

CO2 Emissions - Malta  

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Western Europe Malta CO2 Emissions from Malta Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Malta image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Malta...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CO2 Emissions - Kyrgyzstan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Kyrgyzstan CO2 Emissions from Kyrgyzstan Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kyrgyzstan image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kyrgyzstan...

222

CO2 Emissions - Mali  

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Africa Mali Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mali Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mali image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mali...

223

CO2 Emissions - Portugal  

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Western Europe Portugal CO2 Emissions from Portugal Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Portugal image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Portugal...

224

CO2 Emissions - Paraguay  

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Paraguay Graphics CO2 Emissions from Paraguay Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Paraguay image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Paraguay...

225

CO2 Emissions - Macedonia  

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Western Europe Macedonia CO2 Emissions from Macedonia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Macedonia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Macedonia...

226

CO2 Emissions - Malawi  

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Malawi Graphics CO2 Emissions from Malawi Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Malawi image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Malawi...

227

CO2 Emissions - Gabon  

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Africa Gabon Graphics CO2 Emissions from Gabon Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Gabon image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Gabon...

228

CO2 Emissions - Grenada  

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Grenada Graphics CO2 Emissions from Grenada Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Grenada image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Grenada...

229

CO2 Emissions - Kiribati  

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Oceania Kiribati Graphics CO2 Emissions from Kiribati Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kiribati image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kiribati...

230

CO2 Emissions - Israel  

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Israel Graphics CO2 Emissions from Israel Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Israel image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Israel...

231

CO2 Emissions - Phillippines  

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Far East Phillippines CO2 Emissions from Phillippines Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Phillippines image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Phillippines...

232

CO2 Emissions - Niger  

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Africa Niger Graphics CO2 Emissions from Niger Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Niger image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Niger...

233

CO2 Emissions - Mauritius  

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Africa Mauritius Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mauritius Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mauritius image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mauritius...

234

CO2 Emissions - Malaysia  

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Malaysia CO2 Emissions from Malaysia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Malaysia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Malaysia...

235

CO2 Emissions - Reunion  

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Reunion Graphics CO2 Emissions from Reunion Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Reunion image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Reunion...

236

CO2 Emissions - Guatemala  

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Guatemala Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guatemala Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guatemala image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guatemala...

237

CO2 Emissions - Iceland  

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Iceland CO2 Emissions from Iceland Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Iceland image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Iceland...

238

CO2 Emissions - Mongolia  

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Asia Mongolia CO2 Emissions from Mongolia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mongolia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mongolia...

239

CO2 Emissions - Romania  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Romania CO2 Emissions from Romania Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Romania image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Romania...

240

CO2 Emissions - Panama  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Panama Graphics CO2 Emissions from Panama Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Panama image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Panama...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CO2 Emissions - Madagascar  

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Madagascar Graphics CO2 Emissions from Madagascar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Madagascar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Madagascar...

242

CO2 Emissions - Netherlands  

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Netherlands CO2 Emissions from Netherlands Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Netherlands image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Netherlands...

243

CO2 Emissions - Greenland  

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Greenland Graphics CO2 Emissions from Greenland Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Greenland image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Greenland...

244

CO2 Emissions - Norway  

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Norway CO2 Emissions from Norway Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Norway image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Norway...

245

CO2 Emissions - Guyana  

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Guyana Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guyana Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guyana image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guyana...

246

CO2 Emissions - Mauritania  

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Africa Mauritania Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mauritania Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mauritania image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mauritania...

247

CO2 Emissions - Lithuania  

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Centrally Planned Europe Lithuania CO2 Emissions from Lithuania Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Lithuania image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Lithuania...

248

CO2 Emissions - Kenya  

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Africa Kenya Graphics CO2 Emissions from Kenya Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kenya image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kenya...

249

CO2 Emissions - Latvia  

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Centrally Planned Europe Latvia CO2 Emissions from Latvia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Latvia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Latvia...

250

CO2 Emissions - Georgia  

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Centrally Planned Europe Georgia CO2 Emissions from Georgia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Georgia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Georgia...

251

CO2 Emissions - Gambia  

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Gambia Graphics CO2 Emissions from Gambia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Gambia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Gambia...

252

CO2 Emissions - Montenegro  

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Centrally Planned Europe Montenegro CO2 Emissions from Montenegro Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Montenegro image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Montenegro...

253

CO2 Emissions - Oman  

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Middle East Oman Graphics CO2 Emissions from Oman Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Oman image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Oman...

254

CO2 Emissions - Kuwait  

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Middle East Kuwait Graphics CO2 Emissions from Kuwait Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kuwait image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kuwait...

255

CO2 Emissions - Lebanon  

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Middle East Lebanon Graphics CO2 Emissions from Lebanon Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Lebanon image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Lebanon...

256

CO2 Emissions - Nigeria  

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Africa Nigeria Graphics CO2 Emissions from Nigeria Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nigeria image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Nigeria...

257

CO2 Emissions - Maldives  

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Far East Maldives CO2 Emissions from Maldives Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Maldives image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Maldives...

258

CO2 Emissions - Morocco  

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Morocco Graphics CO2 Emissions from Morocco Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Morocco image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Morocco...

259

CO2 Emissions - Pakistan  

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Far East Pakistan CO2 Emissions from Pakistan Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Pakistan image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Pakistan...

260

CO2 Emissions - Palau  

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Oceania Palau CO2 Emissions from Palau Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Palau image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Palau...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

CO2 Emissions - Qatar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Qatar Graphics CO2 Emissions from Qatar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Qatar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Qatar...

262

CO2 Emissions - Guam  

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Oceania Guam Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guam Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guam image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guam...

263

CO2 Emissions - Rwanda  

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Africa Rwanda Graphics CO2 Emissions from Rwanda Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Rwanda image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Rwanda...

264

CO2 Emissions - Guinea  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Guinea Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guinea Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guinea image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guinea...

265

CO2 Emissions - Luxembourg  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Western Europe Luxembourg CO2 Emissions from Luxembourg Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Luxembourg image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Luxembourg...

266

CO2 Emissions - Liberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Liberia Graphics CO2 Emissions from Liberia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Liberia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Liberia...

267

CO2 Emissions - Haiti  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haiti Graphics CO2 Emissions from Haiti Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Haiti image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Haiti...

268

CO2 Emissions - Iraq  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iraq Graphics CO2 Emissions from Iraq Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Iraq image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Iraq...

269

CO2 Emissions - Hungary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Hungary CO2 Emissions from Hungary Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Hungary image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Hungary...

270

CO2 Emissions - Nepal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Nepal CO2 Emissions from Nepal Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nepal image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Nepal...

271

CO2 Emissions - Nauru  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nauru Graphics CO2 Emissions from Nauru Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nauru image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Nauru...

272

CO2 Emissions - Myanmar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Myanmar CO2 Emissions from Myanmar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Myanmar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Myanmar...

273

Glossary Term - Neutron Emission  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron Previous Term (Neutron) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Niobe) Niobe Neutron Emission After neutron emission, an atom contains one less neutron. Neutron emission is one...

274

Glossary Term - Proton Emission  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Previous Term (Proton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Quark) Quark Proton Emission After proton emission, an atom contains one less proton. Proton emission is one process...

275

CO2 Emissions - Jordan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Jordan Graphics CO2 Emissions from Jordan Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Jordan image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Jordan...

276

CO2 Emissions - Greece  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Western Europe Greece CO2 Emissions from Greece Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Greece image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Greece...

277

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fine and Microstructure Observations on a Hydrographic Section from the Azores to the Flemish Cap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous conductivity-temperature-depth-dissolved-oxygen (CTD) data are used to investigate the spatial distribution of fine and microstructure between the Azores and Flemish Cap. The CTD data are used to calculate a conductivity-microstructure ...

Daniel T. Georgi; Raymond W. Schmitt

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors Christian and assess models for a supercapacitor- based harvesting supply. The parameters of the models are discussed

Turau, Volker

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Investigation of the Turbulent Structure of a Cloud-Capped Mixed Layer Using Doppler Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method for retrieving air velocity fluctuations in the cloud-capped boundary layer (BL) using radar reflectivity and the Doppler velocity fields is proposed. The method was developed on the basis of data obtained by the Transportable ...

M. Pinsky; O. Krasnov; H. W. J. Russchenberg; A. Khain

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

A family of complete caps in PG(n,2) - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. Lisonek, M. Khatirinejad, A family of complete caps in PG(n,2). Designs, Codes and Cryptography 35 (2005), 259-270. We give a combinatorial construction of ...

283

Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a cap-and-trade program which covers the electricity sectorcap and trade programs, by focusing on the electricityand-trade program that will initially encompass large stationary sources (primarily electricity) and

Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Numerical Simulations of a Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layer Observed over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed observations of both mean and turbulence fields of an anticyclonic, quasi-steady state, stratocumulus-capped boundary layer obtained with ground-based and balloonborne equipment during the night of 19/20 November 1976 at Cardington, ...

Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Tetsuji Yamada

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

CO2 Emissions - Namibia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Africa Namibia CO2 Emissions from Namibia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Namibia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for...

286

Emissions Characterization from Advanced Combustion & Alternative Fuels -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Characterization from Advanced Combustion & Emissions Characterization from Advanced Combustion & Alternative Fuels Exhaust emissions from engines operating in advanced combustion modes such as PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) and HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) are analyzed with an array of analytical tools. Furthermore, emissions from a variety of alternative fuels and mixtures thereof with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels are also measured. In addition to measuring the criteria pollutants nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) are also measured and categorized based on chemistry. These chemical details of the emissions provide important information for optimizing combustion processes to maximize fuel efficiency while minimizing emissions

287

Evaluation of an Ecolotree TM CAP for Closure of Coal Ash Disposal Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Once they are filled or become inactive, coal ash disposal ponds at power plant sites must meet state and federal regulations for permanent closure. In-place closure of ash ponds typically requires an impermeable cover to protect groundwater from leachate generated by stormwater infiltration through the ash. This report documents the construction, maintenance, and performance of the EcolotreeTM Cap (Tree Cap) -- an ash pond closure alternative consisting of poplar trees, grasses, and surface soil amendme...

