National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oxide emission caps

  1. Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

  2. Emission trading with absolute and intensity caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jaemin

    2005-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol introduced emission trading to help reduce the cost of compliances for the Annex B countries that have absolute caps. However, we need to expand the emission trading to cover developing countries in order ...

  3. Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enion, Rhead M.

    2012-01-01

    focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

  4. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2007-01-01

    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

  5. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  6. Comparative study of metal or oxide capped indiumtin oxide anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1556184 I. INTRODUCTION Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs 1 are challengingComparative study of metal or oxide capped indium­tin oxide anodes for organic light as anodes in organic light-emitting diodes based on N,N -diphenyl-N,N bis 3-methyl-phenyl-1,1 -biphenyl-4

  7. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  8. Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose

  9. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  10. Pulsar Magnetospheric Emission Mapping: Images and Implications of Polar-Cap Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avinash A. Deshpande; Joanna M. Rankin

    1999-09-23

    The beautiful sequences of ``drifting'' subpulses observed in some radio pulsars have been regarded as among the most salient and potentially instructive characteristics of their emission, not least because they have appeared to represent a system of subbeams in motion within the emission zone of the star. Numerous studies of these ``drift'' sequences have been published, and a model of their generation and motion articulated long ago by Ruderman & Sutherland (1975); but efforts thus far have failed to establish an illuminating connection between the drift phemomenon and the actual sites of radio emission. Through a detailed analysis of a nearly coherent sequence of ``drifting'' pulses from pulsar B0943+10, we have in fact identified a system of subbeams circulating around the magnetic axis of the star. A mapping technique, involving a ``cartographic'' transform and its inverse, permits us to study the character of the polar-cap emission ``map'' and then to confirm that it, in turn, represents the observed pulse sequence. On this basis, we have been able to trace the physical origin of the ``drifting-subpulse'' emission to a stably rotating and remarkably organized configuration of emission columns, in turn traceable possibly to the magnetic polar-cap ``gap'' region envisioned by some theories.

  11. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the...

  12. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  13. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  14. Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

  15. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  16. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  17. Condensed Surfaces of Magnetic Neutron Stars, Thermal Surface Emission, and Particle Acceleration Above Pulsar Polar Caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zach Medin; Dong Lai

    2008-01-18

    For sufficiently strong magnetic fields and/or low temperatures, the neutron star surface may be in a condensed state with little gas or plasma above it. Such surface condensation can significantly affect the thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, and may lead to the formation of a charge-depleted acceleration zone ("vacuum gap") in the magnetosphere above the stellar polar cap. Using the latest results on the cohesive property of magnetic condensed matter, we quantitatively determine the conditions for surface condensation and vacuum gap formation in magnetic neutron stars. We find that condensation can occur if the thermal energy kT of the neutron star surface is less than about 8% of its cohesive energy Q_s, and that a vacuum gap can form if the neutron star's rotation axis and magnetic moment point in opposite directions and kT is less than about 4% of Q_s. Thus, vacuum gap accelerators may exist for some neutron stars. Motivated by this result, we also study the physics of pair cascades in the vacuum gap model for photon emission by accelerating electrons and positrons due to both curvature radiation and resonant/nonresonant inverse Compton scattering. Our calculations of the condition of cascade-induced vacuum breakdown and the related pulsar death line/boundary generalize previous works to the superstrong field regime. We find that inverse Compton scatterings do not produce a sufficient number of high energy photons in the gap and thus do not lead to pair cascades for most neutron star parameters. We discuss the implications of our results for the recent observations of neutron star thermal radiation as well as for the detection/non-detection of radio emission from high-B pulsars and magnetars.

  18. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  19. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  20. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone J O H N T . W A L K E R , * , C R A I,thoughlargenitrogeninputsanddeoxygenation typical of these systems create the potential for large N2O emissions. We report the first N2O emission measurements from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone (GOMHZ), including an estimate of the emission "pulse

  1. Allocating emissions permits in cap-and-trade programs: Theory and evidence Preliminary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    emissions trading program are used to analyze these relationships empirically. I ...nd robust evidence an important a factor in the widespread adoption of emissions trading programs. More recently, a third design

  2. Oxidation preventative capping layer for deep-ultra-violet and soft x-ray multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prisbrey, Shon T.

    2004-07-06

    The invention uses iridium and iridium compounds as a protective capping layer on multilayers having reflectivity in the deep ultra-violet to soft x-ray regime. The iridium compounds can be formed in one of two ways: by direct deposition of the iridium compound from a prepared target or by depositing a thin layer (e.g., 5-50 angstroms) of iridium directly onto an element. The deposition energy of the incoming iridium is sufficient to activate the formation of the desired iridium compound. The compounds of most interest are iridium silicide (IrSi.sub.x) and iridium molybdenide (IrMo.sub.x).

  3. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  4. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    is attained in a post-catalyst homogeneous combustion zone.This process leads to substantial reduction of NOxIntroduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is of great importance in practical emissions (typically NOx is produced exclusively from the gaseous (homogeneous) reaction path

  5. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  6. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DPF regeneration experiments verified the effects of NO2 and O2 emissions found from the thermogravimetric analyzer soot oxidation.

  7. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, John N.

    2010-01-01

    CO) oxidation (Figure 6) and the catalytic activity wascatalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,catalytic properties using ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,

  8. On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

  9. Updating the Allocation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Permits in a Federal Cap-and-Trade Meredith Fowliey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    ¤ered to a subset of the sources in an emissions trading program, a greater share of the mandated emissions

  10. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  11. MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

  12. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions.

  13. Beyond Additionality in Cap-and-Trade Offset Policy Reuters/Nguyen Huy Kham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the cap. Offsets have assumed an important role in many recent emissions trading programs for greenhouse

  14. Does the location of aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions affect their climate impact?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    integrations: a base case, then variants with extra aircraft nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions added to specific NOx emissions. NOx promotes tropospheric ozone (O3) production, but also stimulates methane (CH4 how important the emission location is in influencing the impact of aviation NOx on O3 and CH4. 2

  15. Growth and field-emission property of tungsten oxide nanotip arrays Jun Zhou, Li Gong, Shao Zhi Deng,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Growth and field-emission property of tungsten oxide nanotip arrays Jun Zhou, Li Gong, Shao Zhi of 010 . The tungsten oxide nanotips exhibit excellent field-emission properties with a low threshold field for an emission current density of 10 mA/cm2 4.37 MV/m and uniform emission from the entire arrays

  16. Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, E.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

  17. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17

    Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning ...

  18. Temperature estimates from the zircaloy oxidation kinetics in the. cap alpha. plus. beta. phase region. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidation rates of zircaloy in steam were measured at temperatures between 961 and 1264 K and for duration times between 25 and 1900 seconds in order to calculate, in conjunction with measurements from postirradiation metallographic examination, the prior peak temperatures of zircaloy fuel rod cladding. These temperature estimates will be used in light water reactor research programs to assess (a) the accuracy of temperature measurements of fuel rod cladding peak temperatures from thermocouples attached to the surface during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), (b) the perturbation of the fuel rod cladding LOCE temperature history caused by the presence of thermocouples, and (c) the measurements of cladding azimuthal temperature gradients near thermocouple locations.

  19. Impact of preindustrial biomass-burning emissions on the oxidation pathways of tropospheric sulfur and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    the onset of the Industrial Revolution due to increases in fossil fuel burning emissions [e.g., Lelieveld et-burning events in North America just prior to the Industrial Revolution significantly impacted the oxidation the Industrial Revolution, particularly when using paleo-oxidant data as a reference for model evaluation. INDEX

  20. Temperature estimates from the Zircaloy oxidation kinetics in the. cap alpha. plus. beta. phase region. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidation rates of Zircaloy in steam were measured at temperatures between 961 and 1264 K and for duration times between 25 and 1900 seconds in order to calculate, in conjunction with measurements from postirradiation metallographic examination, the prior peak temperatures of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding. These temperature estimates will be used in light water reactor research programs to assess (a) the accuracy of temperature measurements of fuel rod cladding peak temperatures from thermocouples attached to the surface during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), (b) the perturbation of the fuel rod cladding LOCE temperature history caused by the presence of thermocouples, and (c) the measurements of cladding azimuthal temperature gradients near the thermocouple locations.

  1. Conjugated Polymers That Respond to Oxidation with Increased Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    Thioether-containing poly(para-phenylene-ethynylene) (PPE) copolymers show a strong fluorescence turn-on response when exposed to oxidants in solution as a result of the selective conversion of thioether substituents into ...

  2. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  3. Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharol, S. K.

    We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

  4. Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT CEEEPR Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emissions Trading for Energy and Environmental Policy Research #12;MIT CEEEPR Two Types of Air Emissions Trading · Credit- · OTC/SIP-Call NOx Budget Programs: 1999- · EU's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme: 2005- ­ The first CO2

  5. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  6. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  7. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  8. Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey V.

    2007-01-01

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  9. Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  10. TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial Ryegrass under Different Irrigation Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    80 TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial). effects of irrigation on N2 O emissions from perennial ryegrass AUTHOR: Jason Lewis and Dale Bremer and frequencies, and irrigated with different amounts of water, all of which may affect N2 O emissions

  11. Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology with kriging constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology. Abstract For chemistry-transport models operating at regional scales, surface emissions are the input data a methodology to optimize surface emissions at local scale i.e. to compute correction factors for the available

  12. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  14. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  15. Thermal Activation and Quantum Field Emission in a Sketch-Based Oxide Nano Transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Cen; Daniela Bogorin; Jeremy Levy

    2010-09-13

    We report direct measurements of the potential barriers and electronic coupling between nanowire segments within a sketch-based oxide nanotransistor (SketchFET) device. Near room temperature, switching is governed by thermally activation across a potential barrier controlled by the nanowire gate. Below T=150 K, a crossover to quantum field emission is observed that is sensitive to structural phase transitions in the SrTiO3 layer. This direct measurement of the source-drain and gate-drain energy barriers is crucial for the development of room-temperature logic and memory elements and low-temperature quantum devices.

  16. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Simões, A.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. • Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 °C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 °C for 8 min.

  17. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  19. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  20. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  1. Purdue Climate Change Research Center Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue Climate Change Research Center Emissions Trading Workshop Introduction and Overview manner. Workshop rather than conference. #12;What is Emissions Trading? (or "Cap and Trade") · Cap & Enforcement · Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) mechanisms for reductions #12;Five Emissions

  2. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  3. Neutron Emission Characteristics of Two Mixed-Oxide Fuels: Simulations and Initial Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury; E. M. Gantz

    2009-07-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate the neutron emission characteristics of two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and it's Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. This analysis used the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and energy spectra of the different neutron source terms within these fuels, and then used this data to simulate the detection and measurement of these emissions using an array of liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers. These calculations accounted for neutrons generated from the spontaneous fission of the actinides in the MOX fuel as well as neutrons created via (alpha,n) reactions with oxygen in the MOX fuel. The analysis was carried out to allow for characterization of both neutron energy as well as neutron coincidences between multiple detectors. Coincidences between prompt gamma rays and neutrons were also analyzed. Experiments were performed at INL with the same materials used in the simulations to benchmark and begin validation tests of the simulations. Data was collected in these experiments using an array of four liquid scintillators and a high-speed waveform digitizer. Advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms were developed and used to collect this data. Results of the simulation and modeling studies are presented together with preliminary results from the experimental campaign.

  4. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi Xu, Jian-Qun; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You

    2014-07-28

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  5. CAP: Criticality AnCAP: Criticality An Efficient Speculatip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    - Tracks running tasks andg their context Novel components of CAPNovel components of CAP - Critical path builder Builds path and analyzes graph - Critical path predictor #12;CAP OvCAP Ov T ll t th hTo collect the critical path calculation is easyp y o find critical path #12;Critical PatCritical Pat T i i l l t d

  6. Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...

  7. Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2009-01-01

    Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

  8. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  9. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  10. Sack Goldman Sachs Cap-and-Trade The revolving door between Washington and Wall Street has produced a new scheme to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    to slow global warming and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Permits to emit a "capped" amount and Washington to slow carbon dioxide emissions and reduce fossil fuel use. Cap-and-trade sets a nominal, permit price would collapse leaving no incentive for further emissions reduction. Moreover, the cap

  11. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  12. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  13. Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production requires significant inputs of fertilizer N for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Abstract: Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated-textured, well-drained soils where potatoes are commonly grown. Polymer coated controlled-release ureas (PCU

  14. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  15. 1 THE WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF CARBON TAXES AND CARBON 2 CAPS: A LOOK AT U.S. HOUSEHOLDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    . Nations all over51 are debating policies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse reductions. #12;47 Keywords: Carbon emissions, Carbon trading, Carbon credits, Cap and trade, Welfare1 THE WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF CARBON TAXES AND CARBON 2 CAPS: A LOOK AT U.S. HOUSEHOLDS 3 4 Sumala

  16. Australia's Carbon Cap-and-Tax Fiasco 24 July 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    as a cap-and-tax. Australia is now the largest carbon polluter per capita among major nations (see Figure 1-partisan economic analysis of fee-and-dividend. Citizens Climate Lobby (see their no-cost Vote Now!) needs more rather than later. Jim Figure 1. Per capita carbon emissions. Eur.Eur. is the rest of Europe and Eurasia

  17. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27- Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  19. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore »speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., -1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.« less

  20. Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  1. Natural volatile organic compound emissions from plants and their roles in oxidant balance and particle formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kesselmeier, JC

    2009-01-01

    of Emissions of Gases and Aero- sols from Nature), Atmos.of secondary organic aero­ sol: A global modeling study, J.and M. Razzaghi (1989), Aero­bic ethanol-production by

  2. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  4. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  5. When a national cap-and-trade policy with a carve-out provision may be preferable to a national CO2 tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, MH; Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D

    2015-01-01

    for renewable energy include the local economic benefitsrenewable energy policies raise the cost of national cap-and-trade policies without affecting national emissions and may benefit

  6. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2?nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (?V{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying ?1?V for 5?s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V, and the memory window can be up to 8?V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at ?1?V programming voltage, the ?V{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10?V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1?V the electric field across the 3.6?nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ?V{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E??2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  7. Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harchol-Balter, Mor

    Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi Carnegie Mellon University anshulg@cs.cmu.edu Mor@us.ibm.com Abstract We introduce a novel power capping technique, IdleCap, that achieves higher effective server frequency for a given power constraint than existing techniques. IdleCap works by repeatedly alternating

  8. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  9. Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds as observed at Chebogue Point,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, tentatively identified formic acid and hydroxyacetone organic aerosol production. We clearly show these compounds do not originate from local sources. We also show these compounds match the oxidation products of isoprene observed in smog chamber studies, and we

  10. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  11. The regenerable trap oxidizer-An emission control technique for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.; Loose, G.

    1985-01-01

    Daimler-Benz made an early start with the development of systems for the aftertreatment of the exhaust gas emitted by diesel engines. The more important limiting conditions could best be met by the provision of a ceramic, selfcleaning trap oxidizer (TO). In such filters, self-regeneration is effected continuously while driving without any external control. Either partial or complete regeneration is effected, depending on the temperature, oxygen content and rate of flow of the exhaust gas, the amount of soot in the filter and the period for which a given operating condition is maintained. Such a trap oxidizer was developed for a 3.0 liter turbocharged diesel engine to the extent necessary for series production and has been fitted to type 300 SD and 300 D turbocharged diesel of model year 1985 in California.

  12. Enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by indium tin oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, Chul, E-mail: chuh@etri.re.kr; Kim, Bong Kyu; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeob [IT Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21

    We report an enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a Si nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) by employing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs). The formed ITO NWs (diameter?

  13. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission reductions of CO2 in developing of Physical Resource Theory #12;CO2 per capita emissions in 1999 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Population PercapitaCO2emissions(tonC/cap/yr) AFRICA CPA FAR EAST MEA OCEANIA WEU NAM FSU/ EEU WORLD AVERAGE LAM Department

  14. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Optimized capping layers for EUV multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-08-24

    A new capping multilayer structure for EUV-reflective Mo/Si multilayers consists of two layers: A top layer that protects the multilayer structure from the environment and a bottom layer that acts as a diffusion barrier between the top layer and the structure beneath. One embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of B.sub.4 C. Another embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of Mo. These embodiments have the additional advantage that the reflectivity is also enhanced. Ru has the best oxidation resistance of all materials investigated so far. B.sub.4 C is an excellent barrier against silicide formation while the silicide layer formed at the Si boundary is well controlled.

