Sample records for oxide emission caps

  1. Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

  2. Emission trading with absolute and intensity caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jaemin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kyoto Protocol introduced emission trading to help reduce the cost of compliances for the Annex B countries that have absolute caps. However, we need to expand the emission trading to cover developing countries in order ...

  3. Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enion, Rhead M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

  4. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

  5. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  6. Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose

  7. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  8. Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles. Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: Green emission at around 500...

  9. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the...

  10. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  11. Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

  12. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  13. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  14. Condensed Surfaces of Magnetic Neutron Stars, Thermal Surface Emission, and Particle Acceleration Above Pulsar Polar Caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zach Medin; Dong Lai

    2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    For sufficiently strong magnetic fields and/or low temperatures, the neutron star surface may be in a condensed state with little gas or plasma above it. Such surface condensation can significantly affect the thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, and may lead to the formation of a charge-depleted acceleration zone ("vacuum gap") in the magnetosphere above the stellar polar cap. Using the latest results on the cohesive property of magnetic condensed matter, we quantitatively determine the conditions for surface condensation and vacuum gap formation in magnetic neutron stars. We find that condensation can occur if the thermal energy kT of the neutron star surface is less than about 8% of its cohesive energy Q_s, and that a vacuum gap can form if the neutron star's rotation axis and magnetic moment point in opposite directions and kT is less than about 4% of Q_s. Thus, vacuum gap accelerators may exist for some neutron stars. Motivated by this result, we also study the physics of pair cascades in the vacuum gap model for photon emission by accelerating electrons and positrons due to both curvature radiation and resonant/nonresonant inverse Compton scattering. Our calculations of the condition of cascade-induced vacuum breakdown and the related pulsar death line/boundary generalize previous works to the superstrong field regime. We find that inverse Compton scatterings do not produce a sufficient number of high energy photons in the gap and thus do not lead to pair cascades for most neutron star parameters. We discuss the implications of our results for the recent observations of neutron star thermal radiation as well as for the detection/non-detection of radio emission from high-B pulsars and magnetars.

  15. Allocating emissions permits in cap-and-trade programs: Theory and evidence Preliminary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    emissions trading program are used to analyze these relationships empirically. I ...nd robust evidence an important a factor in the widespread adoption of emissions trading programs. More recently, a third design

  16. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  17. On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

  18. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  19. MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

  20. How sensitive is tropospheric oxidation to anthropogenic emissions? Oliver Wild1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    How sensitive is tropospheric oxidation to anthropogenic emissions? Oliver Wild1 and Paul I. Palmer regime. Citation: Wild, O., and P. I. Palmer (2008), How sensitive is tropospheric oxidation

  1. Implications of heavy-ion-induced satellite x-ray emission. III. Chemical effects in high resolution sulfur K/sub. cap alpha. / x-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vane, C.R.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Kahane, S.; McDaniel, F.D.; Milner, W.T.; Raman, S.; Rosseel, T.M.; Slaughter, G.G.; Varghese, S.L.; Young, J.P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution (approx. 7 eV at 2.3 keV) sulfur K/sub ..cap alpha../ x-ray spectra have been obtained for a series of sulfur compound targets under heavy ion impact at the Holified Heavy Ion Facility. The spectra observed are dominated by a series of satellite peaks arising from varying degrees of L-shell ionization at the time of x-ray emission. Each spectral profile has been parameterized by a single variable p/sub L/, the apparent average L-shell ionization probability. Correlations are evident between p/sub L/ and the corresponding sulfur atom chemical environment. Much stronger correlations are however found for variations of some individual peak intensities with specific chemical parameters. Comparison of results for Ar/sup q+/ and Kr/sup q+/ projectiles shows that while L-shell ionization probability has increased, chemical sensitivity has apparently saturated.

  2. Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom- up emission inventory (with error and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using

  3. Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion

  4. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning ...

  5. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014: Robust Nitrogen oxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

  6. Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

  7. Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations and WRFChem simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    , and economic growth in India and attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers [Garg et al., 2001Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations emission inventory for India for 2005 using an inverse technique and iterative procedure. We used OMI

  8. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution) The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a wide- spread invasive plant in the southeastern United the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia

  9. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  10. Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharol, S. K.

    We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

  11. Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT CEEEPR Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emissions Trading for Energy and Environmental Policy Research #12;MIT CEEEPR Two Types of Air Emissions Trading · Credit- · OTC/SIP-Call NOx Budget Programs: 1999- · EU's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme: 2005- ­ The first CO2

  12. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  13. ESTIMATING METHANE EMISSION AND OXIDATION FROM TWO TEMPORARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    layer waste gas composition were measured on two French MBT plants with aerobic pre-treatment process using old municipal solid waste material (Huber-Humer & al, 2007, 2008). Another result of these studies amount of fugitive methane emissions for landfills without waste pre-treatment (Tarimini & al, 2003

  14. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al?O?/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?apajna, M., E-mail: milan.tapajna@savba.sk; Jurkovi?, M.; Válik, L.; Haš?ík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Kuzmík, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hashizume, T. [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, 060-0814 Sapporo, Japan and JST-CREST, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (D{sub it}) and net charge of Al?O?/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. D{sub it} distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher D{sub it} (?5–8?×?10¹²eV?¹?cm?²) was found at trap energies ranging from EC-0.5 to 1?eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (D{sub it}???2–3?×?10¹²eV?¹?cm?²) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. D{sub it} distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high D{sub it} (>10¹³eV?¹?cm?²) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher D{sub it} centered about EC-0.6?eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al?O? thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  15. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  16. EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES fuel passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. 1. Introduction The use of energy/electric hybrid and fuel cell/electric hybrid drivetrain technologies offers the potential for significant

  17. Methane Oxidation to Methanol without CO2 Emission: Catalysis by Atomic Negative Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfamichael, Aron; Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Os- ions have been investigated theoretically using the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290K (Os-), 300K (Ag-), 310K (At-), 320K (Ru-) and 325K (Au-) methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of CO2. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  18. Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey V.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  19. Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  20. TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial Ryegrass under Different Irrigation Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    80 TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial). effects of irrigation on N2 O emissions from perennial ryegrass AUTHOR: Jason Lewis and Dale Bremer and frequencies, and irrigated with different amounts of water, all of which may affect N2 O emissions

  1. Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology with kriging constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology. Abstract For chemistry-transport models operating at regional scales, surface emissions are the input data a methodology to optimize surface emissions at local scale i.e. to compute correction factors for the available

  2. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  3. Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

  4. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  5. Exercise for ESRP 285: Preparations for the Cap & Trade Game on 10-30-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    . Power Business Measures Emissions Buys Sells Allowances 20 18 $25 17 $25 16 $20 15 1st $15 19 2nd $15 18 power companies whose CO2 emissions are regulated under a cap-and- trade scheme. The cap calls for a 10% reduction in emissions. The trading among the power companies will determine the price of allowances. Prices

  6. Purdue Climate Change Research Center Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue Climate Change Research Center Emissions Trading Workshop Introduction and Overview manner. Workshop rather than conference. #12;What is Emissions Trading? (or "Cap and Trade") · Cap & Enforcement · Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) mechanisms for reductions #12;Five Emissions

  7. ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

  8. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C{sub 1}?C{sub 4} oxidation and NO{sub x} formation kinetics.

  9. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pablo. "Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty andof Two Major Cap-and-Trade Permit Programs. ”Env. and Res.level emissions and the initial permit allocation in this

  10. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the effects of cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) on nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and 2) determine if the consideration of ccv affects the average NO emission as compared to ...

  11. Legislative Proposals to Control Carbon Emissions through Cap and Towards the end of 2007 the Climate Change Bill was introduced into the House of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    · efficiency of energy use · carbon pricing through economic mechanisms (taxation or emissions trading on climate change are too dire to risk (N. Stern, Economic Impacts of Climate Change, Report to the Prime and trade, and offers some further thoughts on the potential wider implications of such a development

  12. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  13. Implementing a Time-and Location-Differentiated Cap-and-Trade Program: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin B.A., Physics Reed College Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin Submitted, this work examines compliance data from coal power plants in 2002 and 2005 to estimate the effectiveness

  14. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  15. Neutron Emission Characteristics of Two Mixed-Oxide Fuels: Simulations and Initial Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury; E. M. Gantz

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate the neutron emission characteristics of two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and it's Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. This analysis used the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and energy spectra of the different neutron source terms within these fuels, and then used this data to simulate the detection and measurement of these emissions using an array of liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers. These calculations accounted for neutrons generated from the spontaneous fission of the actinides in the MOX fuel as well as neutrons created via (alpha,n) reactions with oxygen in the MOX fuel. The analysis was carried out to allow for characterization of both neutron energy as well as neutron coincidences between multiple detectors. Coincidences between prompt gamma rays and neutrons were also analyzed. Experiments were performed at INL with the same materials used in the simulations to benchmark and begin validation tests of the simulations. Data was collected in these experiments using an array of four liquid scintillators and a high-speed waveform digitizer. Advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms were developed and used to collect this data. Results of the simulation and modeling studies are presented together with preliminary results from the experimental campaign.

  16. Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

  17. Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...

  18. Process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A Paul (Berkeley, CA); Rockenberger, Joerg (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of transition metal oxides. The process comprises reacting a metal cupferron complex of the formula M Cup, wherein M is a transition metal, and Cup is a cupferron, with a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 250 to about 300 C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction.

  19. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi, E-mail: boiler@seu.edu.cn; Xu, Jian-Qun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  20. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

  1. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. ,for heavy-duty diesel truck emissions. J. Air Waste Manage.on-road diesel truck emissions, large weekend reductions in

  2. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  3. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  4. Does the location of aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions affect their climate impact?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    approximately balancing the IRF associated with aviation CO2 emissions (28 mWm�2 yr (TgNO2)�1 ). The overall climate impact of global aviation is often represented by a simple multiplier for CO2 emissions­3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions [Lee et al., 2009], yet these emissions fall outside the remit

  5. Controlling emissions from a black liquor fluidized bed evaporator (Copeland reactor) using a regenerative thermal oxidizer and a prefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzanka, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on an intriguing pilot project developed to control air emissions from a pulp mill. Testing is complete, and the results show favorable emissions reductions. Stone Container Corporation, REECO, NCASI, the Ohio DEP, and the US EPA, have all worked together and approved the installation of control equipment, for VOC and HAP emissions under Presumptive MACT, setting the standard for the Copeland Reactor process in a semi chem pulp mill. The equipment, once operational, will reduce VOC and CO emissions by greater than 90%. This installation will be done at one seventh the cost of the significant process modifications required to accomplish the same emission reduction. In addition, increased process operating efficiency will be achieved with the use of an energy recovery system. The process is a black liquor fluidized bed boiler, which is used to generate sodium carbonate from the black liquor. The vapor emissions were high in VOCs, CO and particulate. After much study and testing, a wet electrostatic precipitator was chosen as the filter system for particulate control, followed by a regenerative thermal oxidizer for VOC and HAP control, finally an air-to-air heat exchanger is being used to preheat the combustion air entering the process.

  6. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  7. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  8. Capital Access Program (CAP) (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Capital Access Program (CAP), utilizes public resources to generate private financing for small business in Michigan seeking access to capital. Funding from the Michigan Strategic Fund is...

  9. These notes are from 2010 Cap and Trade Working Already

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Acid Rain These notes are from 2010 #12;Cap and Trade Working Already December 15, 2009 10:14 AM across the country decreased emissions of SO2, a precursor to acid rain, to 7.6 million tons in 2008. #12;Overview of Acid Rain Phenomenon Most common term for acidification of the environment, which can occur

  10. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27- Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe...

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  12. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel inputs from the EIA survey and emission factors shownFuel tax receipts and EIA survey data are reconciled withuse reported by the EIA survey. To make a weekday modeling

  13. Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harchol-Balter, Mor

    on an IBM BladeCenter HS21 server across three representa- tive workloads, IdleCap reduces the mean response power capping approach, IdleCap, that provides a higher Research supported by NSF SMA/PDOS Grant CCR. The intuition and analysis behind IdleCap are presented in Sec- tion 2. To verify our idea, we test Idle

  14. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  15. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  16. Enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by indium tin oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, Chul, E-mail: chuh@etri.re.kr; Kim, Bong Kyu; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeob [IT Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a Si nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) by employing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs). The formed ITO NWs (diameter?

  17. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  18. Linker-Induced Anomalous Emission of Organic-Molecule Conjugated Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turkowski, Volodymyr; Babu, Suresh; Le, Duy; Kumar, Amit; Haldar, Manas K.; Wagh, Anil V.; Hu, Zhongjian; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Law, Benedict; Mallik, Sanku; Rahman, Talat S.; Leuenberger, Michael N.; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanoparticles conjugated with organic- and dye-molecules to yield high efficiency visible photoluminescence (PL) hold great potential for many future technological applications. We show that folic acid (FA)-conjugated to nanosize TiO2 and CeO2 particles demonstrates a dramatic increase of photoemission intensity at wavelengths between 500 and 700 nm when derivatized using aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as spacer-linker molecules between the metal oxide and FA. Using density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations we demonstrate that the strong increase of the PL can be explained by electronic transitions between the titania surface oxygen vacancy (OV) states and the low-energy excited states of the FA/APTMS molecule anchored onto the surface oxygen bridge sites in close proximity to the OVs. We suggest this scenario to be a universal feature for a wide class of metal oxide nanoparticles, including nanoceria, possessing a similar band gap (3 eV) and with a large surface-vacancy-related density of electronic states. We demonstrate that the molecule-nanoparticle linker can play a crucial role in tuning the electronic and optical properties of nanosystems by bringing optically active parts of the molecule and of the surface close to each other.

  19. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  2. 2/20/07 CAP5510 1 CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    form local regular secondary structures, such as Alpha helix, beta strands, etc #12;2/20/07 CAP5510 18 #12;Alpha Helix 2/20/07 CAP5510 19 #12;Beta Sheets 2/20/07 CAP5510 20 #12;Beta to find minimum energy configuration? Unfolded Molten Globule State Folded Native State Rapid (

  3. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  4. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  6. Height stabilization of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots by Al-rich capping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smakman, E. P., E-mail: e.p.smakman@tue.nl; Koenraad, P. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); DeJarld, M.; Martin, A. J.; Millunchick, J. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Luengo-Kovac, M.; Sih, V. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaSb quantum dots (QDs) in a GaAs matrix are investigated with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (X-STM) and photoluminescence (PL). We observe that Al-rich capping materials prevent destabilization of the nanostructures during the capping stage of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth process and thus preserves the QD height. However, the strain induced by the absence of destabilization causes many structural defects to appear around the preserved QDs. These defects originate from misfit dislocations near the GaSb/GaAs interface and extend into the capping layer as stacking faults. The lack of a red shift in the QD PL suggests that the preserved dots do not contribute to the emission spectra. We suggest that a better control over the emission wavelength and an increase of the PL intensity is attainable by growing smaller QDs with an Al-rich overgrowth.

  7. Photodegradation of luminescence in organic-ligand-capped Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Gavin G. G.; Taylor, Luke R.; Longdell, Jevon J., E-mail: jevon.longdell@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Clarke, David J.; Quilty, J. W. [Callaghan Innovation Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The luminescence from europium doped lanthanum trifluoride (Eu{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3}) nano-crystals can be greatly enhanced by capping with ?-diketonate organic ligands. Here, we report on photo-stability measurements for the case of nano-crystals capped with thenoyltrifluroacetone (TTA) and compared with those capped with an inactive ligand, oleic acid. With exposure to UV pump light, we observed significant decrease in fluorescence and change in emission spectrum of the TTA-capped nano-particles whilst the fluorescence lifetime remained approximately constant. After a dose of order 70?kJ?cm{sup ?2}, the luminescence level was similar to that of oleic acid capped nano-crystals. We discuss possible mechanisms.