1999-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

MuCap: Muon capture on the proton to determine the pseudoscalar coupling, gp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MuCap collaboration has measured the capture rate of the muon on the proton and reported its first value for the weak pseudoscalar coupling: gp 7.3{+-}1.1. To achieve 5% uncertainty on gp, many hardware upgrades were implemented for the subsequent 2006-2007 running periods. These improvements are described and the outlook for MuCap and the followup experiment, MuSun, is discussed.

Kiburg, Brendan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

289

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

SciTech Connect

Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

A performance standards approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CO{sub 2} emission performance standard policies outlined in this paper could complement a cap-and-trade program that puts a price on carbon and serve to significantly reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from coal use for electricity generation. Emission performance standards have a long history in the United States and have been successfully used to control emissions of various air pollutants from electric generators. This paper explores the rationale for using emission performance standards and describes the various types of performance standard policies. Emission performance standards that address CO{sub 2} emissions could promote the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology coupled with new and existing coal-fueled electric power plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rubin, E.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Low emission combustor  

SciTech Connect

A low emission combustor assembly particularly suited for an automotive gas turbine engine has an inlet plenum supplied with regenerated compressor discharge, an exhaust plenum, a diffusion flame combustion chamber disposed between the inlet and exhaust plenums, and a catalytic combustion chamber also disposed between the inlet and exhaust plenums so that parallel flow paths are established between the inlet and exhaust plenums. During engine start-up, fuel is supplied only to the diffusion flame combustion chamber and regenerated compressor discharge simultaneously flowing through the catalytic combustion chamber heats the catalyst to operating temperature and cools and dilutes exhaust from the diffusion flame combustion chamber. When the catalyst reaches operating temperature fuel is directed only to the catalytic combustion chamber wherein an ultra lean air/fuel ratio mixture is catalytically oxidized, the exhaust from this reaction being cooled and diluted by regenerated compressor discharge simultaneously flowing through the diffusion flame combustion chamber.

Cornelius, W.; Klomp, E.D.; Kosek, T.P.

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

294

Pollution Markets with Imperfectly Observed Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Another example with similar monitoring requirements is the Southern California RECLAIM program that implemented separated markets for nitrogen oxide (NOx) and SO2 emissions from power plants, refineries and other large stationary sources. This program did... to the allocation of permits, an emission standard specific to buses. It may also be optimal to use 28 I thank one of the referees for pointing out this case and its relevance for the Los Angeles’ RECLAIM market. 26 different utilization factors (eq) for each group...

Montero, Juan-Pablo

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

Critical Issues in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: Setting Baselines for Credit-Based Trading Programs -- Lessons Le arned from Relevant Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses a key concern in the climate change discussion -- how to achieve the promises of cost saving and environmental integrity under the emissions trading provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. Studies show that costs would decrease dramatically under emissions trading relative to the no-trading alternative. Theory also suggests that emissions trading programs provide greater certainty that environmental targets will be achieved. These studies do not distinguish between cap-and-trade approache...

2000-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

296

Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products  

SciTech Connect

We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems  

SciTech Connect

Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

298

Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

stationary combustion—primarily from wood com-bustion for residential heating—increased. • Emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2O) increased by 0.4 MMTCO 2e (0.1 ...

300

Labyrinth for an ignition distributor cap and rotor assembly with atmospheric purging action  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an ignition distributor to work with spark plug electrodes, a rotor electrode, a coil electrode and a shaft for an internal combustion engine with cylinders, the ignition distributor comprising: a bowl shaped housing; a distributor cap comprising: a generally dome shape with a generally hollow interior and with a circular shaped bottom to mate with the bowl shaped housing; spark towers equal in number to the number of cylinders of the internal combustion engine, projecting up from the top of the dome shape and slotted to accept spark plug electrodes and allow them to protrude into the distributor cap interior for communication with the rotor electrode; a vent tower projecting up from the top of the dome shape and provided with a vent port through to the distributor cap interior to allow for the outward flow of the atmosphere inside the distributor cap and bowl shaped housing; a coil tower projecting up from the top of the dome shape and slotted to accept a coil electrode and allow it to protrude into the distributor cap interior for communication with the rotor electrode; an inner labyrinth of annular shape on the interior surface of the dome shape surround the coil electrode and protruding into the hollow interior of the dome shape; and an outer labyrinth of annular shape on the interior surface of the dome shape surrounding the inner labyrinth thereby forming an annular channel.

Kronberger, L.J.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 3A, Low NO{sub x} burner tests  

SciTech Connect

This Phase 3A test report summarizes the testing activities and results for the third testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. Described in this report are the test plans, data measurements, and data analyses performed during the Phase 3A effort. The present report also contains sufficient background material to provide an understanding of the overall program scope, the relationship of Phase 3A to the overall program, the testing methodologies, testing procedures, and unit configuration. Results from 66 short-term tests indicate increasing NO{sub x} emissions over the load range ranging from 0.5 lb/MBtu at 300 NM to around 0.65 lb/MBtu at 480 MW. Fly ash loss-on-ignition (LOI) for these loads ranged from 5.4 to 8.6 percent. Long-term test results indicated high load (480 MW) NO{sub x} emissions of approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. At the 300 MW mid load point, the emissions dropped to 0.47 lb/MBtu which is slightly lower than the 0.50 lb/MBtu shown for the short-term data. The annual and 30-day average achievable NO{sub x} emissions were determined to be 0.55 and 0.64 lb/MBtu, respectively, for the load scenario experienced during the Phase 3A, long-term test period. Based on the long-term test results for Phase 3A, at full-load the low NO{sub x} burners (LNB) retrofit resulted in a NO{sub x} reduction of 48 percent from baseline, while at 300 MW the reduction was approximately 50 percent. A series of tests was also conducted to evaluate the effects of various burner equipment settings and mill coal flow biasing on both NO{sub x} and LOI emissions.

Not Available

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Multifunctional Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3) Electric, ferroelectric, magnetic and photonic properties of oxides 4) Theoretical modeling of epitaxial growth, interfaces and microstructures 5) Composition ...

303

Mercury Oxidation Performance of Advanced SCR Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts to oxidize mercury is an important aspect of many utilities’ mercury control strategies. Improved SCR mercury oxidation will facilitate its capture in downstream wet–flue gas desulfurization systems and will generally result in lower emission rates. Recently, catalyst manufacturers have attempted to maximize mercury oxidation through advanced catalyst formulations.This study documents the performance of an advanced ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Residential wood consumption accounted for just over 45 percent of U.S. methane emissions from stationary combustion in 2009.

305

CO2 Emissions - Peru  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Peru Graphics CO2 Emissions from Peru Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Peru image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates...

306

CO2 Emissions - Bolivia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Bolivia Graphics CO2 Emissions from Bolivia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Bolivia image Per capita CO2 Emission...

307

CO2 Emissions - Jamaica  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Jamaica Graphics CO2 Emissions from Jamaica Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Jamaica image Per capita CO2 Emission...

308

SF6 Emission Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SF 6 Emission Reduction Steve Lowder Bonneville Power Administration 2010.09 slide 1 Emission Reduction Emission Reduction is the reason for why we do all of this - because:...

309

Festival Re-Cap: Energy Bikes, Levitated Trains and 3D Virtual Rides |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Festival Re-Cap: Energy Bikes, Levitated Trains and 3D Virtual Festival Re-Cap: Energy Bikes, Levitated Trains and 3D Virtual Rides Festival Re-Cap: Energy Bikes, Levitated Trains and 3D Virtual Rides October 27, 2010 - 5:29pm Addthis Students experiment with steel balls on a track as they learn about energy exchange during collisions during the USA Science and Engineering Festival held on the National Mall October 23-24. Students experiment with steel balls on a track as they learn about energy exchange during collisions during the USA Science and Engineering Festival held on the National Mall October 23-24. Director Brinkman Director Brinkman Director of the Office of Science I was delighted that the first ever USA Science and Engineering Festival on the National Mall Oct. 23-24 proved to be a fun-filled weekend event for

310

Capping the electricity cost of cloud-scale data centers with impacts on power markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a novel electricity cost capping algorithm that not only minimizes the electricity cost of operating cloud-scale data centers, but also enforces a cost budget on the monthly electricity bill. Our solution first explicitly models the impacts of power demands on electricity prices and the power consumption of cooling and networking in the minimization of electricity cost. In the second step, if the electricity cost exceeds a desired monthly budget due to unexpectedly high workloads, our solution guarantees the quality of service for premium customers and trades off the request throughput of ordinary customers. We formulate electricity cost capping as two related constrained optimization problems and propose an efficient algorithm based on mixed integer programming. Simulation results show that our solution outperforms the state-ofthe-art solutions by having lower electricity costs and achieves desired cost capping with maximized request throughput.