  17. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureEly M.Emilio Segrè About the LabEmission

  18. Evaluation of space-based constraints on global nitrogen oxide emissions with regional aircraft measurements over and downwind of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Randall

    emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N yrÀ1 ) is 22 anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia. A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N yrÀ1. Anthropogenic activity has increased global NOx emissions by a factor of 3­6 since preindustrial times [Prather

  19. Pack & Cap: Adaptive DVFS and Thread Packing Under Power Caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coskun, Ayse

    _reda@brown.edu ABSTRACT The ability to cap peak power consumption is a desirable feature in modern data centers for energy control decisions in order to maximize performance within a power budget. In or- der to capture to DVFS alone and reduces workload energy consumption by an average of 51.6% compared to existing control

  20. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Streets, D. G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Foy, B. [Saint Louis Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341509922); Lamsal, L. N. [Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Duncan, B. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Xing, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cracking in reinforced concrete bent caps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Bradley S.

    2000-01-01

    cracking in order to improve durability and reduce maintenance costs of bent caps throughout the lifetime of the structure. Excessive cracking in RC bent caps can be controlled through improved design detailing for both flexure and shear. For flexure...

  3. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  4. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. ADAPTIVE POWER CAPPING FOR SERVERS WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coskun, Ayse

    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... POWER CAPPING IN COMPUTER CLUSTERS ENABLES ENERGY BUDGETING, EFFICIENT POWER DELIVERY, AND MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND ADAPTING TO DYNAMIC-POWER CAPS. PACK AND CAP IMPROVES ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ACHIEVABLE RANGE as much as 400 percent in the past decade.1 Modern data-center energy consumption results in millions

  6. YIELD IMPROVEMENT CASE STUDY: STACKED SPRING CAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    % of the caps cast from this design required welding for shrinkage defects, and all caps had some reoxidation the findings of a yield improvement study performed for a 3" spring cap cast from WCB steel. The original mold inclusions. The casting simulation software package MAGMAsoft was utilized to simulate alternate mold

  7. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

  8. Effects of pretreatment of coal by CO{sub 2} on nitric oxide emission and unburned carbon in various combustion environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gathitu, B.B.; Chen, W.Y. [University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Polar solvents are known to swell coal, break hydrogen bonds in the macromolecular structure, and enhance coal liquefaction efficiencies. The effects of the pretreatment of coal using supercritical CO{sub 2} on its physical structure and combustion properties have been studied at the bench-scale level. Emphasis has been placed on NO reburning, NO emissions during air-fired and oxy-fired combustion, and loss on ignition (LOI). Pretreatment was found to increase porosity and to significantly alter the fuel nitrogen reaction pathways. Consequently, NO reduction during reburning using bituminous coal increased, and NO emissions during oxidation of lignite decreased. These two benefits were achieved without negative impacts on LOI.

  9. Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

  10. Improved Model of Isoprene Emissions in Africa using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Observations of Formaldehyde: Implications for Oxidants and Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D.; Guenther, Alex B.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Murphy, J. G.; Reeves, C. E.; Pye, H.

    2014-08-01

    We use a 2005-2009 record of isoprene emissions over Africa derived from OMI satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) to better understand the factors controlling isoprene emission on the scale of the continent and evaluate the impact of isoprene emissions on atmospheric composition in Africa. OMI-derived isoprene emissions show large seasonality over savannas driven by temperature and leaf area index (LAI), and much weaker seasonality over equatorial forests driven by temperature. The commonly used MEGAN (version 2.1) global 31 isoprene emission model reproduces this seasonality but is biased high, particularly for 32 equatorial forests, when compared to OMI and relaxed-eddy accumulation measurements. 33 Isoprene emissions in MEGAN are computed as the product of an emission factor Eo, LAI, and 34 activity factors dependent on environmental variables. We use the OMI-derived emissions to 35 provide improved estimates of Eo that are in good agreement with direct leaf measurements from 36 field campaigns (r = 0.55, bias = -19%). The largest downward corrections to MEGAN Eo values are for equatorial forests and semi-arid environments, and this is consistent with latitudinal transects of isoprene over West Africa from the AMMA aircraft campaign. Total emission of isoprene in Africa is estimated to be 77 Tg C a-1, compared to 104 Tg C a-1 in MEGAN. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem oxidant-aerosol model suggest that isoprene emissions increase mean surface ozone in West Africa by up to 8 ppbv, and particulate matter by up to 1.5 42 ?g m-3, due to coupling with anthropogenic influences.

  11. Measurement and analysis of. cap alpha. particles emitted in reactions of /sup 12/C bombarding /sup 12/C, /sup 27/Al, and /sup nat/Ca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XIE Yuan-xiang; WU Guo-hua; ZHU Yong-tai; MIAO Rong-zhi; FONG En-pu; YIN Xu; MIAO He-bing; CAI Jing-xiang; SHEN Wen-qing; SUN Shu-ming

    1985-10-01

    The energy spectra and angular distributions of the ..cap alpha.. particles emitted in the reactions of 69.5 MeV /sup 12/C bombarding /sup 12/C, /sup 27/Al, and /sup nat/Ca have been measured and analyzed using the fast-particle exciton model. The contribution from the equilibrium and pre-equilibrium ..cap alpha.. emissions is calculated to be 89%, 81%, and 83% of the total ..cap alpha.. yields for the three reactions, respectively, where the pre-equilibrium ..cap alpha.. emissions are 11%, 14%, and 16%, respectively. A small contribution comes from other reaction mechanisms.

  12. A cheap and effective CO{sub 2} cap-and-trade for electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, Steven

    2009-10-15

    Now that debate has shifted from regional toward federal cap-and-trade policy, it's time to reintroduce the idea of using reduction credits rather than allowances to drive emission reductions. A credit system appears to work well to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions with minimal compliance cost - and without windfall, wealth transfer, or market power concerns. It also provides a strong incentive for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and a ready means to harmonize a federal cap-and-trade with state and federal renewable energy portfolio requirements. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  14. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2004-07-21

    Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

  15. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    non-marketed natural gas. g Includes methane emissions related to energy, agriculture, waste management, and industrial processes. h Includes nitrous oxide emissions related...

  16. 2/20/07 CAP5510 1 CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    form local regular secondary structures, such as Alpha helix, beta strands, etc #12;2/20/07 CAP5510 18 #12;Alpha Helix 2/20/07 CAP5510 19 #12;Beta Sheets 2/20/07 CAP5510 20 #12;Beta to find minimum energy configuration? Unfolded Molten Globule State Folded Native State Rapid (

  17. Enhanced thermal stability of Ag nanorods through capping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachenheimer, Lou; Elliott, Paul; Stagon, Stephen; Huang, Hanchen

    2014-11-24

    Ag nanorods may serve as sensors in the detection of trace amounts of chemical agents, even single molecules, through surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). However, thermal coarsening of Ag nanorods near room temperature limits their applications. This letter proposes the use of a thin oxide capping layer to enhance the thermal stability of Ag nanorods beyond 100?°C. Using electron microscopy characterization and SERS tests, the authors show that the proposed method is effective in stabilizing both morphology and sensitivity of Ag nanorods. The results of this work extend the applicability of Ag nanorods as chemical sensors to higher temperatures.

  18. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  19. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Capping of Water Wells for Future Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin

    2007-09-04

    Water wells that are not being used, but that might be needed in the future, can be sealed with a cap that covers the top of the well casing pipe to prevent unauthorized access and contamination of the well. This publication explains how to cap a...

  1. Population Files for use with CAP88 at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    CAP88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988) is a computer model developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the potential dose from radionuclide emissions to air and to demonstrate compliance with the Clean Air Act. It has options to calculate either individual doses, in units of mrem, or a collective dose, also called population dose, in units of person-rem. To calculate the collective dose, CAP88 uses a population file such as LANL.pop, that lists the number of people in each sector (N, NNE, NE, etc.) as a function of distance (1 to 2 km, etc.) out to a maximum radius of 80 km. Early population files are described in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Environmental Reports for 1985 (page 14) and subsequent years. LA-13469-MS describes a population file based on the 1990 census. These files have been updated several times, most recently in 2006 for CAP88 version 3. The 2006 version used the US census for 2000. The present paper describes the 2012 updates, using the 2010 census.

  2. Polar caps in the presence of an induction field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, P B

    2015-01-01

    Following the early paper of Goldreich & Julian (1969), polar-cap models have usually assumed that the closed sector of a pulsar magnetosphere corotates with the neutron star. Recent work by Melrose & Yuen has been a reminder that in an oblique rotator, the induction field arising from the time-varying magnetic flux density cannot be completely screened. The principal consequence is that the plasma does not corotate with the star. Here it is shown that the physics of the polar cap is not changed at the altitudes of the radio emission source. But the presence of a plasma drift velocity in the corotating frame of reference does provide a mechanism whereby the net charge of the star can be maintained within a stable band of values. It also shows directly how electron injection and acceleration occur in the outer gap of the magnetosphere. It is consistent with radio-loud pulsars in the Fermi LAT catalogue of gamma-emitters all having positive polar-cap charge density.

  3. Power capping in SLURM First prototype results and feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefèvre, Laurent

    Power capping in SLURM First prototype results and feedback Green days @Lille, November 2013;Green days @Lille, November 2013 | Matthieu Hautreux | 2/27 Power capping Green days @Lille, November 2013 | Matthieu Hautreux | 3/27 Power capping

  4. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  5. CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics CGS 5166: Bioinformatics Tools"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    : first bacteriophage sequenced 1990: HGP initiated 1/13/11 CAP5510/CGS5166 5 #12;1/13/11 CAP5510/CGS5166

  6. CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics CGS 5166: Bioinformatics Tools"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    1977: first bacteriophage sequenced q1990: HGP initiated 1/13/11 CAP5510/CGS5166 4 #12;1/13/11 CAP5510

  7. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  8. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Presentation from the...

  9. Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See, Wee Chiang

    2005-01-01

    The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

  10. The bumpy road to federal CO{sub 2} caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gannett, C.; Adamson, D.

    2007-07-15

    In January and February 2007 members of the US Congress introduced a number of carbon capture and trade bills that compete with each other to impose the most stringent standards possible. Soon after, the Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, called for consideration of a bill by the full House by the summer. Two issues have been resolved so far: any greenhouse gas reduction program almost certainly will be mandatory, and it appears likely that regulation of the electric power sector's CO{sub 2} emissions will be via a cap and trade system. Many other issues remain. Eight of these are discussed in the article. They include: where in the energy supply chain should greenhouse gas emissions be regulated? and, How should the burden of greenhouse gas reduction be shared with the electricity industry?

  11. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and general technology approaches for heavy- and light-duty vehicle emissions control - filter technology, new catalysts, NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters

  12. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: Cold cap reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cap reactions P. Hrma a, b, , A.A. Kruger c , R. Pokorny d a Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea b...

  13. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  14. Subsea tree cap well choke system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bednar, J.M.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes an apparatus useful in subsea well completions requiring a subsea choke. It comprises: a wellhead connector; a tree flow passage; a tree annulus passage; a tree cap; a choke; and a production line.

  15. Reducing Freight Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the California Corridor: The potential of short sea shipping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Bo; Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Resources Board (CARB). Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data: 1990-CARB) California 1990 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Leve l andfor Designing a Greenhouse Gas Cap -and- Trade System for

  16. Emissions Minimization Vehicle Routing Problem Miguel Figliozzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs will have a clear economic value, e.g CO2 emissions in $/kg. This research aims to formulate it is likely that GHG emissions will have a monetary cost. Under cap and trade emissions system initiatives is the primary objective or is part of a generalized cost function. In addition, departure times and travel

  17. CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics CGS 5166: Bioinformatics Tools"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    5510 / CGS 5166 17 World Poverty PCA" #12;2/22/11 CAP5510 / CGS 5166 18 World Poverty SOM" #12;2/22/11 CAP5510 / CGS 5166 19 World Poverty Map" #12;2/22/11 CAP5510 / CGS 5166 20 #12;2/22/11 CAP5510 / CGS

  18. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  19. 3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 1 CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    2 Protein Folding! How to find minimum energy configuration? Unfolded Molten Globule State Folded;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 4 Energy Landscape! #12;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 5 Modular Nature of Protein5166 16 5 Fold Space classes! Attractor 1 can be characterized as alpha/beta, attractor 2 as all-beta

  20. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of oxide electrodes * Decision point: Down select to metal or electronically- conducting oxide electrodes Electrochemical NO x Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions 17 Plans for...

  1. FSL A. Sathye CAPS M. Xue CAPS G. Bassett CAPS K. Droegemeier 1CIRA Jointly a liated with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    of CAPS to accomplish its mission depends critically upon the e ective use of high performance computing

  2. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Genton, Alain (Merignac, FR)

    2000-04-18

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.

  3. DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING: ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION AND RECYCLING STRATEGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING: ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION AND RECYCLING. Phone (714) 907-1123, Fax (213) 821-3926, E-mail fprager@usc.edu Emissions trading, or "cap and trade

  4. 2/7/07 CAP5510 1 CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    : . : * . . *:* . :*: Red: AVFPMLW (Small & hydrophobic) Blue: DE (Acidic) Magenta: RHK (Basic) Green: STYHCNGQ (Hydroxyl, Amine, Basic) Gray: Others #12;2/7/07 CAP5510 4 Multiple Alignments Family alignment for the ITAM domain

  5. Three-dimensional calculation of field electron energy distributions from open hydrogen-saturated and capped metallic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Three-dimensional calculation of field electron energy distributions from open hydrogen-core potentials and the electronic exchange energy was evaluated using the local density ap- proximation 4 3CX 1 emission from open and capped 5,5 carbon nanotubes, with consideration of hydrogen saturation of the open

  6. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  7. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual

  8. Direct probing of density of states of reduced graphene oxides in a wide voltage range by tunneling junction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Minn-Tsong

    devices are fabricated with an aluminum oxide layer inserted in between electrodes and rGO sheets-ionized water. A substrate of highly doped Si wafer was capped with a 300-nm thick oxide layer and deposited

  9. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  10. Should we geoengineer larger ice caps?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The climate of Earth is susceptible to catastrophes that could threaten the longevity of human civilization. Geoengineering to reduce incoming solar radiation has been suggested as a way to mediate the warming effects of contemporary climate change, but a geoengineering program for thousands of years could also be used to enlarge the size of the polar ice caps and create a permanently cooler climate. Such a large ice cap state would make Earth less susceptible to climate threats and could allow human civilization to survive further into the future than otherwise possible. Intentionally extending Earth's glacial coverage will require uninterrupted commitment to this program for millenia but would ultimately reach a cooler equilibrium state where geoengineering is no longer needed. Whether or not this program is ever attempted, this concept illustrates the need to identify preference among potential climate states to ensure the long-term success of civilization.

  11. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

  12. SINGULAR FORWARD-BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND EMISSIONS DERIVATIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    SINGULAR FORWARD-BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND EMISSIONS DERIVATIVES REN´E CARMONA and why they appear naturally as models for the valuation of CO2 emission allowances. Single phase cap is motivated by the mathematical analysis of the emissions markets, as implemented for example in the European

  13. Size tunable elemental copper nanoparticles: extracellular synthesis by thermoanaerobic bacteria and capping molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B; Gresback, Ryan G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Meyer III, Harry M; Kidder, Michelle; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal sized elemental copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from inexpensive oxidized copper salts by an extracellular metal-reduction process using anaerobic Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 bacteria in aqueous solution. The bacteria nucleate NPs outside of the cell, and they control the Cu2+ reduction rate to form uniform crystallites with an average diameter of 1.75 0.46 m after 3-day incubation. To control the size and enhance air stability of Cu NPs, the reaction mixtures were supplemented with nitrilotriacetic acid as a chelator, and the surfactant capping agents oleic acid, oleylamine, ascorbic acid, or L-cysteine. Time-dependent UV-visible absorption measurements and XPS studies indicated well-suspended, bimodal colloidal Cu NPs (70 150 and 5 10 nm) with extended air-stability up to 300 min and stable Cu NP films surfaces with 14% oxidation after 20 days. FTIR spectroscopy suggested that these capping agents were effectively adsorbed on the NP surface providing oxidation resistance in aqueous and dry conditions. Compared to previously reported Cu NP syntheses, this biological process substantially reduced the requirement for hazardous organic solvents and chemical reducing agents, while reducing the levels of Cu oxide impurities in the product. This process was highly reproducible and scalable from 0.01 to 1-L batches.