  8. Population Files for use with CAP88 at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    CAP88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988) is a computer model developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the potential dose from radionuclide emissions to air and to demonstrate compliance with the Clean Air Act. It has options to calculate either individual doses, in units of mrem, or a collective dose, also called population dose, in units of person-rem. To calculate the collective dose, CAP88 uses a population file such as LANL.pop, that lists the number of people in each sector (N, NNE, NE, etc.) as a function of distance (1 to 2 km, etc.) out to a maximum radius of 80 km. Early population files are described in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Environmental Reports for 1985 (page 14) and subsequent years. LA-13469-MS describes a population file based on the 1990 census. These files have been updated several times, most recently in 2006 for CAP88 version 3. The 2006 version used the US census for 2000. The present paper describes the 2012 updates, using the 2010 census.

  9. Capping of Water Wells for Future Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Water wells that are not being used, but that might be needed in the future, can be sealed with a cap that covers the top of the well casing pipe to prevent unauthorized access and contamination of the well. This publication explains how to cap a...

  10. EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been

  11. Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See, Wee Chiang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

  12. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) & Corrective Action Plan (CAP) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) & Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Root Cause Analysis (RCA) & Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Improving the Department of Energy's project and contract...

  13. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Chanton, Jeffrey, E-mail: jchanton@fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, 117 N. Woodward Avenue, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306-4320 (United States); Pedersen, Gitte Bukh, E-mail: gbp@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH{sub 4}. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH{sub 4} oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m{sup 2} were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH{sub 4} load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH{sub 4} was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH{sub 4} emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH{sub 4} emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH{sub 4} mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

  14. Cracking in reinforced concrete bent caps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Bradley S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by studying the relationship between stresses in the longitudinal tension reinforcement, reinforcement detailing, shear resistance, and cracking of the bent cap during service loading through to failure. As a part of this investigation, sixteen full...

  15. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  16. Growth and field-emission property of tungsten oxide nanotip arrays Jun Zhou, Li Gong, Shao Zhi Deng,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    and Engineering, SunYat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275, China Rusen Yang and Zhong Lin Wangb School in the threshold field.14­16 Tungsten oxide is a very important semiconductor. It has been found to be of great- tion deposition process. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum chamber 300 mm 400 mm , two copper

  17. 3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 1 CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    2 Protein Folding! How to find minimum energy configuration? Unfolded Molten Globule State Folded;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 4 Energy Landscape! #12;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 5 Modular Nature of Protein5166 16 5 Fold Space classes! Attractor 1 can be characterized as alpha/beta, attractor 2 as all-beta

  18. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  19. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Genton, Alain (Merignac, FR)

    2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.

  20. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  1. Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) www.caps.ucsf.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    by the TIE Core at CAPS "Tying research and community together" Research with Drug Users Acute UFO Study rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The Acute UFO study has identified 135 incident HCV

  2. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual23.

  4. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

  5. SINGULAR FORWARD-BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND EMISSIONS DERIVATIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    SINGULAR FORWARD-BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND EMISSIONS DERIVATIVES REN´E CARMONA and why they appear naturally as models for the valuation of CO2 emission allowances. Single phase cap is motivated by the mathematical analysis of the emissions markets, as implemented for example in the European

  6. Status of the AlCap experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litchfield, R Phillip

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AlCap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the AlCap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.

  7. Status of the AlCap experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Phillip Litchfield

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The AlCap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the AlCap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.

  8. Using Environmental Emissions Permit Prices to Raise Electricity Prices: Evidence from the California Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolstad, Jonathan; Wolak, Frank

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Emissions Permit Prices to Raise ElectricityEnvironmental Emissions Permit Prices to Raise Electricitythe conditions in the emissions permit market for oxides of

  9. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control...

  10. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

  11. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  12. Microsoft Word - CAP Outline.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch Project LeadAOutline CorrectivePlan (CAP)

  13. CeCap LLP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGoCaterpillar Jump to:CeCap LLP Jump to:

  14. Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and...

  15. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Jamie T. (Simpsonville, SC); Driver, Howard D. (Greer, SC); van Breugel, Sjef (Enschede, NL); Jenkins, Thomas B. (Cantonment, FL); Bakhuis, Jan Willem (Nijverdal, NL); Billen, Andrew J. (Daarlerveen, NL); Riahi, Amir (Pensacola, FL)

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  16. CaPS Application Form -2012 CAPITAL PROJECTS AND SPACE ALLOCATION COMMITTEE (CAPS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    No B TOTAL PROJECT COST ESTIMATE / OPERATING COSTS TOTAL PROJECT COST (TPC) $ Project Number: Requested project tendered at a cost exceeding the above pre-design estimate will not proceed unless the partyCaPS Application Form - 2012 CAPITAL PROJECTS AND SPACE ALLOCATION COMMITTEE (CAPS) APPLICATION

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: higher-performance spar cap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    higher-performance spar cap Sandia Participated in AMII to Support American-Made Wind-Turbine Blades On December 3, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Materials...

  18. absolute cap alpha: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2014 12;Corporate Affiliates Chairman: Mark Ambrose San Diego Site Executive, Raytheon 12;Corporate Affiliates Program Welcome New CAP Members 12;Corporate Affiliates...

  19. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide...

  20. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  1. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  2. SINGULAR FORWARD-BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND EMISSIONS DERIVATIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (remember that electric power generation is responsible for most of the CO2 emissions worldwide). Despite and why they appear naturally as models for the valuation of CO2 emission allowances. Single phase cap to numerically calibrate some of these models for the purpose of CO2 option pricing. 1. INTRODUCTION This paper

  3. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  4. Ciliary microtubule capping structures contain a mammalian kinetochore antigen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, J. M.; Wang, W.; Balczon, R.; Dentler, William L., Jr

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blots probed with CREST antiserum revealed that a 97-kD antigen copurifies with the capping structures. Affinity-purified antibodies to the 97-kD ciliary protein stained the tips of cap-containing Tetrahymena cilia and the kinetochores in HeLa, Chinese...

  5. Australia's Carbon Cap-and-Tax Fiasco 24 July 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Australia's Carbon Cap-and-Tax Fiasco 24 July 2014 James Hansen I have been fortunate to be able policies. I usually focus on fee-and-dividend, the non-tax way to put a rising price on carbon in a way as a cap-and-tax. Australia is now the largest carbon polluter per capita among major nations (see Figure 1

  6. Late Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narbonne, Guy

    carbonate is thus interpreted to have formed in two steps: (1) during initial marine ice melting accompaniedLate Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation and global glacial meltdown Noel P. James, Guy M. Narbonne, T. Kurtis Kyser Abstract: The 3­27 m-thick cap

  7. CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics CGS 5166: Bioinformatics Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    2 Protein Folding How to find minimum energy configuration? Unfolded Molten Globule State Folded;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 4 Energy Landscape #12;3/8/2011 CAP5510 / CGS5166 5 Modular Nature of Protein Space classes Attractor 1 can be characterized as alpha/beta, attractor 2 as all-beta, attractor 3

  8. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  9. Quiescent Magnetar Emission: Resonant Compton Upscattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew G. Baring

    2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A principal candidate for quiescent non-thermal gamma-ray emission from magnetars is resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong fields of their magnetospheres. This paper outlines expectations for such emission, formed from non-thermal electrons accelerated in a pulsar-like polar cap potential upscattering thermal X-rays from the hot stellar surface. The resultant spectra are found to be strikingly flat, with fluxes and strong pulsation that could be detectable by GLAST.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

  11. Published in: Journal of Geophysical ResearchVOL.100E10 21,119--21,234, October 25, 1995. Low brightness temperatures of Martian Polar caps : CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forget, François

    to the condensation of CO 2 in the atmosphere. We have used a combination of data analysis and modeling to compare to the frost point of CO 2 gas, CO 2 condenses, and polar ice caps are formed. The surface temperature which have directly condensed on the ground could have an emissivity close to unity and in any case much

  12. Published in: Journal of Geophysical ResearchVOL.100-E10 21,11921,234, October 25, 1995. Low brightness temperatures of Martian Polar caps : CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forget, François

    to the condensation of CO¢ in the atmosphere. We have used a combination of data analysis and modeling to compare to the frost point of CO¤ gas, CO¤ condenses, and polar ice caps are formed. The surface temperature which have directly condensed on the ground could have an emissivity close to unity and in any case much

  13. The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Proto-Type Global System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

  14. The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Prototype Global System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

  15. Sediment chemistry profiles of capped dredged sediment deposits taken 3 to 11 years after capping. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumeri, A.; Fredette, T.J.; Kullberg, P.G.; Germano, J.D.; Carey, D.A.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note summarizes sediment chemistry profile results from coring studies of capped dredged sediment deposits. These studies document the long-term effectiveness of capping for isolating contaminated sediments from the aquatic environment and should serve to broaden the information base for making management decisions.

  16. Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

  17. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . To carry out the proposed study, an engine simulation model was used. The simulation determines engine performance and NO emissions as functions of engine operating conditions, engine design parameters, and combustion parameters. An automotive, spark...

  18. Intertemporal Emissions Trading and Market Power: A Dominant Firm with Competitive Fringe Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Intertemporal Emissions Trading and Market Power: A Dominant Firm with Competitive Fringe Model Julien Chevallier1 May 26, 2009 Abstract In international emissions trading schemes such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, the suboptimal negotiation of the cap

  19. Apparatus and method for cooling a combustor cap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Washam, Roy Marshall; Wu, Chunyang

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor includes an end cap having a perforated downstream plate and a combustion chamber downstream of the downstream plate. A plenum is in fluid communication with the downstream plate and supplies a cooling medium to the combustion chamber through the perforations in the downstream plate. A method for cooling a combustor includes flowing a cooling medium into a combustor end cap and impinging the cooling medium on a downstream plate in the combustor end cap. The method further includes flowing the cooling medium into a combustion chamber through perforations in the downstream plate.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  1. Wind blade spar cap and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Mansour H. (Raleigh, NC)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.

  2. Linewidth enhancement factor. cap alpha. in semiconductor injection lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahala, K.; Chiu, L.C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple model for the linewidth enhancement factor ..cap alpha.. and its frequency dependence in semiconductor lasers is presented. Calculations based on this model are in reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  3. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers on Svalbard ice caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowdeswell, J.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (England)); Collin, R.L. (University College of Wales, Aberystwyth (England))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four well-defined outlet glaciers are present on the 2510 km{sup 2} cap of Vestfonna in Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Airborne radio echo sounding and aerial-photograph and satellite-image analysis methods are used to analyze the morphology and dynamics of the ice cap and its component outlet glaciers. The heavily crevassed outlets form linear depressions in the ice-cap surface and flow an order of magnitude faster than the ridges of uncrevassed ice between them. Ice flow on the ridges is accounted for by internal deformation alone, whereas rates of outlet glacier flow require basal motion. One outlet has recently switched into and out of a faster mode of flow. Rapid terminal advance, a change from longitudinal compression to tension, and thinning in the upper basin indicate surge behavior. Observed outlet glacier discharge is significantly greater than current inputs of mass of the ice cap, indicating that present rates of flow cannot be sustained under the contemporary climate.

  4. Cap-and-Trade Properties under Different Scheme Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taschini, Luca

    This paper examines the key design mechanisms of existing and proposed cap-and-trade markets. First, it is shown that the hybrid systems under investigation (safety-valve with offsets, price floor using a subsidy, price ...

  5. Electronic properties of phenylated ligand-capped nanoparticle films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Thomas C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was carried out of the electronic characteristics of drop-cast films comprised of phenylated ligand-capped gold nanoparticles. In homoligand-type films, the dominant mechanism of charge transfer was expected ...

  6. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  7. Discusi on de los Resultados Cap tulo 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos

    Parte II Discusi#19;on de los Resultados Num#19;ericos 57 #12; #12; Cap#19;#16;tulo 4 An#19;alisis Num#19;erico Preliminar En este cap#19;#16;tulo se analiza el proceso de dispersi#19;on cl#19;asico y. 2.6 muestra un escenario gen#19;erico para el desarrollo de la herradura. En funci#19;on del par#19

  8. A study of water driven oil encroachment into gas caps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritch, Harlan J

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS LIBRARY A S I COLLEGE OF TEXAS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH ~ ~ ~ Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  9. Predicting soil erosion from Cap Rouge Plateau, Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelin, Fritz Sauveur

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTING SOIL EROSION FROM CAP ROUGE PLATEAU, HAITI A Thesis by FRITZ SAUVEUR MARCELIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985... Major Subject: Range Science PREDICTING SOIL EROSION FROM CAP ROUGE PLATEAU, HAITI A Thesis by FRITZ SAUVEUR MARCELIN Approved as to style and content by: W. H. Biackburn (Chairman) C. T. Hallmark (Member) . G. Calh u (Member) J. L. Schuster...

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  13. Proceedings: In Situ Contaminated Sediment Capping Workshop: Cincinnati, Ohio, May 12-14, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The In Situ Contaminated Sediment Capping Workshop was designed to provide the most current information and bring about consensus in understanding of a technology that offers one of the few options for remediation of contaminated sediments. These electronic proceedings document workshop sessions on various capping issues, such as site assessment; cap suitability, performance, and design; site monitoring; and research and development in capping.

  14. GEOMETRY TIP CAP EFFECTS ON FORMATION AND NEAR WAKE EVOLUTION OF THE ROTOR TIP VORTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    blade tip cap. PIV measurements of the crossflow velocities around the forming tip vortex were performed

  15. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  16. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB CE's Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  17. The Chemistry and Physics of Melter Cold Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Matyas, Josef; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2002-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification converts high-level waste and Hanford low-activity waste to glass. In electric melters, electric power is dissipated within a pool of molten glass, from which the heat is transferred, mostly by natural convection, to the cold cap, a floating layer or pile of unmelted and partially melted feed. The cold cap reduces volatilization, melt-line corrosion, and foaming, but also may result in a slow and unsteady melting as well as sulfate segregation. These problems, which are not necessarily rooted in fundamental material issues, (and thus can be mitigated or avoided), cause decreased melting efficiency and increased operational costs. Slow melting can be caused by bubbles that ascend through the melt and accumulate under the cold cap, creating there a low-density and low-conductivity layer of cold foam that is virtually motionless and effectively hinders heat transfer. The analysis and modeling of cold-cap reactions and the associated reactions in the melt underneath the cold cap, when approached in their full complexity, can be accomplished by expanding the basic field equations to incorporate the cold cap to existing melter models and by applying the recent development experience in numerical methods to solve complex equations. For such an analysis to be successful, cold-cap behavior must be characterized by accurate data. Evolved-gas-analysis data and quantitative x-ray diffraction data of Savannah River Macrobatch 3 with Frit 200 are shown as an example of such a database. In field equations, measured data are represented by rate equations and other response functions.

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  1. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  2. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  3. Distribution of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, P.S.; Da Costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Huchra, J.P.; Latham, D.W. (Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in the southern galactic hemisphere in the declination range between -17.5 and 2.5 degrees are combined with other available observation. The data set is used to study the spatial distribution of galaxies of a contiguous area of 3.13 sr of the Southern Galactic Cap. An approximately homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap is constructed from different catalogs. The resulting large scale structure is similar to that of previous surveys in which bright galaxies are distributed on surfaces which intersect at sharp corners and nearly surround voids that are almost empty of galaxies. 29 refs.

  4. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  5. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Voisin, Nathalie; Richey, Jeff; Wang, Taiping; Taira, Randal Y.; Constans, Michael; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Tesfa, Teklu K.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  6. FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SLUDGE CAPS AHMET H. AYDILEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    589 FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SLUDGE CAPS AHMET H. AYDILEK UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN the filtration performance of sludge-geotextile systems and investigate their durability, ten sludge lagoon test be effectively used in filtering contaminated wastewater treatment sludges. Considering the constructability

  7. The Florida Economy and a Federal Carbon Cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    The Florida Economy and a Federal Carbon Cap A QuAntitAtive AnAlysis Authors David Roland-Holst Dep-and-trade program--the policy recommended by Governor Crist's Action Team--on the Florida economy over the coming decades. The model looks at the entire Florida economy on an interactive basis over time, and takes

  8. Bringing Transportation into a Cap-and-Trade Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    The U.S. may at some point adopt a national cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases, and if and when that happens the system of CAFE regulation of vehicle design very likely could still be in place. Imposed independently ...

  9. Enhanced thermal stability of phosphate capped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John, E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in [SMARTS, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu-603 102 (India)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of phosphate capping on the high temperature thermal stability and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles synthesized through a single-step co-precipitation method. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles are characterized using various techniques. When annealed in air, the phosphate capped nanoparticle undergoes a magnetic to non-magnetic phase transition at a temperature of 689?°C as compared to 580?°C in the uncoated nanoparticle of similar size. The observed high temperature phase stability of phosphate capped nanoparticle is attributed to the formation of a phosphocarbonaceous shell over the nanoparticles, which acts as a covalently attached protective layer and improves the thermal stability of the core material by increasing the activation energy. The phosphocarbonaceous shell prevents the intrusion of heat, oxygen, volatiles, and mass into the magnetic core. At higher temperatures, the coalescence of nanoparticles occurs along with the restructuring of the phosphocarbonaceous shell into a vitreous semisolid layer on the nanoparticles, which is confirmed from the small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The probable mechanism for the enhancement of thermal stability of phosphocarbonaceous capped nanoparticles is discussed.

  10. Profiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    an upper bound on long-term energy consumption within that level and (ii) a sustained budget to capture any-being of our environment. Trends from such platforms suggest that the power consumption in high-performance comProfiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments Jeonghwan Choi

  11. Profiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    . Trends from such platforms suggest that the power consumption in data centers accounts for 1Profiling, Prediction, and Capping of Power Consumption in Consolidated Environments Jeonghwan Choi Consolidation of workloads has emerged as a key mech- anism to dampen the rapidly growing energy expenditure

  12. Giri Narasimhan CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics (3 cr)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    , and the Internet · Overview of Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biotechnology · (*) Databases and Software Bioinformatics Computer Skills, Gibas & Jambeck, O'Reilly Publishers. · Algorithm on Strings, TreesGiri Narasimhan CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics (3 cr) Spring 2006: Tu Thu 11-12:15 in ECS

  13. Giri Narasimhan CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics (3 cr)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Giri

    , and the Internet · Overview of Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biotechnology · (*) Databases and Software] · Developing Bioinformatics Computer Skills, Gibas & Jambeck, O'Reilly Publishers. · Algorithm on StringsGiri Narasimhan CAP 5510: Introduction to Bioinformatics (3 cr) Spring 2007: Tu Thu 11-12:15 in ECS

  14. Call Pre-Announcement for the first ERA-CAPS joint research call

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Call Pre-Announcement for the first ERA-CAPS joint research call: "Expanding the European Research Area in Molecular Plant Sciences" The new ERA-NET in molecular plant sciences, ERA-CAPS (Coordinating

  15. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  16. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  17. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

  18. Optical and Electrical Characterizations of Ultrathin Films Self-Assembled from 11-Aminoundecanoic Acid Capped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acid Capped TiO2 Nanoparticles and Polyallylamine Hydrochloride Thierry Cassagneau, Janos H. Fendler-Aminoundecanoic acid capped titanium dioxide (capped-TiO2) nanoparticles (63 ( 2 Å total diameter and20 charged nanoparticles and poly- electrolytes, have been demonstrated to function as electroactive devices

  19. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being for RO Treatment of CAP Water PROJECT TEAM This Arizona Water Institute PROJECT FACT SHEET is part to treat CAP water and to minimize the amount of concentrate produced. More research and significant

  20. CloudPowerCap: Integrating Power Budget and Resource Management across a Virtualized Server Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chenyang

    CloudPowerCap: Integrating Power Budget and Resource Management across a Virtualized Server Cluster not exceed the rack's provisioned power, it burdens the data center operator with managing the rack power for power cap management in a virtualized cluster. CloudPowerCap, closely integrated with a cloud resource

  1. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy · Trend: Cap the brown energy consumption of large electricity consumers (data centers) · CappingCapping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Energy Consumption · Improving efficiency does not promote green energy or guarantee limits on brown

  2. Sensitivity of Vatnajokull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flowers, Gwenn

    and is the largest nonpolar ice cap in Europe. Because it is temperate (isothermal at the melting point) and storesSensitivity of Vatnajo¨kull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2] The sensitivity of Vatnajo¨kull ice cap to future climate change is examined using spatially distributed coupled

  3. Melting of small Arctic ice caps observed from ERS scatterometer time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Laurence C.

    Melting of small Arctic ice caps observed from ERS scatterometer time series Laurence C. Smith,1 of melt onset can be observed over small ice caps, as well as the major ice sheets and multi-year sea ice for 14 small Arctic ice caps from 1992­2000. Interannual and regional variability in the timing of melt

  4. Chapter 7: Model Grid Setup CAPS -ARPS Version 4.0 192

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Chapter 7: Model Grid Setup CAPS - ARPS Version 4.0 192 7 Map Projection, Model Grid Setup and Grid Grid Setup CAPS - ARPS Version 4.0 195 of the map projection parameters being used can be retrieved. #12;Chapter 7: Model Grid Setup CAPS - ARPS Version 4.0 196 7.2.2. Map transformations Transformation

  5. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  6. Recent report highlights impace of emission trading on energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy recently released a report which concluded that of the incentives provided by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the most significant of these is the likely to be the emission cap. This cap provides incentives to reduce the rate of growth in electricity generation. The report said that a bonus allowance reserve offers utilities additional incentive to increase energy efficiency and seems likely to stimulate greater use of IRP, although it`s direct rewards to utilities now ma be less attractive than originally anticipated.

  7. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in...

  8. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. deer08...

  9. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of the AT Research Capabilities: Investigation of Diesel Soot Oxidation and of the Catalysts Degradation Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines...

  10. Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control CO and hydrocarbon emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion Effectiveness of a...

  11. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  12. Ecology of Wintering Black-capped Vireos in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuevo León for storing feathers for me, obtaining expert permits, and for assistance with preparing and exporting the feathers across the border. To Dr. Xico Vega of PRONATURA and the Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, I appreciate the access...), and Nuevo León (compiled in Marshall et al. 1984 and Marshall et al. 1985). Recently, however, the first confirmed record of black-capped vireos breeding in Mexico outside of Coahuila came from central Nuevo León (Bustamante) and in southwestern...

  13. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  14. Capped colloids as light-mills in optical traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. Merkt; A. Erbe; P. Leiderer

    2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Custom-designed colloidal particles in an optical tweezers act as light-mills in a fluid. In particular, aqueous suspensions of capped colloids, in which half of the surface is covered with metal layers, are investigated. Due to their asymmetry, the capped colloids can act as rotators when exposed to intense laser fields. Particles of 4.7 micrometer in diameter are observed rotating around the focus of a laser beam. For low intensities, particles become trapped close to the spot of highest laser intensity. Above a threshold value of about 4 mW in total beam intensity, the particles move away from the center of the focus and start to rotate at frequencies of about 1 Hz. The balance of forces due to light pressure and hydrodynamic forces gives a constant rotation rate. The speed of the spinning particle increases linearly with laser power to above 2 Hz until the particles are ejected from the focus for intensities higher than 7 mW. Magnetic caps introduce further possibilities to tune the rotation rates.

  15. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  16. pp, pA and. cap alpha cap alpha. collisions and the understanding of the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, W.M.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global characteristics of heavy ion collisions at high energy are now understood at some level such that the challenging search for Quark-Gluon plasma signatures becomes of more importance. Some features of pp, pA, and ..cap alpha../ alpha/ interactions at ..sqrt..s less than or equal to 62 GeV are selected to illustrate potential consequences for, and problems of, investigations of the Quark-Gluon plasma. 35 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  18. Stanford University Department of Environmental Health and Safety G:\\CAP\\CAP Team Forms \\StorageAreaInspFillableForm.pdf Enter Inspection Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as Hazardous Materials Storage Areas (not laboratories or work areas). 2. Evaluate the storage area during-9999 (24 hours). Building Number Building Name Room Number HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE AREA: MONTHLYStanford University Department of Environmental Health and Safety G:\\CAP\\CAP Team Forms \\StorageArea

  19. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

  20. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Methylation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mRNA 5'-cap structures in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, D.C.; Lesnaw, J.A.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monocistronic VSV mRNAs synthesized by subviral particles in vitro display the methylated 5'-cap structure m'G(5')ppp(5')Am. The authors have detected both monomethylated cap structures, m/sup 7/G(5')ppp(5')A and G(5')Am, in reactions containing suboptimal concentrations of AdoMet. To assess the putative precursor roles of these cap structures the authors devised dual label pulse-chase analyses employing S-(CH/sub 3/-/sup 3/H)-AdoMet and (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GTP. The labeled cap structures were analyzed by HPLC. The simultaneous chasing of both radiolabeled substrates allowed 1) the isolation of a specific set of caps labeled as (..beta..-/sup 32/P)-R/sup 7/G(5')ppp(5')AR (R=H or CH/sub 3/) and 2) the determination of the transcriptive fate of each intermediate cap structure within the set. The results demonstrated that both monomethylated cap structures serve as intermediates for the dimethylated cap and that the order of cap methylation is non-compulsory. These data, coupled with previous observations of hypomethylated cap structures in polyadenylated RNAs, have suggested that methylation occurs in a chain length dependent window.

  2. Meeting NSPI's 2010 SO2 emission reduction cap Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, and Nikita Sheth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    The Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000. One of the objectives of the strategy is "to meet 141,750 108,750 2010 94,500 72,500 1 In the 2003 Annual Progress Report for The Canada-Wide Acid Rain the environmental threshold of critical loads for acid position across Canada" through a number of actions

  3. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  4. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meissner, Helmuth E. (Pleasanton, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Danville, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA); Mitchell, Scott (Tracy, CA); Bass, Isaac (Castro Valley, CA); Honea, Eric (Sunol, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focussed by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod.

  5. Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSL GasPermits ManualCanisteo, NewCanutillo, Texas:Lake,Cap May

  6. CinCap IV, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here.TelluricPower InternationalChuichu,Cima NanoTech Jump to:Hills,CinCap

  7. Property:CapRockAge | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType Jump to: navigation, search This isCapRockAge Jump to:

  8. Property:CapRockLithology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType Jump to: navigation, search This isCapRockAge Jump

  9. CinCap V LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin Urban Transport | OpenChristianCimarron Electric Coop JumpCinCap

  10. NessCap Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpen EnergyNelsoniX Ltd JumpNepali Alternative EnergyNessCap Co

  11. Center for Advanced Power Systems CAPS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGoCaterpillarCAPS Jump to: navigation,

  12. CSEM WP 113 Using Environmental Emissions Permit Prices to Raise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    CSEM WP 113 Using Environmental Emissions Permit Prices to Raise Electricity Prices: Evidence from Emissions Permit Prices to Raise Electricity Prices: Evidence from the California Electricity Market analyzes the extent to which the conditions in the emissions permit market for oxides of nitrogen (NOx

  13. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  14. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  15. Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen) and tetroxide (24) Large amounts of nitrogen oxides. Kerosene Rockets 2 and black carbon (soot). Focus: New carbon in the stratosphere. The large amount of black carbon emitted by these engines is caused

  16. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  17. Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Abstract Renewable fuel standards, low carbon fuel standards, and ethanol subsidies are popular policies to incentivize ethanol production and reduce emissions from transportation. Compared to carbon trading standard (LCFS) and ethanol subsidies have similar effects while costs under an equivalent cap and trade

  18. Accuracy of Link Capacity Estimates using Passive and Active Approaches with CapProbe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ling-Jyh

    appropriate streaming rates, while ISPs would be able to determine the capacity of their installed linksAccuracy of Link Capacity Estimates using Passive and Active Approaches with CapProbe Rohit Kapoor to estimate capacity. CapProbe combines both dispersion and end-to-end delay to estimate the capacity

  19. Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biomass. I use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelCombining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy

  20. Star-Cap: Cluster Power Management Using Software-Only Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivoire, Suzanne

    Star-Cap: Cluster Power Management Using Software-Only Models John D. Davis johndavis-fidelity, real-time power manage- ment system for clusters. Star-Cap's cluster power management module uses, and approximately 40% of the total cost of ownership is related to energy [1]. Active server power management can

  1. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States) [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

  2. TurboCap: A Batteryless, Supercapacitor-based Power Supply for Mini-FDPM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    TurboCap: A Batteryless, Supercapacitor-based Power Supply for Mini-FDPM Chulsung Park1 , KeunsikCap, a batteryless, supercapacitor-based power supply subsystem for a handheld, laser-based breast cancer detector on the selection of supercapacitor topology for conversion efficiency and for form- factor minimization

  3. 115GLACIERS AND ICE CAPSCHAPTER 6B Glaciers and Ice Caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    115GLACIERS AND ICE CAPSCHAPTER 6B 6B Glaciers and Ice Caps Michael Zemp (lead author, Department of Sciences, China) #12;116 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ICE AND SNOW Summary Glaciers and ice caps are among the most hazards. Because they are close to the melting point and react strongly to climate change, glaciers

  4. WhiteCap DOE/ERIP progress report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report describes work done October through December 1996 for the WhiteCap system. The work included installation and commissioning of the large WhiteCap system at the Common House, radiant cooling components installation in the floor of the Southwest House, preparation of an operations and maintenance manual, and commissioning of a monitoring system.

  5. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  6. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  7. Fourier spectra from exoplanets with polar caps and ocean glint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, P M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weak orbital-phase dependent reflection signal of an exoplanet contains information on the planet surface, such as the distribution of continents and oceans on terrestrial planets. This light curve is usually studied in the time domain, but because the signal from a stationary surface is (quasi)periodic, analysis of the Fourier series may provide an alternative, complementary approach. We study Fourier spectra from reflected light curves for geometrically simple configurations. Depending on its atmospheric properties, a rotating planet in the habitable zone could have circular polar ice caps. Tidally locked planets, on the other hand, may have symmetric circular oceans facing the star. These cases are interesting because the high-albedo contrast at the sharp edges of the ice-sheets and the glint from the host star in the ocean may produce recognizable light curves with orbital periodicity, which could also be interpreted in the Fourier domain. We derive a simple general expression for the Fourier coeffici...

  8. On the polar cap cascade pair multiplicity of young pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timokhin, A N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the efficiency of pair production in polar caps of young pulsars under a variety of conditions to estimate the maximum possible multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres. We develop a semi-analytic model for calculation of cascade multiplicity which allows efficient exploration of the parameter space and corroborate it with direct numerical simulations. Pair creation processes are considered separately from particle acceleration in order to assess different factors affecting cascade efficiency, with acceleration of primary particles described by recent self-consistent non-stationary model of pair cascades. We argue that the most efficient cascades operate in the curvature radiation/synchrotron regime, the maximum multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres is ~few x 10^5. The multiplicity of pair plasma in magnetospheres of young energetic pulsars weakly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of magnetic field lines and has a stronger dependence ...

  9. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  10. Overlap Technique for End-Cap Seals on Cylindrical Magnetic Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malkowski, S; Boissevain, J; Daurer, C; Filippone, B W; Hona, B; Plaster, B; Woods, D; Yan, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from studies of the effectiveness of an overlap technique for forming a magnetic seal across a gap at the boundary between a cylindrical magnetic shield and an end-cap. In this technique a thin foil of magnetic material overlaps the two surfaces, thereby spanning the gap across the cylinder and the end-cap, with the magnetic seal then formed by clamping the thin magnetic foil to the surfaces of the cylindrical shield and the end-cap on both sides of the gap. In studies with a prototype 31-cm diameter, 91-cm long, 0.16-cm thick cylindrical magnetic shield and flared end-cap, the magnetic shielding performance of our overlap technique is comparable to that obtained with the conventional method in which the end-cap is placed in direct lapped contact with the cylindrical shield via through bolts or screws.

  11. Predicted versus measured tritium oxide concentrations at SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measured tritium oxide concentrations at various offsite locations are compared with concentrations predicted by three computer codes that are utilized at SRS to predict doses to the maximally exposed offsite individuals. Annual average concentrations predicted by the computer programs were compared with measured average concentrations taken form data contained in the last ten years of SRS Environmental Reports. The computer programs used for the comparison are ACAIRQ, CAP88, and MAXIGASP.

  12. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  13. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  14. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Contribution of Icelandic ice caps to sea level rise:1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Contribution of Icelandic ice caps - 2 BJ¨ORNSSON ET AL.: MASS LOSS FROM ICELANDIC ICE CAPS In total, Icelandic ice caps contain 3,600 km3 of ice, which if melted would3 raise sea level by 1 cm. Here, we present an overview of mass

  15. Sources of Emission Reductions: Evidence for US SO2 Emissions 1985-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A Denny; Dubroeucq, Florence

    2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -gas-fired, combined cycle units have displaced conventional generation that would have emitted about 800,000 tons of SO2; however, the effect has not been to reduce total SO2 emissions since the 9.0 million ton cap is unchanged, but to reduce the quantity... content of the fuel used to generate electricity (either by switching or retrofitting scrubbers) or by shifting generation to lower emitting units including new units. However, Title IV did not replace the source- specific limits and technology mandates...

  16. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  17. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  18. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  19. Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

  20. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  1. Saltstone Disposal Facility Mechanically Stabilized Earth Vault Closure Cap Degradation: Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PHIFER, MARK

    2004-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the current Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) Performance Assessment (PA) revision, Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) vault closure cap degradation mechanisms and their impact upon filtration through the MSE vault closure cap were evaluated for the base case land use scenario (i.e. institutional control to pine forest). The degradation mechanisms evaluated included pine forest succession, erosion, and colloidal clay migration (Phifer 2003). Infiltration through the upper hydraulic barrier layer of the closure cap as determined by this evaluation will be utilized as the infiltration input to subsequent PORFLOW vadose zone contaminant transport modeling, which will also be performed as part of the PA revision.

  2. Absolute kinematics of radio source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Perez-Torres; J. M. Marcaide; J. C. Guirado; E. Ros

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We observed the thirteen extragalactic radio sources of the complete S5 polar cap sample at 15.4 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array, on 27 July 1999 (1999.57) and 15 June 2000 (2000.46). We present the maps from those two epochs, along with maps obtained from observations of the 2 cm VLBA survey for some of the sources of the sample, making a total of 40 maps. We discuss the apparent morphological changes displayed by the radio sources between the observing epochs. Our VLBA observations correspond to the first two epochs at 15.4 GHz of a program to study the absolute kinematics of the radio source components of the members of the sample, by means of phase delay astrometry at 8.4 GHz, 15.4 GHz, and 43 GHz. Our 15.4 GHz VLBA imaging allowed us to disentangle the inner milliarcsecond structure of some of the sources, thus resolving components that appeared blended at 8.4 GHz. For most of the sources, we identified the brightest feature in each radio source with the core. These identifications are supported by the spectral index estimates for those brightest features, which are in general flat, or even inverted. Most of the sources display core-dominance in the overall emission. We find that three of the sources have their most inverted spectrum component shifted with respect to the origin in the map, which approximately coincides with the peak-of-brightness at both 15.4 GHz and 8.4 GHz.

  3. Particle Acceleration Zones Above Pulsar Polar Caps: Electron and Positron Pair Formation Fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alice K. Harding; Alexander G. Muslimov

    1998-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate self-consistent particle acceleration near a pulsar polar cap (PC) by the electrostatic field due to the effect of inertial frame dragging. Test particles gain energy from the electric field parallel to the open magnetic field lines and lose energy by both curvature radiation (CR) and resonant and non-resonant inverse Compton scattering (ICS) with soft thermal X-rays from the neutron star (NS) surface. Gamma-rays radiated by electrons accelerated from the stellar surface produce pairs in the strong magnetic field, which screen the electric field beyond a pair formation front (PFF). Some of the created positrons can be accelerated back toward the surface and produce gamma-rays and pairs that create another PFF above the surface. We find that ICS photons control PFF formation near the surface, but due to the different angles at which the electron and positron scatter the soft photons, positron initiated cascades develop above the surface and screen the accelerating electric field. Stable acceleration from the NS surface is therefore not possible in the presence of dominant ICS energy losses. However, we find that stable acceleration zones may occur at some distance above the surface, where CR dominates the electron and positron energy losses, and there is up-down symmetry between the electron and positron PFFs. We examine the dependence of CR-controlled acceleration zone voltage, width and height above the surface on parameters of the pulsar and its soft X-ray emission. For most pulsars, we find that acceleration will start at a height of 0.5 - 1 stellar radii above the NS surface.

  4. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  5. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR ACTIVE CAPS - REMEDIATION OF METALS AND ORGANICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Xingmao Ma, X; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluated organoclays, zeolites, phosphates, and a biopolymer as sequestering agents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to identify amendments and mixtures of amendments for metal and organic contaminants removal and retention. Contaminant removal was evaluated by calculating partitioning coefficients. Metal retention was evaluated by desorption studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective sequestering agents for metals in fresh and salt water. Organoclays were very effective sorbents for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Partitioning coefficients for the organoclays were 3000-3500 ml g{sup -1} for benzo(a)pyrene, 400-450 ml g{sup -1} for pyrene, and 50-70 ml g{sup -1} for phenanthrene. Remediation of sites with a mixture of contaminants is more difficult than sites with a single contaminant because metals and organic contaminants have different fate and transport mechanisms in sediment and water. Mixtures of amendments (e.g., organoclay and rock phosphate) have high potential for remediating both organic and inorganic contaminants under a broad range of environmental conditions, and have promise as components in active caps for sediment remediation.

  6. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  7. Open-cap Conformation of Intramembrane Protease GlpG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Y.; Ha, Y.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The active sites of intramembrane proteases are positioned in the lipid bilayer to facilitate peptide bond hydrolysis in the membrane. Previous crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coli GlpG, an intramembrane protease of the rhomboid family, has revealed an internal and hydrophilic active site in an apparently closed conformation. Here we describe the crystal structure of GlpG in a more open conformation, where the capping loop L5 has been lifted, exposing the previously buried and catalytically essential Ser-201 to outside aqueous solution. A water molecule now moves into the putative oxyanion hole that is constituted of a main-chain amide (Ser-201) and two conserved side chains (His-150 and Asn-154). The loop movement also destabilizes a hydrophobic side chain (Phe-245) previously buried between transmembrane helices S2 and S5 and creates a side portal from the lipid to protease active site. These results provide insights into the conformational plasticity of GlpG to accommodate substrate binding and catalysis and into the chirality of the reaction intermediate.

  8. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly progress report, 1992: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO{sub x} emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  9. Are cap-and-trade programs more environmentally effective than conventional regulation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper considers the evidence and possible reasons that cap-and-trade programs are more effective in meeting environmental objectives than conventional prescriptive regulation. The evidence is based mostly, but not ...

  10. HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E for manufacturing of ultra pure protium from hydrogen [2]. A principle of hydrogen cryogenic distillation was used

  11. CAP 6010 -Multimedia Systems Prerequisites: COP 4610 Operating Systems or permission of instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furht, Borko

    CAP 6010 - Multimedia Systems Prerequisites: COP 4610 Operating Systems or permission of instructor Course Description: Multimedia systems concepts and characteristics. Multimedia compression techniques. Systems architectures for multimedia. Multimedia networking, communications, and synchronization

  12. albicans cap1p regulon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albicans cap1p regulon First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Rhodopseudomonas palustris Regulons Detected by Cross-Species Analysis of...

  13. atlas hadronic end-cap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hadronic end-cap calorimeter of ATLAS CERN Preprints Summary: At the ATLAS detector a SCADA system surveys and controls the sub- detectors. The link is realized by PVSS2...

  14. argon hadronic end-cap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hadronic end-cap calorimeter of ATLAS CERN Preprints Summary: At the ATLAS detector a SCADA system surveys and controls the sub- detectors. The link is realized by PVSS2...

  15. Glacial geology and glaciology of the Younger Dryas ice cap in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golledge, Nicholas Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis uses geological field data and numerical ice sheet modelling to study the Younger Dryas ice cap in Scotland. The Younger Dryas stadial is important because it represents the most recent period of high-magnitude ...

  16. Cold-cap reactions in vitrification of nuclear waste glass: experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, Jaehun; Pierce, David A.; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold-cap reactions are multiple overlapping reactions that occur in the waste-glass melter during the vitrification process when the melter feed is being converted to molten glass. In this study, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate cold-cap reactions in a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To separate the reaction heat from both sensible heat and experimental instability, we employed the run/rerun method, which enabled us to define the degree of conversion based on the reaction heat and to estimate the heat capacity of the reacting feed. Assuming that the reactions are nearly independent and can be approximated by the nth order kinetics, we obtained the kinetic parameters using the Kissinger method combined with least squares analysis. The resulting mathematical simulation of the cold-cap reactions provides a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model.

  17. CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    CapLibrate: Self-Calibration of an Energy Harvesting Power Supply with Supercapacitors Christian and assess models for a supercapacitor- based harvesting supply. The parameters of the models are discussed

  18. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.; Gelman, R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  19. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  20. Physical verification of contaminated sediment remediation: Capping, confined aquatic disposal, and enhanced natural recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Bothell, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredging and disposal in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site, capping with clean sediment, and natural recovery are commonly used, cost-effective remedial practices for contaminated sediments. Recent projects in Puget Sound, Washington and Southern California involved dredging and use of the material for capping and CAD fill. Both of these projects required physical monitoring to document sediment placement. Dredged sediments placed at these sites were optically identified using sediment vertical profile system (SVPS) photography. Optical criteria to distinguish cap/construction materials include grain-size, reflectance, and texture. Environmental parameters such as the extent and thickness of the CAD material or sediment cap deposits are evaluated against design and performance goals, typically the isolation of contaminants from the biologically active portion of the sediment column. Using SVPS, coring and other technologies, the stratigraphic contact between the capping/CAD sediment and the native sediment can be discerned. These measurements observations can ground-truth and be coupled with remote sensing to provide a more complete characterization of the entire remedial area. Physical isolation of the benthic community can be discerned by examining SVPS images for depth of bioturbation and sediment stratigraphy. On the periphery of cap/CAD deposits, thin layers of clean sediment ranging upwards from 1 mm thick can be identified. Dependent on the pre-remediation benthic community at the site, these thin layers of CAP/CAD sediment can be bioturbated by resident benthic infauna immediately after placement. The deposition and subsequent assimilation of the clean cap material into the contaminated sediments effectively reduces the concentration of contaminants in the biologically active zone thereby enhancing natural recovery in areas where regulatory criteria are focused on the biologically active zone.

  1. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  2. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  3. Properties of soils in a toposequence on Cap Rouge Plateau, Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Pierre Antoine

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROPERTIES OF SOILS IH A TOPOSEQUENCE OH CAP ROUGE PLATEAU, HAITI A Thesis by PIERRE ANTOINE LOUIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY... 1985 Major Subject: Soil Science PROPERTIES OF SOILS IN A TOPOSEQUENCE ON CAP ROUGE PLATEAU, HAITI A Thesis by PIERRE ANTOINE LOUIS Approved as to style and content by: C. T. Hallmark (Chairman) Frank G. Calhoun (Member ) Wrlbert H...

  4. Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy) [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zuppella, Paola [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)] [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Barkusky, Frank [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany) [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany); KLA-Tencor, 5 Technology Dr., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States); Mann, Klaus; Mueller, Matthias [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany)] [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

  5. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  6. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  7. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meissner, H.E.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.; Sutton, S.B.; Mitchell, S.; Bass, I.; Honea, E.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focused by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod. 14 figs.

  8. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  9. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

  10. Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    Addition of halogens or halides has been reported to promote mercury removal in coal-fired power plants in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic (CAMR) to regulate Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants through a cap-and- trade approach.2 However

  11. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    competitiveness in the eu emissions trading scheme: Policyand-trade systems for emissions trading is the allocation orciency of the resulting emissions trading market. Certainly

  12. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    policy- the RECLAIM emission trading policy." Environ.Incentives Market: a new emissions trading program for Lospolitical feasibility of emissions trading programs. See,

  13. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market power in emissions trading: strategically manipu-pricing under carbon emissions trading: A dominant firm with2008). Implications of CO2 emissions trading for short-run

  14. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal fired boilers. Second quarterly technical progress report, [April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu with flyash LOI values of approximately 8 percent. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB plus AOFA configuration began in May 1993 and is scheduled to end during August 1993. As of June 30, the diagnostic, performance, chemical emissions tests segments for this configuration have been conducted and 29 days of long-term, emissions data collected. Preliminary results from the May--June 1993 tests of the LNB plus AOFA system show that the full load NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.42 lb/MBtu with corresponding fly ash LOI values near 8 percent. This is a substantial improvement in both NO{sub x} emissions and LOI values when compared to the results obtained during the February--March 1992 abbreviated testing of this system.

  15. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  16. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  17. X-ray heating and ionization of broad-emission-line regions in QSO's and active galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisheit, J.C.; Shields, G.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption of x-rays deep within the broad-line emitting clouds in QSO's and the nuclei of active galaxies creates extensive zones of warm (T approx. 10/sup 4/K), partially ionized N/sub e//N approx. 0.1) gas. Because Lyman alpha photons are trapped in these regions, the x-ray energy is efficiently channeled into Balmer lines collisionally excited from the n = 2 level. The HI regions plus the HII regions created by ultraviolet photons illuminating the surfaces of the clouds give rise to integrated L..cap alpha../H..cap alpha.. line emission ratios between 1 and 2. Enhanced MgII line emission from the HI regions gives rise to integrated MgII/H..cap alpha.. ratios near 0.5. The OI line lambda 8446 is efficiently pumped by trapped H..cap alpha.. photons and in the x-ray heated zone an intensity ratio I (lambda 8446)/I(H..cap alpha..) approx. < 0.1 is calculated. All of these computed ratios now are in agreement with observations.

  18. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  19. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King...

  20. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. acep03rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  1. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  2. Carbon tax is superior to cap-and-trade Jonas Nycander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nycander, Jonas

    . #12;Figure 1. Market price in EUR/ton CO2 of emissions allowances in the European Emissions Trading that produce electricity mainly from coal. In 2005 the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) began. The emissions

  3. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  4. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of the project are to: (1) demonstrate the performance of three combustion NO{sub x} control technologies; (2) determine the short-term NO{sub x} emission trends for each of the operating configurations; (3) determine the dynamic long-term NO{sub x} emission characteristics for each of the operating configurations using sophisticated statistical techniques; (4) evaluate progressive cost-effectiveness (i.e., dollars per ton of NO{sub x} removed) of the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies tested; and (5) determine the effects on other combustion parameters (e.g., CO production, carbon carry-over, particulate characteristics) of applying the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies. (VC)

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline as-found'' configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 1, Baseline tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline ``as-found`` configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  7. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report second quarter, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB CE`s Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  8. GHG Update/CAP Progress ReportGHG Update/CAP Progress Report 2010 GHG Update2010 GHG Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    i i f t d d 486­ Duke Energy emission factors decreased .486 kgCO2/kWh to .405 kgCO2/kWh · Steam Percentages 15% 1% (~328,000 MTeCO2) 13% 1% (~307,000 MTeCO2) 44% 10% 15% 49%1% 11% 44% 1% 1% 28% Electricity Update 450000 500000 250000 300000 350000 400000 CO2 100000 150000 200000 250000 MTeC 0 50000 1990 1991

  9. Saltstone Disposal Facility Mechanically Stabilized Earth Vault Closure Cap Degradation Base Case: Institutional Control To Pine Forest Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, MA

    2004-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the current Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) Performance Assessment (PA) revision, the closure cap configuration was reevaluated and closure cap degradation mechanisms and their impact upon infiltration through the closure cap was evaluated for the existing SDF concrete vaults (i.e. vaults 1 and 4) for the base case land use scenario (i.e. institutional control to pine forest scenario) and documented in Phifer and Nelson (2003). The closure cap configuration was modified from a compacted kaolin barrier layer concept to a geosynthetic clay layer (GCL) barrier layer concept. The degradation mechanisms developed included pine forest succession, erosion, and colloidal clay migration. These degradation mechanisms resulted in changes in the hydraulic properties of the closure cap layers and resulting increases in infiltration through the closure cap over time.

  10. Power Capture (PowCap) Board for Non Intrusive Load Monitoring and Power Line Communication Exploration and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Vikram

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PowCap with PLC: Lookingti] “Power Line Communication (PLC) Solutions. ” http://overview.page? DCMP=plc&HQS=plc. [Tsu99] K. Tsuda. “Subspace

  11. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

  12. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

  13. Driving Down Diesel Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”actions to clean up port truck emissions in Oakland serve asTurnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”

  14. Zircaloy-4 oxidation at 1300 to 2400/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, J.T.; Courtright, E.L.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 in steam have been extended to 2400/sup 0/C. The ZrO/sub 2/ and ..cap alpha..-Zr layers display parabolic growth behavior over the entire temperature range studied. A discontinuity in the oxidation kinetics at 1510/sup 0/C causes rates to increase above those previously established by the Baker-Just relationship. This increase coincides with the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation in ZrO/sub 2-x/. No additional discontinuity in the oxide growth rate was observed when the metal phase melted. The effects of temperature gradients were taken into account, and corrected values representative of near-isothermal conditions were computed. Oxide growth was also measured in various steam-hydrogen mixtures at 1565/sup 0/C and 1815/sup 0/C. Hydrogen concentrations up to 90 mol% had no effect on oxidation kinetics. The rate-controlling factor appears to be diffusion through the oxide layer. Finally, the oxidation kinetics of prereacted Zircaloy-15 mol% UO/sub 2/ were measured at 1400 to 2150/sup 0/C. The rates were comparable to those obtained for Zircaloy above 1500/sup 0/C.

  15. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel, biomass and biofuel, and industrial processes. Nitrous oxide emissions related to biofuel, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a more useful quantity. The GWP of N2O is the time- integrated radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg

  16. Saltstone Disposal Facility Closure Cap Configuration and Degradation Base Case: Institutional Control to Pine Forest Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2004-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Assessment (PA) for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) is currently under revision. As part of the PA revision and as documented herein, the closure cap configuration has been reevaluated and closure cap degradation mechanisms and their impact upon infiltration through the closure cap have been evaluated for the institutional control to pine forest, land use scenario. This land use scenario is considered the base case land use scenario. This scenario assumes a 100-year institutional control period following final SDF closure during which the closure cap is maintained. At the end of institutional control, it is assumed that a pine forest succeeds the cap's original bamboo cover. Infiltration through the upper hydraulic barrier layer of the closure cap as determined by this evaluation will be utilized as the infiltration input to subsequent PORFLOW vadose zone contaminant transport modeling, which will also be performed as part of the PA revision. The impacts of pine forest succession, erosion, and colloidal clay migration as degradation mechanisms on the hydraulic properties of the closure cap layers over time have been estimated and the resulting infiltration through the closure cap has been evaluated. The primary changes caused by the degradation mechanisms that result in increased infiltration are the formation of holes in the upper GCL by pine forest succession and the reduction in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the drainage layers due to colloidal clay migration into the layers. Erosion can also result in significant increases in infiltration if it causes the removal of soil layers, which provide water storage for the promotion of evapotranspiration. For this scenario, infiltration through the upper GCL was estimated at approximately 0.29 inches/year under initial intact conditions, it increased to approximately 11.6 inches/year at year 1000 in nearly a linear fashion, and it approached an asymptote of around 14.1 inches/year at year 1800 and thereafter. At year 1800, it was estimated that holes covered approximately 0.3 percent of the GCL due to root penetration, and that this resulted in an infiltration near that of typical background infiltration (i.e. as though the GCL were not there at all). This demonstrated that a very small area of holes essentially controlled the hydraulic performance of the GCL.

  17. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  18. Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor. cap alpha. of semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, C.; Vahala, K.; Yariv, A.

    1983-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of the amplitude and phase modulation characteristic of a single mode semiconductor laser is presented. In this model the amplitude modulation couples through the complex susceptibility of the gain medium to the phase. We show that this coupling constant can be obtained by a high-frequency modulation experiment. This measured coupling constant is used to infer the linewidth enhancement factor ..cap alpha.. as discussed by Henry, and Vahala and Yariv. Experiments confirmed the model and we measured a linewidth enhancement factor Vertical Bar..cap alpha..Vertical Bar = 4.6 +- 1.0 for a GaAlAs buried optical guide laser.

  19. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years.

  20. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  1. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide

  2. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle delusion, CO2 emissions from the sea, and electricityof CO2 emissions trading for short-run electricity marketelectricity and heat was the largest contributor of CO2 emissions

  3. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theRasmussen. Allocation of co2 emissions permits: A generalthe aggregate annual CO2 emissions for each of the key

  4. Capping the Brown Energy Consumption of Internet Services at Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy" (produced via carbon-intensive means) relative to renewable or "green" energy. This paper their brown energy consumption and lever- age green energy, while respecting their SLAs and minimizing energy-intensive energy as "brown" energy, in contrast with "green" or renewable energy.) We argue that placing caps

  5. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation May 2012 Abstract Standard economic theory predicts that if property rights to pollute are clearly, Stephen Holland and Erin Mansur. Employees at the South Coast Air Quality Management District were

  6. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation September 2012 Abstract Standard economic theory predicts that if property rights to pollute are clearly with Denny Ellerman, Stephen Holland and Erin Mansur. Employees at the South Coast Air Quality Management

  7. Breathing coherent phonons and caps fragmentation in carbon nanotubes following ultrafast laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrica,Traian

    driven by ultrafast laser pulses.1­3 The necessary conditions for generating such coherent phonons are i is larger than the duration of currently available ultrafast pulses. ii Measurements4­7 determinedBreathing coherent phonons and caps fragmentation in carbon nanotubes following ultrafast laser

  8. Analyzing the Regional Impact of a Fossil Energy Cap in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    economic growth is crucial to China's sustainable development. In addition to energy and carbon intensityAnalyzing the Regional Impact of a Fossil Energy Cap in China Da Zhang, Valerie Karplus, Sebastian Rausch and Xiliang Zhang Report No. 237 January 2013 China Energy & Climate Project TSINGHUA - MIT #12

  9. Teacher Perceptions of the CAP LTER Ecology Explorers Summer Teacher Internship Program.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Teacher Perceptions of the CAP LTER Ecology Explorers Summer Teacher Internship Program. What did the teachers perceive as important outcomes from attending the internship? Ecology Explorers prepares teachers (grades 4 through 12) to learn and teach about ecological principals and phenomena to their students

  10. Dynamic LMP Response Under Alternative Price-Cap and Price-Sensitive Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    -source agent-based test bed developed by the authors. AMES models a restructured wholesale power market test bed, locational marginal prices, demand-bid price sensitivity, supply-offer price caps, learning to as the Wholesale Power Market Platform (WPMP). As detailed in [3], versions of the WPMP have been implemented (or

  11. A Power Capping Controller for Multicore Processors N. Almoosa, W. Song, Y. Wardi and S. Yalamanchili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    . I. INTRODUCTION The effective and efficient control of power and energy has become central an increase in the relative inefficiency of designing systems based on worst-case workload and peak powerA Power Capping Controller for Multicore Processors N. Almoosa, W. Song, Y. Wardi and S

  12. Holocene climate variability archived in the Puruogangri ice cap on the central Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    ) climate changes and providing evidence that the high plateau may be quite sensitive to the 20thHolocene climate variability archived in the Puruogangri ice cap on the central Tibetan Plateau, 109017 Moscow, Russia ABSTRACT. Two ice cores (118.4 and 214.7 m in length) were collected in 2000 from

  13. Ex post evaluation of tradable permits : the U.S. SO? cap-and-trade program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. SO2 cap-and-trade program was established as a result of the enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) under the authority granted by Title IV, which included several measures to reduce precursor ...

  14. CAP3: Urban Sustainability in the Dynamic Environment of Central Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    removal in Tres Rios Constructed Wetlands. Used long-term data from North Desert Village site. Continued to analyze data from 2011 PASS, focusing on economic analyses. Significant Results Modeled NPP of fringe agriculture, which occupies 14% of the CAP study area, accounts for 31% of total NPP (whereas turf

  15. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation 2008 Abstract According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established;1 Introduction Market-based pollution permit trading programs have moved to the front and center of industrial

  16. Artificial neural network discrimination of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Michael

    Artificial neural network discrimination of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call; revised 11 April 2006; accepted 12 May 2006 Artificial neural networks were trained to discriminate number s : 43.80Ka., 43.80.Lb, 43.80.Jz JAS Pages: 1111­1117 I. INTRODUCTION An artificial neural network

  17. Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap Jiu Jimmy Jiao1 October 2009. [1] Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping

  18. THE SHRINKING ARCTIC ICE CAP From the IPCC* Summary For Policymakers...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE SHRINKING ARCTIC ICE CAP From the IPCC* Summary For Policymakers... "Sea ice is projected] - a phenomenon sometimes referred to as "Arctic amplification". As Arctic temperatures rise, sea ice melts for the 20th century. The rate at which the modeled 21st century Arctic warming and sea ice melting occurs

  19. Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries Mijung Graphite can store 372 mAh/g corresponding to LiC6, and tin can store 970 mAh/g corresponding to Li4.4Sn close to graphite. The reason for failure is believed to be the inhomogeneous volume expansion

  20. Gurson's plasticity coupled to damage as a CAP model for concrete compaction in dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gurson's plasticity coupled to damage as a CAP model for concrete compaction in dynamics Fabrice (compaction) but also the plastic strains in compression and cracking in tension. Recently, new dynamic is generally described by means of the plasticity theory where the spherical and the deviatoric responses

  1. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  2. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2011). CO2 emissions from fuel combustion highlights.fuel combustion. In 2009, generation of electricity and heat was the largest contributor of CO2 emissions

  3. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  4. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  5. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  6. 1.0 Installation of Version 3.0 The CAP88-PC Windows version 3.0 can be downloaded from the following EPA web site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1.0 Installation of Version 3.0 The CAP88-PC Windows version 3.0 can be downloaded from 2.1 if you have an existing installation of an earlier beta version of CAP88-PC version 3.0. If you do not have an existing installation of CAP88-PC version 3.0 then begin with step 5. CAP88-PC creates

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  11. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  12. The CAP LTER Ecosystem Services Assessment: Preliminary Findings and Next Steps M.L. Kapoor1, A.P. Kinzig2, and C. Perrings3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    The CAP LTER Ecosystem Services Assessment: Preliminary Findings and Next Steps M.L. Kapoor1, A a pilot study to assess the ecosystem services provided within the CAP LTER boundaries. GOAL: To identify the ecosystem services provided by the CAP LTER that are most critical, most threatened

  13. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal utility boilers using medium- to high-sulfur US coal. The prototype SCR facility, built in and around the ductwork of Plant Crist Unit 5, consisted of three large SCR reactor units (Reactors A, B, and C), each with a design capacity of 5,000 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of flue gas, and six smaller reactors (Reactors D through J), each with a design capacity of 400 scfm of flue gas. The three large reactors contained commercially available SCR catalysts as offered by SCR catalyst suppliers. These reactors were coupled with small-scale air preheaters to evaluate (1) the long-term effects of SCR reaction chemistry on air preheater deposit formation and (2) the impact of these deposits on the performance of air preheaters. The small reactors were used to test additional varieties of commercially available catalysts. The demonstration project was organized into three phases: (1) Permitting, Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) Preparation, and Preliminary Engineering; (2) Detail Design Engineering and Construction; and (3) Operation, Testing, Disposition, and Final Report Preparation. Section 2 discusses the planned and actual EMP monitoring for gaseous, aqueous, and solid streams over the course of the SCR demonstration project; Section 3 summarizes sampling and analytical methods and discusses exceptions from the methods specified in the EMP; Section 4 presents and discusses the gas stream monitoring results; Section 5 presents and discusses the aqueous stream monitoring results; Section 6 presents and discusses the solid stream monitoring results; Section 7 discusses EMP-related quality assurance/quality control activities performed during the demonstration project; Section 8 summarizes compliance monitoring reporting activities; and Section 9 presents conclusions based on the EMP monitoring results.

  14. Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

  15. Capping layer growth rate and the optical and structural properties of GaAsSbN-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulloa, J. M., E-mail: jmulloa@isom.upm.es; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM) and Dpto. Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Reyes, D. F.; Ben, T.; González, D. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing the growth rate during the heteroepitaxial capping of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a 5?nm-thick GaAsSbN capping layer (CL) strongly modifies the QD structural and optical properties. A size and shape transition from taller pyramids to flatter lens-shaped QDs is observed when the CL growth rate is decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 ML/s. This indicates that the QD dissolution processes taking place during capping can be controlled to some extent by the GaAsSbN CL growth rate, with high growth rates allowing a complete preservation of the QDs. However, the dissolution processes are shown to have a leveling effect on the QD height, giving rise to a narrower size distribution for lower growth rates. Contrary to what could be expected, these effects are opposite to the strong blue-shift and improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) observed for higher growth rates. Nevertheless, the PL results can be understood in terms of the strong impact of the growth rate on the Sb and N incorporation into the CL, which results in lower Sb and N contents at higher growth rates. Besides the QD-CL band offsets and QD strain, the different CL composition alters the band alignment of the system, which can be transformed to type-II at low growth rates. These results show the key role of the alloyed CL growth parameters on the resulting QD properties and demonstrate an intricate correlation between the PL spectra and the sample morphology in complex QD-CL structures.

  16. Enzyme mediated synthesis of phytochelatin-capped CdS nanocrystals Seung Hyun Kang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    emission spectra, good photostability and chemical sta- bility are ideal for light-emitting diodes, solar

  17. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  18. Investigation of zinc oxide doped with metal impurities for use as thin film conductive phosphors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evatt, Steven R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Illustration of planar field emission diode developed by Weichold et al. . . . . . 48 Fig. 29. I-V data from vacuum field emission light emitting diode structure, after Williams, 1994. . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig. 30. Illustration of the oxidized porous silicon... carriers into a forward biased p-n junction will result in light emission if radiative transitions take place [3]. These semiconductors find applications in light emitting diodes. Other phosphors will produce light emission when they are placed...

  19. Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Sandip

    Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser 22 April 2000 We report polarized edge- and front-emission electroluminescence studies on red on pieces of as-grown wafers using indium­tin­oxide-coated glass electrodes. The front-emission spectra

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions Pascal Boeckx negative to positive. We studied the short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions. We site, an intermediately aerated Luvisol in Belgium, were similar. Nitrous oxide and CO2 emissions were

  1. Excess Emissions (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

  2. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  3. Mathematical modeling of cold cap: Effect of bubbling on melting rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of melting is a primary concern in the vitrification of radioactive wastes because it directly influences the life cycle of nuclear waste cleanup efforts. To increase glass melting performance, experimental and industrial all-electric waste glass melters employ various melt-rate enhancement techniques, the most prominent being the application of bubblers submerged into molten glass. This study investigates various ways in which bubbling affects melting rate in a waste glass melter. Using the recently developed cold cap model, we suggest that forced convection of molten glass, which increases the cold cap bottom temperature, is the main factor. Other effects, such as stirring the feed into molten glass or reducing the insulating effect of foaming, also play a role.

  4. Numerical evaluation of monofil and subtle-layered evapotranspiration (ET) landfill caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, G.V.; Henley, M.; Valceschini, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has identified the need to design a low-level waste (LLW) closure cap for the arid conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As a result of concerns for subsidence impacting the cover, DOE/NV redesigned the LLW cover from one containing a `hard` infiltration barrier that would likely fail, to a `soft` (ET) cover that is sufficiently deep to accommodate the hydrologic problems of subsidence. An ET cover is one that does not contain hydrologic barrier layers but relies on soil-water retention and sufficient thickness to store water until evapotranspiration (ET) can remove the moisture. Subtle layering within an ET cap using the native soil could be environmentally beneficial and cost effective.

  5. Multi-wavelength differential astrometry of the S5 polar cap sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Guirado; J. M. Marcaide; E. Ros; M. A. Perez-Torres; I. Marti-Vidal

    2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the status of our S5 polar cap astrometry program. Since 1997 we have observed all the 13 radio sources of the complete S5 polar cap sample at the wavelengths of 3.6 cm, 2 cm and 7 mm. Images of the radio sources at 3.6 and 2 cm have already been published reporting morphological changes. Preliminary astrometric analyses have been carried out at three frequencies with precisions in the relative position determination ranging from 80 to 20 microarcseconds. We report also on the combination of our phase-delay global astrometry results with the microarcsecond-precise optical astrometry that will be provided by future space-based instruments.

  6. Mathematical Model of Cold Cap—Preliminary One-Dimensional Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of batch-melting studies, laboratory-scale, large-scale, or mathematical modeling is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Mathematical models are not merely an intermediate step between laboratory-scale and large-scale studies, but are also an important tool for assessing the responses of melters to vast combinations of process parameters. In the simplest melting situation considered in this study, a cold cap of uniform thickness rests on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady uniform heat flux. Thus, as the feed-to-glass conversion proceeds, the temperature, velocity, and extent of feed reactions are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate, and these functions do not vary with time. This model is used for the sensitivity analyses on the effects of key parameters on the cold-cap behavior.

  7. Field performance of a geosynthetic clay liner landfill capping system under simulated waste subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, W. [Hochschule fur Architektur und Bauwesen (Germany); Siegmund, M. [Materialforschungs - und, Prufanstalt (Germany); Alexiew, D.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible landfill capping system consisting of a 3-D-geocore composite for gas vent, a Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) for sealing and a 3-D-geocore composite for drainage of the vegetation soil was built on a test field at Michelshoehe landfill near Weimar, Germany. At four locations airbags were installed underneath the thin capping system to simulate subsidences. On top of three of these airbags overlaps of the GCL were positioned, for comparison there was no overlap at the fourth location. After hydratation of the GCL the airbags were de-aerated and subsidences occurred with app. 5 % tensile strain in the GCL. For three weeks the test field was intensively sprinkled in intervals. Then horizontal and vertical deformations were measured, but not displacements were registered in the overlaps. The evaluation of the GCL`s permeability showed no significant difference between the locations with and without overlaps.

  8. Two-Stage Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel NOx Emission Control. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producing nitrogen. Citation: Hoard J, and RG Tonkyn.2003."Two-Stage Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel NOx Emission Control."Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies 6(2):158-165....

  9. Global and regional emissions estimates for N[subscript 2]O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dlugokencky, E.

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N[subscript 2]O are available from measurements at ...

  10. State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2007 (Update) (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    States are moving forward with implementation plans for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). The program, promulgated by the EPA in March 2005, is a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx. States originally had until March 2007 to submit implementation plans, but the deadline has been extended by another year. CAIR covers 28 eastern states and the District of Columbia. States have the option to participate in the cap-and trade plan or devise their own plans, which can be more stringent than the federal requirements. To date, no state has indicated an intent to form NOx and SO2 programs with emissions limits stricter than those in CAIR, and it is expected that all states will participate in the Environmental Protection Agency administered cap-and-trade program. CAIR remains on schedule for implementation, and Annual Energy Outlook 2008 includes CAIR by assuming that all required states will meet only the federal requirement and will trade credits.

  11. Design of the drift pumping system for MFTF-. cap alpha. +T

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metlzer, D.H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drift pumping in mirrors is a new concept (less than one year old). If it works, compared to charge-exchange pumping, it will simplify the MFTF-..cap alpha..+T interface and possibly reduce the circulating power required. From an engineering standpoint, it has some very demanding requirements in terms of power and bandwidth. This paper describes a design which satisfies these requirements. It also identifies a number of promising alternatives requiring investigation and verification.

  12. End-Capping Effect of a Narrow Bandgap Conjugated Polymer on Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Jo, Jang [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Seo, Jung Hwa [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moon, Ji Seo [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Park, Yeong Don [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Lee, Kwanghee [Gwangiu Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea); Heeger, Alan J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Bazan, Guillermo C. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Device performances of BHJ solar cells based on poly[(4,4-didodecyldithieno[3,2-b:2’,3’-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazole)-4,7-diyl]and PC??BM improve by capping the chain ends with thiophene fragments. This structural modification yields materials that are more thermally robust and that can be used in devices with thicker films – important considerations for enabling the mass production of plastic solar cells.

  13. Bi-antimony capped Keggin polyoxometalate modified with Cu-ligand fragment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jiao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhang, Heng; Yu, Haitao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhai, Xueliang, E-mail: xlzhai253@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three polyoxometalates consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters: [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}] (2) and {l_brace}Cu(mbpy)[Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}[VMo{sub 8}V{sub 4}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (3) (mbpy=4,4 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime - dipyridyl in 1 and 2; 5,5 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime -dipyridyl in 3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. Single-crystal analysis revealed that all of three compounds are built upon bi-antimony capped Keggin-type polyoxoanions and Cu-mbpy cations. In 1-3, two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt fundamentally tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Both compounds 1 and 2 consist of P-centered Keggin structure, while compound 3 presents a V-centered Keggin anion. The Keggin-type anions present different structural features: isolated cluster in 1 and Cu-ligand-supported cluster in 2 and 3. - Graphical abstract: Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters modified with Cu-ligand cations have been synthesized and characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anions present different structural features: isolated and Cu-ligand-supported cluster.

  14. Shipboard measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are reported on measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX. A method was developed from the ASTEX dataset for measuring profiles of liquid water content, droplet size and concentration from cloud radar/microwave radiometer data in marine boundary layer clouds. Profiles were also determined from the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum measured in drizzle with the ETL cloud radar during ASTEX.

  15. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on testing of the kinetic mechanism reported in the previous semiannual report, and the interpretation of data (both ours and literature). This model yields good qualitative agreement with the data and indicates that mercury oxidation occurs during the thermal quench of the combustion gases. The model also suggests that atomic chlorine is the key oxidizing species. The oxidation is limited to a temperature window between 700-400 C that is defined by the overlap of (1) a region of significant superequilibrium Cl concentration, and (2) a region where oxidized mercury is favored by equilibrium. Above 700 C reverse reactions effectively limit oxidized mercury concentrations. Below 400 C, atomic chlorine concentrations are too low to support further oxidation. The implication of these results are that homogeneous oxidation is governed primarily by (1) HCl concentration, (2) quench rate, and (3) background gas composition. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of one journal paper that was accepted for publication during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1999).

  16. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  17. Photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} using TiO{sub 2}/activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.; Chen, D.H.; Li, K.Y. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes experimental results for a method of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission control. NO{sub x} was oxidized photocatalytically to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) using different titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalysts. The addition of ferric oxide improved the performance of the TiO{sub 2}. Of four adsorbents tested, activated carbon performed best in suppressing NO{sub 2} concentration. Optimum catalyst compositions were determined. Initial results indicated that photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} offers several advantages over other emission control methods.

  18. SEQUESTRATION OF METALS IN ACTIVE CAP MATERIALS: A LABORATORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Knox, A.

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Active capping involves the use of capping materials that react with sediment contaminants to reduce their toxicity or bioavailability. Although several amendments have been proposed for use in active capping systems, little is known about their long-term ability to sequester metals. Recent research has shown that the active amendment apatite has potential application for metals contaminated sediments. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of apatite in the sequestration of metal contaminants through the use of short-term laboratory column studies in conjunction with predictive, numerical modeling. A breakthrough column study was conducted using North Carolina apatite as the active amendment. Under saturated conditions, a spike solution containing elemental As, Cd, Co, Se, Pb, Zn, and a non-reactive tracer was injected into the column. A sand column was tested under similar conditions as a control. Effluent water samples were periodically collected from each column for chemical analysis. Relative to the non-reactive tracer, the breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite. Furthermore, breakthrough of each metal was substantially delayed by the apatite compared to the sand column. Finally, a simple 1-D, numerical model was created to qualitatively predict the long-term performance of apatite based on the findings from the column study. The results of the modeling showed that apatite could delay the breakthrough of some metals for hundreds of years under typical groundwater flow velocities.

  19. Quantification of summertime water ice deposition on the Martian north polar ice cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Adrian J; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for two Martian years, to monitor the complete summer cycle of albedo and water ice grain size in order to place quantitative limits of the amount of water ice deposited in late summer. We establish here for the first time the complete spring to summer cycle of water ice grain sizes on the north polar cap. The apparent grain sizes grow until Ls=132, when they appear to shrink again, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. Under the assumption that the shrinking of grain sizes is due to the deposition of find grained ice, we quantify the amount of water ice deposited per Martian boreal summer, and estimate the amount of water ice that must be transported equatorward. Interestingly, we find that the relative amount of water ice deposited in the north cap during boreal summer (0.7-7 microns) is roughly equivalent to the average amount of water ice depos...

  20. Improvement of the quality of graphene-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othmen, Riadh, E-mail: othmenriadh@yahoo.fr; Rezgui, Kamel; Ajlani, Hosni; Oueslati, Meherzi [Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, Campus, 2092 El Manar Tunis (Tunisia); Cavanna, Antonella; Madouri, Ali [CNRS/LPN, Route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Arezki, Hakim; Gunes, Fethullah [Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de Paris, 11, rue Joliot Curie Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the transfer of graphene onto InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The graphene is first grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition and then polymer Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is deposited on the top of graphene/Cu. High quality graphene sheet has been obtained by lowering the dissolving rate of PMMA using vapor processing. Uncapped as well as capped graphene InAs/GaAs QDs have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We gather from this that the average shifts ?? of QDs Raman peaks are reduced compared to those previously observed in graphene and GaAs capped QDs. The encapsulation by graphene makes the indium atomic concentration intact in the QDs by the reduction of the strain effect of graphene on QDs and the migration of In atoms towards the surface. This gives us a new hetero-structure graphene–InAs/GaAs QDs wherein the graphene plays a key role as a cap layer.

  1. 1Lesions in the mRNA cap-binding gene ABA HYPERSENSITIVE 1 suppress FRIGIDA-mediated delayed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    1Lesions in the mRNA cap-binding gene ABA HYPERSENSITIVE 1 suppress FRIGIDA-mediated delayed morphology were identified in T-DNA and fast-neutron mutant populations. Molecular analysis showed

  2. Effects of Habitat, Nest-site Selection, and Adult Behavior on Black-capped Vireo Nest and Fledgling Survival 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Theresa

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    cameras, and resighted fledglings in shrubland, oak-juniper woodland, and deciduous woodland during the 2008–2010 breeding seasons. I monitored 302 black-capped vireo nests in 259 territories and resighted 350 fledglings with unique color combinations...

  3. On the response of polar cap dynamics to its solar wind and magnetotail drivers at high levels of geomagnetic activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Ye

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polar cap potential by intense solar wind electric fields,potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar wind andelectric potential as a function of solar wind parameters by

  4. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  5. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  6. Effects of Habitat, Nest-site Selection, and Adult Behavior on Black-capped Vireo Nest and Fledgling Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Theresa

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on Black-capped Vireo Nest and Fledgling Survival. (August 2011) Theresa Lynn Pope, B.S.F, Purdue University; M.S.F., Northern Arizona University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Michael Morrison Many factors affect the productivity of songbirds...EFFECTS OF HABITAT, NEST-SITE SELECTION, AND ADULT BEHAVIOR ON BLACK-CAPPED VIREO NEST AND FLEDGLING SURVIVAL A Dissertation by THERESA LYNN POPE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  7. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  8. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  9. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

  10. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

  11. Not All Carbon Credits are Created Equal: The Constitutional and the Cost of Regional Cap-and-Trade Market Linkage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howland, Juliet

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Intertemporal Emission Trading, Bank- ing, and Borrowing,based mechanisms, including emissions trading, provide an42. INTERNATIONAL EMISSIONS TRADING ASSOCIATION, IETA REPORT

  12. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  13. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants through thecoal-fired power generation and the total CO 2 emissioncoal- fired power plants. One of the remarkable programs in combating global climate change is the emissions

  14. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  15. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Competition in Emission Permits Oligopolistic Electricityscheme: proportions for initial permit allocation . . . . .strategically manipu- lating permit price through fringe

  16. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results were obtained using an asbestos supported CuO-Cr203 catalyst. Venkataramam and his co-workers (66) studied the catalytic oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide by the fluidized bed technique using a static bed of catalyst. Precipitated Ag20... in the air-ethylene ratio to maintain good yields of ethylene oxide. Wan (68) reported the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by use of a silver catalyst in a 5/16 dnch inner diameter stainless steel tube with a catalyst bed up to 30. 3 centimeters...

  17. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential...

  18. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions of ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kean, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; Harley, R.A.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Lunden, M. M.

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Motor vehicle emissions of ammonia have been measured at a California highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Between 1999 and 2006, light-duty vehicle ammonia emissions decreased by 38 {+-} 6%, from 640 {+-} 40 to 400 {+-} 20 mg kg{sup -1}. High time resolution measurements of ammonia made in summer 2001 at the same location indicate a minimum in ammonia emissions correlated with slower-speed driving conditions. Variations in ammonia emission rates track changes in carbon monoxide more closely than changes in nitrogen oxides, especially during later evening hours when traffic speeds are highest. Analysis of remote sensing data of Burgard et al. (Environ Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 7018-7022) indicates relationships between ammonia and vehicle model year, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. Ammonia emission rates from diesel trucks were difficult to measure in the tunnel setting due to the large contribution to ammonia concentrations in a mixed-traffic bore that were assigned to light-duty vehicle emissions. Nevertheless, it is clear that heavy-duty diesel trucks are a minor source of ammonia emissions compared to light-duty gasoline vehicles.

  19. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  1. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

  2. Mechanistic, sensitivity, and uncertainty studies of the atmospheric oxidation of dimethylsulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Donald David, 1969-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global-scale emissions and reactivity of dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3, DMS) make it an integral component in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. DMS is rapidly oxidized in the atmosphere by a complex gas-phase mechanism involving ...

  3. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).

  4. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  5. Modeling Traffic Flow Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappiello, Alessandra

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The main topic of this thesis is the development of light-duty vehicle dynamic emission models and their integration with dynamic traffic models. Combined, these models

  6. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  7. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    mass, membrane effects, fundamentals on permeability * DOC Pd:Pt ratios allow optimization * Gasoline emission control is amazing - Zone coating - Lower PGM with better...

  8. Light duty vehicle full fuel cycle emissions analysis. Topical report, April 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a methodology for analyzing full fuel cycle emissions of alternative fuels for vehicles. Included in this analysis is an assessment of the following fuel cycles relevant to vehicle use: gasoline, reformulated gasoline, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electric power (with onboard battery storage), ethanol, and methanol fuels. The analysis focuses on basic criteria pollutants (reactive organic gases, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfurous oxides, and particulates less than 10 microns (PM10)). Emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) are also defined. The analysis was conducted for two cases, United States and the State of California and two time frames, current and year 2000.

  9. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    > Flexible tailoring capability ZnOABO 3 : No Chemical Interaction ZnO core + Shell Hollow Shell Sn Potential Multifunctional Nanocatalysts 4 1) Selective adsorptionstorage...

  10. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations may apply to reciprocating...

  11. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    the effects of turbulence on the catalytic process in CST, which is relevant for large gas-turbines. Approach: Gas turbine with catalytic combustor. Fig 2: Measured and predicted (using the 2-D steady elliptic for gas-turbine catalytic burners) without heterogeneous reactions and with a fixed wall temperature have

  12. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts |Catalysis of FuelLoan Portfolio |

  13. The complete S5 polar cap sample: en route to phase-delay global astrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ros; J. M. Marcaide; J. C. Guirado; M. A. Perez-Torres

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the present status of our S5 polar cap phase-connected astrometry program. We observe 13 radio sources in the northernmost 20deg of the sky at the wavelengths of 3.6cm and 2cm, and we plan to extend the program to 0.7cm. We phase-connect jointly all our data successfully. We image the radio sources and some of them show morphological changes, in which astrometric registration is needed to determine the kinematics of the source components. We aim at unprecedented astrometric accuracy and at a check of the jet standard model at the 5-10 microarcsec/yr level.

  14. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  15. Very low resistance alloyed Ni-based ohmic contacts to InP-capped and uncapped n{sup +}-In{sub 0.53} Ga{sub 0.47}As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, Michael; Yu, Shih-Ying; Choi, Won Hyuck; Mohney, Suzanne E., E-mail: mohney@ems.psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lee, Rinus T. P. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Road, Suite 2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful application of the silicide-like Ni{sub x}InGaAs phase for self-aligned source/drain contacts requires the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts between the phase and underlying InGaAs. We report Ni-based contacts to InP-capped and uncapped n{sup +}- In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (N{sub D}?=?3?×?10{sup 19?}cm{sup ?3}) with a specific contact resistance (?{sub c}) of 4.0 × 10{sup ?8?}±?7 × 10{sup ?9} ?·cm{sup 2} and 4.6 × 10{sup ?8?}±?9 × 10{sup ?9} ?·cm{sup 2}, respectively, after annealing at 350?°C for 60?s. With an ammonium sulfide pre-metallization surface treatment, ?{sub c} is further reduced to 2.1 × 10{sup ?8?}±?2 × 10{sup ?9} ?·cm{sup 2} and 1.8 × 10{sup ?8?}±?1 × 10{sup ?9} ?·cm{sup 2} on epilayers with and without 10?nm InP caps, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the ammonium sulfide surface treatment results in more complete elimination of the semiconductor's native oxide at the contact interface, which is responsible for a reduced contact resistance both before and after annealing.

  16. X-ray emission from Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ness, J U; Wolk, S J; Dennerl, K; Burwitz, V

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from Saturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ksec with ACIS-S3. Beyond the pure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary surface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based on 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of Saturn. We found no evidence for smaller or larger angular extent. The expected background level is 56 cts, i.e., the count rate is (1.6 +- 0.2) 10^-3 cts/s. The extracted photons are rather concentrated towards the equator of the apparent disk, while both polar caps have a relative photon deficit. The inclination angle of Saturn during the observation was -27 degrees, so that the northern hemisphere was not visible during the complete observation. In addition, it was occulted by the ring system. We found a small but significant photon excess at one edge of the ring system. The light curve shows a small dip twice at identical phases,...

  17. THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, D. E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

  18. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal resolution. Published studies indicate higher emission rates from soils and animal wastes at higher temperatures, and temporal variation in fertilizer application. A recent inverse modeling study indicates temporal variation in regional NH{sub 3} emissions. Monthly allocation factors were derived to estimate monthly emissions from soils, livestock and wild animal waste based on annual emission estimates. Monthly resolution of NH{sub 3} emissions from fertilizers is based on fertilizer sales to farmers. Statewide NH{sub 3} emissions are highest in the late spring and early summer months.

  19. The influence of a Si cap on self-organized SiGe islands and the underlying wetting layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brehm, M.; Grydlik, M.; Groiss, H.; Hackl, F.; Schaeffler, F.; Fromherz, T.; Bauer, G. [Institut fuer Halbleiter -u. Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the prototypical SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow (SK) growth system, the influence of intermixing caused by the deposition of a Si cap layer at temperatures T{sub cap} between 300 deg. C and 700 deg. C is studied both for the SiGe wetting layer (WL) and the SiGe islands. Systematic growth experiments were carried out with an ultrahigh resolution of down to 0.005 monolayers (ML) of deposited Ge. The properties of the samples were investigated via photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy. We studied in detail the influence of T{sub cap} in the three main coverage regions of SiGe SK growth, which are (i) the WL build-up regime, (ii) the island nucleation regime, where most of the Ge is supplied via material transfer from the WL, and (iii) the saturation regime, where the WL thickness remains initially stable. At T{sub cap} = 300 deg. C, we found that both the WL and the island are essentially preserved in composition and shape, whereas at 500 deg. C the WL becomes heavily alloyed during capping, and at 700 deg. C the islands also become alloyed. At T{sub cap} = 500 deg. C we found enhanced WL intermixing in the presence of dome-shaped islands, whereas at T{sub cap} 700 deg. C the WL properties become dominated by the dissolution of pyramid-shaped islands upon capping. At Ge coverages above {approx_equal}6 ML, we found an unexpected thickening of the WL, almost independently of T{sub cap}. This finding suggests that the density and the volume of the dome-shaped islands have an upper limit, beyond which excess Ge from the external source again becomes incorporated into the WL. Finally, we compared PL spectra with AFM-based evaluations of the integral island volumes in order to determine in a straightforward manner the average composition of the SiGe islands.

  20. Task 1: Steam Oxidation,”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

  1. Effect of temperature on the optical and structural properties of hexadecylamine capped ZnS nanoparticles using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as single source precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C., E-mail: dconwudiwe@webmail.co.za [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Strydom, Christien [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)] [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S., E-mail: oluwafemi.oluwatobi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag X1, Mthatha (South Africa); Songca, Sandile P. [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Walter Sisulu University, P.O. Box 19712, Tecoma, East London (South Africa)] [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Walter Sisulu University, P.O. Box 19712, Tecoma, East London (South Africa)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? HDA-capped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized via thermolysis of a single source precursor. ? Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate was used as the single source precursor. ? The growth temperature was varied to study the optical properties of the nanocrystals. ? Change in growth temperature affects the structural properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. ? Hexagonal wurtzite phase was obtained at lower temperatures while cubic sphalerite phase was obtained at higher growth temperatures. -- Abstract: Reported in this work is the synthesis of HDA (hexadecylamine)-capped ZnS nanoparticles by a single source route using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as a precursor. By varying the growth temperature, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All the particles exhibited quantum confinement in their optical properties with band edge emission at the early stage of the reaction. The XRD showed transition from hexagonal wurtzite phase to cubic sphalerite phase as the growth temperature increases. The TEM image showed that the particles are small and spherical in shape while the HRTEM image confirmed the crystalline nature of the material.

  2. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S., E-mail: shishirk@gmail.com; Raghavan, S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Duesberg, G. S. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN) and School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, D2 (Ireland); Pratap, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ?10?nA ?m{sup ?1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  3. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The case of wholesale power trading in Germany Power andY. (2011). Market power in emissions trading: strategicallyto model market power in permit trading. The conjectural

  4. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

  5. Oxidation in Environments with Elevated CO2 Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy power productions focus primarily on either pre- or post-combustion removal of CO2. The research presented here examines corrosion and oxidation issues associated with two types of post-combustion CO2 removal processes—oxyfuel combustion in refit boilers and oxyfuel turbines.

  6. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  7. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  8. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  9. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  10. Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released emissions from power plants would provide an added bonus--reductions in other air pollutants that can make in power plant emissions of four other harmful air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides

  11. EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullberg, G.T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Resolution Computed Tomography of Positron Emitters,"of Dynamic Emission Computed Tomography," J. Nucl. Med. ~:IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY RECEIVED lAWRENCE

  12. $?$-Ray Pulsars: Emission Zones and Viewing Geometries, A Computer Animation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. -A. Yadigaroglu; Roger W. Romani

    1994-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer animation illustrates the geometries described in a paper by the same authors. The preprint is available as number 9401045. The opening scene shows dipole field lines emanating from the polar caps of a rotating neutron star. The dipole axis is inclined along the green rods. The field lines shown are defined from the condition that they be tangent to the light cylinder (the cylindrical radius at which the tangential velocity of rotation reaches the speed of light). The static dipole field lines are smoothly morphed into the correct retarted-potential vacuum solutions. A red surface spanning these field lines is painted. In the next scene the blue surfaces represent the outer gaps above the surface of last closed field lines. High energy emission (blue) is produced in these outer gaps, and is beamed tangentially along the field lines. The radio emission (green) originates close to the surface of the star and is beamed along the dipole axes. The inclination angle $\\alpha$ of the dipole and the viewing angle $\\zeta$ are chosen to match the Crab parameters; $\\alpha$ = 70, $\\zeta$ = 65. The corresponding light curve is computed and shown for these angles, and the red dot traces rotation phase. The next scene shows the situation for angles appropriate to PSR1706-44; $\\alpha$ = 45, $\\zeta$ = 65. The final scene is a possibility for Geminga; $\\alpha$ = 20, $\\zeta$ = 75. These angles are poorly constrained as there is no radio emission.

  13. Honk Kong milestone: rate of return is tied to emissions levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In early January, the Hong Kong government announced that it has reached a new agreement with two power companies for a rate of return on assets of 9.99 percent - but with a new twist. If the two companies perform beyond current emissions caps, they may earn a 0.05 to 0.1 percent bonus; if they fail, a 0.2 to 0.4 percent penalty may apply. There is also a provision to earn 11 percent if the companies' renewable energy generation reaches a certain proportion as well as provisions to promote energy conservation.

  14. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Chung

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the EPA-recommended closure cap design a waste site can either be covered with a single layer cap made of 36 inches of compacted soil (clay) or with a multilayer cap consisting of an upper vegetative layer underlain by a drainage layer over a low permeability layer. The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four-foot loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected. Currently, detailed soil test data and cavity configuration data are not available to validate the mathematical model. Since the configuration of the cavities created in the testing process is irregular and unpredictable, two extreme configurations are considered in this mathematical model, viz., the circular cavity and the infinitely long trench in the sand underneath the cap. This approach will provide bounds for the testing results.

  15. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  16. Effect of precursor mineralogy on the thermal infrared emission spectra of hematite: Application to Martian hematite mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    samples derived by (1) dehydroxylation of fine- grained goethite and (2) oxidation of magnetite derived by pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation of goethite at 300°C. Spectra of goethite spectrum. Thermal emission spectra of goethites heated at lower temperatures are characterized

  17. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  18. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  19. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  20. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  1. CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

  2. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  3. Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

  4. USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS FOR VERIFICATION OF CAP AND COVER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) office has committed itself to an accelerated cleanup of its national facilities. The goal is to have much of the DOE legacy waste sites remediated by 2006. This includes closure of several sites (e.g., Rocky Flats and Fernald). With the increased focus on accelerated cleanup, there has been considerable concern about long-term stewardship issues in general, and verification and long-term monitoring (LTM) of caps and covers, in particular. Cap and cover systems (covers) are vital remedial options that will be extensively used in meeting these 2006 cleanup goals. Every buried waste site within the DOE complex will require some form of cover system. These covers are expected to last from 100 to 1000 years or more. The stakeholders can be expected to focus on system durability and sustained performance. DOE EM has set up a national committee of experts to develop a long-term capping (LTC) guidance document. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, desiccation, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. Very little is available in terms of long-term monitoring other than downstream groundwater or surface water monitoring. By its very nature, this can only indicate that failure of the cover system has already occurred and contaminants have been transported away from the site. This is unacceptable. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict approaching cover failure are needed. The LTC committee has identified predictive monitoring technologies as a high priority need for DOE, both for new covers as well as existing covers. The same committee identified a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technology as one approach that may be capable of meeting the requirements for LTM. The Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD) at BNL developed a novel methodology for verifying and monitoring subsurface barriers (1,2). The technology uses perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) to determine flaws (e.g., holes or cracks) and high permeability areas in subsurface barriers. Gaseous tracers are injected on one side of the barrier and searched for on the opposite side of the barrier. The sampling grid, concentration, and time of arrival of the tracer(s) on the opposite side are used to determine the size and location of flaws and relative permeability of the barrier. In addition, there are multiple tracers available, which allows different tracers to be injected in different quadrants of the barrier. This yields additional information on transport phenomena of the barrier.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  6. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  7. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  8. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  9. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  10. Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 to 2100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 tends to enhance snow and ice melting due to the absorption caused by the increased BC deposition

  11. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  12. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  13. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  14. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  15. Antiguided array diode lasers fabricated with modulated cap thin p-clad structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O, J.S.; Zory, P.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Schwartz, B.D.; Setzko, R.S. [Raytheon Optical Systems, Danbury, CT (United States)] [Raytheon Optical Systems, Danbury, CT (United States); Emanuel, M.A.; Sperry, V.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Antiguided array lasers were fabricated in thin p-clad, InGaAs-GaAs single quantum-well material. The required lateral refractive index variation was achieved by precisely modulating the thickness of the GaAs cap layer using a novel pulsed anodization/etching technique. Edge-emitting arrays having 20 lasers on 7-{micro}m centers with 5-{micro}m-wide gain regions were characterized. At 1.2 times the pulsed current threshold (I{sub th}), the central lobe of the lateral far field of the arrays contained about 75% of the beam power and was about twice the diffraction limit (FWHM = 0.8{degree}). At 10 {times} I{sub th}, the central lobe contained about 60% of the beam power and was about 1.6 {degree} wide.

  16. Distribution of ion current density on a rotating spherical cap substrate during ion-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marushka, Viktor; Zabeida, Oleg, E-mail: oleg.zabeida@polymtl.ca; Martinu, Ludvik [Engineering Physics Department, Polytechnique Montréal, P.O. Box 6079, Downtown station, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uniformity of ion density is critical for applications relying on the ion assisted deposition technique for the fabrication of the high quality thin films. The authors propose and describe here a method allowing one to calculate the ion density distribution on spherical substrate holders under stationary and rotating conditions for different positions of the ion source. The ion beam shape was approximated by a cos{sup n} function, and the ion current density was represented by a function inversely proportional to the distance from the ion source in accordance with our experimental results. As an example, a calculation of the current density distribution on the spherical cap substrate was performed for a broad beam ion source operated with an anode current of 3?A. The authors propose an approach for process optimization with respect to the ion source position and its inclination, in terms of uniformity and absolute value of the ion current density.

  17. High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S. [Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

  18. Appearance, temperature, and NO{sub x} emission of two inverse diffusion flames with different port design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, L.K.; Cheung, C.S.; Leung, C.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the appearance, temperature distribution, and NO{sub x} emission index of two inverse diffusion flames, one with circumferentially arranged ports (CAPs) and the other with co-axial (CoA) jets, both burning LPG with 70% butane and 30% propane. Flame appearances were investigated first with a fixed fueling rate at different airflow rates equivalent to air jet Reynolds numbers (Re) of 1000 to 4500; and then at a fixed airflow rate with different fueling rates equivalent to overall equivalence ratios (F) of 1.0 to 2.0. The CAP flame is found to consist of two zones: a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. The CoA flame in most cases is similar to a diffusion flame. The two-zone structure can be observed only at Re larger than 2500. The temperature distributions of the flames are similar at overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 and 1.2 for Re=2500, except that the corresponding CoA flame is longer. The flame temperature is higher in the CAP flame than the CoA flame at higher overall equivalence ratios. A measurement of centerline oxygen concentrations shows that the oxygen concentration reaches a minimum value at a flame height of 50 mm in the CAP flame but decreases more gradually in the CoA flame. It can be concluded that there is more intense air-fuel mixing in a CAP flame than the CoA flame. Investigation of the emission index of NO{sub x} (EINO{sub x}) for both flames at Re=2500 and overall equivalence ratios of 1.0 to 6.0 reveals that the EINO{sub x} curve of each flame is bell-shaped, with a maximum value of 3.2 g/kg at F=1.2 for the CAP flame and 3 g/kg at F=2.2 for the CoA flame.

  19. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  20. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  1. Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

  2. Conservation status of Black-capped Petrels (Pterodroma hasitata): colony surveys at Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, January 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    Baoruco, Dominican Republic, January 2002 Black-capped Petrel photographed off the North Carolina coast in the Sierra de Baoruco in the Dominican Republic (Ottenwalder and Vargas 1979; Lee and Vina 1993, Lee 2000 populations must be initiated immediately. A visit by the principal investigators to the Dominican Republic

  3. Characteristics of sound propagation in shallow water over an elastic seabed with a thin cap-rock layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characteristics of sound propagation in shallow water over an elastic seabed with a thin cap over a lay- ered elastic seabed with a shear wave speed comparable to but lower than the water-column sound speed. A theoretical analysis and numerical modeling show that, in such environments, low attenua

  4. A Power Provision and Capping Architecture for Large Scale Systems Yongpeng Liu, Hong Zhu, Kai Lu and Yongyan Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    whole system's total power consumption under budget. Two policies are designed and implemented to select amount of energy. According to the recent TOP500 list of high performance systems [2], the average powerA Power Provision and Capping Architecture for Large Scale Systems Yongpeng Liu, Hong Zhu, Kai Lu

  5. nature photonics | VOL 1 | OCTOBER 2007 | www.nature.com/naturephotonics 551 elting polar ice caps or the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    polar ice caps or the fantasy of freezing oceans in cataclysmic Hollywood films are graphic arranged, undergoes a phase change to the regular crystalline atomic construction of ice on freezing, and back on melting. This is a phase change between disordered and ordered states. So what use

  6. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMSStaffCerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation

  7. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  8. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  9. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  11. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Philippe Quirion. Co2 abatement, competitiveness andDaniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theA short-run case analysis of co2 leakage and nox and so2

  12. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation Costs and Emissions We explicitly model the major fossil-?red thermal units in each electricgeneration sources. Such an analysis would require a co-optimization of hydro and thermal electric

  13. Characterizing the marginal basis source energy and emissions associated with comfort cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, D.T.; Knebel, D.E.; Gansler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ten-story commercial office building located in Fort Worth, Texas, was used as a prototype to investigate the environmental impact associated with applying various electric and gas technologies for providing ventilation and comfort conditioning. The instantaneous (hourly) electrical and gas requirements demanded by the building were ``traced`` back to their source, the point where fuel is extracted from the ground The total energy consumed and emissions produced are quantified for both electric and gas technologies. On an annual basis, electric technologies had carbon dioxide emissions that were 20% to 26% lower when compared with the gas cooling technology. The gas cooling technology had lower total carbon monoxide emissions; however, after accounting for environmental oxidation of the carbon monoxide emissions, the gas cooling technology had an overall 24% to 35% greater oxide of carbon emission impact. The gas technology had a 19% to 25% lower oxide of nitrogen emission rate when compared with the electric technologies. The gas technology had a 3% to 15% lower annual total emission of sulfur dioxide compared to electric technologies. The primary reason for this is the absence of sulfur in the ``clean`` fuel assumed to be used by the gas technology (natural gas). The gas cooling technologies required 20% to 30% more energy to be extracted from the earth to provide the equivalent space conditioning for the prototypical office building when compared with the worst-and best-case electric technologies, respectively.

  14. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czepiel, P.M.; Shorter, J.H.; Mosher, B.; Allwine, E.; McManus, J.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Kolb, C.E.; Lamb, B.K

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} min{sup -1}. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These data, along with CH{sub 4} oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH{sub 4} generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} and an estimated annual rate of CH{sub 4} oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} resulted in a calculated annual CH{sub 4} generation rate of 16.7x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential.

  15. Controlled spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

  16. Optimal irreversible stimulated emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

  17. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States);

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  18. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM anda mar- ket-based emissions trading program called theimpacts cre- ated by emissions trading programs that affect

  19. Plastic cap evolution law derived from induced transverse isotropy in dilatational triaxial compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macon, David James; Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Strack, Otto Erik

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical testing of porous materials generates physical data that contain contributions from more than one underlying physical phenomenon. All that is measurable is the “ensemble” hardening modulus. This thesis is concerned with the phenomenon of dilatation in triaxial compression of porous media, which has been modeled very accurately in the literature for monotonic loading using models that predict dilatation under triaxial compression (TXC) by presuming that dilatation causes the cap to move outwards. These existing models, however, predict a counter-intuitive (and never validated) increase in hydrostatic compression strength. This work explores an alternative approach for modeling TXC dilatation based on allowing induced elastic anisotropy (which makes the material both less stiff and less strong in the lateral direction) with no increase in hydrostatic strength. Induced elastic anisotropy is introduced through the use of a distortion operator. This operator is a fourth-order tensor consisting of a combination of the undeformed stiffness and deformed compliance and has the same eigenprojectors as the elastic compliance. In the undeformed state, the distortion operator is equal to the fourth-order identity. Through the use of the distortion operator, an evolved stress tensor is introduced. When the evolved stress tensor is substituted into an isotropic yield function, a new anisotropic yield function results. In the case of the von Mises isotropic yield function (which contains only deviatoric components), it is shown that the distortion operator introduces a dilatational contribution without requiring an increase in hydrostatic strength. In the thesis, an introduction and literature review of the cap function is given. A transversely isotropic compliance is presented, based on a linear combination of natural bases constructed about a transverse-symmetry axis. Using a probabilistic distribution of cracks constructed for the case of transverse isotropy, a compliance expression is presented that demonstrated a decrease in lateral stiffness, but leaves axial stiffness unchanged. A demonstration of how the distortion operator could be used in the elastic/plastic analysis of a von Mises surface loaded in TXC is also presented.

  20. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  1. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  2. Aluminum Foil Mediated Noncatalytic Growth of ZnO Nanowire Arrays on an Indium Tin Oxide Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    substrate would find useful applications in field emission displays and solar cells. Introduction Zinc oxide in optoelectronics such as field emission displays (FEDs) and solar cells.3,4 Developing convenient and reproducible applications because it has been widely used as a transparent electrode in conventional flat panel displays

  3. Structure of graphene oxide dispersed with ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Rishikesh, E-mail: rishikesh.yadav62@gmail.com; Pandey, Devendra K., E-mail: devendrakphy@gmail.com [School of Nanotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidalaya, Bhopal, M.P. (India); Khare, P. S., E-mail: purnimaswarup@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidalaya, Bhopal M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties for many applications. In present work a process of dispersion of graphene oxide with ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol solution with different pH values, have been studied. Samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, PL, UV-visible spectroscopy and particles size measurement. The results analysis indicates overall improved emission spectrum. It has been observed that the average diameter of RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide) decreases in presence of ZnO nanoparticles from 3.8?m to 0.41?m.

  4. Fabrication and testing of oxidized porous silicon field emitter strips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madduri, Vasanta Bhanu

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1 Cross-section of Thin-film Field Emission Structure (After Spindt, et al. [7] ). Mo Silicon dioxide Silicon substrate Axis of rotation ~' Evaporant Aluminum release layer Mo SiO Si Evaporant Deposition for cone formation Etch off... release layer Fig. 2 Fabrication Procedure to Produce Mo Cones silicon substrates with 1-1, 5 pm of thermally grown oxide on them. Holes of 1. 5-2 ltm diameter are micro-machined in the oxide layer using electron beam lithography. Mo serves as an etch...

  5. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, J.; McVay, G.L.; Peden, C.H.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO{sub 2} is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. 4 figs.

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  8. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  9. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

  10. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  11. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  12. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  13. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  14. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  15. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  16. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultra-High Purification System for the MuCap Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Ganzha; P. A. Kravtsov; O. E. Maev; G. N. Schapkin; G. G. Semenchuk; V. Trofimov; A. A. Vasilyev; M. E. Vznuzdaev; S. M. Clayton; P. Kammel; B. Kiburg; M. Hildebrandt; C. Petitjean; T. I. Banks; B. Lauss

    2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The MuCap experiment is a high-precision measurement of the rate for the basic electroweak process of muon capture, mu- + p -> n + nu . The experimental approach is based on an active target consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) operating with pure hydrogen gas. The hydrogen has to be kept extremely pure and at a stable pressure. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultrahigh Purification System was designed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to continuously clean the hydrogen from impurities. The system is based on an adsorption cryopump to stimulate the hydrogen flow and on a cold adsorbent for the hydrogen cleaning. It was installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 2004 and performed reliably during three experiment runs. During several months long operating periods the system maintained the hydrogen purity in the detector on the level of 20 ppb for moisture, which is the main contaminant, and of better than 7 ppb and 5 ppb for nitrogen and oxygen, respectively. The pressure inside the TPC was stabilized to within 0.024% of 10 bar at a hydrogen flow rate of 3 standard liters per minute.

  17. Concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter in aqueous solutions of capped PEO chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Chaudhari; L. R. Pratt; M. E. Paulaitis

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence on volume fraction $\\varphi$ of the Flory-Huggins $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ describing the free energy of mixing of polymers in water is obtained by exploiting the connection of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ to the chemical potential of the water, for which quasi-chemical theory is satisfactory. We test this theoretical approach with simulation data for aqueous solutions of capped PEO oligomers. For CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ ($m$=11), $\\chi_{\\mathrm{wp}}\\left(\\varphi\\right)$ depends strongly on $\\varphi$, consistent with experiment. These results identify coexisting water-rich and water-poor solutions at $T$ = 300K and $p$ = 1atm. Direct observation of the coexistence of these two solutions on simulation time scales supports that prediction for the system studied. This approach directly provides the osmotic pressures. The osmotic second virial coefficient for these chains is positive, reflecting repulsive interactions between the chains in the water, a good solvent for these chains.

  18. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Chung; Pelfrey, J.R.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four feet thick loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected.

  19. Field emission from organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

  20. Fuels, Engines & Emissions | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels, Engines, Emissions SHARE Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Fuels, Engines, and Emissions research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping identify ways to increase...

  1. 6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

  2. Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use at power plants in the Texas grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhajeri, Nawaf S.

    The possibility of using electricity dispatching strategies to achieve a 50% nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction from electricity generating units was examined using the grid of the Electricity Reliability Council of ...

  3. 4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

  4. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  5. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  6. Magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic field sensor by using CoFeB sensing layer capped with MgO film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takenaga, Takashi, E-mail: takenaga@leap.or.jp; Tsuzaki, Yosuke; Yoshida, Chikako; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Hatada, Akiyoshi; Nakabayashi, Masaaki; Iba, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Atsushi; Noshiro, Hideyuki; Tsunoda, Koji; Aoki, Masaki; Furukawa, Taisuke; Fukumoto, Hiroshi; Sugii, Toshihiro [Low-power Electronics Association and Project (LEAP), Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluated MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for magnetic field sensors with spin-valve-type structures in the CoFeB sensing layer capped by an MgO film in order to obtain both top and bottom interfaces of MgO/CoFeB exhibiting interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Hysteresis of the CoFeB sensing layer in these MTJs annealed at 275?°C was suppressed at a thickness of the sensing layer below 1.2?nm by interfacial PMA. We confirmed that the CoFeB sensing layers capped with MgO suppress the thickness dependences of both the magnetoresistance ratio and the magnetic behaviors of the CoFeB sensing layer more than that of the MTJ with a Ta capping layer. MgO-based MTJs with MgO capping layers can improve the controllability of the characteristics for magnetic field sensors.

  7. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  8. Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Study of the Electronic Structure of Oxidized and Partially Oxidized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Yin, Yadong; Falcone, Roger; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal structure of magnetite nanoparticles may be transformed to maghemite by complete oxidation, but under many relevant conditions the oxidation is partial, creating a mixed-valence material with structural and electronic properties that are poorly characterized. We used X-ray diffraction, Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy to characterize the products of oxidizing uncoated and oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles in air. The oxidization of uncoated magnetite nanoparticles creates a material that is structurally and electronically indistinguishable from maghemite. By contrast, while oxidized oleic acid-coated nanoparticles are also structurally indistinguishable from maghemite, Fe L-edge spectroscopy revealed the presence of interior reduced iron sites even after a 2-year period. We used X-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K-edge to study the valence bands (VB) of the iron oxide nanoparticles, using resonant excitation to remove the contributions from oxygen atoms in the ligands and from low-energy excitations that obscured the VB edge. The bonding in all nanoparticles was typical of maghemite, with no detectable VB states introduced by the long-lived, reduced-iron sites in the oleic acid-coated sample. However, O K-edge absorption spectroscopy observed a 0.2 eV shift in the position of the lowest unoccupied states in the coated sample, indicating an increase in the semiconductor band gap relative to bulk stoichiometric maghemite that was also observed by optical absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the ferrous iron sites within ferric iron oxide nanoparticles coated by an organic ligand can persist under ambient conditions with no evidence of a distinct interior phase and can exert an effect on the global electronic and optical properties of the material. This phenomenon resembles the band gap enlargement caused by electron accumulation in the conduction band of TiO2.

  9. Gas Turbine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

  10. Analysis of Emission Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Danielewicz

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

  11. Effect of the (OH) Surface Capping on ZnO Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    in air at different temperatures from 150­500 C for 30 min. In comparison, highly purified bulk Zn is related to oxygen deficiency [1]; the other is a much narrower ultraviolet (UV) emission band at around, compared with good quality ZnO single crystals or ZnO powders, the UV bandgap luminescence in quantum dots

  12. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  13. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfate of either sodium, potassium, lithium, rubidium or cesium. The active agent was prepared in the form of a slurry which was deposited on the carrier by agitating the two materials together. The carrier was alumina or silicon carbide. Oxidation... welded on each end. On the bottom of the tank was a drain connection which was closed; the tank also contained a thermometer well. The tank was connected to the vent system through a needle valve and also through a safety valve which was set...

  14. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

  15. Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

  16. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  17. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  18. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  19. Enhanced mercury oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gretta, W.J.; Wu, S.; Kikkawa, H. [Hitachi Power Systems America, Basting Ridge, NJ (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new catalyst offers a new way to enhance mercury control from bituminous coal-fired power plants. Hitachi has developed an SCR catalyst which satisfies high Hg{sup 0} oxidation and low SO{sub 2} oxidation requirements under high temperatures (716 to 770 F). This triple action catalysts, TRAC can significantly enhance mercury oxidation and reduce or eliminate the need for additional mercury control measures such as activated carbon injection. After laboratory testing, pilot-scale tests confirmed an activity of 1.4-1.7 times higher than that of conventional SCR catalyst. The new catalyst has been successfully applied in a commercial PRB-fired boiler without the need for halogens to be added to the fuel feed or flue gas. 2 figs.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.