Yanwei Zhang; Yefu Wang; Xiaorui Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published The ORNL DAAC is pleased to announce the release of the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1. Data set prepared by J.T. Randerson, G.R. van der Werf, L. Giglio, G.J. Collatz, and P.S. Kasibhatla. This data set provides monthly burned area, and monthly and annual fire emissions data from July 1996 to February 2012. Emissions data are available for carbon (C), dry matter (DM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), hydrogen (H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), particulate matter 2.5 micron (PM2p5), total particulate matter (TPM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among others. The C4 fraction of

312

MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MOBILE6 Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.epa.gov/oms/m6.htm Cost: Free References: http://www.epa.gov/oms/m6.htm MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for predicting gram per mile emissions of Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Particulate Matter (PM), and toxics from cars, trucks, and motorcycles under various conditions. MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for predicting gram per mile emissions of Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon

313

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D Emission Control R&D The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned hydrocarbons Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Particulate matter The energy required for emission control often reduces vehicle fuel economy and increases vehicle cost. VTO's Emission Control R&D focuses on developing efficient, durable, low-cost emission control systems that complement new combustion strategies while minimizing efficiency losses. VTO often leverages the national laboratories' unique capabilities and facilities to conduct this research.

314

CO2 Emissions - Montserrat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Montserrat Graphics CO2 Emissions from Montserrat Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Montserrat image Per capita CO2...

315

CO2 Emissions - Martinique  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Martinique Graphics CO2 Emissions from Martinique Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Martinique image Per capita CO2...

316

CO2 Emissions - Honduras  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Honduras Graphics CO2 Emissions from Honduras Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Honduras image Per capita CO2...

317

CO2 Emissions - Nicaragua  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Nicaragua Graphics CO2 Emissions from Nicaragua Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nicaragua image Per capita CO2...

318

Trends Online Methane Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Introduction Annual Estimates of Global Anthropogenic Methane Emissions: 1860-1994 - D.I. Stern and R.K. Kaufmann Contents-Trends | CDIAC Home 102001...

319

Harmful Exhaust Emissions Monitoring of Road Vehicle Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Road vehicle improve the quality of people's life, however harmful vehicle exhaust emissions, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrocarbon (HC), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), have become more and more unacceptable ... Keywords: optic absorption spectroscopy based gas sensor, harmful exhaust emission monitoring, engine vibration

Chuliang Wei; Zhemin Zhuang; H. Ewald; A. I. Al-Shamma'a

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions  

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions pose risks to human health, and so they need to be reduced. One very effective tool for reducing engine in-cylinder temperature and, hence NOx emissions (NOx is a strong function of temperature), is Exhaust Gas ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

Chen Jing [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q. [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Sun, X. W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Jiang, C. Y. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Lei, W. [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S. [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2009-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

322

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) & Corrective Action Plan (CAP) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Root Cause Analysis Root Cause Analysis (RCA) & Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Root Cause Analysis (RCA) & Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Improving the Department of Energy's project and contract management continues to be one of the Department's management priorities. Excellence in this area helps ensure that DOE's programs and projects meet DOE's strategic objectives, provide value to the American taxpayer, and foster public confidence in DOE's ability to manage its responsibilities. As part of our effort to build a strong project and contract management foundation, a root cause analysis (RCA) was developed through extensive collaboration between DOE's Headquarters and field project, contract, and financial management professionals, and in coordination with the Office of

323

Measuring of exhaust gas emissions using absorption spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an optical fibre sensor for the detection of NOx (NO2 and NO) and CO2 in the exhaust system of a road vehicle. The measurement is based on a free path interaction zone which is interrogated using ... Keywords: absorption spectroscopy, air pollution, carbon dioxide, emissions measurement, exhaust gas emissions, gas sensors, infrared, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, optical fibre sensors, ultraviolet, vehicle emissions

Eamonn Hawe; Gerard Dooly; Colin Fitzpatrick; Paul Chambers; Elfed Lewis; W. Z. Zhao; T. Sun; K. T. V. Grattan; M. Degner; H. Ewald; S. Lochmann; G. Bramman; C. Wei; D. Hitchen; J. Lucas; A. Al-Shamma'a; E. Merlone-Borla; P. Faraldi; M. Pidria

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

325

Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

27 For fossil fuel-fired steam generators, for example, EPArequirements. 2 9 For the steam generators, the standard re-

Enion, Rhead M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

controlling NOx emissions from lean engines is challenging. Traditionally, for the stoichiometric gasoline engine vehicles that dominate the U.S. passenger car market, a three-way...

327

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

328

DuraCap: a Supercapacitor-Based, Power-Bootstrapping, Maximum Power Point Tracking Energy-Harvesting System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DuraCap: a Supercapacitor-Based, Power-Bootstrapping, Maximum Power Point Tracking Energy that stores harvested energy in supercapacitors and is voltage-compatible with lithium-ion batteries. The use of supercapacitors instead of batter- ies enables DuraCap to extend the operational life time from tens of months

Shinozuka, Masanobu

329

Ex post evaluation of tradable permits : the U.S. SO? cap-and-trade program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. SO2 cap-and-trade program was established as a result of the enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) under the authority granted by Title IV, which included several measures to reduce precursor ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy and Economic coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. In this work we use a computable general equilibrium No. 217 May 2012 #12;The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

331

Structure of the Antiviral Assembly Inhibitor CAP-1 Complex with the HIV-1 CA Protein  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CA domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein plays critical roles in both the early and late phases of viral replication and is therefore an attractive antiviral target. Compounds with antiviral activity were recently identified that bind to the N-terminal domain of CA (CA{sup N}) and inhibit capsid assembly during viral maturation. We have determined the structure of the complex between CA{sup N} and the antiviral assembly inhibitor N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-N'-{l_brace}2-[({l_brace}5-[(dimethylamino)-methyl]-2-furyl{r_brace}-methyl)-sulfanyl]ethyl{r_brace}-urea (CAP-1) using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The protein undergoes a remarkable conformational change upon CAP-1 binding, in which Phe32 is displaced from its buried position in the protein core to open a deep hydrophobic cavity that serves as the ligand binding site. The aromatic ring of CAP-1 inserts into the cavity, with the urea NH groups forming hydrogen bonds with the backbone oxygen of Val59 and the dimethylamonium group interacting with the side-chains of Glu28 and Glu29. Elements that could be exploited to improve binding affinity are apparent in the structure. The displacement of Phe32 by CAP-1 appears to be facilitated by a strained main-chain conformation, which suggests a potential role for a Phe32 conformational switch during normal capsid assembly.

Kelly,B.; Kyere, S.; Kinde, I.; Tang, C.; Howard, B.; Robinson, H.; Sundquist, W.; Summers, M.; Hill, C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Numerical Simulations of the Marine Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layer and Its Diurnal Variation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-resolution one-dimensional version of a second-order turbulence radiative–convective model, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used to simulate the diurnal cycle of the marine stratocumulus cloud-capped boundary layer. The ...

W. S. Smith; C-Y. J. Kao

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

GPS tomography in the polar cap: comparison with ionosondes and in situ spacecraft data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tomographic 4D reconstructions of ionospheric anomalies appearing in the high-latitude polar cap region are compared with plasma density measurements by digital ionosonde located near the north magnetic pole at Eureka station and with in situ plasma ... Keywords: GPS tomography, Geomagnetic storms, Ionosphere

Dimitry Pokhotelov; P. T. Jayachandran; Cathryn N. Mitchell; John W. Macdougall; Michael H. Denton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy" (produced via carbon-intensive means) relative to renewable or "green" energy. This paper current efficiency trends, this gigantic amount of energy will have nearly doubled by 2011 for an overall-intensive energy as "brown" energy, in contrast with "green" or renewable energy.) We argue that placing caps

Martonosi, Margaret

335

Price-Cap Regulation for Transmission: Objectives and Tariffs Yong T. Yoon Marija D. Ilifi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) is the price for transmission portions of electric services. Qz[k] denotes the injection at bus i and V1[k the optimal possible, and the relative price for the transmission portion of electricity services are muchPrice-Cap Regulation for Transmission: Objectives and Tariffs Yong T. Yoon Marija D. Ilifi IEEE

Ilic, Marija D.

336

Ultra supercritical steamside oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vision 21 goals. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Vision 21 goals include steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems. Emphasis is placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David A.; Ochs, Thomas L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Title Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Jeong, Seongeun, Chuanfeng Zhao, Arlyn E. Andrews, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 39 Issue 16 Keywords atmospheric transport, inverse modeling, nitrous oxide Abstract We estimate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Central California for the period of December 2007 through November 2009 by comparing N2O mixing ratios measured at a tall tower (Walnut Grove, WGC) with transport model predictions based on two global a priori N2O emission models (EDGAR32 and EDGAR42). Atmospheric particle trajectories and surface footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Regression analyses show that the slopes of predicted on measured N2O from both emission models are low, suggesting that actual N2O emissions are significantly higher than the EDGAR inventories for all seasons. Bayesian inverse analyses of regional N2O emissions show that posterior annual N2O emissions are larger than both EDGAR inventories by factors of 2.0 ± 0.4 (EDGAR32) and 2.1 ± 0.4 (EDGAR42) with seasonal variation ranging from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 for an influence region of Central California within approximately 150 km of the tower. These results suggest that if the spatial distribution of N2O emissions in California follows the EDGAR emission models, then actual emissions are 2.7 ± 0.5 times greater than the current California emission inventory, and total N2O emissions account for 8.1 ± 1.4% of total greenhouse gas emissions from California.