  14. Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte

    2006-11-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.

  15. Capping methane leaks a win-win

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-NOperatorsCan'tPowerCapitalCapping

  16. SolarCAP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter Battery TechnologySocovoltaicCorporation LtdTrackerSolarCAP Jump to:

  17. APowerCap Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgramInformation ALLETE, Inc.EnergyPlcAOSAPowerCap

  18. CeCap LLP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal Gradient Holes Jump to:MiddleCayucos, California:CeCap

  19. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from CNG Transit Buses EquippedOxidation Catalyst Effect on CNG Transit Bus Emissions. SAEOxidation Catalyst Effect on CNG Transit Bus Emissions. SAE

  20. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide...

  1. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Jamie T. (Simpsonville, SC); Driver, Howard D. (Greer, SC); van Breugel, Sjef (Enschede, NL); Jenkins, Thomas B. (Cantonment, FL); Bakhuis, Jan Willem (Nijverdal, NL); Billen, Andrew J. (Daarlerveen, NL); Riahi, Amir (Pensacola, FL)

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  2. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

  3. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  4. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  5. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.D.

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  6. Cold cap subsidence for in situ vitrification and electrodes therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Carter, John G. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); FitzPatrick, Vincent F. (Richland, WA); Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Morgan, William C. (Richland, WA); Oma, Kenton H. (Richland, WA); Timmerman, Craig L. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for use in in situ vitrification of soil comprises a molybdenum rod received within a conductive sleeve or collar formed of graphite. Electrodes of this type are placed on either side of a region containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil between the electrodes. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the electrode, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing the formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is filled with a conductive ceramic powder of a type that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as the graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquifies at operating temperatures. The molybdenum rod in the former case may be coated with an oxidation protectant, e.g. of molybdenum disilicide. As insulative blanket is suitably placed on the surface of the soil during processing to promote subsidence by allowing off-gassing and reducing surface heat loss. In other embodiments, connection to vitrification electrodes is provided below ground level to avoid loss of connection due to electrodes deterioration, or a sacrificial electrode may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes can be utilized to square up the vitrified area. Further, the center of the molybdenum rod can be made hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquifies at operating temperatures. In one embodiment, the molybdenum rod and the graphite collar are physically joined at the bottom.

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  8. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development...

  9. CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics CGS 5166: Bioinformatics Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    2 Protein Folding How to find minimum energy configuration? Unfolded Molten Globule State Folded;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 4 Energy Landscape #12;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 5 Modular Nature of Protein Space classes Attractor 1 can be characterized as alpha/beta, attractor 2 as all-beta, attractor 3

  10. An Experimental Study and Analysis on Vent Cap Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escatel, Daniel Santiago

    2012-07-16

    and the ambient, there are vent caps that are used to allow air to flow out the building but not into it. These vent caps can significantly contribute to the pressure that the exhaust fan must overcome to remove air from the building, which means the exhaust fan...

  11. EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode. 1. Introduction Organic light for Organic Light-emitting Diodes Chengfeng Qiu, Haiying Chen, Zhilang Xie, Man Wong and Hoi Sing Kwok Center of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  14. Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles: Northernmost Cap and Southeast Claw Discovered with MAXI-SSC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tahara; J. Kataoka; Y. Takeuchi; T. Totani; Y. Sofue; J. S. Hiraga; H. Tsunemi; Y. Inoue; M. Kimura; C. C. Cheung; S. Nakashima

    2015-02-04

    We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related with the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of ~ 80 ks. The observed regions were the: (i) northern cap (N-cap; l ~ 0 deg, 45 deg map recently provided by MAXI-SSC and (ii) southeast claw (SE-claw; l ~ 10 deg, -20 deg map and MAXI-SSC Low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emissions which are represented by a three component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT ~ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30+/-0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic Halo, and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of ~ 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 deg away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap after compiling other archival data from Suzaku and Swift. The spectral stacking analysis of the N-cap data indicates the presence of another thermal component with kT = 0.70 (+0.22,-0.11) keV. The temperature of kT ~ 0.3 keV of the Galactic Halo is higher than the ubiquitous value of kT ~ 0.2 keV near the Fermi Bubbles, and can be even higher (~ 0.7 keV). We discuss our findings in the context of bubble-halo interaction.

  15. Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

  16. Quiescent Magnetar Emission: Resonant Compton Upscattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew G. Baring

    2003-11-10

    A principal candidate for quiescent non-thermal gamma-ray emission from magnetars is resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong fields of their magnetospheres. This paper outlines expectations for such emission, formed from non-thermal electrons accelerated in a pulsar-like polar cap potential upscattering thermal X-rays from the hot stellar surface. The resultant spectra are found to be strikingly flat, with fluxes and strong pulsation that could be detectable by GLAST.

  17. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15

    . To carry out the proposed study, an engine simulation model was used. The simulation determines engine performance and NO emissions as functions of engine operating conditions, engine design parameters, and combustion parameters. An automotive, spark...

  18. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Protection Agency finalized Tier 3 emission standards in a rule issued in March 2014. One effect of the rule is a decrease in the combined amount of non-methane organic gases ...

  19. Apparatus and method for cooling a combustor cap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Washam, Roy Marshall; Wu, Chunyang

    2014-04-29

    A combustor includes an end cap having a perforated downstream plate and a combustion chamber downstream of the downstream plate. A plenum is in fluid communication with the downstream plate and supplies a cooling medium to the combustion chamber through the perforations in the downstream plate. A method for cooling a combustor includes flowing a cooling medium into a combustor end cap and impinging the cooling medium on a downstream plate in the combustor end cap. The method further includes flowing the cooling medium into a combustion chamber through perforations in the downstream plate.

  20. The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Proto-Type Global System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2008-01-01

    The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

  1. The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Prototype Global System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

  2. Emissions and Exhaust Aftertreatment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can bring engines into compliance. The reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) from stationary and moving sources have been substantiated by applying selective...

  3. Late Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narbonne, Guy

    and global glacial meltdown Noel P. James, Guy M. Narbonne, T. Kurtis Kyser Abstract: The 3­27 m-thick cap carbonate is thus interpreted to have formed in two steps: (1) during initial marine ice melting accompanied

  4. Wind blade spar cap and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Mansour H. (Raleigh, NC)

    2008-05-27

    A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.

  5. Microsoft Word - 0Hrma ColdCap Final (2)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of reacting melter feed floating on the surface of molten glass in a glass-melting furnace. The cold cap consists of two distinct portions, the upper portion which allows the...

  6. Cap-and-Trade Properties under Different Scheme Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taschini, Luca

    This paper examines the key design mechanisms of existing and proposed cap-and-trade markets. First, it is shown that the hybrid systems under investigation (safety-valve with offsets, price floor using a subsidy, price ...

  7. Ecology of Wintering Black-capped Vireos in Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-06

    The black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) is an endangered Neotropical migratory songbird that has received considerable attention in its breeding range, but relatively little attention in its winter range in Mexico. To ...

  8. Intertemporal Emissions Trading and Market Power: A Dominant Firm with Competitive Fringe Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Intertemporal Emissions Trading and Market Power: A Dominant Firm with Competitive Fringe Model Julien Chevallier1 May 26, 2009 Abstract In international emissions trading schemes such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, the suboptimal negotiation of the cap

  9. A study of water driven oil encroachment into gas caps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritch, Harlan J

    1958-01-01

    A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS LIBRARY A S I COLLEGE OF TEXAS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH ~ ~ ~ Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  10. The Hanford Site 1000-Year Cap Design Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Wittreich, Curtis D.

    2002-12-27

    Surface barrier or capping technology is needed to isolate buried wastes. A successful cap must prevent the intrusion of plants, animals, and man into the underlying waste, minimize wind and water erosion, require minimal maintenance, and limit water intrusion to near-zero amounts. For some sites where wastes are long-lived, caps should potentially last a thousand years or more. At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, a surface cap with a 1000-year design life was constructed and then tested and monitored for performance under wetting conditions that are extreme for the region. The cap was built in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability test. The above-grade barrier or cap consists of a 2-m-thick silt-loam soil overlying layers (from top down) of sand, gravel, basalt rock (riprap), and a low-permeability asphalt. Two sideslope configurations, a clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and a basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope were part of the overall design and testing. Design considerations included constructability; water-balance monitoring; wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation, biointrusion control, subsidence, and sideslope stability; and durability of the asphalt layer.

  11. CAP5510/CGS5166 11/31/06 Multiple Alignments: CLUSTALW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    & hydrophobic) Blue: DE (Acidic) Magenta: RHK (Basic) Green: STYHCNGQ (Hydroxyl, Amine, Basic) Gray: Others CAP

  12. GEOMETRY TIP CAP EFFECTS ON FORMATION AND NEAR WAKE EVOLUTION OF THE ROTOR TIP VORTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    blade tip cap. PIV measurements of the crossflow velocities around the forming tip vortex were performed

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  14. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Frank W. Lincoln; Stephen G. Beus

    2002-10-09

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES DATABASES IN CAP88 MAINFRAME VERSION 1.0 AND WINDOWS-BASED VERSION 3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Lee, P.; Jannik, T.; Donnelly, E.

    2008-09-16

    In this study the radionuclide databases for two versions of the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) computer model were assessed in detail. CAP88 estimates radiation dose and the risk of health effects to human populations from radionuclide emissions to air. This program is used by several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. CAP88 Mainframe, referred to as Version 1.0 on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/CAP88/), was the very first CAP88 version released in 1988. Some DOE facilities including the Savannah River Site still employ this version (1.0) while others use the more user-friendly personal computer Windows-based Version 3.0 released in December 2007. Version 1.0 uses the program RADRISK based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 as its radionuclide database. Version 3.0 uses half-life, dose and risk factor values based on Federal Guidance Report 13. Differences in these values could cause different results for the same input exposure data (same scenario), depending on which version of CAP88 is used. Consequently, the differences between the two versions are being assessed in detail at Savannah River National Laboratory. The version 1.0 and 3.0 database files contain 496 and 838 radionuclides, respectively, and though one would expect the newer version to include all the 496 radionuclides, thirty-five radionuclides are listed in version 1.0 that are not included in version 3.0. The majority of these has either extremely short or long half-lives or is no longer in production; however, some of the short-lived radionuclides might produce progeny of great interest at DOE sites. In addition, one hundred and twenty-two radionuclides were found to have different half-lives in the two versions, with 21 over 3 percent different and 12 over 10 percent different.

  16. Optimization of La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} complex oxide laser ablation conditions by plume imaging and optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoruso, S.; Bruzzese, R.; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Aruta, C.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Wang, X.; Maccariello, D.; Maritato, L.; Orgiani, P.

    2010-08-15

    The properties of thin films of complex oxides, such as La{sub 1-x}D{sub x}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} (D=Ba, Ca, Sr, etc.), produced by pulsed laser deposition depend critically on the experimental parameters in which laser ablation is carried out. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the pulsed laser ablation process of La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}}, in oxygen background, in the ambient pressure range from 10{sup -2} to 1 mbar, typically employed in pulsed laser deposition of manganites. The laser ablation plume was studied by using time-gated imaging and optical emission spectroscopy techniques. It was found that at a pressure of {approx_equal}10{sup -2} mbar, the plume species arriving at the substrate are characterized by hyperthermal kinetic energy ({approx_equal}10 eV), and high degree of excitation. On the contrary, at larger oxygen pressure (0.1-1 mbar), the velocity of plume species reaching the substrate, and their degree of excitation are much reduced by the confining effects of the background gas. These features explain why an appropriate choice of the experimental conditions in which the deposition process is carried out leads to better quality films, providing helpful indications to improve control over the growth process of both La{sub 1-x}D{sub x}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} and other perovskitic oxides.

  17. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  18. Time-dependent inversion estimates of global biomass-burning CO emissions using Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arellano, Avelino F; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Giglio, Louis; van der Werf, Guido R; Randerson, James T; Collatz, G. James

    2006-01-01

    combustion (FFBF), biomass burning (BIOM) and chemical oxidation of biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions (

  19. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  20. Portable Emission Measurements of Yellowstone Park Snowcoaches and Snowmobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    ], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]). Large emissions variability was still observed despite using a standardized characterized by large emission ranges in CO (5­630 g/mi), HC (1­50 g/mi), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx; 1­49 gPortable Emission Measurements of Yellowstone Park Snowcoaches and Snowmobiles Gary A. Bishop, Ryan

  1. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Voisin, Nathalie; Richey, Jeff; Wang, Taiping; Taira, Randal Y.; Constans, Michael; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Tesfa, Teklu K.

    2013-12-31

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  2. ATAC: Ambient Temperature-Aware Capping for Power Efficient Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    ATAC: Ambient Temperature-Aware Capping for Power Efficient Datacenters Sungkap Yeo Mohammad M, leehs}@gatech.edu Abstract The emergence of cloud computing has created a demand for more datacenters overhead, small to medium datacenters, which still spend nearly half of their power on cooling, still labor

  3. McGill CAPS Guide to Planning Your Career Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verbrugge, Clark

    McGill CAPS Guide to Planning Your Career Future U0 DISCOVER Mentorship Program Prepare your Tools · Update targeted CVs and Cover Letters. · Continue practicing your · Create targeted CVs and Cover Letters. · Practice your interviewing skills: schedule a Mock Interview

  4. Chapter 12: ZXPLOT CAPS -ARPS Version 4.0 292

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Chapter 12: ZXPLOT CAPS - ARPS Version 4.0 292 12 The ZXPLOT Graphics Package 12.1. What is ZXPLOT _________________________________________________ ZXPLOT is an independent graphics package developed by Ming Xue and Zuojun Zhang. ZXPLOT performs tasks of use. Here is an incomplete list of ZXPLOT capabilities: · 2-D X-Y curve plotting, with axis labeling

  5. Bringing Transportation into a Cap-and-Trade Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    The U.S. may at some point adopt a national cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases, and if and when that happens the system of CAFE regulation of vehicle design very likely could still be in place. Imposed independently ...

  6. Sampling device with a capped body and detachable handle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jezek, Gerd-Rainer (Orchard Park, NY)

    2000-01-01

    The apparatus is a sampling device having a pad for sample collection, a body which supports the pad, a detachable handle connected to the body and a cap which encloses and retains the pad and body to protect the integrity of the sample.

  7. Investigating the chemical and morphological evolution of GaAs capped InAs/InP quantum dots emitting at 1.5 mm using aberration-corrected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    s t r a c t The emission wavelength of InAs quantum dots grown on InP has been shown to shiftInvestigating the chemical and morphological evolution of GaAs capped InAs/InP quantum dots microscopy A3. Metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy A3. Quantum dots B2. Semiconducting III/V materials a b

  8. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being for RO Treatment of CAP Water PROJECT TEAM This Arizona Water Institute PROJECT FACT SHEET is part to treat CAP water and to minimize the amount of concentrate produced. More research and significant

  9. Statistical Classification of Black-Capped (Poecile Atricapillus) and Mountain Chickadee (Poecile Gambeli) Call Notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Michael

    Statistical Classification of Black-Capped (Poecile Atricapillus) and Mountain Chickadee (Poecile. Sturdy University of Alberta Both black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (Poecile. Black-capped and mountain non-D notes were summarized as a set of 9 features and then analyzed by linear

  10. Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli) contact call contains species, sex, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Michael

    Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli) contact call contains black-capped and mountain chickadees, is among the most frequently produced call of each species of adult allopatric and sympatric black-capped and mountain chickadees in terms of nine acoustic features

  11. Cournot Equilibrium in Price-capped Two-Settlement Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Cournot Equilibrium in Price-capped Two-Settlement Electricity Markets Jian Yao1, Bert Willems2 compare two alternative mechanisms for cap- ping prices in two-settlement electricity markets. Alternatively, regulators in many restructured electricity markets have imposed price or offer caps in the spot

  12. How to apply the NIH/HHS Salary Cap and enter it into Kuali Coeus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    How to apply the NIH/HHS Salary Cap and enter it into Kuali Coeus · The NIH/HHS Salary cap is :ed to the Federal Execu:ve Level II salary Level. hAp://grants2.nih.gov/grants/policy/salcap_summary.htm · The Salary cap applies to NIH

  13. Cap-and-Trade Climate Policies with Price-Regulated Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cap-and-Trade Climate Policies with Price-Regulated Industries: How Costly are Free Allowances on recycled paper #12;Cap-and-Trade Climate Policies with Price-Regulated Industries: How Costly are Free Allowances? Bruno Lanz and Sebastian Rausch* Abstract We examine the impacts of alternative cap-and-trade

  14. On the response of polar cap dynamics to its solar wind and magnetotail drivers at high levels of geomagnetic activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Ye

    2012-01-01

    of polar cap potential by intense solar wind electricelectric potential as a function of solar wind parameters bypolar cap potential increases linearly with the solar wind

  15. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  16. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  17. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  18. Air Emissions Operating Permit Regulations for the Purposes of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by including the EPA's Green House Gas Emission standards. Green House Gasses are: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur...