338

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Near-Zero Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Project No.: DE-NT0005341 Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment. Praxair Inc. will develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing coal-fired power plants retrofit with oxy-combustion technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury (Hg) will be reduced by at least 99 percent, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions will be reduced by greater than 90 percent without the need for wet flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Two separate processes are proposed depending on the sulfur content of the coal. For high-sulfur coal, SO2 and NOx will be recovered as product sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, and Hg will be recovered as

339

Design document for landfill capping Prototype Decision Support System. Draft 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Prototype Decision Support System for shallow land burial project is to ``Develop a Decision Support System tool which incorporates simulation modeling and multi-objective decision theory for the purpose of designing and evaluating alternative trench cap designs for mixed waste landfill covers. The goal is to improve the quality of technical information used by the risk manager to select landfill cover designs while taking into account technological, economical, and regulatory factors.`` The complexity of the technical and non-technical information, and how the information varies in importance across sites, points to the need for decision analysis tools that provide a common basis for integrating, synthesizing, and valuing the decision input. Because the cost of remediating thousands of contaminated DOE sites is projected to be in the 10`s--100`s of billions of dollars, methods will be needed to establish cleanup priorities and to help in the selection and evaluation of cost effective remediation alternatives. Even at this early stage in DOE`s cleanup program, it is certain that capping technologies will be heavily relied upon to remediate the 3000+ landfills on DOE property. Capping is favored in remediating most DOE landfills because, based on preliminary baseline risk assessments, human and ecological risks are considered to be low at most of these sites and the regulatory requirements for final closure of old landfills can be met using a well designed cap to isolate the buried waste. This report describes a program plan to design, develop, and test a decision support system (DSS) for assisting the DOE risk manager in evaluating capping alternatives for radioactive and hazardous waste landfills. The DOE DSS will incorporate methods for calculating, integrating and valuing technical, regulatory, and economic criteria.

Stone, J.J.; Paige, G.; Hakonson, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, AZ (United State)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oil production dropping by 28 percent from 1990 to 2009, methane emissions from petroleum exploration and production have declined by the same percentage. Residential wood...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for purposes other than their energy value) create carbon dioxide emissions and also sequester carbon in nonfuel products, ...

342

Trends in On-Road Vehicle Emissions of Ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trends in On-Road Vehicle Emissions of Ammonia Trends in On-Road Vehicle Emissions of Ammonia Title Trends in On-Road Vehicle Emissions of Ammonia Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Kean, Andrew J., David Littlejohn, George Ban-Weiss, Robert A. Harley, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Melissa M. Lunden Journal Atmospheric Environment Abstract Motor vehicle emissions of ammonia have been measured at a California highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Between 1999 and 2006, light-duty vehicle ammonia emissions decreased by 38 ± 6%, from 640 ± 40 to 400 ± 20 mg kg-1. High time resolution measurements of ammonia made in summer 2001 at the same location indicate a minimum in ammonia emissions correlated with slower-speed driving conditions. Variations in ammonia emission rates track changes in carbon monoxide more closely than changes in nitrogen oxides, especially during later evening hours when traffic speeds are highest. Analysis of remote sensing data of Burgard et al. (Environ Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 7018-7022) indicates relationships between ammonia and vehicle model year, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. Ammonia emission rates from diesel trucks were difficult to measure in the tunnel setting due to the large contribution to ammonia concentrations in a mixed-traffic bore that were assigned to light-duty vehicle emissions. Nevertheless, it is clear that heavy-duty diesel trucks are a minor source of ammonia emissions compared to light-duty gasoline vehicles.

343

NETL: News Release - Record Run by Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Comes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the equivalent of 65 kilowatts of thermal energy in the form of hot water to the local district heating system. Air emissions from the unit - nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,...

344

Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in support of nuclear waste management. [HHDECMP (hexyl hexyl-N,N diethylcarbamolymethylphosphonate) and n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide  

SciTech Connect

Simulated complex nuclear waste solutions are characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC). The system uses and ICP source focused on both a polychromator and a computer-controlled scanning monochromator for intensity measurements. This instrumentation allows for simultaneous and sequential measurements of liquid extraction distribution coefficients needed in the development of process flow sheets for component separations. A large number of elements are determined rapidly with adequate sensitivity and accuracy. The focus of this investigation centers on the analysis of nuclear fission products. 13 references, 13 tables.

Huff, E.A.; Horwitz, E.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Emissions from Energy Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions from Energy Use Emissions from Energy Use Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030 Emissions from Energy Use Figure 81. Carbon diioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2007 and 2030 (million metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 82. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 1995-2030 (million short tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 83. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 1995-2030 (million short tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Rate of Increase in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Slows in the Projections Even with rising energy prices, growth in energy use leads to increasing

346

Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Self-Organized Ultrathin Oxide Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Sub-2-nm (down to one-unit cell) uniform oxide nanocrystals and highly ordered superstructures were obtained in one step using oleylamine and oleic acid as capping and structure directing agents. The cooperative nature of the nanocrystal growth and assembly resulted in mesoscopic one-dimensional ribbon-like superstructures made of these ultrathin nanocrystals. The process reported here is general and can be readily extended to the production of many other transition metal (TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5) and rare earth oxide (Eu2O3, Sm2O3, Er2O3, Y2O3, Tb2O3, and Yb2O3) systems.

Huo, Ziyang; Tsung, Chia-kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Fardy, Melissa; Yan, Ruoxue; Li, Yadong; Yang, Piedong; Zhang, Xiaofeng

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

348

Preliminary assessment of high-resistivity cap-rock shale in the Frio Formation of the Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mapping of high resistivity cap rock shales in the Frio Formation of the Texas Gulf Coast shows that few areas of thin cap rock occur in the upper Texas Gulf Coast, and more extensive, thicker cap rock occurs in the lower Texas Gulf Coast. Increases in (1) maximum shale resistivity, (2) unstable minerals (volcanic rock fragments, detrital carbonate grains), and (3) authigenic cementation parallel the increase in cap rock from the upper to the lower Gulf Coast. Similarity in cap rock distribution in two major Frio deltaic depocenters is not evident. Facies analysis of regional cross sections in the lower Texas Gulf Coast and of cross sections in Sarita East field, Kenedy County, shows preferential development of cap rock in the delta-front/slope facies of the Norias delta system. Sand content of the cap rock interval varies from 23 to 41 percent in part of Sarita East field, suggesting that if cap rock is due to authigenic cementation, such sands may act as fluid conduits during mineralization. Cap rock is rarely developed in the shale-rich prodelta and distal delta-front facies. High resistivity cap rock shales have been considered a result of authigenic calcite cementation, but definite evidence for this origin is lacking. Preliminary mineralogic analyses of well cuttings have not yielded satisfactory results. Analysis of core through cap rock and non-cap rock intervals will be required to determine the mineralogic variability within each interval and to accurately assess any mineralogic control of the high resistivity log response.

Finley, R.J.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26-29, 1979 EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION INLBL-9783 EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION INl·. LBL-9783 EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION IN

Gullberg, G.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Driving your vehicle can yield both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from your vehicle's tailpipe and GHG emissions related to the production of the fuel used to power your vehicle. For example, activities associated with fuel production such as feedstock extraction, feedstock transport to a processing plant, and conversion of feedstock to motor fuel, as well as distribution of the motor fuel, can all produce GHG emissions. The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a Greenhouse Gas Rating, from 1 (worst) to 10 (best), based on the vehicle's tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only, and this rating does not reflect any GHG emissions associated with fuel production.

351

Excess Emissions (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

352

Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

258 258 May 2010 Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector Lori Bird, Caroline Chapman, Jeff Logan, Jenny Sumner, and Walter Short National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-48258 May 2010 Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector Lori Bird, Caroline Chapman, Jeff Logan, Jenny Sumner, and Walter Short Prepared under Task No. SAO9.2038 NOTICE

353

CO2 Emissions - Guinea Bissau  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guinea Bissau Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guinea Bissau Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guinea Bissau image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guinea Bissau...

354

CO2 Emissions - Peninsular Malaysia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Far East Peninsular Malaysia CO2 Emissions from Peninsular Malaysia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Peninsular Malaysia image Per...

355

CO2 Emissions - New Caledonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Caledonia Graphics CO2 Emissions from New Caledonia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from New Caledonia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for New Caledonia...

356

CO2 Emissions - United Korea  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Centrally Planned Asia United Korea CO2 Emissions from United Korea Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from United Korea...

357

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are calculated using the eGRID post 2006 emission factor for all subject years (1990-2009); the CA-CP Calculator uses a different (lower) factor (eGRID pre 2006) for years 1990-2006. WUSTL deviated from the CA-CP Calculator on this emission factor because using the pre and post eGRID factors skews GHG emissions

Dobbins, Ian G.

358

Cap plasticity models and compactive and dilatant pre-failure deformation  

SciTech Connect

At low mean stresses, porous geomaterials fail by shear localization, and at higher mean stresses, they undergo strain-hardening behavior. Cap plasticity models attempt to model this behavior using a pressure-dependent shear yield and/or shear limit-state envelope with a hardening or hardening/softening elliptical end cap to define pore collapse. While these traditional models describe compactive yield and ultimate shear failure, difficulties arise when the behavior involves a transition from compactive to dilatant deformation that occurs before the shear failure or limit-state shear stress is reached. In this work, a continuous surface cap plasticity model is used to predict compactive and dilatant pre-failure deformation. During loading the stress point can pass freely through the critical state point separating compactive from dilatant deformation. The predicted volumetric strain goes from compactive to dilatant without the use of a non-associated flow rule. The new model is stable in that Drucker's stability postulates are satisfied. The study has applications to several geosystems of current engineering interest (oil and gas reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, buried targets, and depleted reservoirs for possible use for subsurface sequestration of greenhouse gases).

FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

SEQUESTRATION OF METALS IN ACTIVE CAP MATERIALS: A LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

Active capping involves the use of capping materials that react with sediment contaminants to reduce their toxicity or bioavailability. Although several amendments have been proposed for use in active capping systems, little is known about their long-term ability to sequester metals. Recent research has shown that the active amendment apatite has potential application for metals contaminated sediments. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of apatite in the sequestration of metal contaminants through the use of short-term laboratory column studies in conjunction with predictive, numerical modeling. A breakthrough column study was conducted using North Carolina apatite as the active amendment. Under saturated conditions, a spike solution containing elemental As, Cd, Co, Se, Pb, Zn, and a non-reactive tracer was injected into the column. A sand column was tested under similar conditions as a control. Effluent water samples were periodically collected from each column for chemical analysis. Relative to the non-reactive tracer, the breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite. Furthermore, breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite compared to the sand column. Finally, a simple 1-D, numerical model was created to qualitatively predict the long-term performance of apatite based on the findings from the column study. The results of the modeling showed that apatite could delay the breakthrough of some metals for hundreds of years under typical groundwater flow velocities.

Dixon, K.; Knox, A.

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Wind Tunnel Study of Turbulent Flow Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer Capped by a Temperature Inversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments on simulating the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL), capped by a temperature inversion and affected by surface shear, were carried out in the thermally stratified wind tunnel of the Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources,...

Evgeni Fedorovich; Rolf Kaiser; Matthias Rau; Erich Plate

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Galactic Diffuse Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Energy Policy 36 (2008) 20632073 Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

converted to $/metric ton assuming average regional CO2 emissions rate from eGRID (US EPA, 2004). 6 Data

365

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

366

Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps  

SciTech Connect

Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

Tuning of the optical properties of [11k] grown InAs quantum dots by the capping layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional k.p calculation including strain and piezoelectricity shows that for large [11k] grown QD, the presence of an (In,Ga)As capping layer leads to an increase of the optical transition energy, in contrast to the expected decrease. The ... Keywords: 71.35.Ji, 71.70.Gm, 73.21.La, 78.20.Ls, Capping, High index surfaces, K.p theory, Quantum dots

V. Mlinar; F. M. Peeters

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

None

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................................................................................................................... 14 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Corn Fields........................................................ 34 Appendix B: Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Corn Fields) LHV lower heating value LPG liquefied petroleum gas LS low-sulfur LSD low-sulfur diesel MTBE methyl

Argonne National Laboratory

371

Balmer alpha emission and hydrogen atom energy in ion-source discharges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The structure of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line emission profiles from three types of neutral beam injector ion source plasmas (filling pressure approx. 10 mTorr, electron density approx. 1 to 2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, electron temperature approx. 2 to 4 eV) is studied with the aid of a simple model for the neutral particle balance and H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission. A large fraction of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ is produced by dissociative excitation of H/sub 2/ and dissociative recombination of H/sub 2//sup +/, while the remainder is produced by excitation of H atoms, most of which have energies that are close to the characteristic H/sub 2/ dissociation energies. The H/sub ..cap alpha../ linewidth is thus insensitive to the discharge operating conditions and equals approx. 0.27 A when only slow (approx. 0.3 eV) dissociatively excited atoms are present or approx. 0.35 A when fast (> 1 eV) atoms, apparently also produced in dissociation reactions, are present as well.

McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2007 (Update) (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

States are moving forward with implementation plans for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) [42]. The program, promulgated by the EPA in March 2005, is a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx. States originally had until March 2007 to submit implementation plans, but the deadline has been extended by another year. CAIR covers 28 eastern States and the District of Columbia. States have the option to participate in the cap-andtrade plan or devise their own plans, which can be more stringent than the Federal requirements. To date, no State has indicated an intent to form NOx and SO2 programs with emissions limits stricter than those in CAIR, and it is expected that all States will participate in the EPA-administered cap-and-trade program. CAIR remains on schedule for implementation, and AEO2008 includes CAIR by assuming that all required States will meet only the Federal requirement and will trade credits.

Information Center

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

373

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

375

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

376

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

377

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

378

emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emissions emissions Dataset Summary Description The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes an annual Energy Outlook, which presents projections of New Zealand's future energy supply, demand, prices and greenhouse gas emissions. The principle aim of these projections is to inform the national energy debate. Included here are the model results for emissions. The spreadsheet provides an interactive tool for selecting which model results to view, and which scenarios to evaluate; full model results for each scenario are also included. Source New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Date Released Unknown Date Updated December 15th, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords emissions New Zealand projections Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010 New Zealand emissions outlook (xls, 1.2 MiB)

379

Mercury Emissions Data Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the visual materials included in presentations given at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on April 3, 2002. Participants included representatives from EPRI, DOE, RMB Consulting & Research, and EERC. The MACT Working Group gave a presentation on "Variability in Hg Emissions Based on SCEM Data." The visuals in the report are a set of graphs documenting results of mercury emissions over time, using semi-continuous emissions monitor (SCEM) data. The EPA Utility Working Group gave a ...

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

380

Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOx Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Discusses the emission results of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst and a diesel particle filter in a medium-duty, diesel pick-up truck.

Thornton, M.; Webb, C. C.; Weber, P. A.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Greenhouse Gas Emission Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... climate change as a serious problem and that greenhouse gas (GHG ... models to determine the baselines of GHG emissions and the effect of GHG ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

382

SF6 Emissions Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SF 6 Emissions Overview Joanna Eckstein and Penny Avery Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned...

383

Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Others wanting to learn more about greenhouse gas emissions and their reduction. About the ... based on ensuring the sustainability of finite natural resources.

384

NETL: Emissions Characterization - CMU Emissions Characterization Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Source Emissions Characterization Study Source Emissions Characterization Study The emissions characterization study is being performed in conjunction with the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study [PDF-744KB], a larger effort that includes ambient measurements and atmospheric modeling of the Pittsburgh region. The main objectives of this portion of the study are: To achieve advanced characterization of the PM in the Pittsburgh region. Measurements include the PM size, surface, volume, and mass distribution; chemical composition as a function of size and on a single particle basis; temporal and spatial variability. To obtain accurate current fingerprints of the major primary PM sources in the Pittsburgh region using traditional filter-based sampling and state-of-the-art techniques such as dilution sampling and single particle analysis using mass spectroscopy and LIBS.

385

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Bench-Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004360 The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will evaluate the Hot Carbonate Absorption Process (Hot-CAP) process with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping. The Hot-CAP is an absorption-based, post-combustion CO2 technology that uses a carbonate salt (K2CO3 or Na2CO3) as a solvent. The process integrates a high temperature (70-80°C) CO2 absorption column, a slurry-based high pressure (up to 40atm) CO2 stripping column, a crystallization unit to separate bicarbonate and recover the carbonate solvent, and a reclaimer to recover CaSO4 as the byproduct of the SO2 removal.

388

Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides (EPA 1999). With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP s age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in the derived dose coefficients and in estimates of dose per unit exposure based on those coefficients.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

390

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Tracking Emission Rate Dynamics of NV Centers in Nanodiamonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spontaneous emission from crystal centers is influenced by both the photonic local density of states and non-radiative processes. Here we monitor the spontaneous emission of single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers as their host diamond is reduced in size from a large monolithic crystal to a nanocrystal by successive cycles of oxidation. The size reduction induces a quenching of the NV radiative emission. New non-radiative channels lead to a decrease of the fluorescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In one case we observe the onset of blinking which may provide a route to understand these additional non-radiative decay channels.

Faraz A Inam; Andrew M Edmonds; Michael J Steel; Stefania Castelletto

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Patil, D. S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

FGDExpert Demonstration at NIPSCO Schahfer Unit 17: Oxidation Reduction Potential Effects on Scrubber Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been shown to remove soluble oxidized mercury (Hg), as well as selenium (Se), from flue gas. However, one phenomenon that has been observed, but not well characterized, is the re-emission of oxidized Hg captured in the FGD scrubber as elemental Hg. Several studies have shown that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) influences the re-emission of Hg from FGD scrubbers. Other studies have demonstrated that ORP influences the speciation of Se in the scrubber ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Trends in on-road vehicle emissions of ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Motor vehicle emissions of ammonia have been measured at a California highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Between 1999 and 2006, light-duty vehicle ammonia emissions decreased by 38 {+-} 6%, from 640 {+-} 40 to 400 {+-} 20 mg kg{sup -1}. High time resolution measurements of ammonia made in summer 2001 at the same location indicate a minimum in ammonia emissions correlated with slower-speed driving conditions. Variations in ammonia emission rates track changes in carbon monoxide more closely than changes in nitrogen oxides, especially during later evening hours when traffic speeds are highest. Analysis of remote sensing data of Burgard et al. (Environ Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 7018-7022) indicates relationships between ammonia and vehicle model year, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. Ammonia emission rates from diesel trucks were difficult to measure in the tunnel setting due to the large contribution to ammonia concentrations in a mixed-traffic bore that were assigned to light-duty vehicle emissions. Nevertheless, it is clear that heavy-duty diesel trucks are a minor source of ammonia emissions compared to light-duty gasoline vehicles.

Kean, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; Harley, R.A.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Lunden, M. M.

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Electron energy losses near pulsar polar caps: a Monte Carlo approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use Monte Carlo approach to study the energetics of electrons accelerated in a pulsar polar gap. As energy-loss mechanisms we consider magnetic Compton scattering of thermal X-ray photons and curvature radiation. The results are compared with previous calculations which assumed that changes of electron energy occurred smoothly according to approximations for the average energy loss rate due to the Compton scattering. We confirm a general dependence of efficiency of electron energy losses due to inverse Compton mechanism on the temperature and size of a thermal polar cap and on the pulsar magnetic field. However, we show that trajectories of electrons in energy-altitude space as calculated in the smooth way do not always coincide with averaged Monte Carlo behaviour. In particular, for pulsars with high magnetic field strength ($B_{pc} > 3\\times 10^{12}$ G) and low thermal polar cap temperatures ($T < 5\\times 10^6$ K) final electron Lorentz factors computed with the two methods may differ by a few orders of magnitude. We discuss consequences for particular objects with identified thermal X-ray spectral components like Geminga, Vela, and PSR B1055-52.

J. Dyks; B. Rudak

2000-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

399

Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design factors for SCR systems and aid in the development of urea control strategy for maximum NOx reduction with minimum NH3 slip. A durable co-fueling system was successfully built and tested, with the help of service station nozzle and dispenser manufacturers, for simultaneous delivery of diesel fuel and aqueous urea to the vehicle. The business case for an aqueous urea infrastructure in the US for light-duty vehicles was explored.

Lambert, Christine

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Accelerated Publication: Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with Al2O3/Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as gate dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ga"2O"3(Gd"2O"3) [GGO] 3.5nm-thick, with an in situ Al"2O"3 cap 1.5nm thick, has been directly deposited on Ge substrate without employing interfacial passivation layers. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the gate stack is 1.38-nm. The metal-oxide-semiconductor ... Keywords: EOT, Germanium, High-? dielectric, MOS

L. K. Chu; T. H. Chiang; T. D. Lin; Y. J. Lee; R. L. Chu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CO2 Emissions - New Zealand  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania New Zealand Graphics CO2 Emissions from New Zealand Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from New Zealand image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for New Zealand...

402

CO2 Emissions - Hong Kong  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Hong Kong CO2 Emissions from Hong Kong Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Hong Kong image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Hong Kong...

403

CO2 Emissions - Wake Island  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Oceania Wake Island Graphics CO2 Emissions from Wake Island Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Wake Island image Per capita CO2...

404

NETL: Turbine Projects - Emissions Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Reduction Turbine Projects Emissions Reduction Pre-Mixer Design for High Hydrogen Fuels DataFact Sheets Low-NOX Emissions in a Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Design...

405

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

406

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

407

CO2 Emissions - Netherland Antilles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Netherland Antilles Graphics CO2 Emissions from Netherland Antilles Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Netherland...

408

CO2 Emissions - Ryukyu Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania Ryukyu Islands Graphics CO2 Emissions from the Ryukyu Islands Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from the Ryukyu Islands image...

409

CO2 Emissions - Leeward Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Leeward Islands Graphics CO2 Emissions from Leeward Islands Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Leeward Islands image...

410

carbon emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords capacity carbon emissions energy demand Energy Generation fossil fuels GHG emissions UK Data applicationvnd.openxmlformats-office...

411

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Advanced NOx Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Advanced NOx Emissions Control Adv....

412

Improved field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes by an Ag micro-particle intermediation layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient way to improve field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through an Ag micro-particle intermediation layer is presented. In this way, the intermediation layer is deposited on an indium tin oxide glass substrate by electrochemical ... Keywords: Ag micro-particle intermediation layer, Carbon nanotubes, Field emission

Wenhui Lu; Hang Song; Yixin Jin; Haifeng Zhao; Zhiming Li; Hong Jiang; Guoqing Miao

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Key Issues in the Design of NOx Emission Trading Programs to Reduce Ground-Level Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As NOx control requirements grow more stringent and expensive, interest in emission trading as a means of controlling costs and increasing flexibility has risen. This report provides background information for and analysis of the design of emission trading programs for control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from stationary sources, including fossil fuel electric generating plants.

1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Study on Zero CO2 Emission SOFC Hybrid Power System with Steam Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a traditional SOFC hybrid power system, a zero CO2 emission SOFC hybrid power system with steam injection is proposed in this paper and its performance is analyzed. Oxy-fuel combustion can burn the fuel gas from anode thoroughly, and increases ... Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, Aspen Plus, hybrid power system, zero CO2 emission, steam injection

Liqiang Duan; Xiaoyuan Zhang; Yongping Yang; Gang Xu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Engines - Emissions Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are attractive options for increasing vehicle fuel economy and reducing emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. Two automobile manufacturers have already introduced HEVs, and other manufacturers are planning to introduce their own models. One available HEV combines mass reduction (also applicable to conventional vehicles) with idle-stop, regenerative braking, and electric-drive assist to achieve a fuel economy more than 2.5 times the current Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard. The second HEV combines idle-stop, regenerative braking, electric assist acceleration, and continuously variable transmission (CVT) to achieve a fuel economy of more than twice the current CAFÉ standard, qualifying as a super ultra-low emissions vehicle (SULEV).

416

Pulsar Emission Spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission spectrum is calculated for a weak axisymmetric pulsar. Also calculated are the observed spectrum, efficiency, and the observed efficiency. The underlying flow of electrons and positrons turns out to be curiously intricate.

Gruzinov, Andrei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

China Energy and Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030 (2 nd Edition) David Fridley, Nina Zheng, Nan Zhou, Jing Ke, Ali Hasanbeigi, Bill Morrow, and Lynn Price China Energy Group, Energy...

418

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, which offers many advantages over traditional energy conversion systems including low emission and high efficiency, has become increasingly attractive to the utility, automotive, and defense industries (as shown in Figure 1). As an all solid-state energy conversion device, the SOFC operates at high temperatures (700-1,000 C) and produces electricity by electrochemically combining the fuel and oxidant gases across an ionically conducting oxide membrane. To build up a useful voltage, a number of cells or PENs (Positive cathode-Electrolyte-Negative anode) are electrically connected in series in a stack through bi-polar plates, also known as interconnects. Shown in Figure 2 (a) is a schematic of the repeat unit for a planar stack, which is expected to be a mechanically robust, high power-density and cost-effective design. In the stack (refer to Figure 2 (b)), the interconnect is simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing (fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas) environment on the anode side for thousands of hours at elevated temperatures (700-1,000 C). Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain sulfide impurities. Also, the interconnect must be stable towards any sealing materials with which it is in contact, under numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, the interconnect must also be stable towards electrical contact materials that are employed to minimize interfacial contact resistance, and/or the electrode materials. Considering these service environments, the interconnect materials should possess the following properties: (1) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation and corrosion) in both cathodic (oxidizing) and anodic (reducing) atmospheres. (2) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN and other adjacent components, all of which typically have a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the range of 10.5-12.0 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}. (3) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales. (4) Satisfactory bulk and interfacial mechanical/thermomechanical reliability and durability at the SOFC operating temperatures. (5) Good compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials. Until recently, the leading candidate material for the interconnect was doped lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3), which is a ceramic material which can easily withstand the traditional 1000 C operating temperature. However, the high cost of raw materials and fabrication, difficulties in obtaining high-density chromite parts at reasonable sintering temperatures, and the tendency of the chromite interconnect to partially reduce at the fuel gas/interconnect interface, causing the component to warp and the peripheral seal to break, have plagued the commercialization of planar SOFCs for years. The recent trend in developing lower temperature, more cost-effective cells which utilize anode-supported, several micron-thin electrolytes and/or new electrolytes with improved conductivity make it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2003-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Field emission electron source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies are getting a better grasp of emissions, but there are still problem areas, particularly CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The lag in data has resulted in the imposition of a CO reactor as BACT for the gas turbine. With the renewed concern about the environment, air permits will have a high profile with offsets being the next fix beyond BACT. 'The manner in which technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry....' (1) Therefore, it becomes increasingly important that the proponents of gas turbine-based facilities establish more reliable data on their proposed emissions. This paper addresses the gas turbine emissions experiences of eight cogeneration plants utilizing: 1) steam injection for both NOx control and power augmentation, 2) CO reactors, 3) selective catalytic reduction units. It also looks at possible regulatory actions.

Frederick, J. D.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Catalyst vendors take aim at emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standards for emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources are expected to become more stringent under the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA). For years, scrubbing, incineration and other end-of-pipe methods have been used to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical and hydrocarbon processes. This paper reports that operating companies are now looking to catalyst manufacturers for technologies to meet higher standards. For the most part, development efforts have been centered on reducing emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and VOCs for attainment of national ambient air quality standards for ozone under CAA's Title I. Now though, catalyst manufacturers are setting their sights on NO{sub x}.

Matthey, J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

Streets, D. G.

1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

424

Electric field screening by a proton counterflow in the pulsar polar cap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new mechanism to screen the electric field in the pulsar polar cap. Previous studies have shown that if an electron beam from the stellar surface is accelerated to energies high enough to create electron-positron pairs, the required electric field parallel to the magnetic field lines is too strong to be screened out by the produced pairs. We argue here that if non-relativistic protons are supplied from the magnetosphere to flow towards the stellar surface, they can provide an anode to screen out such a strong electric field. Injected electron-positron pairs yield an asymmetry of the electrostatic potential around the screening point. The required pair creation rate in this model is consistent with the conventional models.

Katsuaki Asano; Fumio Takahara

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Brian Weiss Effect of mercury emissions in China on North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is available in the flue gas that is cleaned (natural oxidation). Alternatively the calcium sulphite can thermodynamic stability on the other: CaSO4 is not stable above around 1250EC in typical flue gases from coal introduced during the 1970-1980s, significant sulphur oxides ("SOx") emission reductions of were rapidly

Columbia University

427

High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)] [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)] [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

429

Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

Hadley, SW

2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

430

Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci [Yildiz Technical University Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Honk Kong milestone: rate of return is tied to emissions levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In early January, the Hong Kong government announced that it has reached a new agreement with two power companies for a rate of return on assets of 9.99 percent - but with a new twist. If the two companies perform beyond current emissions caps, they may earn a 0.05 to 0.1 percent bonus; if they fail, a 0.2 to 0.4 percent penalty may apply. There is also a provision to earn 11 percent if the companies' renewable energy generation reaches a certain proportion as well as provisions to promote energy conservation.