  19. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  20. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King Pacific Northwest National...

  1. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  3. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  4. Appendix A. Operators CAPS -ARPS Version 4.0 337

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    , the centered operator notation used by Lilly (1965) A(x) nx = A x + nx / 2 + A x - nx / 2 2 (A.3) #12;Appendix A. Operators CAPS - ARPS Version 4.0 338 nx A(x) = A x + nx / 2 - A x - nx / 2 nx (A.4) where _______________________________________________________________ dimension u(nx,ny,nz),v(nx,ny,nz),w(nx,ny,nz),T(nx,ny,nz) do k = 1,nz do j = 1,ny do i = 1,nx T

  5. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  6. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  7. Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keinan, E.; Greenspoon, N.

    1986-11-12

    A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCl/sub 2/ as the best Lewis acid cocatalyst. The reaction is very general with respect to a broad range of unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, and it is highly selective for these Michael acceptors, as reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives is very sluggish under these conditions. When dideuteriodiphenylsilane is used to reduce unsaturated ketones, deuterium is stereoselectivity introduced at the less-hindered fact of the substrate and regioselectively at the ..beta..-position. Conversely, when reductions are carried out in the presence of traces of D/sub 2/O, deuterium incorporation occurs at the ..cap alpha..-position. On the basis of deuterium-incorporation experiments and /sup 1/H NMR studies a catalytic cycle is postulated in which the first step involves reversible coordination of the palladium complex to the electron-deficient olefin and oxidative addition of silicon hydride to form a hydridopalladium olefin complex.

  8. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

  10. Stanford University Department of Environmental Health and Safety G:\\CAP\\CAP Team Forms \\StorageAreaInspFillableForm.pdf Enter Inspection Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as Hazardous Materials Storage Areas (not laboratories or work areas). 2. Evaluate the storage area during-9999 (24 hours). Building Number Building Name Room Number HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE AREA: MONTHLYStanford University Department of Environmental Health and Safety G:\\CAP\\CAP Team Forms \\StorageArea

  11. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s CAP88 PC versions 3.0 and 4.0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jannik, Tim; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Dixon, Ken; Newton, Joseph; Sailors, Christopher; Johnson, Levi; Moore, Kelsey; Stahman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the assistance of Georgia Regents University, completed a comparison of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) environmental dosimetry code CAP88 PC V3.0 with the recently developed V4.0. CAP88 is a set of computer programs and databases used for estimation of dose and risk from radionuclide emissions to air. At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, CAP88 is used by SRNL for determining compliance with EPA's National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) regulations. Using standardized input parameters, individual runs were conducted for each radionuclide within itsmore »corresponding database. Some radioactive decay constants, human usage parameters, and dose coefficients changed between the two versions, directly causing a proportional change in the total effective 137Cs, 3H, 129I, 239Pu, and 90Sr) is provided. In general, the total effective doses will decrease for alpha/beta emitters because of reduced inhalation and ingestion rates in V4.0. However, for gamma emitters, such as 60Co and 137Cs, the total effective doses will increase because of changes EPA made in the external ground shine calculations.« less

  12. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s CAP88 PC versions 3.0 and 4.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, Tim; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Dixon, Ken; Newton, Joseph; Sailors, Christopher; Johnson, Levi; Moore, Kelsey; Stahman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the assistance of Georgia Regents University, completed a comparison of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) environmental dosimetry code CAP88 PC V3.0 with the recently developed V4.0. CAP88 is a set of computer programs and databases used for estimation of dose and risk from radionuclide emissions to air. At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, CAP88 is used by SRNL for determining compliance with EPA's National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) regulations. Using standardized input parameters, individual runs were conducted for each radionuclide within its corresponding database. Some radioactive decay constants, human usage parameters, and dose coefficients changed between the two versions, directly causing a proportional change in the total effective 137Cs, 3H, 129I, 239Pu, and 90Sr) is provided. In general, the total effective doses will decrease for alpha/beta emitters because of reduced inhalation and ingestion rates in V4.0. However, for gamma emitters, such as 60Co and 137Cs, the total effective doses will increase because of changes EPA made in the external ground shine calculations.

  13. Meeting NSPI's 2010 SO2 emission reduction cap Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, and Nikita Sheth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    is the principal fuel used by NSPI (see Table 2). Table 2: NSPI's generation by fuel type (MWh) (Toner, 2006) Coal of the highest in the country is Nova Scotia Power's reliance on coal for electrical generation. Given NSPI into the industrial and utility sector, and the continued use of low-sulphur coal. With the Sable Offshore Energy

  14. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  15. Microstructure, impurity and metal cap effects on Cu electromigration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, C.-K.; Gignac, L. G.; Ohm, J.; Breslin, C. M.; Huang, E.; Bonilla, G.; Liniger, E.; Rosenberg, R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Choi, S.; Simon, A. H. [IBM Microelectronic Division, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533 (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Electromigration (EM) lifetimes and void growth of pure Cu, Cu(Mn) alloy, and pure Cu damascene lines with a CoWP cap were measured as a function of grain structure (bamboo, near bamboo, and polycrystalline) and sample temperature. The bamboo grains in a bamboo-polycrystalline grained line play the key role in reducing Cu mass flow. The variation in Cu grain size distribution among the wafers was achieved by varying the metal line height and wafer annealing process step after electroplating Cu and before or after chemical mechanical polishing. The Cu grain size was found to have a large impact on Cu EM lifetime and activation energy, especially for the lines capped with CoWP. The EM activation energy for pure Cu with a CoWP cap from near-bamboo, bamboo-polycrystalline, mostly polycrystalline to polycrystalline only line grain structures was reduced from 2.2 ± 0.2 eV, to 1.7 ± 0.1 eV, to 1.5 ± 0.1 eV, to 0.72 ± 0.05 eV, respectively. The effect of Mn in Cu grain boundary diffusion was found to be dependent on Mn concentration in Cu. The depletion of Cu at the cathode end of the Cu(Mn) line is preceded by an incubation period. Unlike pure Cu lines with void growth at the cathode end and hillocks at the anode end of the line, the hillocks grew at a starting position roughly equal to the Blech critical length from the cathode end of the Cu(Mn) polycrystalline line. The effectiveness of Mn on Cu grain boundary migration can also be qualitatively accounted for by a simple trapping model. The free migration of Cu atoms at grain boundaries is reduced by the presence of Mn due to Cu-solute binding. A large binding energy of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV was observed.

  16. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  17. CAPS: Crucial Areas Planning System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine:Kansas: Energy Resources Jump to:Energy Inc -6 -Energy22 -3CAPS:

  18. Property:CapRockAge | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceIIInformationEnergyReportNumber Jump to: navigation, searchCapRockAge Jump to:

  19. Property:CapRockLithology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceIIInformationEnergyReportNumber Jump to: navigation, searchCapRockAge Jump

  20. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meissner, Helmuth E. (Pleasanton, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Danville, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA); Mitchell, Scott (Tracy, CA); Bass, Isaac (Castro Valley, CA); Honea, Eric (Sunol, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focussed by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod.

  1. DNA 3' pp 5' G de-capping activity of aprataxin: effect of cap nucleoside analogs and structural basis for guanosine recognition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chauleau, Mathieu; Jacewicz, Agata; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-05-24

    DNA3' pp 5'G caps synthesized by the 3'-PO4/5'-OH ligase RtcB have a strong impact on enzymatic reactions at DNA 3'-OH ends. Aprataxin, an enzyme that repairs A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ligases, is also a DNA 3' de-capping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. By taking advantage of RtcB's ability to utilize certain GTP analogs to synthesize DNAppN caps, we show that aprataxin hydrolyzes inosine and 6-O-methylguanosine caps, but is not adept at removing a deoxyguanosine cap. We report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of aprataxin in a complex with GMP, which reveals that: (i)more »GMP binds at the same position and in the same anti nucleoside conformation as AMP; and (ii) aprataxin makes more extensive nucleobase contacts with guanine than with adenine, via a hydrogen bonding network to the guanine O6, N1, N2 base edge. Alanine mutations of catalytic residues His147 and His149 abolish DNAppG de-capping activity, suggesting that the 3' de-guanylylation and 5' de-adenylylation reactions follow the same pathway of nucleotidyl transfer through a covalent aprataxin-(His147)–NMP intermediate. Alanine mutation of Asp63, which coordinates the guanosine ribose hydroxyls, impairs DNAppG de-capping.« less

  2. NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION Carl-Fredrik Enell1 Esa Turunen1 Antti Kero1 measurements for a sodium emission experiment. The main purpose of SGO in the NEMI project is in-situ quantification of the auroral production of nitric oxide (NO). The retrieval requires inverse modelling

  3. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  5. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  6. Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy and Economic established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy

  7. CO{sub 2} Cap-and-Trade: should industry speak up or sign on?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, Tobey

    2008-05-15

    Should the energy community support cap-and-trade and work for a common sense method of regulation? If cap-and-trade can be expected to be a major policy blunder, would the wiser course be to support a carbon tax rather than become enablers to a failure that later may be laid at the door of the energy community? (author)

  8. Probable new type of reaction mechanism: Double. cap alpha. direct transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Shu-wei; Wu Guo-hua; Miao Rong-zhi; Han Fei

    1983-10-01

    It is assumed that /sup 8/Be consists of two ..cap alpha.. particles which are close to each other in configuration space. A spectroscopic density of /sup 8/Be cluster in the residue nuclei is then obtained, which is proportional to the square of the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at nuclear surface. Using the improved method of parametrization of EFR-DWBA overlap integral,/sup 1//sup en-dash//sup 2/ we calculate the double differential energy spectra and angular distributions of ..cap alpha.. particles for the reactions /sup 209/Bi (/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr and extract the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at the surface of /sup 217/Fr nuclei from fitting the experimental data. The agreement within the range of calculation error between the preformation probabilities extracted from transfer reactions and ..cap alpha.. decay suggests that the reaction /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr may be explained as a double ..cap alpha.. direct transfer process.

  9. Interannual Variability in Pollen Dispersal and Deposition on the Tropical Quelccaya Ice Cap*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kam-biu

    should also be considered Key Words: biogeography, ice-core palynology, Peru, pollen dispersal, Quelccaya is represented in the modern pollen rain on the ice caps. A modern analog is our most powerful calibration tool from the Quelccaya Ice Cap (Reese and Liu 2002) in southern Peru and Mt. Parinacota (Reese, Liu

  10. Experimental Evidence about the Persistence of High Prices in a Soft-Cap Auction for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Evidence about the Persistence of High Prices in a Soft-Cap Auction for Electricity 1 and Management Cornell University I. Introduction The high prices for electricity in California during the summer of 2000 led to a substantial amount of regulatory and political intervention. Price caps were lowered

  11. Space weather challenges of the polar cap ionosphere Jran Moen1,*, Kjellmar Oksavik2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Space weather challenges of the polar cap ionosphere Jøran Moen1,*, Kjellmar Oksavik2 , Lucilla / Accepted 28 December 2012 ABSTRACT This paper presents research on polar cap ionosphere space weather weather effects were scintillation disturbances on trans-ionospheric radio waves (Hey et al. 1946). Plasma

  12. Testing The Effects Of Price Responsive Demand On Uniform Price And Soft-Cap Electricity Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Testing The Effects Of Price Responsive Demand On Uniform Price And Soft-Cap Electricity Auctions R describes a framework for testing the efficacy of a price-responsive load on a uniform price last accepted offer and a soft-cap market. Experimental evidence to date based on uniform price market testing has

  13. Diesel hybridization and emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

    2004-04-21

    The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

  14. A COMPARISON OF DOSE RESULTS FROM THE CLEAN AIR ACT ASSESSMENT PACKAGE-1988, PERSONAL COMPUTER (CAP88-PC), VERSION 3 TO PREVIOUS VERSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra F.; Staven, Lissa H.

    2013-08-01

    EPA-approved computer software packages, including CAP88-PC, are used by Department of Energy sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. The most recent update, CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by EPA in February 2006 for use by Department of Energy facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. Total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions for parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at Department of Energy facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides are lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides would be higher.

  15. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxides at Harvard Forest NOx deposition is important to both the biosphere and the atmosphere: the form of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current estimates indicate that fossil fuel combustion and soil microbial emissions are the largest by smaller contributions from biomass burning, lightning, ammonia oxidation, the ocean, and the stratosphere. Oxidation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions produces intermediate products

  16. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  17. Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations R. G. Derwent & D. S distributions of methane CH4 and ozone O3 following the emission of pulses of the oxides of nitrogen NOx. Month-long emission pulses of NOx produce deficits in CH4 mixing ratios that bring about negative radiative forcing

  18. On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    - equippedvehiclesarenotbelievedtobesignificant(1).Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rates from light-duty gasoline vehicles have been shown to be rapidly decreasing across the United States, but total NOx emissions are decreasing at a slower rate dueOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y

  19. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation Erica Bickford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation by Erica Bickford A dissertation rights reserved. #12;Abstract Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation Erica Bickford.S. transportation is the largest source of national nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and the third largest source

  20. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  1. Preparation of water soluble L-arginine capped CdSe/ZnS QDs and their interaction with synthetic DNA: Picosecond-resolved FRET study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giri, Anupam; Goswami, Nirmal; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies on the interaction of water soluble arginine-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs with ethidium bromide (EB) labeled synthetic dodecamer DNA. Highlights: ? We have solubilized CdSe/ZnS QD in water replacing their TOPO ligand by L-arginine. ? We have studied arginine@QD–DNA interaction using FRET technique. ? Arginine@QDs act as energy donor and ethidium bromide-DNA acts as energy acceptor. ? We have applied a kinetic model to understand the kinetics of energy transfer. ? Circular dichroism studies revealed negligible perturbation in the DNA B-form in the arg@QD-DNA complex. -- Abstract: We have exchanged TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) ligand of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with an amino acid L-arginine (Arg) at the toluene/water interface and eventually rendered the QDs from toluene to aqueous phase. We have studied the interaction of the water soluble Arg-capped QDs (energy donor) with ethidium (EB) labeled synthetic dodecamer DNA (energy acceptor) using picoseconds resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Furthermore, we have applied a model developed by M. Tachiya to understand the kinetics of energy transfer and the distribution of acceptor (EB-DNA) molecules around the donor QDs. Circular dichroism (CD) studies revealed a negligible perturbation in the native B-form structure of the DNA upon interaction with Arg-capped QDs. The melting and the rehybridization pathways of the DNA attached to the QDs have been monitored by the CD which reveals hydrogen bonding is the associative mechanism for interaction between Arg-capped QDs and DNA.

  2. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  3. Height control of self-assembled quantum dots by strain engineering during capping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossi, D. F., E-mail: d.grossi@tue.nl; Koenraad, P. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Smereka, P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Keizer, J. G. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communications, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Ulloa, J. M. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-06

    Strain engineering during the capping of III-V quantum dots has been explored as a means to control the height of strained self-assembled quantum dots. Results of Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are confronted with cross-sectional Scanning Tunnel Microscopy (STM) measurements performed on InAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We studied InAs quantum dots that are capped by In{sub x}Ga{sub (1?x)}As layers of different indium compositions. Both from our realistic 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and the X-STM measurements on real samples, a trend in the height of the capped quantum dot is found as a function of the lattice mismatch between the quantum dot material and the capping layer. Results obtained on additional material combinations show a generic role of the elastic energy in the control of the quantum dot morphology by strain engineering during capping.

  4. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  5. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  6. A carbon-capped supply chain network problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diabat, Ali

    The Kyoto protocol was negotiated as a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The future standing of companies will be seriously affected by the steps they take today in regards to the environment. Perhaps, ...

  7. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  9. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  10. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  11. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  12. MC4523 Sealed Cap: Component & characteristics development report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D.R.

    1997-03-01

    The MC4523 Sealed Cap is a WW42C1 Percussion Primer that is pressed into a steel cylinder. Hermaticity of the input end is then provided by welding a thin steel closure disk on the input end of the MC4523. Thus, the user is provided with a component that is prequalified in terms of ignition sensitivity and hermeticity. The first customer is the Thermal Battery Department (1522). The MC4523 will be used on the MC2736A Thermal Battery which in turn will be used on the W78 JTA. Attachment of the MC4523 to the battery is with a laser weld. Combined test results of four production lots at a commercial supplier (PPI, TMS, WR1, and WR2) show an all-fire ignition sensitivity (.999 @ 50%) of approximately 60 millijoules of mechanical energy with a 2.2 gram firing pin. The firing pin had an impact tip with a radius of 0.020 inch. This firing pin is like that to be used in the W78 JTA application. Approximately 112 millijoules of mechanical energy will be supplied in the application, thus the design margin is more than adequate.

  13. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  14. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  15. Neural NetworkBased Modeling and Optimization for Effective Vehicle Emission Testing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinlun

    Introduction Automotive emission of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) has beenNeural Network­Based Modeling and Optimization for Effective Vehicle Emission Testing and Engine emission testing and engine calibration are the key to achieving emission standards with satisfactory fuel

  16. Sources of Emission Reductions: Evidence for US SO2 Emissions 1985-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A Denny; Dubroeucq, Florence

    2004-06-16

    -gas-fired, combined cycle units have displaced conventional generation that would have emitted about 800,000 tons of SO2; however, the effect has not been to reduce total SO2 emissions since the 9.0 million ton cap is unchanged, but to reduce the quantity... content of the fuel used to generate electricity (either by switching or retrofitting scrubbers) or by shifting generation to lower emitting units including new units. However, Title IV did not replace the source- specific limits and technology mandates...

  17. Attempt to extract the preformation probability of. cap alpha. cluster at the surface of heavy nuclei by means of. cap alpha. -transfer reactions leading to the continuum states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Shu-wei; Wu Guo-hua; Miao Rong-zhi; Han Fei

    1983-07-01

    The method of parametrization of an EFR-DWBA overlap integral developed by T. Udagawa and T. Tamura et al./sup 1/ is improved. Using the improved method we have fitted the experimental double differential energy spectrum of the /sup 8/Be cluster coming from the reaction /sup 208/Pb(/sup 12/C, /sup 8/Be) /sup 212/Po leading to the continuum states and extracted the preformation probability of the ..cap alpha.. cluster at the surface of the /sup 212/Po nucleus. Within the range of calculation error, the result is in agreement with that extracted from fitting the experimental data of ..cap alpha.. decay.

  18. Telomere Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana by the CST Capping Complex and DNA Damage Response Proteins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boltz, Kara A.

    2013-09-11

    The ends of chormosomes are capped by telomeres, which distinguish the termini from damaged DNA. Paradoxically, DNA repair proteins are also required for telomere maintenance. How DNA repair pathways are regulated to ...

  19. Glacial geology and glaciology of the Younger Dryas ice cap in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golledge, Nicholas Robert

    2009-01-01

    This thesis uses geological field data and numerical ice sheet modelling to study the Younger Dryas ice cap in Scotland. The Younger Dryas stadial is important because it represents the most recent period of high-magnitude ...

  20. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    covers 90-100% of the melt surface. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions, through which it is converted to molten glass...

  1. Analysis of the Black-capped Vireo and White-eyed Vireo Nest Predator assemblages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conkling, Tara J.

    2011-08-08

    Predation is the leading cause of nest failure in songbirds. My study identified nest predators of black-capped vireos and white-eyed vireos, quantified the activity of potential predator species, examined the relationships between vegetation...

  2. Are cap-and-trade programs more environmentally effective than conventional regulation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the evidence and possible reasons that cap-and-trade programs are more effective in meeting environmental objectives than conventional prescriptive regulation. The evidence is based mostly, but not ...

  3. InAs quantum dot morphology after capping with In, N, Sb alloyed thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keizer, J. G.; Koenraad, P. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ulloa, J. M.; Utrilla, A. D. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-03

    Using a thin capping layer to engineer the structural and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) has become common practice in the last decade. Traditionally, the main parameter considered has been the strain in the QD/capping layer system. With the advent of more exotic alloys, it has become clear that other mechanisms significantly alter the QD size and shape as well. Larger bond strengths, surfactants, and phase separation are known to act on QD properties but are far from being fully understood. In this study, we investigate at the atomic scale the influence of these effects on the morphology of capped QDs with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. A broad range of capping materials (InGaAs, GaAsSb, GaAsN, InGaAsN, and GaAsSbN) are compared. The QD morphology is related to photoluminescence characteristics.

  4. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  5. Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

  6. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  7. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.; Gelman, R.

    2014-10-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  8. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  9. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  10. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  11. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meissner, H.E.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.; Sutton, S.B.; Mitchell, S.; Bass, I.; Honea, E.

    1999-08-10

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focused by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod. 14 figs.

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  13. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  14. Synthesis of 3-amino-4-hydroxylaminothiazolidine-2-thiones and 2,3-dimethyl-4. cap alpha. ,5-dihydro-7-thioxothiazolo(3,4-b)-1,2,4-triazines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epshtein, S.P.; Orlova, T.I.; Rukasov, A.F.; Tashchi, V.P.; Putsykin, Yu. G.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of dimeric nitroso chlorides of olefins with potassium dithiocarbazate was used to synthesize 3-amino-4-hydroxylaminothiazolidine-2-thiones, which undergo rearrangement to 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazines on heating and react with butane-2,3-dione to give 2,3-dimethyl-4..cap alpha..,5-dihydro-7-thioxothiazolo(3,4-b)-1,2,4-triazine 4-oxides. The latter are reduced by sodium borohydride to the corresponding 3,4,4..cap alpha..,5-tetrahydro-7-thioxo derivatives. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a Perkin-Elmer spectrometer. The UV spectra of solutions in ethanol were obtained with a Specord UV spectrophotometer. The PMR spectra of solutions of the compounds in d/sub 6/-DMSO were obtained with a Varian FT-80A spectrometer with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as the internal standard.

  15. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01

    competitiveness in the eu emissions trading scheme: Policyand-trade systems for emissions trading is the allocation orciency of the resulting emissions trading market. Certainly

  16. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    Market power in emissions trading: strategically manipu-of auctions for emissions trading. Retrieved from Climatepricing under carbon emissions trading: A dominant firm with

  17. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    policy- the RECLAIM emission trading policy." Environ.Incentives Market: a new emissions trading program for Lospolitical feasibility of emissions trading programs. See,

  18. Optimization of Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to Meet Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Limits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Drastic reduction of engine-out emissions and complicated aftertreatment system comprising of oxidation catalyst, particulate filter, and DeNOx catalyst are implemented to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 limits for U.S. market diesel engines.

  19. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  20. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  1. Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

    2005-06-15

    Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

  2. Carbon tax is superior to cap-and-trade Jonas Nycander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nycander, Jonas

    . #12;Figure 1. Market price in EUR/ton CO2 of emissions allowances in the European Emissions Trading that produce electricity mainly from coal. In 2005 the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) began. The emissions

  3. Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  4. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  5. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  6. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  7. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-08-10

    A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

  8. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

  9. Polar cap electric field dependence on solar wind and magnetotail parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longenecker, D.; Roederer, J.G.

    1981-12-01

    A magnetic field model with a linearly superposed uniform external field is used to study the effects of the magnetotail field intensity B/sub T/ on the relationship between the convection pattern in the polar cap and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is found that as B/sub T/ increases, the polar cap size increases, overall electric field intensity decreases, and the dependence of the total ''open'' flux on the magnitude and direction of the IMF weakens. In addition, the tail field introduces significant differences between the convection patterns corresponding to ''toward'' and ''away'' IMF sectors, respectively: in the northern (southern) polar cap, features such as polar cap boundary displacements and electric field intensity gradients are more pronounced when the earth is in an ''away'' (''toward'') sector. On the other hand, in the case of a northward-tilted IMF, sunward convection in the north (south) polar cap is extended over a larger area for a ''toward'' (''away'') sector. Since dipole tilt was not taken into account in the model, these results should mainly apply to periods around equinox.

  10. Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulation of fuel quality or pollution emissions; domestic fleets serve coastal shipping, resource products of fuel combustion from shipping (ranked on a mass basis) include nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfurParticulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties Daniel A

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  12. NetCAP status report for the end of fiscal year 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger; Young, Christopher John

    2010-10-01

    Fiscal year 2010 (FY10) is the second full year of NetCAP development and the first full year devoted largely to new feature development rather than the reimplementation of existing capabilities found in NetSim (Sereno et al., 1990). Major tasks completed this year include: (1) Addition of hydroacoustic simulation; (2) Addition of event Identification simulation; and (3) Initial design and preparation for infrasound simulation. The Network Capability Assessment Program (NetCAP) is a software tool under development at Sandia National Laboratories used for studying the capabilities of nuclear explosion monitoring networks. This report discusses motivation and objectives for the NetCAP project, lists work performed prior to fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and describes FY10 accomplishments in detail.

  13. An inorganic capping strategy for the seeded growth of versatile bimetallic nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pei, Yuchen; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V.; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian -Wei; Brashler, Kyle; Gustafson, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Wenyu

    2015-09-11

    Metal nanostructures have attracted great attention in various fields due to their tunable properties through precisely tailored sizes, compositions and structures. Using mesoporous silica (mSiO2) as the inorganic capping agent and encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as the seeds, we developed a robust seeded growth method to prepare uniform bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells (PtM@mSiO2, M = Pd, Rh, Ni and Cu). Unexpectedly, we found that the inorganic silica shell is able to accommodate an eight-fold volume increase in the metallic core by reducing its thickness. The bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells showed enhanced catalytic properties and thermalmore »stabilities compared with those prepared with organic capping agents. As a result, this inorganic capping strategy could find a broad application in the synthesis of versatile bimetallic nanostructures with exceptional structural control and enhanced catalytic properties.« less

  14. The Control of NOx Emissions from Combustion and Incinerators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heap, M. P.; Chen, S. L.; Seeker, W. R.; Pershing, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    staged combustion and reburning, for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired combustors is most often limited by problems due to carbon burnout or flame impingement. This paper presents new data on the use of selective reducing agents.... The major focus has been on minimizing emissions of potentially toxic organics and trace metals. There is growing concern over emissions of NO x from these facilities as well. However, traditional NO x control technologies such as staged combustion...

  15. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  16. Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P, Sharmila P, E-mail: sharmilavishram@gmail.com [Sree Narayana College, Kollam, Kerala, India and T.K Madhva Memorial College, Nangiarkulungara, Alapuzha, Kerala (India); Tharayil, Nisha J., E-mail: nishajohntharayil@gmail.com [Sree Narayana College for Women Kollam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of both AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.

  17. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  19. Appendix D: Analysis of the Cap and Trade Features of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act (S. 2191)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D1 Appendix D: Analysis of the Cap and Trade Features of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of the Act's provisions as they relate to key features governing the cap-and-trade system, comparing results.1 A Changing Mix of Free Allocation and Auctioning....................................................... 13 D4

  20. ARMA/NARMS 04-520 Bifurcation analysis of a three-invariant, isotropic/kinematic hardening cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regueiro, Richard A.

    ARMA/NARMS 04-520 Bifurcation analysis of a three-invariant, isotropic/kinematic hardening cap-invariant, isotropic/kinematic hard- ening cap plasticity model. Bifurcation analysis is the first step in developing Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Copyright 2004, ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association

  1. Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar wind and interplanetary magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar, or cross polar cap potential, ÈPC. Periods are chosen to satisfy the criteria that (1) the solar wind-based radars to functional forms of the electrostatic potential [Ruohoniemi and Baker, 1998]; and global mag

  2. Use of CAP88 PC to infer differences in the chemical form of I-129 emitted from a fuel reprocessing facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Phillips, Nathan RJ

    2013-06-17

    Emissions of 129I from nuclear fuel separations conducted at the Hanford Site in Washington State have been occurring since the 1940’s. Fuel separation on the Hanford Site stopped in 1988, but emissions of 129I have continued as venting of the building occurred. In this study, atmospheric measurements of 129I concentrations were coupled with an EPA approved plume dispersion model (CAP-88PC) to evaluate the effectiveness of the dispersion model for estimating ambient concentrations at the Hanford Site. This evaluation led to the hypothesis of different chemical forms of iodine being emitted over the years; this hypothesis was developed as an explanation for the model agreeing with measurements over some time periods, but not over all time periods. The model was then run with modified emissions to simulate the short atmospheric half-life of the suspected reactive chemical form of iodine being emitted. This modification resulted in good agreement between the modeled and measured concentrations over the entire 20 year study period, and provided evidence that the hypothesis of a reactive form of iodine being emitted was correct.

  3. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI

  4. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  5. THE EXTENT OF PLEISTOCENE ICE CAP, GLACIAL DEPOSITS AND GLACIOKARST IN THE ALADAGLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zreda, Marek

    holes, ice caves, glacial melt-water streams, stone circles and girlands represent glacialTHE EXTENT OF PLEISTOCENE ICE CAP, GLACIAL DEPOSITS AND GLACIOKARST IN THE ALADAGLAR MASSIF between 1100 m and 3756 m of altitudes. Many of the glacial landforms, such as moraines and ice

  6. Analyzing the Regional Impact of a Fossil Energy Cap in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy products and an energy saving allowance trading market is the most cost- effective design, whileAnalyzing the Regional Impact of a Fossil Energy Cap in China Da Zhang, Valerie Karplus, Sebastian Rausch and Xiliang Zhang Report No. 237 January 2013 China Energy & Climate Project TSINGHUA - MIT #12

  7. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation 2008 Abstract According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established;1 Introduction Market-based pollution permit trading programs have moved to the front and center of industrial

  8. Human Resource Services Campus Administrative Portal (CAP)CSU Employee Self Service Web Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human Resource Services Campus Administrative Portal (CAP)CSU Employee Self Service Web Application Background Colorado State University recently introduced its CSU Employee Self Service Web levels of employee self service web applications with CU and UNC displaying robust applications. While

  9. Macroscale modeling and mesoscale observations of plasma density structures in the polar cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Sojka, J.J.; Schunk, R.W.; MacKenzie, E.

    1995-04-15

    The seasonal and UT variation of mesoscale structures (10 km - 100 m) in the central polar cap has been obtained from an analysis of 250-MHz intensity scintillation observations made at Thule, Greenland. It has been established earlier that mesoscale structures causing scintillations of satellite signals may develop at the edges of macroscale structures (several hundred km) such as discrete polar cap plasma density enhancements or patches through the gradient drift instability process. As such, the authrs examined the seasonal and UT variation of polar cap patches simulated by using the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) under conditions of southward B(sub z). A fairly remarkable similarity is found between the scintillation observations and the model predictions of patch occurrence. For instance, both the patch and scintillation occurrences are minimized during the winter solstice (northern hemisphere) between 0800-1200 UT while also having their largest seasonal intensity between 2000-2400 UT. Little UT dependence of patches and scintillations is seen at equinox with high intensity being observed throughout the day, while during local summer the intensity of macroscale patches and mesoscale irregularities are found to be a minimum at all UT. These results indicate that macroscale features in the polar cap are routinely associated with plasma instabilities giving rise to smaller scale structures and that the specific patch formation mechanism assumed in the simulation is consistent with the observations.

  10. Dynamic LMP Response Under Alternative Price-Cap and Price-Sensitive Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    scheduled for implementation) in the midwest (MISO), New England (ISO-NE), New York (NYISO), the mid1 Dynamic LMP Response Under Alternative Price-Cap and Price-Sensitive Demand Scenarios Hongyan Li protocols I. INTRODUCTION IN April 2003 the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commis- sion issued a white paper

  11. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation May 2012 Abstract Standard economic theory predicts that if property rights to pollute are clearly. email: fowlie@berkeley.edu #12;1 Introduction Market-based pollution permit trading programs have moved

  12. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation September 2012 Abstract Standard economic theory predicts that if property rights to pollute are clearly-based pollution permit trading programs have moved to the forefront of industrial environmental regulation

  13. On the observed variability of the crosspolar cap potential W. A. Bristow,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    . Introduction [2] The cross­polar cap potential (PCP) parameterizes the degree to which solar wind energy field and the solar wind electric field maps directly along the field lines [e.g., Toffoletto and Hill Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) during periods of steady interplanetary magnetic field (IMF

  14. HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E hydrogen gas (so- called protium) must be used. It is necessary to avoid transfers of - to impurities imposes strict and critical requirements on the hydrogen gas system supporting the detector. Desirable

  15. Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries Mijung Graphite can store 372 mAh/g corresponding to LiC6, and tin can store 970 mAh/g corresponding to Li4.4Sn close to graphite. The reason for failure is believed to be the inhomogeneous volume expansion

  16. Cournot Equilibrium in Price-capped Two-Settlement Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of California Energy Institute 4135 Etcheverry Hall 2547 Channing Way University of California at Berkeley-- We compare two alternative mechanisms for cap- ping prices in two-settlement electricity markets explore the implications of the two alternative mechanisms in a two settlement Cournot equilibrium

  17. CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors Christian of wireless sensor nodes is an important topic of current research in the field of energy harvesting. Closely related to this is the employment of energy budgeting, i.e., effective utilization of available and future

  18. Virus Research 119 (2006) 6375 Cap-independent translation of plant viral RNAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W. Allen

    2006-01-01

    Virus Research 119 (2006) 63­75 Cap-independent translation of plant viral RNAs Elizabeth L. Pettit 19 October 2005 Available online 19 December 2005 Abstract The RNAs of many plant viruses lack a 5 families, and genus Tobamovirus. Many other plant viruses have uncapped RNAs but their translation control

  19. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ COMMITTEE ON ACADEMIC PERSONNEL Committee on Academic Personnel (CAP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    personal considerations that may compromise a faculty member's professional judgment in administration, and the importance to the campus of maintaining the integrity of Academic Senate review of academic personnel matters level of review. 6) CAP member believes that his or her recusal is necessary to preserve the integrity

  20. Ex post evaluation of tradable permits : the U.S. SO? cap-and-trade program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. SO2 cap-and-trade program was established as a result of the enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) under the authority granted by Title IV, which included several measures to reduce precursor ...

  1. Volume and mass balance changes of ice caps in Iceland deduced from elevation data and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Volume and mass balance changes of ice caps in Iceland deduced from elevation data and in-situ mass Guðmundsson, Þórdís Högnadóttir Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland (IES) Etienne Berthier LEGOS, Toulouse, France Tómas Jóhannesson, Oddur Sigurðsson, Þorsteinn Þorsteinsson The Icelandic

  2. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Thu D. Nguyen Rutgers University Ozlem Bilgir Margaret Martonosi Princeton University #12;Energy Electricity sources Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Others 100 105 110 115 120 Nigeria Data Centers Czech

  3. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Ricardo

    energy" (produced via carbon-intensive means) relative to renewable or "green" energy. This paper their brown energy consumption and lever- age green energy, while respecting their SLAs and minimizing energy-intensive energy as "brown" energy, in contrast with "green" or renewable energy.) We argue that placing caps

  4. Spectrum flattening of white OLED with photonic crystal patterned capping layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    OLED (ITE-WOLEDs) structure to simultaneously enhance the light extraction efficiency and to flattenSpectrum flattening of white OLED with photonic crystal patterned capping layer Feng Li, P. K. A to enhance the extraction and flatten the spectrum of white organic light-emitting diode. Spectrum

  5. Double capping of molecular beam epitaxy grown InAs/InP quantum dots studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulloa, J. M.; Koenraad, P. M.; Gapihan, E.; Letoublon, A.; Bertru, N.

    2007-08-13

    Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy was used to study at the atomic scale the double capping process of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a (311)B substrate. The thickness of the first capping layer is found to play a mayor role in determining the final results of the process. For first capping layers up to 3.5 nm, the height of the QDs correspond to the thickness of the first capping layer. Nevertheless, for thicknesses higher than 3.5 nm, a reduction in the dot height compared to the thickness of the first capping layer is observed. These results are interpreted in terms of a transition from a double capping to a classical capping process when the first capping layer is thick enough to completely cover the dots.

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9...

  7. Bidentate Dicarboxylate Capping Groups and Photosensitizers Control the Size of IrO2 Nanoparticle Catalysts for Water Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Visible light water splitting has been described as one of the "holy grails" of chemistry.1

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. Effect of the oxide layer on current-induced spin-orbit torques in Hf|CoFeB|MgO and Hf|CoFeB|TaO{sub x} structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyol, Mustafa; Alzate, Juan G.; Yu, Guoqiang; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Wong, Kin L.; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.; Ekicibil, Ahmet

    2015-01-19

    We study the effect of the oxide layer on the current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Hf|CoFeB|MgO (MgO-capped) or Hf|CoFeB|TaO{sub x} (TaO{sub x}-capped) structures. The effective fields corresponding to both the field-like and damping-like current-induced SOTs are characterized using electric transport measurements. Both torques are found to be significantly stronger in MgO-capped structures than those in TaO{sub x}-capped structures. The difference in field-like and damping-like SOTs in the different structures may be attributed to the different Rashba-like Hamiltonian, arising from the difference in the electric potential profiles across the oxide|ferromagnet interfaces in the two cases, as well as possible structural and oxidation differences in the underlying CoFeB and Hf layers. Our results show that the oxide layer in heavy-metal|ferromagnet|oxide trilayer structures has a very significant effect on the generated SOTs for manipulation of ferromagnetic layers. These findings could potentially be used to engineer SOT devices with enhanced current-induced switching efficiency.

  10. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co{sub 2}FeAl films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belmeguenai, M. Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Gabor, M. S. Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.

    2015-01-14

    Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2?nm???d???50?nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of ?0.46?erg/cm{sup 2} and 0.74?erg/cm{sup 2} for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin.

  11. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  12. Evidence of a reduction reaction of oxidized iron/cobalt by boron atoms diffused toward naturally oxidized surface of CoFeB layer during annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Soshi Honjo, Hiroaki; Niwa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-06

    We have investigated the redox reaction on the surface of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction stack samples after annealing at 300, 350, and 400?°C for 1?h using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for precise analysis of the chemical bonding states. At a capping tantalum layer thickness of 1?nm, both the capping tantalum layer and the surface of the underneath CoFeB layer in the as-deposited stack sample were naturally oxidized. By comparison of the Co 2p and Fe 2p spectra among the as-deposited and annealed samples, reduction of the naturally oxidized cobalt and iron atoms occurred on the surface of the CoFeB layer. The reduction reaction was more significant at higher annealing temperature. Oxidized cobalt and iron were reduced by boron atoms that diffused toward the surface of the top CoFeB layer. A single CoFeB layer was prepared on SiO{sub 2}, and a confirmatory evidence of the redox reaction with boron diffusion was obtained by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the naturally oxidized surface of the CoFeB single layer after annealing. The redox reaction is theoretically reasonable based on the Ellingham diagram.

  13. Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOx Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Webb, C. C.; Weber, P. A.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

    2006-05-01

    Discusses the emission results of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst and a diesel particle filter in a medium-duty, diesel pick-up truck.

  14. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews vehicle emission control highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art

  15. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  16. Diesel Emission Control Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications

  17. Numerical evaluation of monofil and subtle-layered evapotranspiration (ET) landfill caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, G.V.; Henley, M.; Valceschini, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has identified the need to design a low-level waste (LLW) closure cap for the arid conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As a result of concerns for subsidence impacting the cover, DOE/NV redesigned the LLW cover from one containing a `hard` infiltration barrier that would likely fail, to a `soft` (ET) cover that is sufficiently deep to accommodate the hydrologic problems of subsidence. An ET cover is one that does not contain hydrologic barrier layers but relies on soil-water retention and sufficient thickness to store water until evapotranspiration (ET) can remove the moisture. Subtle layering within an ET cap using the native soil could be environmentally beneficial and cost effective.

  18. Mathematical modeling of cold cap: Effect of bubbling on melting rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-12-31

    The rate of melting is a primary concern in the vitrification of radioactive wastes because it directly influences the life cycle of nuclear waste cleanup efforts. To increase glass melting performance, experimental and industrial all-electric waste glass melters employ various melt-rate enhancement techniques, the most prominent being the application of bubblers submerged into molten glass. This study investigates various ways in which bubbling affects melting rate in a waste glass melter. Using the recently developed cold cap model, we suggest that forced convection of molten glass, which increases the cold cap bottom temperature, is the main factor. Other effects, such as stirring the feed into molten glass or reducing the insulating effect of foaming, also play a role.

  19. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  20. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  1. Macroscale modeling and mesoscale observations of plasma density structures in the polar cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, S. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States)] [Phillips Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States); Basu, S. [National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (United States)] [National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (United States); Sojka, J.J. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)] [and others] [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); and others

    1995-04-15

    The seasonal and UT variation of mesoscale structures (10 km - 100 m) in the central polar cap has been obtained from an analysis of 250-MHz intensity scintillation observations made at Thule, Greenland. It has been established earlier that mesoscale structures causing scintillations of satellite signals may develop at the edges of macroscale structures (several hundred km) such as discrete polar cap plasma density enhancements or patches through the gradient drift instability process. As such, the authors examined the seasonal and UT variation of polar cap patches simulated by using the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) under conditions of southward B{sub z}. A fairly remarkable similarity is found between the scintillation observations and the model predictions of patch occurrence. For instance, both the patch and scintillation occurrences are minimized during the winter solstice (northern hemisphere) between 0800-1200 UT while also having their largest seasonal intensity between 2000-2400 UT. Little UT dependence of patches and scintillations is seen at equinox with high intensity being observed throughout the day, while during local summer the intensity of macroscale patches and mesoscale irregularities are found to be a minimum at all UT. These results indicate that macroscale features in the polar cap are routinely associated with plasma instabilities giving rise to smaller scale structures and that the specific patch formation mechanism assumed in the simulation is consistent with the observations. This ability to bridge between macroscale modeling and mesoscale observations provides a natural framework for the modeling of mesoscale structures themselves. This mesoscale modeling, in turn, can be utilized in a variety of radar and communication systems applications in the polar region. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  2. August 15, 2014 Subj Crse Sec Title Cap Room Days Start End Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    August 15, 2014 Subj Crse Sec Title Cap Room Days Start End Instructor MATH 1100 050 ALGEBRA 20:20 AM Olney, Heather MATH 1100 100 ALGEBRA 152 GAB 105 MWF 8:00 AM 8:50 AM Schwaighofer, Benjamin MATH 1100 101 ALGEBRA 38 GAB 511 M 10:00 AM 11:50 AM Cabello, Stephanie MATH 1100 102 ALGEBRA 38 GAB 511 W

  3. SEQUESTRATION OF METALS IN ACTIVE CAP MATERIALS: A LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Knox, A.

    2012-02-13

    Active capping involves the use of capping materials that react with sediment contaminants to reduce their toxicity or bioavailability. Although several amendments have been proposed for use in active capping systems, little is known about their long-term ability to sequester metals. Recent research has shown that the active amendment apatite has potential application for metals contaminated sediments. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of apatite in the sequestration of metal contaminants through the use of short-term laboratory column studies in conjunction with predictive, numerical modeling. A breakthrough column study was conducted using North Carolina apatite as the active amendment. Under saturated conditions, a spike solution containing elemental As, Cd, Co, Se, Pb, Zn, and a non-reactive tracer was injected into the column. A sand column was tested under similar conditions as a control. Effluent water samples were periodically collected from each column for chemical analysis. Relative to the non-reactive tracer, the breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite. Furthermore, breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite compared to the sand column. Finally, a simple 1-D, numerical model was created to qualitatively predict the long-term performance of apatite based on the findings from the column study. The results of the modeling showed that apatite could delay the breakthrough of some metals for hundreds of years under typical groundwater flow velocities.

  4. Improvement of the quality of graphene-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othmen, Riadh, E-mail: othmenriadh@yahoo.fr; Rezgui, Kamel; Ajlani, Hosni; Oueslati, Meherzi [Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, Campus, 2092 El Manar Tunis (Tunisia); Cavanna, Antonella; Madouri, Ali [CNRS/LPN, Route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Arezki, Hakim; Gunes, Fethullah [Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de Paris, 11, rue Joliot Curie Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-06-07

    In this paper, we study the transfer of graphene onto InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The graphene is first grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition and then polymer Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is deposited on the top of graphene/Cu. High quality graphene sheet has been obtained by lowering the dissolving rate of PMMA using vapor processing. Uncapped as well as capped graphene InAs/GaAs QDs have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We gather from this that the average shifts ?? of QDs Raman peaks are reduced compared to those previously observed in graphene and GaAs capped QDs. The encapsulation by graphene makes the indium atomic concentration intact in the QDs by the reduction of the strain effect of graphene on QDs and the migration of In atoms towards the surface. This gives us a new hetero-structure graphene–InAs/GaAs QDs wherein the graphene plays a key role as a cap layer.

  5. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2003-09-09

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  6. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2005-10-18

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  7. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  8. Making the Best Use of What you Have Asia Intellectual Capital Alliances a te ectua Cap ta a ce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BYOBBYOB ­ Making the Best Use of What you Have Asia Intellectual Capital Alliances a te ectua Cap ta a ce 24 October 2011 Copyright © 2011 Asia Intellectual Capital Alliance. All rights reserved. #12

  9. Analysis of the Black-Capped Vireo habitat at Kickapoo Caverns State Park, Texas using a Geographic Information System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castiaux, Nathalie

    1995-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) database was developed for Y,-ickapoo Cavern State Park, Tx. The digital database was used to characterize the Black-Capped Vireo ( Vireo Attricapillus Woodhouse) breeding habitat, and to produce a potential...

  10. From presentation discussions Thursday, April 29, 2010 Why do environmental groups oppose mercury cap and trade schemes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    -and-trade system is the best way to limit sulfur dioxide (acid rain) and greenhouse gases because they cap and trade schemes? Do particles cool or warm the climate? Haze and fires Sulfur scrubbers #12;EPA

  11. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2010-10-15

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  12. Cap de Creus canyon: a link between shelf and slope sediment dispersal systems in the western Gulf of Lions, France 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeGeest, Amy Louise

    2006-04-12

    river, ~160 km to the NE). It is hypothesized that the westernmost Cap de Creus canyon is intercepting the regional sediment-transport pathway and directing it offshore, allowing significant sediment export through this area. The overall goal...

  13. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  14. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  15. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

    2003-02-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

  16. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-02-25

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

  17. Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastir, Anita, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Onkar, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Anand, Kanika, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Ravi Chand, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, Punjab (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400°C.

  18. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  19. Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Sandip

    Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser 22 April 2000 We report polarized edge- and front-emission electroluminescence studies on red on pieces of as-grown wafers using indium­tin­oxide-coated glass electrodes. The front-emission spectra

  20. North American influence on tropospheric ozone and the effects of recent emission reductions: Constraints from ICARTT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    s, possibly reflecting the decrease in the NOx/CO emission ratio as well as an increase in the ozone production efficiency per unit NOx. North American NOx emissions during summer 2004 as constrained organic compounds (NMVOCs) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). Anthropogenic emissions

  1. A global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and anthropogenic incomplete combustion processes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (COA global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission compare carbon monoxide (CO) products from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT

  2. Global and regional emissions estimates for N[subscript 2]O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dlugokencky, E.

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N[subscript 2]O are available from measurements at ...

  3. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  4. State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2007 (Update) (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    States are moving forward with implementation plans for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). The program, promulgated by the EPA in March 2005, is a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx. States originally had until March 2007 to submit implementation plans, but the deadline has been extended by another year. CAIR covers 28 eastern states and the District of Columbia. States have the option to participate in the cap-and trade plan or devise their own plans, which can be more stringent than the federal requirements. To date, no state has indicated an intent to form NOx and SO2 programs with emissions limits stricter than those in CAIR, and it is expected that all states will participate in the Environmental Protection Agency administered cap-and-trade program. CAIR remains on schedule for implementation, and Annual Energy Outlook 2008 includes CAIR by assuming that all required states will meet only the federal requirement and will trade credits.

  5. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  6. Not All Carbon Credits are Created Equal: The Constitutional and the Cost of Regional Cap-and-Trade Market Linkage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howland, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    of Intertemporal Emission Trading, Bank- ing, and Borrowing,based mechanisms, including emissions trading, provide anEffectiveness of Linked Emissions Trading Schemes, MARGAREE

  7. Mechanistic, sensitivity, and uncertainty studies of the atmospheric oxidation of dimethylsulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Donald David, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    The global-scale emissions and reactivity of dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3, DMS) make it an integral component in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. DMS is rapidly oxidized in the atmosphere by a complex gas-phase mechanism involving ...

  8. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

    2008-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using impedance spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yeqing

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising alternative energy source, with its advantages of high operating efficiency, fuel flexibility, low emissions and relatively low cost. However, there are several challenges ...

  10. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  11. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  12. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  13. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  14. UV/oxidation providers shed technical problems, fight cost perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapaport, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Systems combining ultraviolet light and oxidation (UV/oxidation) to remove contaminants from water were introduced in the early 1980s. Since then, improvements in the technology, a wide array of applications, educational efforts by companies offering the systems and changes in environmental regulations have accelerated acceptance of UV/oxidation technology. From the standpoint of regulatory officials, the major advantage of UV/oxidation is that it creates no secondary pollutants to treat or haul away. It is a self-contained, in situ treatment technology. This benefit has gained importance as regulations have become more stringent regarding disposal of secondary pollutants, such as saturated carbon, and concentration levels of air emissions created by air stripping. Such regulations have increased the costs of monitoring and disposal, while the costs of using UV/oxidation were decreasing.

  15. Task 1: Steam Oxidation,”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

    2009-03-01

    Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

  16. Tracking Emission Rate Dynamics of NV Centers in Nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraz A Inam; Andrew M Edmonds; Michael J Steel; Stefania Castelletto

    2013-05-28

    Spontaneous emission from crystal centers is influenced by both the photonic local density of states and non-radiative processes. Here we monitor the spontaneous emission of single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers as their host diamond is reduced in size from a large monolithic crystal to a nanocrystal by successive cycles of oxidation. The size reduction induces a quenching of the NV radiative emission. New non-radiative channels lead to a decrease of the fluorescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In one case we observe the onset of blinking which may provide a route to understand these additional non-radiative decay channels.

  17. High Performance 400 Gigabit Ethernet Links using Hybrid Multiband CAP/QAM Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, J. L.; Cheng, Q.; Cunningham, D. G.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; Griesser, H.

    2015-03-26

    . In this paper, for the first time, we propose the combination of a hybrid multiband CAP transmitter [5] and a modified QAM receiver [9] scheme for 400 Gigabit Ethernet links. Both DML and EML based SMF links are analyzed. Results show that the proposed... digital implementation is considered. The resulting signal spectrum is shown in in-sets (a) and (b) of Fig. 1 (note two different roll-off coefficients of 0.5 for (a) and 1 for (b) for the SRRC filters are displayed). Power loading is adopted so...

  18. InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot interdiffiusion induced by cap layer overgrowth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Czeczott, M.; Bozek, R.

    2000-06-28

    The effect of thermal treatment during and after growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structures was studied. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of interacting QDs, as was expected from analysis of temperature dependence of QD photoluminescence (PL) peak. The results indicate that the effect of post-growth annealing can be similar to the effect of elevated temperature of capping layer growth. Both, these thermal treatments can lead to a similar In and Ga interdiffiusion resulting in a similar blue-shift of QD PL peak.

  19. Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides (EPA 1999). With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP s age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in the derived dose coefficients and in estimates of dose per unit exposure based on those coefficients.

  20. The MuCap Experiment (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofThe Maximum Value Method. CitationThe MuCap

  1. POLICY FLASH 2014-12 Executive Compensation Cap | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes have a more thanPNM2 Executive Compensation Cap

  2. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  3. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  4. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  5. Technological modifications in the nitrogen oxides tradable permit program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, J.

    2008-07-01

    Tradable permit programs allow firms greater flexibility in reducing emissions than command-and-control regulations and encourage firms to use low cost abatement options, including small-scale modifications to capital equipment. This paper shows that firms have extensively modified capital equipment in the Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program, which covers power plants in the eastern United States. The empirical strategy uses geographic and temporal features of the program to estimate counterfactual emissions, finding that modifications have reduced emission rates by approximately 10-15 percent. The modifications would not have occurred under command-and-control regulation and have reduced regulatory costs.

  6. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

  7. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations may apply to reciprocating...

  8. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F Wetlandsof EnergyGap Analysis |Monitoring theCatalysts

  9. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  10. Mercury emission behavior during isolated coal particle combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puchakayala, Madhu Babu

    2009-05-15

    and bioaccumulates in human and animal tissue. The largest source of human-caused mercury air emissions in the U.S is from combustion coal, a dominant fuel used for power generation. The Hg emitted from plants primarily occurs in two forms: elemental Hg and oxidized...

  11. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  13. Impact of Stops on Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Hesham Rakha1 and Yonglian Ding2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakha, Hesham A.

    chemical compounds that leave the engine through the tail pipe system and crankcase, and evaporative or exhaust emissions). Currently, diesel-powered engines cannot use catalytic oxidizers due to plugging from on a limited number of standard drive cycles. For example, the MOBILE5a model utilizes baseline emission rates

  14. Constraining European biogenic isoprene emissions using satellite observations of formaldehyde G. Curci a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curci, Gabriele

    Constraining European biogenic isoprene emissions using satellite observations of formaldehyde G://www.quitsat.it. Abstract ­ Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an intermediate product of the atmospheric oxidation of many volatile between isoprene emissions and formaldehyde column over Europe, then used to invert OMI HCHO column

  15. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    of the world econ- omy and demand for aviation and its emissions are expected to increase in the future from aviation (mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), VOCsComparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

  16. Synthesis and investigation of optical properties of TOPO-capped CuInS{sub 2} semiconductor nanocrystal in the presence of different solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgary, Saeid; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Nayebi, Payman; Emadi, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TOPO-capped CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by injection method. • Pure CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticle was obtained by injection in 200 °C. • The size, shape and optical properties of products were controlled. • Nanoparticles with size smaller than 10 nm and wurtzite phase was obtained. • The absorption and PL spectra of CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles were tunable. - Abstract: In this work, synthesis of CuInS{sub 2} semiconductor nanoparticles by thermolysis of a mixed solution of CuAc, In(Ac){sub 3} and DDT in coordinating solvent and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as ligand was developed. CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles with size of ?10 nm and nanorods were obtained and optical properties controlled by adjusting the reaction parameters such as temperature and time. Also the shape of nanoparticles was controlled by various solvents elaborately. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With the use of different solvent different morphology obtained. In the presence of oleylamine/octadecene rectangle-like nanorods obtained while with the use of oleic acid sphere-like nanoparticles achieved.

  17. Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo; Capel, M.

    1997-06-01

    The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.

  18. South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS): Data Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Zhenyu; Ma, Jun; Fan, Xiaohui; Fan, Zhou; He, Boliang; Jing, Yipeng; Lesser, Michael; Li, Cheng; Nie, Jundan; Shen, Shiyin; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) is a deep u-band imaging survey in the Southern Galactic Cap, using the 90Prime wide-field imager on the 2.3m Bok telescope at Kitt Peak. The survey observations started in 2010 and ended in 2013. The final survey area is about 5000 deg2 with a median 5-sigma point source limiting magnitude of about 23.2. This paper describes the survey data reduction process, which includes basic imaging processing, astrometric and photometric calibrations, image stacking, and photometric measurements. Survey photometry is performed on objects detected both on SCUSS u-band images and in the SDSS database. Automatic, aperture, point-spread function (PSF), and model magnitudes are measured on stacked images. Co-added aperture, PSF, and model magnitudes are derived from measurements on single-epoch images. We also present comparisons of the SCUSS photometric catalog with those of the SDSS and CFHTLS.

  19. Selective photothermal efficiency of citrate capped gold nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raji, V. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India); Kumar, Jatish [Division of photochemistry and photobiology, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences and Technology (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, Kerala (India)] [Division of photochemistry and photobiology, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences and Technology (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, Kerala (India); Rejiya, C.S.; Vibin, M.; Shenoi, Vinesh N. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India); Abraham, Annie, E-mail: annieab2@yahoo.co.in [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)

    2011-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles are recently having much attention because of their increased applications in biomedical fields. In this paper, we demonstrated the photothermal efficacy of citrate capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the destruction of A431 cancer cells. Citrate capped AuNPs were synthesized successfully and characterized by UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometry and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, AuNPs were conjugated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (anti-EGFR) and applied for the selective photothermal therapy (PTT) of human epithelial cancer cells, A431. PTT experiments were conducted in four groups, Group I-control cells, Group II-cells treated with laser light alone, Group III-cells treated with unconjugated AuNP and further laser irradiation and Group IV-anti-EGFR conjugated AuNP treated cells irradiated by laser light. After laser irradiation, cell morphology changes that were examined using phase contrast microscopy along with the relevant biochemical parameters like lactate dehydrogenase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-3 activity were studied for all the groups to determine whether cell death occurs due to necrosis or apoptosis. From these results we concluded that, these immunotargeted nanoparticles could selectively induce cell death via ROS mediated apoptosis when cells were exposed to a low power laser light.

  20. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  1. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  2. Investigation of arsenic and antimony capping layers, and half cycle reactions during atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaSb(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, Dmitry M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, Hong; Brennan, Barry; Kim, Jiyoung; Wallace, Robert M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Oktyabrsky, Serge [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany–SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany–SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In-situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, ion scattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the GaSb(100) surfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy after thermal desorption of a protective As or Sb layer and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. An antimony protective layer is found to be more favorable compared to an arsenic capping layer as it prevents As alloys from forming with the GaSb substrate. The evolution of oxide free GaSb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface is investigated by “half-cycle” ALD reactions of trimethyl aluminum and deionized water.

  3. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  4. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    K. , & Chen, Y. (2006b). CO2 cost pass-through and windfalltypes x 10 CO2 Prices ($/ton) Fuel Costs ($/hr) Emissions (

  5. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    in Emission Permits Oligopolistic Electricity Markets 3.1Regulation on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium 2.1in California’s electricity market. Journal of Industrial

  6. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    The case of wholesale power trading in Germany Power andY. (2011). Market power in emissions trading: strategicallyto model market power in permit trading. The conjectural

  7. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  8. Light duty vehicle full fuel cycle emissions analysis. Topical report, April 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    The report provides a methodology for analyzing full fuel cycle emissions of alternative fuels for vehicles. Included in this analysis is an assessment of the following fuel cycles relevant to vehicle use: gasoline, reformulated gasoline, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electric power (with onboard battery storage), ethanol, and methanol fuels. The analysis focuses on basic criteria pollutants (reactive organic gases, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfurous oxides, and particulates less than 10 microns (PM10)). Emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) are also defined. The analysis was conducted for two cases, United States and the State of California and two time frames, current and year 2000.

  9. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  11. Modeling Traffic Flow Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappiello, Alessandra

    2002-09-17

    The main topic of this thesis is the development of light-duty vehicle dynamic emission models and their integration with dynamic traffic models. Combined, these models

  12. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  13. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  14. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  15. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide catalytic systems.12,13 On the other hand, the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is functionalized graphene Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO

  16. Why are allowance prices so low? An analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions trading program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellerman, A.D.; Montero, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of the reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions by electric utilities between 1985 and 1993. We find that, as of 1993, emissions had been reduced for reasons largely unrelated to the emission reduction mandate incorporated in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The principal reason appears to be the change in the economics of coal choice that resulted from the remarkable decline in rail rates for low sulfur western coal delivered to higher sulfur coal-fired plants in the Midwest. Consequently, one of the reasons that allowance prices are lower than expected is that less sulfur need be removed to meet the Title IV caps on aggregate SO{sub x} emissions.

  17. DHHS Salary Cap Administration By statute, no grant funds may be used to pay an individual working on a DHHS-funded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    DHHS Salary Cap Administration By statute, no grant funds may be used to pay an individual 1, 2015, the salary rate limitation has increased from $181,500 to $183,300 for all DHHS awards. Actual salary charges on the award must conform to the DHHS salary cap regardless of the individual

  18. Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing based emission ratio. In effect this technique makes use of CO2, and the other usually minor carbon

  19. Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released emissions from power plants would provide an added bonus--reductions in other air pollutants that can make in power plant emissions of four other harmful air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides

  20. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  1. Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

  2. Distribution of ion current density on a rotating spherical cap substrate during ion-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marushka, Viktor; Zabeida, Oleg Martinu, Ludvik

    2014-11-01

    The uniformity of ion density is critical for applications relying on the ion assisted deposition technique for the fabrication of the high quality thin films. The authors propose and describe here a method allowing one to calculate the ion density distribution on spherical substrate holders under stationary and rotating conditions for different positions of the ion source. The ion beam shape was approximated by a cos{sup n} function, and the ion current density was represented by a function inversely proportional to the distance from the ion source in accordance with our experimental results. As an example, a calculation of the current density distribution on the spherical cap substrate was performed for a broad beam ion source operated with an anode current of 3?A. The authors propose an approach for process optimization with respect to the ion source position and its inclination, in terms of uniformity and absolute value of the ion current density.

  3. Effect of precursor mineralogy on the thermal infrared emission spectra of hematite: Application to Martian hematite mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    samples derived by (1) dehydroxylation of fine- grained goethite and (2) oxidation of magnetite derived by pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation of goethite at 300°C. Spectra of goethite spectrum. Thermal emission spectra of goethites heated at lower temperatures are characterized

  4. Development of Low Temperature Combustion Modes to Reduce Overall Emissions from a Medium-Duty, Four Cylinder Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breen, Jonathan Robert

    2011-10-21

    Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an appealing new method of combustion that promises low nitric oxides and soot emissions while maintaining or improving on engine performance. The three main points of this study were ...

  5. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  6. Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

  7. High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

  8. Comparison between the polar cap index, PC and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Friis-Christensen, E. (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Troshichev, O.A.; Andresen, V.G. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Leningrad (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The newly introduced index PC for magnetic activity in the polar cap has been examined to establish to which extent it can serve as an indicator of auroral electrojet activity. PC is derived from a single nearpole station, as a 15-min average index. The authors have derived it for two stations, one in the northern hemisphere (Thule) and one in the southern hemisphere (Vostok). The simplicity of the PC index enables us to make a large data base for statistical investigations. They have thus used 7 years of PC values for the two stations to analyze the relationship between PC and the auroral zone indices AE, AU, and AL statistically. They find a very high correlation between PC and AE during winter and equinox, the linear correlation coefficient being {approximately} 0.8-0.9 for Thule and {approximately} 0.7-0.8 for Vostok. During summer the correlation is less because the PC index is then disturbed by polar cap currents controlled by the northward and east-west components of the interplanetary magnetic field. They therefore stress the importance of having PC available from both the northern and southern hemisphere. From event studies they find that PC is sensitive both to DP 2 type electrojet activity and to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or postmidnight sector but less sensitive to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or post midnight sector. They conclude that PC can serve as a fast available indicator of DP 2 and DP 1 activity in the polar regions, excluding intrusions of the westward electrojet in the premidnight sector.

  9. Analysis of Factors Controlling Cell Cycle that Can Be Synchronized Nondestructively During Root Cap Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Hawes

    2011-02-04

    Publications and presentations during the final funding period, including progress in defining the substrate specificity, the primary goal of the project, are listed below. Both short-term and long-term responses mediated by PsUGT1 have been characterized in transgenic or mutant pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis with altered expression of PsUGT1. Additional progress includes evaluation of the relationship between control of the cell cycle by PsUGT1 and other glycosyltransferase and glycosidase enzymes that are co-regulated in the legume root cap during the onset of mitosis and differentiation. Transcriptional profiling and multidimensional protein identification technology ('MudPIT') have been used to establish the broader molecular context for the mechanism by which PsUGT1 controls cell cycle in response to environmental signals. A collaborative study with the Norwegian Forest Research Institute (who provided $10,000.00 in supplies and travel funds for collaborator Dr. Toril Eldhuset to travel to Arizona and Dr. H. H. Woo to travel to Norway) made it possible to establish that the inducible root cap system for studying carbohydrate synthesis and solubilization is expressed in gymnosperm as well as angiosperm species. This discovery provides an important tool to amplify the potential applications of the research in defining conserved cell cycle machinery across a very broad range of plant species and habitats. The final work, published during 2009, revealed an additional surprising parallel with mammalian immune responses: The cells whose production is controlled by PsUGT1 appear to function in a manner which is analogous to that of white blood cells, by trapping and killing in an extracellular manner. This may explain why mutation within the coding region of PsUGT1 and its homolog in humans (UGT1) is lethal to plants and animals. The work has been the subject of invited reviews. A postdoctoral fellow, eight undergraduate students, four M.S. students and three Ph.D. students have been supported.

  10. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  11. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  12. Public Cloud B CarbonEmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Programming Environment and Tools: Green Profiler, Power Capping, Green Compiler, Workflow Cloud Hosting Sensors, Demand Prediction Power Capping, Green Software Services such as energy-efficient scientific information Green Offer Directory 2) Request any `Green Offer' Routers Internet Green Broker #12;Cloud

  13. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  14. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  15. $?$-Ray Pulsars: Emission Zones and Viewing Geometries, A Computer Animation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. -A. Yadigaroglu; Roger W. Romani

    1994-06-08

    The computer animation illustrates the geometries described in a paper by the same authors. The preprint is available as number 9401045. The opening scene shows dipole field lines emanating from the polar caps of a rotating neutron star. The dipole axis is inclined along the green rods. The field lines shown are defined from the condition that they be tangent to the light cylinder (the cylindrical radius at which the tangential velocity of rotation reaches the speed of light). The static dipole field lines are smoothly morphed into the correct retarted-potential vacuum solutions. A red surface spanning these field lines is painted. In the next scene the blue surfaces represent the outer gaps above the surface of last closed field lines. High energy emission (blue) is produced in these outer gaps, and is beamed tangentially along the field lines. The radio emission (green) originates close to the surface of the star and is beamed along the dipole axes. The inclination angle $\\alpha$ of the dipole and the viewing angle $\\zeta$ are chosen to match the Crab parameters; $\\alpha$ = 70, $\\zeta$ = 65. The corresponding light curve is computed and shown for these angles, and the red dot traces rotation phase. The next scene shows the situation for angles appropriate to PSR1706-44; $\\alpha$ = 45, $\\zeta$ = 65. The final scene is a possibility for Geminga; $\\alpha$ = 20, $\\zeta$ = 75. These angles are poorly constrained as there is no radio emission.

  16. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the ...

  17. Top-emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diode with a Cap Layer Chengfeng Qiu, Huajun Peng, Haiying Chen, Zhilang Xie,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT For top emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLED), the study of top layer. INTRODUCTION Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) [1] is challenging liquid-crystal display (LCD8.4.4-86 Top-emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diode with a Cap Layer Chengfeng Qiu, Huajun Peng

  18. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  19. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  20. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  1. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  2. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  3. Inhalation of Vehicle Emissions in Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian David

    2005-01-01

    distances between vehicles, and emissions from neighboringgasoline on motor vehicle emissions. 2. 6 Volatile organicgasoline on motor vehicle emissions. 1. Mass emission rates.

  4. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01

    and Philippe Quirion. Co2 abatement, competitiveness andDaniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theA short-run case analysis of co2 leakage and nox and so2

  5. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  6. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  7. EPA Emissions | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA Emissions ORNL research informs new EPA emissions standards July 11, 2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a streamlined method for determining vehicle...

  8. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) includes: examining, assaying, characterizing, treating, and repackaging solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low-level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, TRU mixed wastes, and low-level mixed wastes (LLMW). Airborne releases from the WRAP 1 facility will be primarily in particulate forms (99.999 percent of total unabated emissions). The release of two volatilized radionuclides, tritium and carbon-14 will contribute less than 0.001 percent of the total unabated emissions. Table 2-1 lists the radionuclides which are anticipated to be emitted from WRAP 1 exhaust stack. The Clean Air Assessment Package 1988 (CAP-88) computer code (WHC 1991) was used to calculate effective dose equivalent (EDE) from WRAP 1 to the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEI), and thus demonstrate compliance with WAC 246-247. Table 4-1 shows the dose factors derived from the CAP-88 modeling and the EDE for each radionuclide. The source term (i.e., emissions after abatement in curies per year) are multiplied by the dose factors to obtain the EDE. The total projected EDE from controlled airborne radiological emissions to the offsite MEI is 1.31E-03 mrem/year. The dose attributable to radiological emissions from WRAP 1 will, then, constitute 0.013 percent of the WAC 246-247 EDE regulatory limit of 10 mrem/year to the offsite MEI.

  10. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  11. Appearance, temperature, and NO{sub x} emission of two inverse diffusion flames with different port design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, L.K.; Cheung, C.S.; Leung, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the appearance, temperature distribution, and NO{sub x} emission index of two inverse diffusion flames, one with circumferentially arranged ports (CAPs) and the other with co-axial (CoA) jets, both burning LPG with 70% butane and 30% propane. Flame appearances were investigated first with a fixed fueling rate at different airflow rates equivalent to air jet Reynolds numbers (Re) of 1000 to 4500; and then at a fixed airflow rate with different fueling rates equivalent to overall equivalence ratios (F) of 1.0 to 2.0. The CAP flame is found to consist of two zones: a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. The CoA flame in most cases is similar to a diffusion flame. The two-zone structure can be observed only at Re larger than 2500. The temperature distributions of the flames are similar at overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 and 1.2 for Re=2500, except that the corresponding CoA flame is longer. The flame temperature is higher in the CAP flame than the CoA flame at higher overall equivalence ratios. A measurement of centerline oxygen concentrations shows that the oxygen concentration reaches a minimum value at a flame height of 50 mm in the CAP flame but decreases more gradually in the CoA flame. It can be concluded that there is more intense air-fuel mixing in a CAP flame than the CoA flame. Investigation of the emission index of NO{sub x} (EINO{sub x}) for both flames at Re=2500 and overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 to 6.0 reveals that the EINO{sub x} curve of each flame is bell-shaped, with a maximum value of 3.2 g/kg at F=1.2 for the CAP flame and 3 g/kg at F=2.2 for the CoA flame.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  13. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

  14. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  15. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  16. 468 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. EDL-7, NO. 8, AUGUST 1986 Low-Energy Ion Beam Oxidation of Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    468 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. EDL-7, NO. 8, AUGUST 1986 Low-Energy Ion Beam Oxidation and neutralized by a thermionic filament whose electron emission is adjusted to yield a net neutral beam of Silicon Abstract-A low-energyoxygen ion beam with energy below 100 eV has been applied to the oxidation

  17. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  18. Structure of graphene oxide dispersed with ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Rishikesh Pandey, Devendra K.; Khare, P. S.

    2014-10-15

    Graphene has been proposed as a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties for many applications. In present work a process of dispersion of graphene oxide with ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol solution with different pH values, have been studied. Samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, PL, UV-visible spectroscopy and particles size measurement. The results analysis indicates overall improved emission spectrum. It has been observed that the average diameter of RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide) decreases in presence of ZnO nanoparticles from 3.8?m to 0.41?m.

  19. A HISTORY OF ON-ROAD EMISSIONS AND EMISSIONS DETERIORATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    emissions relative to the newer. · Why? IM240 is registration based, every old car is supposed to be testedA HISTORY OF ON-ROAD EMISSIONS AND EMISSIONS DETERIORATION www.feat.biochem.du.edu www of Denver 2101 E. Wesley Ave. Denver, CO 80208 303 871-2580.. FAX 2587 dstedman@du.edu #12;Emissions

  20. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  1. Plastic cap evolution law derived from induced transverse isotropy in dilatational triaxial compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macon, David James; Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Strack, Otto Eric

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical testing of porous materials generates physical data that contain contributions from more than one underlying physical phenomenon. All that is measurable is the (3z(Bensemble(3y (Bhardening modulus. This thesis is concerned with the phenomenon of dilatation in triaxial compression of porous media, which has been modeled very accurately in the literature for monotonic loading using models that predict dilatation under triaxial compression (TXC) by presuming that dilatation causes the cap to move outwards. These existing models, however, predict a counter-intuitive (and never validated) increase in hydrostatic compression strength. This work explores an alternative approach for modeling TXC dilatation based on allowing induced elastic anisotropy (which makes the material both less stiff and less strong in the lateral direction) with no increase in hydrostatic strength. Induced elastic anisotropy is introduced through the use of a distortion operator. This operator is a fourth-order tensor consisting of a combination of the undeformed stiffness and deformed compliance and has the same eigenprojectors as the elastic compliance. In the undeformed state, the distortion operator is equal to the fourth-order identity. Through the use of the distortion operator, an evolved stress tensor is introduced. When the evolved stress tensor is substituted into an isotropic yield function, a new anisotropic yield function results. In the case of the von Mises isotropic yield function (which contains only deviatoric components), it is shown that the distortion operator introduces a dilatational contribution without requiring an increase in hydrostatic strength. In the thesis, an introduction and literature review of the cap function is given. A transversely isotropic compliance is presented, based on a linear combination of natural bases constructed about a transverse-symmetry axis. Using a probabilistic distribution of cracks constructed for the case of transverse isotropy, a compliance expression is presented that demonstrated a decrease in lateral stiffness, but leaves axial stiffness unchanged. A demonstration of how the distortion operator could be used in the elastic/plastic analysis of a von Mises surface loaded in TXC is also presented.

  2. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  3. Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics The Sun is a strong radio source (one of the first objects discusses incoher­ ent emission from thermal plasma in the non­flaring so­ lar atmosphere; other relevant material may be found in Coherent Plasma Emission and in Solar Flares: Radio Bursts. Emission mechanisms

  4. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  5. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  6. Concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter in aqueous solutions of capped PEO chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Chaudhari; L. R. Pratt; M. E. Paulaitis

    2014-10-05

    The dependence on volume fraction $\\varphi$ of the Flory-Huggins $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ describing the free energy of mixing of polymers in water is obtained by exploiting the connection of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ to the chemical potential of the water, for which quasi-chemical theory is satisfactory. We test this theoretical approach with simulation data for aqueous solutions of capped PEO oligomers. For CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ ($m$=11), $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ depends strongly on $\\varphi$, consistent with experiment. These results identify coexisting water-rich and water-poor solutions at $T$ = 300K and $p$ = 1atm. Direct observation of the coexistence of these two solutions on simulation time scales supports that prediction for the system studied. This approach directly provides the osmotic pressures. The osmotic second virial coefficient for these chains is positive, reflecting repulsive interactions between the chains in the water, a good solvent for these chains.

  7. Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Study of the Electronic Structure of Oxidized and Partially Oxidized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Yin, Yadong; Falcone, Roger; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2010-10-24

    The crystal structure of magnetite nanoparticles may be transformed to maghemite by complete oxidation, but under many relevant conditions the oxidation is partial, creating a mixed-valence material with structural and electronic properties that are poorly characterized. We used X-ray diffraction, Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy to characterize the products of oxidizing uncoated and oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles in air. The oxidization of uncoated magnetite nanoparticles creates a material that is structurally and electronically indistinguishable from maghemite. By contrast, while oxidized oleic acid-coated nanoparticles are also structurally indistinguishable from maghemite, Fe L-edge spectroscopy revealed the presence of interior reduced iron sites even after a 2-year period. We used X-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K-edge to study the valence bands (VB) of the iron oxide nanoparticles, using resonant excitation to remove the contributions from oxygen atoms in the ligands and from low-energy excitations that obscured the VB edge. The bonding in all nanoparticles was typical of maghemite, with no detectable VB states introduced by the long-lived, reduced-iron sites in the oleic acid-coated sample. However, O K-edge absorption spectroscopy observed a 0.2 eV shift in the position of the lowest unoccupied states in the coated sample, indicating an increase in the semiconductor band gap relative to bulk stoichiometric maghemite that was also observed by optical absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the ferrous iron sites within ferric iron oxide nanoparticles coated by an organic ligand can persist under ambient conditions with no evidence of a distinct interior phase and can exert an effect on the global electronic and optical properties of the material. This phenomenon resembles the band gap enlargement caused by electron accumulation in the conduction band of TiO2.

  8. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering studies of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; te Velthuis, S. G. E; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian Fernandez, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado; Univ. of Pisa; Lab. di Magnetismo Molecolare

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  9. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering study of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; Pinel, E. F.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ. Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado UCM; Univ. Pisa; Univ. di Padova

    2009-11-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  10. Genetically designed biomolecular capping system for mesoporous silica nanoparticles enables receptor-mediated cell uptake and controlled drug release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Datz; Christian Argyo; Michael Gattner; Veronika Weiss; Korbinian Brunner; Johanna Bretzler; Constantin von Schirnding; Fabio Spada; Hanna Engelke; Milan Vrabel; Christoph Bräuchle; Thomas Carell; Thomas Bein

    2015-10-13

    Effective and controlled drug delivery systems with on-demand release and targeting abilities have received enormous attention for biomedical applications. Here, we describe a novel enzyme-based cap system for mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) that is directly combined with a targeting ligand via bio-orthogonal click chemistry. The capping system is based on the pH-responsive binding of an aryl-sulfonamide-functionalized MSN and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). An unnatural amino acid (UAA) containing a norbornene moiety was genetically incorporated into CA. This UAA allowed for the site-specific bio-orthogonal attachment of even very sensitive targeting ligands such as folic acid and anandamide. This leads to specific receptor-mediated cell and stem cell uptake. We demonstrate the successful delivery and release of the chemotherapeutic agent Actinomycin D to KB cells. This novel nanocarrier concept provides a promising platform for the development of precisely controllable and highly modular theranostic systems.

  11. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  12. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  14. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  15. March 1, 2001 / Vol. 26, No. 5 / OPTICS LETTERS 259 Capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This is so because the native oxide layer thickness is a large proportion .30% of the total final layer to a higher R loss as a result of high E-field intensity within the native oxide layer, which invariably

  16. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  17. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  18. Magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic field sensor by using CoFeB sensing layer capped with MgO film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takenaga, Takashi, E-mail: takenaga@leap.or.jp; Tsuzaki, Yosuke; Yoshida, Chikako; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Hatada, Akiyoshi; Nakabayashi, Masaaki; Iba, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Atsushi; Noshiro, Hideyuki; Tsunoda, Koji; Aoki, Masaki; Furukawa, Taisuke; Fukumoto, Hiroshi; Sugii, Toshihiro [Low-power Electronics Association and Project (LEAP), Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We evaluated MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for magnetic field sensors with spin-valve-type structures in the CoFeB sensing layer capped by an MgO film in order to obtain both top and bottom interfaces of MgO/CoFeB exhibiting interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Hysteresis of the CoFeB sensing layer in these MTJs annealed at 275?°C was suppressed at a thickness of the sensing layer below 1.2?nm by interfacial PMA. We confirmed that the CoFeB sensing layers capped with MgO suppress the thickness dependences of both the magnetoresistance ratio and the magnetic behaviors of the CoFeB sensing layer more than that of the MTJ with a Ta capping layer. MgO-based MTJs with MgO capping layers can improve the controllability of the characteristics for magnetic field sensors.

  19. Controlled spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

    2007-07-03

    The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

  20. Optimal irreversible stimulated emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

    2012-08-28

    We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.