NONE

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Have a question, comment, or suggestion for a future article? Send your feedback to todayinenergy@eia.gov

433

Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing Federal Nox regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

Information Center

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel ... acid rain program in the eastern half of the United States. ... and settlements under the Clean Air Act's New Source Review ...

435

Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

McGill, R.N.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations may apply to reciprocating engines, fuel-burning equipment, or waste combusting equipment which are either attached to major stationary sources of NOx or have high potential NOx...

437

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control - Energy Innovation ...  

Energy Innovation Portal Technologies. ... Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels;

438

Proposal to Designate an Emission Control Area for Nitrogen Oxides,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a massive scale. These processes include catalytic reforming (to increase the octane number), catalytic

Hanson, Thomas

439

Convergence and Disposal of Energy and Moisture on the Antarctic Polar Cap from ECMWF Reanalyses and Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnostics of energy and moisture transport and disposal over the Antarctic polar cap (70°S to the pole) and ice sheet are extracted from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis archive over the 1979–93 period. ...

Christophe Genthon; Gerhard Krinner

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Effect of current density on thermodynamic properties of nanocrystalline palladium capped samarium hydride thin film switchable mirrors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 55 nm samarium film capped with a 10 nm palladium overlayer switched from a metallic reflecting to a semiconducting, transparent in visible state during ex-situ hydrogen loading via electrochemical means in 1 M KOH electrolytic aqueous solution at ...

Pushpendra Kumar; L. K. Malhotra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effects of Chlorine and Other Flue Gas Parameters on Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology for Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologythe technology of choice for meeting stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission limits for coal-fired electric generating plantshas potential for oxidizing mercury, which would provide enhanced removal in downstream systems. Catalyst behavior is relatively well understood for deNOx and SO2 oxidation, but less is known about mercury oxidation behavior. This test program was designed to determine general behavior of typical SCR catalysts on mercury oxidation and ...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

442

Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

GHG emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG emissions GHG emissions Dataset Summary Description These datasets include GHG and CO2 emissions statistics for the European Union (EU). The statistics are available from the European Commission. Source European Commission Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Biofuels CO2 emissions EU GHG emissions Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Total GHG and CO2 Emissions for EU (xls, 853.5 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions by Sector, all member countries (xls, 2 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions from Transport, all member countries (xls, 1.3 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by sector, all member countries (xls, 2.1 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by transport, all member countries (xls, 1.5 MiB)

444

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [d] Excludes carbon sequestered in nonfuel fossil products. [e] CO2 emissions from the plastics portion of municipal solid waste (11 MMTCO2) combusted for electricity generation and very small amounts (0.4 MMTCO2) of geothermal-related emissions.

445

Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model, Version 6. 0. User's manual. Report for November 1984-August 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report is a user's manual for the Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model. It summarizes user options and software characteristics, and describes both the input data files and procedures for operating the model. It discusses proper formatting of files and creation of job-control language. The model projects for each state the emissions of sulfur oxides, sulfates, and nitrogen oxides from fossil-fuel combustion in industrial boilers. Emissions and costs of boiler generation, including emission-control costs, are projected for the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2020, and 2030.

Hogan, T.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Lipid Oxidation Pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book reviews state-of-the-art developments in the understanding of the oxidation of lipids and its connection with the oxidation of other biological molecules such as proteins and starch. Lipid Oxidation Pathways Hardback Books Health - Nutrition -

447

Emissions impacts of marginal electricity demand California hydrogen supply pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hicksian own-price elasticities for PV-cap in the weightedsigni?cant. Own-price elasticities for PV-cap in all otherprice. On the other hand, some positive, signi?cant results (PV

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to selectively oxidize methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons and to oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol, in high space time yields under relatively mild reaction conditions. Results in this document are reported under the headings: methane oxidation over silica, methane oxidation over Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, and oxidative coupling of methane over sulfate-doped Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. 24 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

Martin, Katherine C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cap-and- trade market for the electricity and industrialof a cap-and-trade market, in which electricity generatorsA cap-and-trade market, like an electricity market, will

Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

453

Appearance, temperature, and NO{sub x} emission of two inverse diffusion flames with different port design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out to investigate the appearance, temperature distribution, and NO{sub x} emission index of two inverse diffusion flames, one with circumferentially arranged ports (CAPs) and the other with co-axial (CoA) jets, both burning LPG with 70% butane and 30% propane. Flame appearances were investigated first with a fixed fueling rate at different airflow rates equivalent to air jet Reynolds numbers (Re) of 1000 to 4500; and then at a fixed airflow rate with different fueling rates equivalent to overall equivalence ratios (F) of 1.0 to 2.0. The CAP flame is found to consist of two zones: a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. The CoA flame in most cases is similar to a diffusion flame. The two-zone structure can be observed only at Re larger than 2500. The temperature distributions of the flames are similar at overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 and 1.2 for Re=2500, except that the corresponding CoA flame is longer. The flame temperature is higher in the CAP flame than the CoA flame at higher overall equivalence ratios. A measurement of centerline oxygen concentrations shows that the oxygen concentration reaches a minimum value at a flame height of 50 mm in the CAP flame but decreases more gradually in the CoA flame. It can be concluded that there is more intense air-fuel mixing in a CAP flame than the CoA flame. Investigation of the emission index of NO{sub x} (EINO{sub x}) for both flames at Re=2500 and overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 to 6.0 reveals that the EINO{sub x} curve of each flame is bell-shaped, with a maximum value of 3.2 g/kg at F=1.2 for the CAP flame and 3 g/kg at F=2.2 for the CoA flame.

Sze, L.K.; Cheung, C.S.; Leung, C.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong (China)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

456

Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90?100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

460

Dependence of the cross polar cap potential saturation on the type of solar wind streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation during magnetic storms induced by various types of the solar wind drivers. By using the model of Siscoe-Hill \\citep{Hilletal1976,Siscoeetal2002a,Siscoeetal2002b,Siscoeetal2004,Siscoe2011} we evaluate criteria of the CPCP saturation during the main phases of 257 magnetic storms ($Dst_{min} \\le -50$ nT) induced by the following types of the solar wind streams: magnetic clouds (MC), Ejecta, the compress region Sheath before MC ($Sh_{MC}$) and before Ejecta ($Sh_{E}$), corotating interaction regions (CIR) and indeterminate type (IND). Our analysis shows that occurrence rate of the CPCP saturation is higher for storms induced by ICME ($13.2%$) than for storms driven by CIR ($3.5%$) or by IND ($3.5%$).The CPCP saturation was obtained more often for storms initiated by MC ($25%$) than by Ejecta ($2.9%$); it was obtained for $8.6%$ of magnetic storms induced by sum of MC and Ejecta, and for $21.5%$ magnetic storms induced by Sheath before them (sum of $Sh_...

Nikolaeva, N S; Lodkina, I G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Design studies of the PWO End-cap Calorimeter for PANDA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PANDA detection system at FAIR, Germany, is designed to study antiproton-proton annihilations, in order to investigate among others the realm of charm-meson states and glueballs, which has still much to reveal. The yet unknown properties of this field are to be unraveled through studying QCD phenomena in the non-perturbative regime. The multipurpose PANDA detector will be capable of tracking, calorimetry, and particle identification, and is foreseen to run at high luminosities providing average reaction rates up to 20 Million interactions/s. The envisaged physics program requires measurements of photons and charged particles with excellent energy, position, and time resolutions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will serve as one of the basic components of the detector setup and comprises cooled Lead-Tungstate (PbWO4) crystals. This paper presents the mechanical design of the Forward End-cap calorimeter and analyses the response of this detector component in conjunction with the full EMC and the complete PANDA detector. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations have been validated by data obtained from a prototype calorimeter.

Hossein Moeini; Mohammad Al-Turany; Mohammad Babai; Alexandra Biegun; Olga Bondarenko; Klaus Gotzen; Myroslav Kavatsyuk; Michel Lindemulder; Herbert Lohner; Dima Melnychuk; Johan Messchendorp; Henk Smit; Stefano Spataro; Rick Veenstra

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

462

Design studies of the PWO End-cap Calorimeter for PANDA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PANDA detection system at FAIR, Germany, is designed to study antiproton-proton annihilations, in order to investigate among others the realm of charm-meson states and glueballs, which has still much to reveal. The yet unknown properties of this field are to be unraveled through studying QCD phenomena in the non-perturbative regime. The multipurpose PANDA detector will be capable of tracking, calorimetry, and particle identification, and is foreseen to run at high luminosities providing average reaction rates up to 20 Million interactions/s. The envisaged physics program requires measurements of photons and charged particles with excellent energy, position, and time resolutions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will serve as one of the basic components of the detector setup and comprises cooled Lead-Tungstate (PbWO4) crystals. This paper presents the mechanical design of the Forward End-cap calorimeter and analyses the response of this detector component in conjunction with the full EMC and the compl...

Moeini, Hossein; Babai, Mohammad; Biegun, Alexandra; Bondarenko, Olga; Gotzen, Klaus; Kavatsyuk, Myroslav; Lindemulder, Michel; Lohner, Herbert; Melnychuk, Dima; Messchendorp, Johan; Smit, Henk; Spataro, Stefano; Veenstra, Rick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A Circulating Hydrogen Ultra-High Purification System for the MuCap Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MuCap experiment is a high-precision measurement of the rate for the basic electroweak process of muon capture, mu- + p -> n + nu . The experimental approach is based on an active target consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) operating with pure hydrogen gas. The hydrogen has to be kept extremely pure and at a stable pressure. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultrahigh Purification System was designed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to continuously clean the hydrogen from impurities. The system is based on an adsorption cryopump to stimulate the hydrogen flow and on a cold adsorbent for the hydrogen cleaning. It was installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 2004 and performed reliably during three experiment runs. During several months long operating periods the system maintained the hydrogen purity in the detector on the level of 20 ppb for moisture, which is the main contaminant, and of better than 7 ppb and 5 ppb for nitrogen and oxygen, respectively. The pressure inside the TPC was stabilized to within 0.024% of 10 bar at a hydrogen flow rate of 3 standard liters per minute.

V. A. Ganzha; P. A. Kravtsov; O. E. Maev; G. N. Schapkin; G. G. Semenchuk; V. Trofimov; A. A. Vasilyev; M. E. Vznuzdaev; S. M. Clayton; P. Kammel; B. Kiburg; M. Hildebrandt; C. Petitjean; T. I. Banks; B. Lauss

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts: X-ray photoemission investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to study Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts that have been developed to respond to increased NO x emissions of lean-burn engines. Lean-burn engines

A. J. Nelson; John G. Reynolds; R. D. Sanner; P. R. Coronado; L. M. Hair

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Mechanistic, sensitivity, and uncertainty studies of the atmospheric oxidation of dimethylsulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The global-scale emissions and reactivity of dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3, DMS) make it an integral component in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. DMS is rapidly oxidized in the atmosphere by a complex gas-phase mechanism involving ...

Lucas, Donald David, 1969-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

468

Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system  

SciTech Connect

With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO{sub x} emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ``greenhouse gas`` contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition.

Kephart, W. [Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelo, F. [Resource Energy Corp. (United States); Clemens, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

CO2 Emissions - Puerto Rico  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Puerto Rico Graphics CO2 Emissions from Puerto Rico Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Puerto Rico image Per capita...

470

Reducing SF6 Emissions @ PPPL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

96.4 88.4 Fuel Consumption Emissions 2015 1823.8 Fugitive Emissions Refrigerant 160 241.2 SF6 38360 21042.8 Scope 2 -Indirect Electricity Purchase 13816 13855 Scope 3 -...

471

BPA SF6 Emission Info  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BPA SF 6 Emission Info Steve Lowder - 2012.12 slide 1 Discovering Emission Locations slide 2 BPA uses a FLIR leak detection camera (other methods available) Allows leaks to...

472

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

473

Summary Notes from 22 July 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Long-Term Engineered Cap Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Summary Notes from 22 July 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Long-Term Summary Notes from 22 July 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Long-Term Engineered Cap Performance Attendees: Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Headquarters and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 22 July 2008. Representatives from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, DOE-Savannah River, and DOE- Office of River Protection participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: NRC staff prepared and disseminated agenda topics (listed in the next section) summarizing issues and considerations relative to estimating long-term engineered cover or cap performance. A summary of the discussion regarding each agenda topic is provided below. The purpose of this meeting was for DOE and NRC staff

474

ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

Brenholdt, I.R.

1957-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

475

Global emissions inventories  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

Dignon, J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

CO2 Emissions - Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah Graphics CO2 Emissions from Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah image Per capita CO2 Emission...

477

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the public from airborne radionuclide emissions. We requestfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon FromFugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides from Diffuse Sources

Wahl, Linnea

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon FromFugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides from Diffuse Sources

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the 2002 update of this manual, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been extremely active in its efforts to expand continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) requirements through a variety of regulatory instruments. Additional monitoring requirements have resulted from EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule and Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. EPA attempted to impose mercury (Hg) monitoring requirements in its now-vacated Clean Air Mercury Rule. Most recently, EPA has proposed mercury, particulate mat...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

480

Trace element emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide emission caps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Experimental study on the effects of blast-cap configurations and charge patterns on coke descending in CDQ cooling shaft  

SciTech Connect

The coke descending behavior in a CDQ cooling shaft is studied experimentally by means of a tracing method with a digital camera. For three different blast-caps, the law of coke flow is studied under five conditions of coke charge. The experimental results show that, for the sake of the uniformity of the coke burden descending, a blast-cap with elliptical cross-section is a better choice than that with circular cross-section regardless of high or low placement. A coke charge pattern with a flat top burden surface is preferable to that with peak-valley surface, a double-peak superior to a one-peak. Trajectory and average velocity distribution of coke behavior depend weakly on whether the coke is continuously fed or not as the discharging began. The blast-caps have local effects on the descending coke and hardly affect whether the cokes flow smoothly or not in the case of coke burden with enough depth.

Y.H. Feng; X.X. Zhang; M.L. Wu [University of Science & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Multifunctional Oxides: Multifunctional Oxides: Synthesis and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy to Explore Magneoelectric Coupling in Multiferroic Oxide Heterostructures: Y-M Sheu1; S. Trugman1; L Yan1; C-P Chuu 1; ...

483

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement performance has not been considered adequately in pavement design. Part of the reason is that the process of asphalt oxidation in pavement is not well understood. This work focused on understanding the asphalt oxidation kinetics and on developing pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation and hardening in pavement under environmental conditions. A number of asphalts were studied in laboratory condition. Based on kinetics data, a fast-rate ? constant-rate asphalt oxidation kinetics model was developed to describe the early nonlinear fast-rate aging period and the later constant-rate period of asphalt oxidation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics parameters for the fast-rate and constant-rate reactions were empirically correlated, leading to a simplified model. And the experimental effort and time to obtain these kinetics parameters were significantly reduced. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanism of asphalt oxidation, two antioxidants were studied on their effectiveness. Asphalt oxidation was not significantly affected. It was found that evaluation of antioxidant effectiveness based on viscosity only is not reliable. The asphalt oxidation kinetics model was incorporated into the pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation in pavement. The pavement oxidation model mimics the oxidation process of asphalt in real mixture at pavement temperatures. A new parameter, diffusion depth, defined the oxygen diffusion region in the mastic. A field calibration factor accounted for the factors not considered in the model such as the effect of small aggregate particles on oxygen diffusion. Carbonyl area and viscosity of binders recovered from field cores of three pavements in Texas were measured and were used for model calibration and validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed model estimates carbonyl growth over time in pavement, layer-by-layer, quite well. Finally, this work can be useful for incorporating asphalt oxidation into a pavement design method that can predict pavement performance with time and for making strategic decisions such as optimal time for maintenance treatments.

Jin, Xin

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

485

Task 1: Steam Oxidation,”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Air Pollution Control Systems for Stack and Process Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strict environmental regulations at the federal and local levels require that industrial facilities control emissions of particulates, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants. To comply with regulations, industries must either modify the processes or fuels they use to limit the generation of air pollutants, or remove the pollutants from the process gas streams before release into the atmosphere. This report provides a comprehensive disc...

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

487

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for electricity rate design, with examples from Florida  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The price of CO{sub 2} emissions allowances affects the structure of the utility's costs, which has implications for rate design and load management programs. Depending on the design of the program to recover these costs, utility total revenue requirements - and the rate design utilized to recover these requirements - may be impacted. A new way to think about rate design may be required. (author)

Parmesano, Hethie; Kury, Theodore J.

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

Environmental software systems for emission inventories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric emission inventories are important tools for environmental decision making. The need to include transparency and reproducibility in emission calculation also fostered the development of environmental software systems for emission inventories. ... Keywords: Emission inventory theory, Model validation, Upper Austria

Wilfried Winiwarter; Gerald Schimak

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Cermet Filters To Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.Diesel engines currently emit soot and NOx that pollute our air. It is expected that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin tightening the regulatory requirements to control these emissions. The INEEL's self-cleaning, high temperature cermet filter provides a technology to clean heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Under high engine exhaust temperatures, the cermet filter simultaneously removes carbon particles and NOx from the exhaust gas. The cermet filter is made from inexpensive starting materials, via net shape bulk forming and a single-step combustion synthesis process, and can be brazed to existing structures. It is self-cleaning, lightweight, mechanically strong, thermal shock resistant, and has a high melting temperature, high heat capacity, and controllable thermal expansion coefficient. The filter's porosity is controlled to provide high removal efficiency for carbon particulate. It can be made catalytic to oxidize CO, H2, and hydrocarbons, and reduce NOx. When activated by engine exhaust, the filter produces NH3 and light hydrocarbon gases that can effectively destroy the NOx in the exhaust. The following sections describe cermet filter technology and properties of the INEEL filter.

Kong, Peter

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

491

REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mercury emission compliance is one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggests that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of the mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2} , followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the development and application of a kinetics model to the oxidation data developed in the present program and literature data under MSW conditions. The results indicate that the pathway Hg + Cl = HgCl followed by HgCl + HCl = HgCl{sub 2} + H predominates over Hg + Cl{sub 2} under high-temperature conditions. This primarily occurs because Cl{sub 2} concentrations are too low under the present conditions to contribute significantly.

John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

492

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

493

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

Welch, M. J.

1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

494

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Title On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Dallmann, Timothy R., Steven J. DeMartini, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Scott C. Herndon, Timothy B. Onasch, Ezra C. Wood, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 46 Issue 15 Pagination 8511-8518 Abstract Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen di