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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This...

2

EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the 60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride

3

CO2 conversion for syngas production in methane catalytic partial oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM) involves the interaction among methane combustion (MC), steam reforming (SR), and dry reforming (DR), and CO2 generated from MC is utilized for syngas production in DR. To evaluate the potential of CO2 utilization in CPOM for syngas production, a numerical study is carried out where CO2 is added into the feed gas and CPOM is triggered in a rhodium-based catalyst bed. Two important parameters of CO2/O2 ratio and O2/CH4 ratio (or O/C ratio) in the feed gas are taken into account. The predictions suggest that CO2 addition plays no part in MC, but it retards SR and intensifies DR. The CO2 consumption increases with CO2/O2 ratio; however, the CO2 conversion goes down. As a whole, increasing CO2 addition enhances CO formation but reduces H2 formation. The maximum syngas production is exhibited at CO2/O2 = 0.2 when the O/C ratio is 1. At a fixed CO2/O2 ratio, the maximum H2 yield and CO2 consumption are located at O/C = 1.8 and 1.0, respectively. However, the CO2 conversion monotonically decreases with increasing O/C ratio. Within the investigated range of CO2/O2 and O/C ratios, the H2 yield and CO2 conversion in CPOM are in the ranges of approximately 0.42–1.34 mol(mol CH4)?1 and 10–41%, respectively.

Wei-Hsin Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Draft Supplement Analysis for Location(s) to Dispose of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE'S Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED URANIUM OXIDE CONVERSION PRODUCT GENERATED FROM DOE'S INVENTORY OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE (DOE/EIS-0359-SA1 AND DOE/EIS-0360-SA1) March 2007 March 2007 i CONTENTS NOTATION........................................................................................................................... iv 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ................................................................. 1 1.1 Why DOE Has Prepared This Draft Supplement Analysis .............................. 1 1.2 Background ....................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Proposed Actions Considered in this Draft Supplement Analysis.................... 4

5

The catalytic oxidation of propane and propylene with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity at low conversions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ Ths writer is izntebteg to pr, P G~ ~och Tor his assistance azsi guidance in this work aC to Br~ J+ 9 Kinds Tor his aery. suggestions eel Succor~ a The oxidation cf propane~ propylene and prcya~cregyimm mbetccres ctver a ~ aiucdna ~st in a flew... formation of aldehyde fran pure grade propane The ~ce of Within the range of variables of this investigation and with propylene ~& aldehyde pr~cn was f'ennd to bs independent of" residence Qorrcgations relating aldehyde pressure to ~ and cncygsn pressure...

Looney, Franklin Sittig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

6

Designing Semiconductor Metal Oxides for Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Innovative materials hold the key for renewable energy conversion. In this talk, we will introduce our recent progress in semiconducting metal oxides, which underpin a number of...

Wang, Lianzhou

7

CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

8

CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide

9

CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Y-12 Site Office's programs for oversight of its contractors at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

10

Portsmouth DUF6 Conversion Final EIS - Appendix E: Impacts Associated with HF and CaF2 Conversion Product Sale and Use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Portsmouth DUF Portsmouth DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX E: IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH HF AND CaF 2 CONVERSION PRODUCT SALE AND USE HF and CaF 2 Conversion Products E-2 Portsmouth DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS HF and CaF 2 Conversion Products E-3 Portsmouth DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX E: IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH HF AND CaF 2 CONVERSION PRODUCT SALE AND USE E.1 INTRODUCTION During the conversion of the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) inventory to depleted uranium oxide, products having some potential for sale to commercial users would be produced. These products would include aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and calcium fluoride (CaF 2 , commonly referred to as fluorspar). These products are routinely used as commercial materials, and an investigation into their potential reuse was done; results are included as part of

11

Paducah DUF6 Conversion Final EIS - Appendix E: Impacts Associated with HF and CaF2 Conversion Product Sale and Use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paducah DUF Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX E: IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH HF AND CaF 2 CONVERSION PRODUCT SALE AND USE HF and CaF 2 Conversion Products E-2 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS HF and CaF 2 Conversion Products E-3 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX E: IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH HF AND CaF 2 CONVERSION PRODUCT SALE AND USE E.1 INTRODUCTION During the conversion of the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) inventory to depleted uranium oxide, products having some potential for sale to commercial users would be produced. These products would include aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and calcium fluoride (CaF 2 , commonly referred to as fluorspar). These products are routinely used as commercial materials, and an investigation into their potential reuse was done; results are included as part of

12

Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

Wang, Lee-Ping

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

14

Enzymatic Hydrogen Production:? Conversion of Renewable Resources for Energy Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enzymatic Hydrogen Production:? Conversion of Renewable Resources for Energy Production ... Steam-exploded aspen wood containing 60% cellulose was a gift from Michael Himmel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado. ... The previous data demonstrate that the two primary components of renewable sources of energy such as biomassglucose and xyloseare capable of oxidiation by GDH, resulting in hydrogen production if hydrogenase is present. ...

Jonathan Woodward; Kimberley A. Cordray; Robert J. Edmonston; Maria Blanco-Rivera; Susan M. Mattingly; Barbara R. Evans

1999-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels – Bio-Oil Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

RTI International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels – Bio-Oil Production.

16

CRAD, Training- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

17

CRAD, Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

18

A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Abstract: ZnxZryOz...

19

CHEMICAL TRAPPING OF A PRIMARY QUANTUM CONVERSION PRODUCT IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONVERSION PRODUCT I N PHOTOSYNTHESIS G e r a l d A. C o r kthe two light acts of photosynthesis. Potassium Ecrricyanide

Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P.; Calvin, Melvin.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Conversion of a regenerative oxidizer into catalytic unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of a VOC oxidation catalyst in the existing regenerative thermal oxidizers may greatly reduce fuel consumption and improve the oxidizer performance. This was demonstrated in a commercial 25,000 SCFM unit installed at a printing facility. The paper discusses the principles of the oxidizer retrofit design and test results obtained at various conditions of operation.

Matros, Y.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies, Chesterfield, MO (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Direct Non-oxidative Methane Conversion by Non-thermal Plasma: Experimental Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct non-oxidative conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons in non-thermal plasma, namely dielectric barrier discharge and corona discharge, has been investigated experimentally at atmospheric pressure....

Yun Yang

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Direct Non-oxidative Methane Conversion by Non-thermal Plasma: Modeling Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct non-oxidative conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons ... dielectric barrier discharges has been investigated theoretically at atmospheric pressure. Preliminary modeling of the results is...2...hy...

Yun Yang

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency) exploited the large surface area of nanoporous thin of nanoporous thin films without increasing the recombination rate. To ensure efficient charge carrier

Konezny, Steven J.

25

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Bioenergy Production via Microbial Conversion of Residual Oil to Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbiology May 15, 2008 ARTICLE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Bioenergy Production via Microbial Conversion of Residual Oil to Natural...alkanes by anaerobic microorganisms. Nature 401: 266-269. Bioenergy production via microbial conversion of residual oil to natural...

Lisa M. Gieg; Kathleen E. Duncan; Joseph M. Suflita

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid–Base Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bio-mass conversion has attracted increasing research interests to produce bio-fuels with bio-ethanol being a major product. Development of advanced processes to further upgrade bio-ethanol to other value added fuels or chemicals are pivotal to improving the economics of biomass conversion and deversifying the utilization of biomass resources. In this paper, for the first time, we report the direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene with high yield (~83%) on a multifunctional ZnxZryOz mixed oxide with a dedicated balance of surface acid-base properties. This work illustrates the significance of rational design of a multifunctional mixed oxide catalyst for one step bio-ethanol conversion to a value-added intermediate, isobutene, for chemical and fuel production. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

30

Two-step fuel oxidation to improve efficiency in the conversion of chemical energy into work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that in the conversion of chemical exergy into work a remarkable percentage of exergy is destroyed during the combustion process. Obviously, hypothetical reversible combustions, as proposed in some papers, are not to be taken into account. On the contrary, recent studies of a new system to increase the efficiency of the conversion of chemical exergy into work appear interesting. The proposed system includes a gas turbine system with chemical-looping combustion where a metal oxide is used as an oxygen carrier. Instead of conventional combustion, the oxidation of fuel is carried out in a two-step reaction. The first step is an endothermic reaction in which a metal oxide is reduced by fuel at low temperature and the second step an exothermic reaction in which the products of the former reaction are subjected to oxidation. The thermal energy of low exergy value in the exhaust gas is employed to drive the endothermic reaction. Various systems have been proposed and tested. The power-generation system (called CLSA), with chemical-looping combustion and air saturation seems the most convenient. When only saturated air is used, exergy destruction becomes small in the middle- and low temperature range. However, the inefficiency in the high temperature range remains. On the other hand, when only chemical-looping combustion is used, exergy destruction becomes small in the high- and middle temperature range. However, the inefficiency in the low-temperature range is now not removed. When both technologies are combined, exergy efficiency may become much greater than that obtained from each individual process. The synergistic effect of combining these two technologies is analogous to the improvement achieved when a combined system was designed as a new power-generation system by combining a gas turbine with a steam turbine. For a model system, an exergy efficiency of 53.3% is obtained when the process water is recovered and a value of about 55% is obtained when water is not recovered. A significant advantage of the CLSA system is that CO{sub 2} can be easily recovered. The CO{sub 2} produced in the reduction reactor is not diluted by air since air and fuel enter different reactors. This is quite different from a traditional combustor in which CO{sub 2} is diluted in air and hence cannot be concentrated and separated economically. In the CLSA system, since the exhaust gas from the reduction reactor is composed only of high-concentration CO{sub 2} and water vapor, CO{sub 2} can be easily recovered by cooling the exhaust gas and removing the liquid water, i.e. very little energy expenditure is required for recovering CO{sub 2} from the exhaust gas. The recovered CO{sub 2} may be utilized, e.g., in artificial photosynthesis, whereas a simple recovery without any utilization but only to reduce greenhouse effect seems questionable. Another significant characteristic of CLSA system is that the most of the water vapor in the exhaust gas can be recovered by cooling the exhaust gas from the oxidation reactor. In chemical-looping combustion, fuel is not burned directly and the gas discharged from the oxidation reactor has no impurities from the fuel. Hence, there will be no corrosion of the apparatus when the exhaust gas is cooled to a very low temperature and low cost materials can be utilized for the heat exchangers. Because of the recycling of the most part of water, the CLSA system can be used in locations with limited water resources. Chemical-looping combustion system can be also combined with an integrated coal gasification and this topic appears very interesting. Indeed, to achieve better conversion efficiencies and lower pollutant emissions in power plants, new technologies that combines coal gasification with a gas turbine based combined cycle have been extensively studied worldwide.

Bisio, G.; Rubatto, R.; Marletta, L.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Electrochemical Conversion of Oxide Precursors to Consolidated Zr and Zr?2.5Nb Tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrochemical Conversion of Oxide Precursors to Consolidated Zr and Zr?2.5Nb ... Electrochemical reduction of tubular oxide precursors in molten calcium chloride and the subsequent in situ consolidation induced by electro-deoxygenation promise a low energy and fast route for manufacturing of zirconium-alloy-based artifacts, such as the nuclear fuel cladding tubes. ... Zircaloy) in a mold of Plaster of Paris. ...

Junjun Peng; Kai Jiang; Wei Xiao; Dihua Wang; Xianbo Jin; George Z. Chen

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

32

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory Ricardo B. Metz Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA Abstract Gas such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

Metz, Ricardo B.

34

CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

35

CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Industrial Safety and Industrial Health programs at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

36

CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

37

CRAD, Environmental Protection- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Environmental Compliance program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

38

CRAD, DOE Oversight- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Y-12 Site Office's programs for oversight of its contractors at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

39

CRAD, Emergency Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Emergency Management program at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

40

CRAD, Safety Basis- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Safety Basis at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Novel Solar Energy Conversion Materials by Design of Mn(II) Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar energy conversion materials need to fulfill simultaneously a number of requirements in regard of their band-structure, optical properties, carrier transport, and doping. Despite their desirable chemical properties, e.g., for photo-electrocatalysis, transition-metal oxides usually do not have desirable semiconducting properties. Instead, oxides with open cation d-shells are typically Mott or charge-transfer insulators with notoriously poor transport properties, resulting from large effective electron/hole masses or from carrier self-trapping. Based on the notion that the electronic structure features (p-d interaction) supporting the p-type conductivity in d10 oxides like Cu2O and CuAlO2 occurs in a similar fashion also in the d5 (high-spin) oxides, we recently studied theoretically the band-structure and transport properties of the prototypical binary d5 oxides MnO and Fe2O3 [PRB 85, 201202(R)]. We found that MnO tends to self-trap holes by forming Mn+III, whereas Fe2O3 self-traps electrons by forming Fe+II. However, the self-trapping of holes is suppressed by when Mn is tetrahedrally coordinated, which suggests specific routes to design novel solar conversion materials by considering ternary Mn(II) oxides or oxide alloys. We are presenting theory, synthesis, and initial characterization for these novel energy materials.

Lany, S.; Peng, H.; Ndione, P.; Zakutayev, A.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Un exemple de conversion d'une table de production en volume en tables de production en biomasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Un exemple de conversion d'une table de production en volume en tables de production en biomasse secteur ligérien, proposée par PARD� en 1962, est convertie en quatre tables de production en biomasse correspondant chacune à une partie de l'arbre ou à l'arbre entier, biomasse foliaire exclue. La conversion est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol: Enhanced methanol production in silica sol-gel matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strategies for effective conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to methanol offer promising new technologies not only for recycling of the greenhouse gas but also for an efficient production of fuel alternatives. Partial hydrogenation of carbon dioxide has been accomplished by means of heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. Oxide-based catalysts are predominantly used for industrial fixation of carbon dioxide. A unique approach in this direction involves the use of enzymes as catalysts for conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol. The use of enzymes is particularly appealing since it provides a facile low-temperature route for generation of methanol directly from gaseous carbon dioxide. The authors report an enzymatically coupled sequential reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by using a series of reactions catalyzed by three different dehydrogenases. Overall, the process involves an initial reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (F{sub ate}DH), followed by reduction of formate to formaldehyde by formaldehyde dehydrogenase (F{sub ald}DH), and finally formaldehyde is reduced to methanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In this process, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) acts as a terminal electron donor for each dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction.

Obert, R.; Dave, B.C.

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with a Water-Soluble Nickel-Based Catalyst. Minimal Proton Channel Enables H2 Oxidation and Production with a...

45

Synthesis and characterization of copper doped zinc oxide nanoparticles and its application in energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar cells, in general, perform under light source of solar influx, while the heat energy of solar radiation remains unutilized. Using an aqueous suspension of copper doped zinc oxide nanoparticles in specially-designed electrochemical cells we have observed significant voltage (maximum 632.0 mV) and storage duration (?47 h) upon thermal excitation. The cells exhibit reasonable energy conversion efficiency (maximum 1.36%). These cells generate voltage even at room temperature (?30 °C) and the voltage increases gradually with increasing temperature. When the platinum foil separating the two compartments of the electrochemical cell is replaced by a planar lipid membrane, all the parameters e.g., thermovoltage, storage capacity and the energy conversion efficiency increase significantly.

Poonam Bandyopadhyay; Anindita Dey; Ruma Basu; Sukhen Das; Papiya Nandy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Gas conversion impedance: A test geometry effect in characterization of solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The appearance of an extra arc in impedance spectra obtained on high performance solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes is recognized when experiments are conducted in a test setup where the working and reference electrodes are placed in separate atmospheres. A simple continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is used to illustrate how anodes measured with the reference electrode in an atmosphere separate from the working electrode are subject to an impedance contribution from gas conversion. The gas conversion impedance is split into a resistive and a capacitive part, and the dependences of these parameters on gas composition, temperature, gas flow rate, and rig geometry are quantified. The fuel gas flow rate per unit of anode area is decisive for the resistivity, whereas the capacitance is proportional to the CSTR volume of gas over the anode. The model predictions are compared to actual measurements on Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia cermet anodes for SOFC. The contribution of the gas conversion overpotential to dc current-voltage characteristics is deduced for H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and shown to have a slope of RT/2F in a Tafel plot.

Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Research Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new and innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. We are examining the use of military high explosives as raw materials for the production of higher value products useful in civilian and military applications. We have developed scenarios where Explosive D and TNT can be used as raw materials for industrial processes to produce higher value products. 1,2 The use of Explosive D as a precursor to picramide, an intermediate potentially useful for the production of many higher value products, is illustrated in Figure 1.

Mitchell, A. R., LLNL

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, \\{H4PVMo11O40\\} gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity.

Jizhe Zhang; Miao Sun; Xin Liu; Yu Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Recent advances in the chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to develop novel R3 (Resource Recovery and Recycling) alternatives to the open burning/open denotation (OB/OD) of surplus energetic materials higher value products potentially provides environmentally sound and cost- effective alternatives to OB/OD. Our recent studies on the conversion of surplus energetic materials (high explosives, propellants). The use of energetic materials as chemical feedstocks for higher value products potentially provides environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. Our recent studies on the conversion of surplus energetic materials to higher value products will be described.

Mitchell, A. R., LLNL

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Chemical conversions of butyraldehydes during separation of the products of oxo synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was shown that aldol condensation and formation of acetals occur during isolation of butyraldehydes by continuous fractionation of the products of oxo synthesis. Aldehyde losses due to chemical conversions decrease with increase of temperature in the reboiler, and may be virtually eliminated, while the selectivity of formation of the products of aldol condensation increases.

Kuz'mina, L.S.; Maiorova, L.V.; Katsnel'son, M.G.; Kharisov, M.A.

1987-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

51

Sequencing of Multiple Clostridial Genomes Related to Biomass Conversion and Biofuel Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern methods to develop microbe-based biomass conversion processes require a system-level understanding of the microbes involved. Clostridium species have long been recognized as ideal candidates for processes involving biomass conversion and production of various biofuels and other industrial products. To expand the knowledge base for clostridial species relevant to current biofuel production efforts, we have sequenced the genomes of 20 species spanning multiple genera. The majority of species sequenced fall within the class III cellulosome-encoding Clostridium and the class V saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Species were chosen based on representation in the experimental literature as model organisms, ability to degrade cellulosic biomass either by free enzymes or by cellulosomes, ability to rapidly ferment hexose and pentose sugars to ethanol, and ability to ferment synthesis gas to ethanol. The sequenced strains significantly increase the number of noncommensal/nonpathogenic clostridial species and provide a key foundation for future studies of biomass conversion, cellulosome composition, and clostridial systems biology.

Hemme, Christopher [University of Oklahoma; Mouttaki, Housna [University of Oklahoma; Lee, Yong-Jin [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Van Nostrand, Joy [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Henrissat, Bernard [Universite d'Aix-Marseille I & II; HE, Qiang [ORNL; Lawson, Paul A. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tanner, Ralph S. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Wiegel, Juergen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Fields, Dr. Matthew Wayne [Montana State University; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Stevenson, Bradley S. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Dong, Hailiang [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Xing, Defeng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Wang, Aijie [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Ding, Shi-You [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Taghavi, Safiyh [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)/U.S. Department of Energy; Van Der Lelie, Daniel [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Rubin, Edward M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A novel clean and effective syngas production system based on partial oxidation of methane assisted solid oxide co-electrolysis process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Development of the syngas production from solid oxide H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis is limited by the intensive energy input and low efficiency. Here, we present a new concept to efficiently generate syngas in both sides of the solid oxide electrolyzer by synergistically combining co-electrolysis with partial oxidation of methane (POM). Thermodynamic calculation and electrochemical measurements for the POM assisted solid oxide co-electrolysis processes on the SFM-SDC/LSGM/SFM-SDC cells exhibited an reduced electric input, increased energy conversion efficiency and decreased cathodic co-electrolysis polarization resistance in comparison with the conventional co-electrolysis. This method will be crucial to establish a clean and effective energy conversion system to meet global sustainable energy needs.

Yao Wang; Tong Liu; Shumin Fang; Guoliang Xiao; Huanting Wang; Fanglin Chen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

Nguyen Minh

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

2 - Production, properties and environmental impact of hydrocarbon fuel conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Hydrocarbon fuels are an essential part of modern life and commerce and will remain so for the next 50 years. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels damage our environment, causing global climate changes. For 150 years, fossil fuels have caused atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to increase by amounts that are debatable, arguable and, at best, guestimates. A transition to cleaner, more secure energy is necessary to slow down global warming. Renewable energy is growing fast, but still far from replacing carbon-intensive energy sources. Even if oil production declines soon, fossil fuels will dominate the world’s energy mix for years. In the near term, improving the use of oil, natural gas and coal will be key. Oil will remain the world’s top energy source for decades, but decline in production could send prices soaring. A dream come true for climate activists – the eventual end of the Petroleum Age – could be a time wrought with tension for the industrialized world.

J.G. Speight

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

One-Step Conversion of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 1,2,6-Hexanetriol Over Ni–Co–Al Mixed Oxide Catalysts Under Mild Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-Step Conversion of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 1,2,6-Hexanetriol Over Ni–Co–Al Mixed Oxide Catalysts Under Mild Conditions ... A sustainable process with a one-step conversion of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 1,2,6-hexanetriol is presented. ... The conversion of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was examined over Ni–Co–Al mixed oxide catalysts derived from corresponding hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs). ...

Shengxi Yao; Xicheng Wang; Yijun Jiang; Feng Wu; Xinguo Chen; Xindong Mu

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Method of making a catalytic metal oxide selective for the conversion of a gas and a coating system for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described of making a catalytic metal oxide selective to catalyzing the conversion of given gas species, comprising: intimately supporting a solid film of catalytic metal oxide on an electrically conducting material, said film having an exposed outer surface spaced no greater than 1,000 angstroms from said conducting material and said conducting material being matched to the composition of said oxide to change the electron state of the exposed outer surface to promote a reaction between given gas species and said oxide, said metal oxide being selected from the group consisting of TiO[sub 2], SnO[sub 2], FeO, SrTiO[sub 3], and CoO, and said conducting material being selected from the group consisting of Au, Pt, TiN, Pd, Rh, Ni, and Co.

Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

57

Low-threshold up-conversion luminescence in ZnxCd1?xS with oxidized surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of low-threshold up-conversion luminescence in ZnxCd1?xS crystals of solid solutions (where x=0.5–0.9) with oxidized surface has been studied. It has been proved that the centers of excitation of up-conversion luminescence form from (CdO)n and (ZnO)n clusters adsorbed on the surface of ZnxCd1?xS crystals. It has been experimentally proved that up-conversion luminescence is connected with the formation of quantum wells. The excitation of such luminescence appears under the influence of quanta 1.7–2.0 eV with the density 0.005 W/cm2, as a result of cold Auger process.

Mikhail S. Smirnov; Oleg V. Ovchinnikov; Ekaterina A. Kosyakova; Anatoly N. Latyshev; Alexander F. Klinskikh; Elena P. Tat’yanina; Pavel V. Novikov; Mien Hai

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method for conversion of carbohydrate polymers to value-added chemical products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for conversion of carbohydrate polymers in ionic liquids, including cellulose, that yield value-added chemicals including, e.g., glucose and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) at temperatures below 120.degree. C. Catalyst compositions that include various mixed metal halides are described that are selective for specified products with yields, e.g., of up to about 56% in a single step process.

Zhang, Zongchao C. (Norwood, NJ); Brown, Heather M. (Kennewick, WA); Su, Yu (Richland, WA)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels via Catalytic Conversion of Microalgae: Experiments and Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize “food versus fuel” concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi, Fan; Wang, Ping; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

Kronawitter, Coleman X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Valuable Chemical Products over Composite Catalytic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presented is an experimental study on catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Catalysts having different catalytic functions were synthesized and combined in different ways to enhance selectivity to desired products. The combined catalyst system possessed the following functions: methanol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, water-gas-shift and hydrogenation. Results showed that the methods of integrating these catalytic functions played important role in achieving desired product selectivity. It was speculated that if methanol synthesis sites were located adjacent to the C-C chain growth sites, the formation rate of C2 oxygenates would be enhanced. The advantage of using high temperature methanol catalyst PdZnAl in the combined catalyst system was demonstrated. In the presence of PdZnAl catalyst, the combined catalyst system was stable at temperature of 380oC. It was observed that, at high temperature, kinetics favored oxygenate formation. Results implied that the process can be intensified by operating at high temperature using Pd-based methanol synthesis catalyst. Steam reforming of the byproduct organics was demonstrated as a means to provide supplemental hydrogen. Preliminary process design, simulation, and economic analysis of the proposed CO2 conversion process were carried out. Economic analysis indicates how ethanol production cost was affected by the price of CO2 and hydrogen.

Dagle, Robert A.; Hu, Jianli; Jones, Susanne B.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Frye, John G.; White, J. F.; Jiang, Juyuan; Wang, Yong

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Heavy quark production from jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, it has been demonstrated that the chemical composition of jets in heavy ion collisions is significantly altered compared to the jets in the vacuum. This signal can be used to probe the medium formed in nuclear collisions. In this study we investigate the possibility that fast light quarks and gluons can convert to heavy quarks when passing through a quark-gluon plasma. We study the rate of light to heavy jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and investigate their impact on the production of high-p{sub T} charm and bottom quarks at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

Liu, W. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366 (United States); Fries, R. J. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accounting for all of the factors that go into energy demand (population, vehicle miles traveled per ... capita, vehicle efficiency) and land required for energy production (biomass land yields, biomass conversion

Stephen R. Decker; John Sheehan…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 19, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 151 Production Cost Analysis of Dispersed Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 19, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 151 Production Cost Analysis for electric utilities to build a few large central power stations and then deliver that energy through, NSF, and the Grainger Foundation. Y. Lin is with the GE Power Systems Energy Consulting Group

Gross, George

68

Raman spectroscopic measurement of oxidation in supercritical water. 2: Conversion of isopropyl alcohol to acetone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of isopropyl alcohol in supercritical water has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Results for species concentration as a function of residence-time are presented for temperatures ranging from 400 to 480 C at constant pressure, 24.4 {+-} 0.3 MPa, and constant equivalence ratio, 0.88 {+-} 0.0. Acetone has been identified as the principal intermediate formed and subsequently destroyed, during the oxidation process. By assuming first-order kinetics for the destruction of both isopropyl alcohol and acetone, effective first-order rate constants have been determined from fits of the experimental data. Assuming Arrhenius behavior, the fits yield rate constants for isopropyl alcohol, k{sub eff,ipa} = 3.255 {times} 10{sup 22}(s{sup {minus}1}) exp [{minus}301.1 (kJ/mol)/RT], and for acetone, k{sub eff,ace} = 1.948 {times} 10{sup 10}(s{sup {minus}1}) exp[{minus}137.7(kJ/mol)/RT]. These results indicate that for temperatures greater than 425 C, the destruction of isopropyl alcohol proceeds faster than that of acetone.

Hunter, T.B.; Rice, S.F.; Hanush, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A two-step photon-intermediate technique for the production of electricity, chemicals or lasers in nuclear energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors have developed an energy conversion concept, called Photon-Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC), that makes possible a two-step conversion of high grade nuclear energy (fission or fusion) to electricity or other useful high grade energy forms without intermediate thermalization. In PIDEC the nuclear fuel has a low average density, with local scale lengths significantly shorter than the range of the energetic nuclear reaction products. In the first step of the process, the nuclear energetic reaction product energy is transported to a fluorescer gas which converts it into photons. Then, in the second step of the process, the photons are transported out of the nuclear reactor to a medium which converts the photon energy to the desired product high grade energy form, such as electricity. We calculate that electricity can be produced, non-thermally, with an efficiency of up to 30%. With the addition of intermediate and bottoming thermal cycles, efficiency for electricity production could be as high as 70%, double that of conventional nuclear power plants. In addition to electric power, photolysis makes other product forms possible. These products include useful feedstock, or combustion chemicals, such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and excited molecular and atomic states, used for laser amplifiers or oscillators.

M.A. Prelas; F.P. Boody; E.J. Charlson; G.H. Miley

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Hydrogen Production via Chemical Looping Redox Cycles Using Atomic Layer Deposition-Synthesized Iron Oxide and Cobalt Ferrites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production via Chemical Looping Redox Cycles Using Atomic Layer Deposition-Synthesized Iron Oxide and Cobalt Ferrites ... Unlike solution and line-of-sight methods used to synthesize metal-substituted ferrites, including solution combustion synthesis,(6) aerial oxidation of aqueous suspensions,(5) sol?gel process,(8) laser molecular beam epitaxy,(21) sputtering,(22) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD),(23) ALD can produce conformal thin films on porous materials. ... The drop in peak H2 production rate is accompanied by a ?55% decrease in the total amount of H2 produced (see Table 1) and a similar decrease in the time required to achieve 95% conversion, suggesting a loss of accessible iron in this material. ...

Jonathan R. Scheffe; Mark D. Allendorf; Eric N. Coker; Benjamin W. Jacobs; Anthony H. McDaniel; Alan W. Weimer

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

72

Assessment of Hydrogen Production Systems based on Natural Gas Conversion with Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Introduction of hydrogen in the energy system, as a new energy carrier complementary to electricity, is exciting much interest not only for heat and power generation applications, but also for transport and petro-chemical sectors. In transition to a low carbon economy, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies represent another way to reduce CO2 emissions. Hydrogen can be produced from various feedstocks, the most important being based on fossil fuels (natural gas and coal). This paper investigates the techno-economic and environmental aspects of hydrogen production based on natural gas reforming conversion with and without carbon capture. As CO2 capture options, gas - liquid absorption and chemical looping were evaluated. The evaluated plant concepts generate 300 MWth hydrogen (based on hydrogen LHV) with purity higher than 99.95 % (vol.), suitable to be used both in petro-chemical applications as well as for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for mobile applications. For the designs with CCS, the carbon capture rate is about 70 % for absorption-based scheme while for chemical looping-based system is >99 %. Special emphasis is put in the paper on the assessment of various plant configurations and process integration issues using CAPE techniques. The mass and energy balances have been used furthermore for techno-economic and environmental impact assessments.

Calin-Cristian Cormos; Letitia Petrescu; Ana-Maria Cormos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Assessment of Combinations between Pretreatment and Conversion Configurations for Bioethanol Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Therefore, useful alternatives can be generated, although additional factors need to be considered. ... Therefore, the most appropriate conversions to combine with SE are SHCF and SSCF. ... The black color bar represents the energy cost for pretreatment and conversion steps, and the gray color bar represents the energy cost for the distillation step. ...

Carolina Conde-Mejía; Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

74

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heng Ban Heng Ban Principal Investigator University of Alabama at Birmingham 1150 10th Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294-4461 205-934-0011 hban@uab.edu Environmental and Water Resources OxidatiOn Of Mercury in PrOducts Of cOal cOMbustiOn Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. A variety of mercury reduction technologies are under commercial development, but an improved understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the transformations and capture of mercury in boilers and pollution control devices is required to achieve necessary performance and cost reduction levels. Oxidized mercury is more easily captured by pollution control devices, such as Selective

75

Thermodynamics of the conversion of calcium and magnesium fluorides to the parent metal oxides and hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have used thermodynamic modeling to examine the reaction of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) with water (H{sub 2}O) at elevated temperatures. The calculated, equilibrium composition corresponds to the global free-energy minimum for the system. Optimum, predicted reaction temperatures and reactant mole ratios are reported for the recovery of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a valuable industrial feedstock. Complete conversion of MgF{sub 2} is found at 1,000 C and a ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of MgF{sub 2}. For CaF{sub 2}, temperatures as high as 1,400 C are required for complete conversion at a corresponding mole ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of CaF{sub 2}. The authors discuss the presence of minor chemical constituents as well as the stability of various potential container materials for the pyrohydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures. CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} slags are available as wastes at former uranium production facilities within the Department of Energy Complex and other facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Recovery of HF from these wastes is an example of environmental remediation at such facilities.

West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Conversion Tables  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center - Conversion Tables Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center - Conversion Tables Contents taken from Glossary: Carbon Dioxide and Climate, 1990. ORNL/CDIAC-39, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Third Edition. Edited by: Fred O'Hara Jr. 1 - International System of Units (SI) Prefixes 2 - Useful Quantities in CO2 3 - Common Conversion Factors 4 - Common Energy Unit Conversion Factors 5 - Geologic Time Scales 6 - Factors and Units for Calculating Annual CO2 Emissions Using Global Fuel Production Data Table 1. International System of Units (SI) Prefixes Prefix SI Symbol Multiplication Factor exa E 1018 peta P 1015 tera T 1012 giga G 109 mega M 106 kilo k 103 hecto h 102 deka da 10 deci d 10-1 centi c 10-2

77

The Impact of Biomass Pretreatment on the Feasibility of Overseas Biomass Conversion to Fischer?Tropsch Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Impact of Biomass Pretreatment on the Feasibility of Overseas Biomass Conversion to Fischer?Tropsch Products ... One of the most promising options to produce transportation fuels from biomass is the so-called biomass-to-liquids (BtL) route, in which biomass is converted to syngas from which high-quality Fischer?Tropsch (FT) fuels are synthesized. ... Alternatively to converting biomass into liquids or coal-like material, new and dedicated feeding systems for biomass can be developed. ...

Robin W. R. Zwart; Harold Boerrigter; Abraham van der Drift

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

Catalytic conversion of methane over a biomass char for hydrogen production: deactivation and regeneration by steam gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CH4 decomposition over a wood char was investigated as an alternative green catalyst to produce hydrogen from hydrocarbons. Pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) deposition leads to apparent deactivation of the catalyst by pore-mouth plugging. The activity of the carbon bed and its available surface area is easily restored by H2O gasification. The used char with pyrocarbon deposition was even found to be more reactive to gasification than the fresh char used in our conditions. This finding was highlighted by: (i) determination of gasification reaction extents by steam, (ii) temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) of the fresh, used and reactivated chars, (iii) TPO under Differential Scanning Calorimetry of these chars and demineralised chars. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis of the chars showed different multiscale organisation of the carbon materials (disordered and graphitic mesoporous nanostructures). The fast regeneration of the used char could be attributed to the catalytic effect of the minerals present in the char that are reduced under our conditions of CH4 conversion. The predominant oxidation of the pyrocarbon compared to the char during its regeneration is evidenced through differential annealing (at 1800 °C) followed by XRD analysis. The oxidation of pyrocarbon is faster than the oxidation of the weakly reactive mesoporous carbon in char as shown by the HRTEM analysis. Consequently, wood char is an effective, easy to regenerate, and cheap catalyst for converting hydrocarbons (CH4 or tar) into syngas.

A. Dufour; A. Celzard; V. Fierro; F. Broust; C. Courson; A. Zoulalian; J.N. Rouzaud

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Ni catalysts derived from Mg–Al layered double hydroxides for hydrogen production from landfill gas conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor with a hydrotalcite-like structure containing Ni/Mg/Al cations was prepared. A series of Ni catalysts containing mixed-oxides and spinel phases were then obtained through thermal treatment of the LDH precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) revealed that the LDH derived Ni catalysts have well-dispersed nickel phases upon reduction. The thermal treatment temperatures have noticeable effects on the specific surface area, pore volume, phase transformation, particle size, and reducibility of the catalysts. Thermal treatment temperatures up to 700 °C promote the generation of mesopores which facilitate an increase in specific area and pore volume. Beyond 700 °C sintering occurs, mesopores collapse, and specific area and pore volume decrease. High thermal treatment temperatures favor the phase transformation to spinel solid solutions and the particle size growth. Metal-support interaction is enhanced but reducibility is hindered due to the formation of spinel solid solution phases. The LDH derived Ni catalysts were tested for landfill gas conversion at 750 °C and have shown excellent activity and stability in terms of methane conversion. At gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 240,000 h?1 and pressure of 1 atm, 81% methane conversion was achieved during a 48 h test period without apparent catalyst deactivation.

Qingsong Wang; Wei Ren; Xueliang Yuan; Ruimin Mu; Zhanlong Song; Xiaolin Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Standard specification for uranium oxides with a 235U content of less than 5 % for dissolution prior to conversion to nuclear-grade uranium dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This specification covers uranium oxides, including processed byproducts or scrap material (powder, pellets, or pieces), that are intended for dissolution into uranyl nitrate solution meeting the requirements of Specification C788 prior to conversion into nuclear grade UO2 powder with a 235U content of less than 5 %. This specification defines the impurity and uranium isotope limits for such urania powders that are to be dissolved prior to processing to nuclear grade UO2 as defined in Specification C753. 1.2 This specification provides the nuclear industry with a general standard for such uranium oxide powders. It recognizes the diversity of conversion processes and the processes to which such powders are subsequently to be subjected (for instance, by solvent extraction). It is therefore anticipated that it may be necessary to include supplementary specification limits by agreement between the buyer and seller. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for prevent...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Comparison of a new micaceous iron oxide and ilmenite as oxygen carrier for Chemical looping combustion with respect to syngas conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. One of the challenges is to find the most suitable oxygen carrier (OC). Using solid fuels makes it important to use cheap and natural oxygen carriers, since there will probably be some loss of bed material while discharging ash from the system. Therefore ilmenite and a new micaceous iron oxide (MIOX ME 400) are compared with respect to syngas conversion in a 10 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) reactor. The OC was alternatively reduced with either CO + H2 or CH4 + H2 and oxidized with air at 900 °C. The conversion of syngas with MIOX ME 400 is always higher (XCO, XH2 > 98%) than that with ilmenite. Conversion of CH4 is also better for MIOX ME 400, even though it is still low. It can be raised by increasing fuel reactor temperature from 900 °C to 950 °C which results in a CH4 conversion of 85–60% instead of 60–40%.

Florian Mayer; Ajay R. Bidwe; Alexander Schopf; Kamran Taheri; Mariusz Zieba; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation products Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu mineralization: Evidence from Pinatubo, Bingham Canyon and El Teniente Summary: eruption products show that mafic magma was...

83

Marine current energy conversion: the dawn of a new era in electricity production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Theme Issue New research in tidal current energy compiled and edited by AbuBakr Bahaj Marine current energy conversion: the dawn of a new era in electricity...s.bahaj@soton.ac.uk Sustainable Energy Research Group, Energy and Climate Change...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper the progress in the field of solar energy conversion for the production of electricity and storable ... critically analyzed in view of their stability and conversion efficiency. A number of factors

Rüdiger Memming

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Production of microporous aluminum oxide electrodes as supports for tethered lipid bilayers of large surface area.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Production of microporous aluminum oxide electrodes as supports for tethered lipid bilayers.Bourdillon@utc.fr Abstract A composite electrode made by association of gold and porous aluminum oxide has been used aluminum oxide; phospholipid bilayer; two-dimensional electrochemistry; ubiquinone lateral mobility. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Biodiesel production from algae oil high in free fatty acids by two-step catalytic conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of storage temperature and time on lipid composition of Scenedesmus sp. was studied. When stored at 4 °C or higher, the free fatty acid content in the wet biomass increased from a trace to 62.0% by day 4. Using two-step catalytic conversion, algae oil with a high free fatty acid content was converted to biodiesel by pre-esterification and transesterification. The conversion rate of triacylglycerols reached 100% under the methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 during catalysis with 2% potassium hydroxide at 65 °C for 30 min. This process was scaled up to produce biodiesel from Scenedesmus sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. oil. The crude biodiesel was purified using bleaching earth. Except for moisture content, the biodiesel conformed to Chinese National Standards.

Lin Chen; Tianzhong Liu; Wei Zhang; Xiaolin Chen; Junfeng Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Production of Carbon from Carbon Dioxide with Iron Oxides and High-Temperature Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Carbon from Carbon Dioxide with Iron Oxides and High-Temperature Solar Energy ... 2 Since it is the major oxidation product from all hydrocarbon combustion processes, its presence permeates nearly every sector of the world economy. ... Thus, CO2 recycling and utilization seems to be a fundamental task from both an ecological and economical point of view. ...

K. Ehrensberger; R. Palumbo; C. Larson; A. Steinfeld

1997-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

Algae Harvest Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Resolution of many workshops on algae harvest energy conversion is that low productivity, high capital intensity ... and maintenance, respiration, and photoinhibition are few factors militating against viability ...

Yung-Tse Hung Ph.D.; P.E.; DEE; O. Sarafadeen Amuda Ph.D.…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

90

Bio-based C-3 Platform Chemical: Biotechnological Production and -Conversion of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Demands for efficient, greener, economical and sustainable production of chemicals, materials and energy have led to development of industrial biotechnology as a key technology area… (more)

Rezaei, Roya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

92

Public Involvement Opportunities for the DUF6 Conversion Facility EISs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Opportunities Opportunities Public Involvement Opportunities The public comment period for the Supplement Analysis for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE's Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride is closed. Sorry! The public comment period for the Supplement Analysis for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE's Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride is closed. The public comment form is no longer available. For information on other public involvement opportunities, please visit Public Involvement Opportunities. Ways to Provide Comments Comments may be submitted via the Public Comment Form on this Web site. Comments can also be mailed to: DU Disposal Supplement Analysis Comment Argonne National Laboratory

93

Marine current energy conversion: the dawn of a new era in electricity production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...production. Renew. Energy 28, 2205-2211. 10...development of UK's marine energy industry. See http://www.innovateuk.org/content/competition-announcements...29 DECC. 2012 Draft Energy Bill. See http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/legislation...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

Herrmann, Steven Douglas

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

95

Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for different materials and combustion temperatures. It is less than 1% for thermally altered biomass at combusBlack Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone resistant product of incomplete combustion, and consists out of a range of combustion products such as char

Fischlin, Andreas

96

Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Vogel, Fredreric (Villigen PSI, CH); Steffin, Carsten R. (Herne, DE)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

97

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I and angular distributions of CO2 produced by CO oxidation on Rh 111 have been measured as a function a fundamental and a practical point of view. CO2 formation serves as a model recombina- tion reaction

Sibener, Steven

98

Effect of the Catalyst Load on Syngas Production in Short Contact Time Catalytic Partial Oxidation Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of the Catalyst Load on Syngas Production in Short Contact Time Catalytic Partial Oxidation Reactors ... For safety and environmental protection reasons (to avoid syngas release into the atmosphere), after the analysis section, the reacted gas stream was completely oxidized by forced air in a catalytic honeycomb burner (Figure 2). ...

S. Specchia; L. D. Vella; B. Lorenzut; T. Montini; V. Specchia; P. Fornasiero

2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

99

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation ... The oxidation of coal to produce high-valued benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), which are obtained currently from diminishing petroleum reserves, is a promising industrial process of the future. ...

Wenhua Wang; Yucui Hou; Weize Wu; Muge Niu; Weina Liu

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

100

Chemical Conversions of Natural Precursors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many products from the flavour industry are primary products from renewable resources or secondary products obtained by chemical conversions of the primary products. In general these secondary products are key...

Peter H. van der Schaft

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Measurement of Nitric Oxide Production from Lymphatic Entothelial Cells Under Mechanical Stimuli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms to pump lymph. Intrinsic pumping involves the active contraction of vessels, a phenomenon that is regulated in part by nitric oxide (NO) produced by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). NO production by arterial endothelial cells has been shown...

Jafarnejad, Mohammad 1987-

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

102

Nitric oxide inhibits the production of soluble endothelin converting enzyme-1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examined the effect of nitric oxide on the production of soluble ECE-1. Activity of ECE-1 in media was measured using a quenched fluorescent substrate assay, and expressed as a percentage of control...

Sanjaya Kuruppu; Niwanthi W. Rajapakse…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Autothermal oxidative pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks over noble metal catalysts to liquid products.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Two thermal processing technologies have emerged for processing biomass into renewable liquid products: pyrolysis and gasification/Fischer-Tropsch processing. The work presented here will demonstrate oxidative pyrolysis… (more)

Balonek, Christine Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Method for the catalytic conversion of organic materials into a product gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting organic material into a product gas includes: (a) providing a liquid reactant mixture containing liquid water and liquid organic material within a pressure reactor; (b) providing an effective amount of a reduced metal catalyst selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium or mixtures thereof within the pressure reactor; and (c) maintaining the liquid reactant mixture and effective amount of reduced metal catalyst in the pressure reactor at temperature and pressure conditions of from about 300 C to about 450 C; and at least 130 atmospheres for a period of time, the temperature and pressure conditions being effective to maintain the reactant mixture substantially as liquid, the effective amount of reduced metal catalyst and the period of time being sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the liquid organic material to produce a product gas composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. 5 figs.

Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from $3 to $60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under $10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under $20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed $50/lb thorium oxide.

Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Production of a nitrogeneous humic fertilizer by the oxidation-ammoniation of lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two lignite samples were oxidised with HNO/sub 3/ (20% wt) at 75 C and treated afterwards with NH/sub 3/ in a fluidised-bed reactor in a temperature range 100-375 C. The effects of temperature, NH/sub 3/ flow rate, and reaction time on the total N/sub 2/ content of the product are reported. The product contained 7-13% wt of total N/sub 2/ which increased as the ammoniation temperature increased. Soil nitrification measurements of the N/sub 2/-enriched lignites showed that the maximum conversion to nitrates and rate of nitrification are exhibited by the product obtained at the lowest ammoniation temperature, i.e. 100 C. Maximum conversion to nitrates at that temperature was 45%, which compares well with similar products such as ammoniated peat (35%) and ammonium nitrohumates (45%).

Coca, J.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150 to 260/sup 0/C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO/sub 4/ and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect. 3 tables.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Foran, M.T.

1984-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Development of Vanadium Phosphaate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE sponsored study of methane partial oxidation was initiated at Amax Research and Development in Golden, CO in October of 1993. Shortly thereafter the management of Amax closed this R&D facility and the PI moved to the Colorado School of Mines. The project was begun again after contract transfer via a novation agreement. Experimental work began with testing of vandyl pyrophosphate (VPO), a well known alkane selective oxidation catalyst. It was found that VPO was not a selective catalyst for methane conversion yielding primarily CO. However, promotion of VPO with Fe, Cr, and other first row transition metals led to measurable yields for formaldehyde, as noted in the summary table. Catalyst characterization studies indicated that the role of promoters was to stabilize some of the vanadium in the V{sup 5+} oxidation state rather than the V{sup 4+} state formally expected for (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

McCormick, R.L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Suppressive effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on interferon-?-induced nitric oxide production in insulinproducing cells is mediated by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-? production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the development of Type 1 diabetes, inflammatory cytokines are known to induce the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pancreatic islets, and subsequent production of nitric oxide (N...

E. Hahm; Y. S. Lee; H. S. Jun PhD

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K 73019 Received October 11, 2002 In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge of methane and air mixtures at room temperature and ambient pressure was investigated. The objective

Mallinson, Richard

115

The use of solar energy can enhance the conversion of carbon dioxide into energy-rich products: stepping towards artificial photosynthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Roberto Amendolia and Can Li The use of solar energy can enhance the conversion of carbon dioxide into energy-rich products: stepping towards artificial...fuels by electrolysis in water using solar energy. A CO2-H2-based economy may address...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Production of syngas via partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas over a Ni catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas (COG) to syngas was investigated on differently sized Ni catalysts in a fluidized-bed reactor. It was found that the catalytic performance of Ni depends strongly on its particle size. The small-sized Ni catalyst exhibited higher activity and higher selectivity in the partial oxidation of COG. The conversion of CH{sub 4} was kept at 80.7% at a lower temperature (750{sup o}C) and a wide space velocity (from 8000 to 80 000 h{sup -1}). CO{sub 2} reforming of COG is also an efficient route for syngas production. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the COG-derived syngas could be controlled by manipulating the concentration of O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} added in the feed. The yield of produced syngas increases with an increase in temperature. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Jianzhong Guo; Zhaoyin Hou; Jing Gao; Xiaoming Zheng [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Institute of Catalysis, Department of Chemistry

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have experimentally measured that laser filaments in air generate up to 10{sup 14}, 3x10{sup 12}, and 3x10{sup 13} molecules of O{sub 3}, NO, and NO{sub 2}, respectively. The corresponding local concentrations in the filament active volume are 10{sup 16}, 3x10{sup 14}, and 3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, and allows efficient oxidative chemistry of nitrogen, resulting in concentrations of HNO{sub 3} in the parts per million range. The latter forming binary clusters with water, our results provide a plausible pathway for the efficient nucleation recently observed in laser filaments.

Petit, Yannick; Henin, Stefano; Kasparian, Jerome; Wolf, Jean-Pierre [GAP Biophotonics, Universite de Geneve, 20 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, CH1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

118

Energy and exergy analyses of hydrogen production via solar-boosted ocean thermal energy conversion and PEM electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and exergy analyses are reported of hydrogen production via an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system coupled with a solar-enhanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer. This system is composed of a turbine, an evaporator, a condenser, a pump, a solar collector and a PEM electrolyzer. Electricity is generated in the turbine, which is used by the PEM electrolyzer to produce hydrogen. A simulation program using Matlab software is developed to model the PEM electrolyzer and OTEC system. The simulation model for the PEM electrolyzer used in this study is validated with experimental data from the literature. The amount of hydrogen produced, the exergy destruction of each component and the overall system, and the exergy efficiency of the system are calculated. To better understand the effect of various parameters on system performance, a parametric analysis is carried out. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the integrated OTEC system are 3.6% and 22.7% respectively, and the exergy efficiency of the PEM electrolyzer is about 56.5% while the amount of hydrogen produced by it is 1.2 kg/h.

Pouria Ahmadi; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Nitrite–dependent nitric oxide production pathway: implications for involvement of active nitrogen species in photoinhibition in vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...as a convenient method for calibration...1. Chemical NO production from nitrite and...Figure 4. Sequential production of the activated...interactions. Like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2...oxide protocols: methods in molecular biology...Nonenzymatic nitric oxide production in humans. Nitric...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hydrogen Production via Photolytic Oxidation of Aqueous Sodium Sulfite Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. ... Compounding its impacts on the environment, there are multiple sources of SO2 emissions, fossil fuel combustion being a primary contributor. ... Figure 2. Effect of initial solution pH on H2 formation via photolytic oxidation of 0.025 M Na2SO3 aqueous solutions (initial solution pH: (a) 7.53 (SO32? + HCl); (b) 8.88 (SO32? + HCl); (c) 9.92 (original Na2SO3 solution); (d) 10.96 (SO32?:CO32? = 1:0.05); ...

Cunping Huang; Clovis A. Linkous; Olawale Adebiyi; Ali T-Raissi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A review on pyrolysis of biomass constituents: Mechanisms and composition of the products obtained from the conversion of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of biomass by thermochemical means is very promising for the substitution of fossil materials in many energy applications. Given the complexity of biomass the main challenge in its use is to obtain products with high yield and purity. For a better understanding of biomass thermochemical conversion, many authors have studied in TG analyzer or at bed scale the individual pyrolysis of its main constituents (i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin). Based on these studies, this original work synthesizes the main steps of conversion and the composition of the products obtained from each constituent. Pyrolysis conversion can be described as the superposition of three main pathways (char formation, depolymerization and fragmentation) and secondary reactions. Lignin, which is composed of many benzene rings, gives the highest char yield and its depolymerization leads to various phenols. The depolymerization of the polysaccharides is a source of anhydro-saccharides and furan compounds. The fragmentation of the different constituents and the secondary reactions produce CO, CO2 and small chain compounds. For temperature higher than 500 °C, the residues obtained from the different constituents present a similar structure, which evolves towards a more condensed polyaromatic form by releasing CH4, CO and H2. As the aromatic rings and their substituent composition have a critical influence on the reactivity of pyrolysis products, a particular attention has been given to their formation. Some mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the main products. From the results of this study it is possible to predict the reactivity and energy content of the pyrolysis products and evaluate their potential use as biofuels in renewable applications.

François-Xavier Collard; Joël Blin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

ENZYMES AND MICROORGANISMS IN FOOD INDUSTRY WASTE PROCESSING AND CONVERSION TO USEFUL PRODUCTS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presented at the Symposium on Enzymes in the Food Processingowned rights. Title: Enzymes and Mi Conversi on isms i A I sis not harves Potential for enzyme Given conversion can usea

Carroad, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue University report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on Carbohydrates Production....

124

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion natural chars originating from combustion of angiosperm/gymnosperm and woody/non-woody plants. The lignin to study the impact of combustion on lignins and their commonly used parameters. Our results show

Louchouarn, Patrick

126

Improved irradiances for use in ocean heating, primary production, and photo-oxidation calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

computed by a radiative transfer code that can be used to convert above-surface values in either energy- plankton affect upper-ocean thermal structure via absorption of solar irradiance at visible wavelengthsImproved irradiances for use in ocean heating, primary production, and photo-oxidation calculations

Boss, Emmanuel S.

127

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _LBL-11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

by enhancing fuel yields in integrated biorefineries which combine conversion types with heat and power efficiencies to produce fuel and products. Lignocellulose (mainly lignin,...

129

Oxidation of Annelated Diarylamines: Analysis of Reaction Pathways to Nitroxide Diradical and Spirocyclic Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation of diaryldiamine 2, a tetrahydrodiazapentacene derivative, provides diarylnitroxide diradical 1 accompanied by an intermediate nitroxide monoradical and a multitude of isolable diamagnetic products. DFT-computed tensors for EPR spectra and paramagnetic {sup 1}H NMR isotropic shifts for nitroxide diradical 1 show good agreement with the experimental EPR spectra in rigid matrices and paramagnetic {sup 1}H NMR spectra in solution, respectively. Examination of the diamagnetic products elucidates their formation via distinct pathways involving C-O bond-forming reactions, including Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidations. An unusual diiminoketone structure and two spirocyclic structures of the predominant diamagnetic products are confirmed by either X-ray crystallography or correlations between DFT-computed and experimental spectroscopic data such as {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N NMR chemical shifts and electronic absorption spectra.

Rajca, Andrzej; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Boraty; #324; ski, Przemyslaw J.; Pink, Maren; Miyasaka, Makoto; Rajca, Suchada (UNL); (Indiana)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reversible Electrocatalytic Production and Oxidation of Hydrogen at Low Overpotentials by a Functional Hydrogenase Mimic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new bis(diphosphine) nickel(II) complex, [Ni(PPh2NR2)2](BF4)2, 1, (R = CH2CH2OCH3) is described. A {Delta}G{sup o} of 0.84 kcal/mol{sup -1} for hydrogen addition for this complex was calculated from the experimentally determined equilibrium constant. This complex displays reversible electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials, a characteristic most commonly associated with hydrogenase enzymes.

Smith, Stuart E.; Yang, Jenny Y.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, Morris

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

Triplet-singlet conversion in ultracold Cs{sub 2} and production of ground-state molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a process to convert ultracold metastable Cs{sub 2} molecules in their lowest triplet state into (singlet) ground-state molecules in their lowest vibrational levels. Molecules are first pumped into an excited triplet state, and the triplet-singlet conversion is facilitated by a two-step spontaneous decay through the coupled A {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}-b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} states. Using spectroscopic data and accurate quantum chemistry calculations for Cs{sub 2} potential curves and transition dipole moments, we show that this process competes favorably with the single-photon decay back to the lowest triplet state. In addition, we demonstrate that this conversion process represents a loss channel for vibrational cooling of metastable triplet molecules, preventing an efficient optical pumping cycle down to low vibrational levels.

Bouloufa, Nadia; Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 505, F-91405 Orsay (France); Pichler, Marin [Physics Department, Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland 21204 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

The use of solar energy can enhance the conversion of carbon dioxide into energy-rich products: stepping towards artificial photosynthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...considered as a H2 carrier as equation...pressure) with energy recovery...16]. The conversion of methanol...Catalysis for Energy: New Challenges...2006 Solar conversion efficiency...cells with carrier multiplication...of solar energy conversion technologies...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Production of Syngas via Partial Oxidation and CO2 Reforming of Coke Oven Gas over a Ni Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Syngas via Partial Oxidation and CO2 Reforming of Coke Oven Gas over a Ni Catalyst ... The yield of produced syngas increases with an increase in temperature. ...

Jianzhong Guo; Zhaoyin Hou; Jing Gao; Xiaoming Zheng

2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

134

Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

Joseph Rabovitser

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Development of a Monitoring Framework for the Detection of Diversion of Intermediate Products in a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this work is the development of an on-line monitoring and data analysis framework that could detect the diversion of intermediate products such… (more)

Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Laser-induced magnesium production from magnesium oxide using reducing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments for laser induced production of magnesium (Mg) from magnesium oxide (MgO) using reducing agents (R) were conducted. In these experiments, continuous wave CO{sub 2} focused laser is focused on a mixture of magnesium oxide and reducing agent. High power density of focused laser leads to high temperature and the reduction reaction resulting in Mg production. The resultant vapor is collected on a copper plate and analyzed in terms of magnesium deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies with various reducing agents such as Zr, C, and Si have been measured to be 60, 9.2, and 12.1 mg/kJ respectively. An excess addition of reducing agent over their corresponding reaction stoichiometric amounts is found to be optimum condition for the most of performed laser induced reactions. In addition, utilizing solar-pumped laser in Mg production with reducing agent will reduce CO{sub 2} emission and produce magnesium with high-energy efficiency and large throughput.

Mohamed, M. S.; Yabe, T.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Mori, Y.; Shi-Hua, Liao; Sato, H.; Uchida, S. [Entropia Laser Initiative, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Chemiosmotic energy conversion of the archaebacterial thermoacidophile Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: oxidative phosphorylation and the presence of an F0-related N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding proteolipid.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...C. Cox. 1983. Energy conservation in acidophilic...Chapman & Hall, New York. 16. Denda, K...component of the ATP energy-transducing system...J. BACTERIOL. ENERGY CONVERSION AND PROTEOLIPID...ACIDOCALDARIUS 6115 New York. 24. Goulbourne...

M Lübben; G Schäfer

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Reduction of iron oxide as an oxygen carrier by coal pyrolysis and steam char gasification intermediate products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the reduction of oxygen carrier Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in chemical-looping combustion using solid fuel (lignite) provided a gasifying agent like steam was introduced into the reactor was investigated with a fixed-bed reactor. The X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope were used for the characterization of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its reduction residue. Results strongly supported the feasibility of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduction by lignite and obtaining pure CO{sub 2} from the off-gases. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fully converted to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by pyrolysis and gasification intermediates primarily H{sub 2} and CO, which was confirmed by both the off-gas concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. A 0.75 g portion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be completely reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by the volatile matter released from 0.1 g coal, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fully reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by steam char gasification products provided that the molar ratio of carbon in char to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 1:6. The purity of CO{sub 2} in the outlet gases was higher than 85% when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced by intermediate products during coal pyrolysis, and the purity of CO{sub 2} in the off-gases was higher than 95% when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced by intermediate products resulting from steam char gasification, making CO{sub 2} sequestration disposal desirable for high purity CO{sub 2}. The char gasification reaction rate was slow compared with the reactivity of the iron oxide with the char gasified intermediates, indicating that char gasification was the rate-limiting step in the reduction process. In the steam char gasification process, the times it took to reach 90% carbon conversion for K-10-char and Ca-10-char were 15 and 30 min, respectively, at 1123 K, but the time for the raw char was 50 min at 1173 K. 40 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar-Powered Electrochemical Oxidation of Organic Compounds Coupled with the Cathodic Production of Molecular Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar-Powered Electrochemical Oxidation of Organic Compounds Coupled with the Cathodic Production of Molecular Hydrogen ... The volume percent of the headspace was calculated assuming that it was directly proportional to the ion current measured by the mass spectrometer and that the transfer of all gases through the membrane and their 70 eV electron ionization cross-sections were approximately equivalent. ... In addition, even if hydrogen is mixed with carbon dioxide, CO2 can be readily removed just by chemical absorption process (e.g., flowing carbon dioxide gas through amine solution), which is a typical CO2 separation process in gas turbine power plants. ...

Hyunwoong Park; Chad D. Vecitis; Michael R. Hoffmann

2008-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

142

Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Place: Los Angeles, California Product: Owner of landfill gas plant. References: Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC1 This article is a stub....

143

Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

NONE

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

145

Solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Report of a discussion on possible collaborative experimentation to test and refine biomass production models based on the conversion of solar energy by plant stands, and to evaluate alternative models.

J. S. Pereira; J. J. Landsberg

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3.

Reza Alipour Moghadam; Suzana Yusup; Wan Azlina; Shahab Nehzati; Ahmad Tavasoli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric oxidation by-products Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

only a few electrode materials are known... exhibits some selectivity towards the reduction of nitric oxide in a net oxidising atmosphere. Several... and in the nitric oxide...

148

Thermodynamic Analysis of Syngas Production via the Solar Thermochemical Cerium Oxide Redox Cycle with Methane-Driven Reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Analysis of Syngas Production via the Solar Thermochemical Cerium Oxide Redox Cycle with Methane-Driven Reduction ... Of particular interest is the storage of solar energy in chemical bonds via the splitting of water and carbon dioxide to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide, referred to collectively as syngas. ... The coupled cycle produces high-quality syngas by the partial oxidation of methane in the ceria reduction step in addition to the carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by splitting carbon dioxide and water in the oxidation step. ...

Peter T. Krenzke; Jane H. Davidson

2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

149

Hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress responses in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms), C (energy production and conversion), M (cellcategories: red, energy production and conversion; yellow,to be involved in ‘energy production and conversion’, such

Zhou, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Conversion of historic waste treatment process for production of an LDR and WIPP/WAC compliant TRU wasteform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the historic weapons production mission at the, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), several liquid waste treatment processes were designed, built and operated for treatment of plutonium-contaminated aqueous waste. Most of these @ processes ultimately resulted in the production of a cemented wasteform. One of these treatment processes was the Miscellaneous Aqueous Waste Handling and Solidification Process, commonly referred to as the Bottlebox process. Due to a lack of processing demand, Bottlebox operations were curtailed in late 1989. Starting in 1992, a treatment capability for stabilization of miscellaneous, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous, plutonium-nitrate solutions was identified. This treatment was required to address potentially unsafe storage conditions for these liquids. The treatment would produce a TRU wasteform. It thus became necessary to restart the Bottlebox process, but under vastly different conditions and constraints than existed prior to its curtailment. This paper provides a description of the historical Bottlebox process and process controls; and then describes, in detail, all of the process and process control changes that were implemented to convert the treatment system such that a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and a Land Disposal Requirements (LDR) compliant wasteform would be produced. The rationale for imposition of LDRs on a TRU wasteform is discussed. In addition, this paper discusses the program changes implemented to meet modem criticality safety, Conduct of Operations, and Department of Energy Nuclear Facility restart requirements.

Dunn, R.P.; Wagner, R.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

CFD Model Of A Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell For Hydrogen Production From Nuclear Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model hightemperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model represents a single cell as it would exist in an electrolysis stack. Details of the model geometry are specific to a stack that was fabricated by Ceramatec2, Inc. and tested at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT2. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean model results are shown to compare favorably with experimental results obtained from an actual ten-cell stack tested at INL.

Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Basic metal oxides as cocatalysts for Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalysts in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic behavior of Cu catalysts supported on ultrapure silica and promoted with Ca, Zn, and La oxides was investigated in the hydrogenation of CO and CO{sub 2} to methanol at high pressure. Cu on very pure silica produces hardly any methanol, while the addition of basic oxides and the use of {gamma}-alumina as support improve the catalyst performance. The strong promoting effect of Ca and La oxide on the silica-supported Cu and the weak promoting effect for alumina-supported Cu suggest that the basic oxide additives must be close to or in contact with the Cu particles to be effective in methanol synthesis. The methanol activity of Zn/Cu/SiO{sub 2} increased with increasing CO{sub 2} content in a CO-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture, suggesting that CO{sub 2} is the main carbon source for methanol.

Gotti, A.; Prins, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry] [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

The National Conversion Pilot Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

Roberts, A.V. [BNFL, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Green method to produce propylene oxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy Search CNM ... Search Argonne Home > Center for Nanoscale Materials > CNM Home About CNM Research Facilities People For Users Publications News & Highlights News Research Highlights Newsletters CNM Images on Flickr Events Jobs CNM Users Organization Contact Us Other DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers Green method to produce propylene oxide conversion of propylene to polyene oxide via silver nanoclusters Simulation of propylene to propylene oxide conversion via silver nanoclusters supported on an alumina surface. Propylene oxide is an important chemical whose current industrial production is energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Attempts to solve this problem by using catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with

155

Oxidation and volatilization of a niobium alloy. Fusion Safety Program/Activation Products Task  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the findings from a preliminary investigation into oxidation and volatilization characteristics of a niobium alloy. Niobium is a candidate alloy for use in plasma facing components (PFCS) in experimental fusion reactors like the Intemational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An experimental alloy was tailored to simulate small changes in chemistry which could result from transmutations from irradiation. The alloy was exposed in air and steam between 800{degree}C and 1200{degree}C. Volatilized products and hydrogen were collected and measured. Post-test examinations were also performed on the samples to determine the amount of material loss during the exposures. The obtained measurements of volatilization flux (g/m{sup 2}-s), hydrogen generation rates (liters/m{sup 2}-s), and recession rates (mm/s) are data which can be used for safety analyses and material performance to predict consequences which may result from an accident involving the ingress of air or steam into the plasma chamber of fusion reactor. In our volatility tests, only molybdenum and niobium were found at release levels above the detection limit. Although molybdenum is present at only 0.12 wt%, the quantities of this element volatilized in air are nearly comparable to the quantities of niobium released. The niobium release in steam is only three to four times higher than that of molybdenum in steam. The hydrogen production of the niobium alloy is compared with other PFC materials that we have tested, specifically, beryllium, graphite, and a tunesten alloy. At high temperatures, the hydrogen production rate of the niobium alloy is among the lowest of these materials, significantly lower than beryllium. To understand what this means in an accident situation, modeling is necessary to predict temperatures, and therefore total hydrogen production. The INEL is currently doing this modeling.

Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived compounds into desirable products. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes break down the carbohydrate fractions of biomass to five- and six-carbon sugars in a process known as hydrolysis. Yeast and bacteria then ferment the sugars into products such as ethanol. Biotechnology advances are expected to lead to dramatic

157

Session: Energy Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology'' by David Robertson and Raymond J. LaSala; ''Materials for Geothermal Production'' by Lawrence E. Kukacka; ''Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants'' by Carl J. Bliem; ''Geothermal Waster Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities'' by Eugen T. Premuzic; and ''Geothermal Brine Chemistry Modeling Program'' by John H. Weare.

Robertson, David; LaSala, Raymond J.; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Bliem, Carl J.; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Weare, John H.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H{sup -} ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H{sup -} ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H{sup -} beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H{sup -} converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H{sup -} ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H{sup -} ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H{sup -} production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H{sup -} ion beams.

Tarvainen, O.; Rouleau, G.; Keller, R.; Geros, E.; Stelzer, J.; Ferris, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Hydrogen Production Performance of a 10-Cell Planar Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Stack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolytesupported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 100 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Steve Herring; J. Hartvigsen

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Suppression of manganese-dependent production of nitric oxide in astrocytes: implications for therapeutic modulation of glial-derived inflammatory mediators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primary cultured astrocytes were treated with Mn in the absence and presence of proinflammatory cytokines to determine their effect upon stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) production. Treatments of manganese and cytokines raised NO production...

Wright, Tyler T.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Thermodynamic Analysis of the Possibility of Hydrogen Production by Oxidation of n-Butane, n-Pentane, and Carbon by Oxygen-Containing Nitrogen Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermodynamic analysis is performed to study the reactions of hydrogen production by oxidation of hydrocarbons of natural gas ... analysis suggests the possibility of developing a new hydrogen production method

A. M. Alekseev; Z. V. Komova; L. L. Klinova…

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Zinc Oxide Nanowires Low-Temperature Wafer-Scale Production of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tions in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas. Solution approaches to Zn and provide a continuous pathway for carrier transport, an important feature for future electronic devices

Yang, Peidong

165

Hydrogen production from the steam-iron process with direct reduction of iron oxide by chemical looping combustion of coal char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results performed with a fluidized-bed reactor supported the feasibility of the three processes including direct reduction of iron oxide by char, H{sub 2} production by the steam-iron process, and the oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} resulting from the steam-iron process to the original Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air. Chars resulting from a Chinese lignite loaded with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were used successfully as a reducing material, leading to the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to FeO and Fe for the steam-iron process, which was confirmed by both the off-gases concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. The reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by K-10-char at 1073 K is desirable from the perspective of the carbon conversion rate and high concentration of CO{sub 2}. The carbon in char was completely converted to CO{sub 2} when the mass ratio of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K-10-char was increased to 10/0.3. The oxidation rate of K-10-char by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without a gasifying agent was comparable to the K-10-char steam gasification rate. The fractions of FeO and Fe in the reduced residue were 43 and 57%, respectively, in the case of 3 g of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 g of K-10-char, which was verified by the total H{sub 2} yield equaling 1000 mL/g K-10-char from the steam-iron process. The time that it took to achieve complete oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air with an 8.7% O{sub 2} concentration at 1073 K was about 15 min. 53 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

167

Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of hydrogen oxidation and production catalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. In an effort to assist in the design of such catalysts, we use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. These calculations provide design principles that will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Fernandez, Laura; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biochemical Conversion Capabilities Biochemical Conversion Capabilities NREL researchers are working to improve the efficiency and economics of the biochemical conversion process by focusing on the most challenging steps in the process. Biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels involves three basic steps: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock through: Pretreatment Conditioning and enzymatic hydrolysis Enzyme development. Fermenting these biomass-derived feedstocks using: Microorganisms for fermentation. Processing the fermentation product to produce fuel-grade ethanol and other fuels, chemicals, heat, and electricity by: Integrating the bioprocess. Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. This video is a narrated animation that explains the biochemical conversion

169

11USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Abstract Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity is manifested have been well-studied: increased production and more rapid turnover of antioxidant systems; production

Standiford, Richard B.

170

Environmental Risks Associated with Conversion of Depleted UF6  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion Conversion Depleted UF6 Environmental Risks line line Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Conversion A general discussion of the potential environmental impacts associated with depleted UF6 conversion activities. Impacts Analyzed in the PEIS The potential environmental impacts associated with conversion activities will be evaluated in detail as part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride management program after a contract is awarded for conversion services. This page discusses in general the types of impacts that might be associated with the conversion process based on the PEIS analysis. The PEIS evaluated the potential environmental impacts for representative conversion facilities. Conversion to uranium oxide and uranium metal were considered. Potential impacts were evaluated for a representative site, and

171

Selective production of hydrogen for fuel cells via oxidative steam reforming of methanol over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell powered vehicles using hydrogen (H2) as a fuel are currently being developed in an effort to mitigate the emissions of green house gases such as CO2, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The H2 fuel is extracted from methanol onboard a vehicle by steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reaction. A considerable amount of CO is produced as a by-product, which is a poison to the Pt anode of the fuel cell. Very recently, we have demonstrated that a combined SRM and partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which we labeled as “oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM)” reaction is more efficient for the selective production of H2 relatively at a lower temperature of around 230°C over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts derived from hydroxycarbonate precursors containing hydrotalcite (HT)-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/aurichalcite phases. There are several operating parameters such as catalyst composition, reaction temperature, O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios and methanol injection rate that are need to be optimized in order to produce H2 suitable for fuelling a fuel cell. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of these variable parameters on the catalytic performance over a series of CuZnAl- and CuZnAlZr-oxide catalysts. Our study indicated that among the CuZn-based catalysts, those containing Zr were the most active. The optimum O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios should be in the ranges 0.20–0.30 and 1.3–1.6, respectively, in order to achieve a better catalytic performance. Studies of the effect of methanol contact time on the catalytic performance over a Zr-containing catalyst revealed that the OSRM reaction proceeds through the formation of formaldehyde intermediate. CO was produced as a secondary product by the decomposition of formaldehyde and it is subsequently transformed into CO2 and H2 by the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction.

S Velu; K Suzuki; M.P Kapoor; F Ohashi; T Osaki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effect of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent in the production of lignite-based fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to observe the effect of potassium permanganate oxidation of lignites from Elbistan for end use as fertilizers, after being ammoniated. The experiments at each stage were designed by a 1/2 x full factorial design. The oxidation was carried out by three different methods. In the first two methods potassium permanganate in neutral or basic medium was used. In the other method two stages of oxidation were used: nitric acid followed by potassium permanganate in acidic medium. The latter proved to be more successful.

Baris, S.; Dincer, S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Comparison of Solid-Phase Microextraction and Dynamic Headspace Methods for the Gas Chromatographic—Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Light-Induced Lipid Oxidation Products in Milk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......as shown in Figures 14. The production of hexanal from 0 to 48 h of...usually means more packaging cost, the goal of this type of...DHGCwithflameionizationdetectionorMSdetection has been used to monitor production of lipid oxidation products...especially considering the cost advantage of SPME equipment......

R.T. Marsili

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The Formation of Highly Oxidized Multifunctional Products in the Ozonolysis of Cyclohexene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The prompt formation of highly oxidized organic compounds in the ozonolysis of cyclohexene (C6H10) was investigated by means of laboratory experiments together with quantum chemical calculations. The experiments were performed in borosilicate glass flow ...

Matti P. Rissanen; Theo Kurtén; Mikko Sipilä; Joel A. Thornton; Juha Kangasluoma; Nina Sarnela; Heikki Junninen; Solvejg Jørgensen; Simon Schallhart; Maija K. Kajos; Risto Taipale; Monika Springer; Thomas F. Mentel; Taina Ruuskanen; Tuukka Petäjä; Douglas R. Worsnop; Henrik G. Kjaergaard; Mikael Ehn

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); White, James F. (Richland, WA); Holladay, Johnathan E. (Kennewick, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Muzatko, Danielle S. (Kennewick, WA); Orth, Rick J. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

Product/metal ratio (PMR): A novel criterion for the evaluation of electrolytes on micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of Mg and its alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Product/metal ratio (PMR...) was introduced as a novel criterion for the evaluation of electrolytes on micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of Mg and its alloys....PBR), focused on the roles of electrolytes for the compactn...

LaiWen Song; YingWei Song; DaYong Shan; GuoYi Zhu…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Visualization of nitric oxide production in the mouse main olfactory bulb by a cell-trappable copper(II) fluorescent probe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the visualization of NO production using fluorescence in tissue slices of the mouse main olfactory bulb. This discovery was possible through the use of a novel, cell-trappable probe for intracellular nitric oxide ...

McQuade, Lindsey E.

178

A new approach for the production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid by in situ oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural starting from fructose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) starting with fructose as substrate via acid-catalyzed formation and subsequent oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was investigated. It was shown...

Martin Kröger; Ulf Prüße; Klaus-Dieter Vorlop

179

Production of nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin in blood of elderly patients with primary hypertension. Effects of perindopril treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background and aims: One of the factors playing a role in both the aging ... purpose of this work was to estimate the production of nitric oxide (NO), oxidase activity...Methods: The study was ca...

Kornelia K?ziora-Kornatowska MD; PhD…

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. ReferencesBioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-to the ethanol cost assuming a complete cellulose conversion

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Ternary Cobalt Spinel Oxides for Solar Driven Hydrogen Production: Theory and Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discovery of a chemically stable, light absorbing and low resistivity metal oxide with band edges aligned to the water redox potentials has been a goal of physical scientists for the past forty years. Despite an immense amount of effort, no solution has been uncovered. We present a combined theoretical and experimental exploration of a series of unconventional ternary cobalt spinel oxides, which offer chemical functionality through substitution on the octahedral spinel B site. First-principles predictions of the substitution of group 13 cations (Al, Ga, In) in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} to form a series of homologous CoX{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel compounds are combined with experimental synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization. Ultimately, while tunable band gaps in the visible range can be obtained, the material performance is limited by poor carrier transport properties associated with small polaron carriers. Future design pathways for metal oxide exploration are discussed.

Walsh, A.; Ahn, K. S.; Shet, S.; Huda, M. N.; Deutsch, T. G.; Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.; Wei, S. H.; Yan, Y.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method for production of ceramic oxide and carbide bodies by polymer inclusion and decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the preparation of thin, free-standing metal oxide films which are useful as nuclear accelerator target materials. Cations of any metal except those of Group IA and precious metals, such as, U, Zr, Nd, Ce, Th, pr or Cr, are absorbed on a thin film of polymeric material, such as, carboxymethylcellulose, viscose rayon or cellophane. The cation impregnated polymeric material is dried. Then the impregnated film is heated in an inert atmosphere to form a carbonized membrane. The carbonized membrane is oxidized to yield a thin, self-supporting, metal oxide membrane. Or, the membrane can be heated in an inert atmosphere to yield a thin, self-supporting, metal carbide-containing membrane.

Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ceramic Electrochemistry Ceramic Electrochemistry * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview * Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Steam Electrolysis Catalysis & Energy Conversion Home Ceramic Electrochemistry Dave Carter and solid oxide fuel cell Materials scientist John David Carter prepares a solid oxide electrochemical cell for high temperature testing. Research activities in the Ceramic Electrochemistry Group are focused on the development of ceramic-based electrochemical devices and components, such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and High Temperature Steam Electrolyzers (HTSE). This extends to materials synthesis, fabrication, and characterization. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research As part of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, the goal of this research is the development of solid

184

Novel Syngas Production Techniques for GTL-FT Synthesis of Gasoline Using Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel Syngas Production Techniques for GTL-FT Synthesis of Gasoline Using Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactors ... Catalytic partial oxidation (CPO, or also CPOX) is different from noncatalytic partial oxidation (POX) in that chemical conversion takes place over a catalyst bed, but it does not use a burner. ...

C. Dillerop; H. van den Berg; A. G. J. van der Ham

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

185

Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1?-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Arginase inhibition suppressed proliferation of IL-1?-stimulated VSMCs in dose-dependent manner. •NO production from IL-1?-induced iNOS expression was augmented by arginase inhibition, reducing VSMC proliferation. •Incubation with cGMP analogues abolished IL-1?-dependent proliferation of VSMCs. -- Abstract: We investigated whether arginase inhibition suppressed interleukin (IL)-1?-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible mechanisms involved. IL-1? stimulation increased VSMC proliferation, while the arginase inhibitor BEC and transfection of the antisense (AS) oligonucleotide against arginase I decreased VSMC proliferation and was associated with increased protein content of the cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1. IL-1? incubation induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect arginase I and II expression. Consistent with this data, IL-1? stimulation resulted in increase in NO production that was significantly augmented by arginase inhibition. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W abolished IL-1?-mediated NO production and further accentuated IL-1?-stimulated cell proliferation. Incubation with NO donors GSNO and DETA/NO in the presence of IL-1? abolished VSMCs proliferation and increased p21Waf1/Cip1 protein content. Furthermore, incubation with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP prevented IL-1?-induced VSMCs proliferation. In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1?-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner.

Yoon, Jeongyeon; Ryoo, Sungwoo, E-mail: ryoosw08@kangwon.ac.kr

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

The catalytic oxidation of ethylene and butenes with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of startup, variation in ca. talyst composition, or by pretreat- ment of tl e catalyst, inadvertently, with a deactivating agent. Pretreate. ent of the catalyst with hydrogen gas be- fore a run proved to have an adverse effect on the forma- tion... for epoinp;, these investi- . gators concluded tliat hydroxylation is not an important factor in the oxidation of 2-butane under tne conditions considered. At 375 0 a slow reaction occurred and the r te of oxidation' increased at l. i, her tcr...

Burns, John Cunningham

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Nitric Oxide Production in Relation to Spontaneous B-Cell Lymphoma and Myositis in SJL Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reduced NO- production and muscle inflammation...MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice. Female...colorimetrie method for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide produced...J. Immunol. Methods, 38: 161-170...to lymphokine production of anti body-enhancing...

Snait Tamir; Teresa deRojas-Walker; Aharon Gal; Ann H. Weller; Xiantang Li; James G. Fox; Gerald N. Wogan; and Steven R. Tannenbaum

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A Modular, Energy-Based Approach to the Development of Nickel Containing Molecular Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review discusses the development of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production and oxidation based on nickel. A modular approach is used in which the structure of the catalyst is divided into first second and outer coordination spheres. The first coordination sphere consists of the ligands bound directly to the metal center, and this coordination sphere can be used to control such factors as the presence or absence of vacant coordination sites, redox potentials, hydride acceptor abilities and other important thermodynamic parameters. The second coordination sphere is defined as functional groups such as pendant acids or bases that can interact with bound substrates such as H2 molecules and hydride ligands, but that do not form strong bonds with the metal center. These functional groups can play diverse roles such as assisting the heterolytic cleavage of H2, controlling intra- and intermolecular proton transfer reactions, and provide a physical pathway for coupling proton and electron transfer reactions. By controlling both the hydride donor/acceptor ability of the catalysts using the first coordination sphere and the proton acceptor/donor abilities of the functional groups in the second coordination sphere, catalysts can be designed that are biased toward H2 production, H2 oxidation, or that are bidirectional (catalyzing both H2 oxidation and production). The outer coordination sphere is defined as that portion of the catalytic system that are not in the first and second coordination spheres. This coordination sphere can assist in the delivery of protons and electrons to and from the catalytically active site, thereby adding another important avenue for controlling catalytic activity. Many features of these simple catalytic systems are good models for enzymes and they provide the opportunity to probe certain aspects of catalysis that may be difficult in enzymes themselves, but that can provide insights into enzyme function and reactivity.

Shaw, Wendy J.; Helm, Monte L.; DuBois, Daniel L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Robust control strategies for hybrid solid oxide fuel cell systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems are electrochemical energy conversion devices characterized by the use of solid oxide as the electrolyte. They operate at high… (more)

Mathew, Anju Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Development and testing of improved heat transfer media for regenerative thermal oxidizers in the wood products industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been used to control gaseous hydrocarbon air pollutant emissions from wood products plants. Two major problems related to the ceramic saddle heat transfer matrix in conventional RTOs have been encountered, cold face fouling and breakdown of the ceramic matrix. A structured packing heat transfer media having straight airflow passages of constant cross section was developed to remedy these problems. Results of pilot scale testing has shown that the structured packing is resistant to cold face fouling and breakdown of the ceramic matrix. In addition, in a full scale retrofit application, improvements in pollutant reduction effectiveness and operating efficiency were measured. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Klobucar, J.M. [Duerr Industries, Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

DUF6 Conversion Facility EIS Alternatives  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alternatives Alternatives Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EIS Alternatives Alternatives included in the Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EISs. Proposed Action The proposed action evaluated in each EIS is to construct and operate a conversion facility at each site for conversion of the DOE DUF6 inventory. The time period considered is a construction period of approximately 2 years, an operational period of 25 years at Paducah and 18 years at Portsmouth, and the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the facility of about 3 years. The EISs assess the potential environmental impacts from the following proposed activities: Construction, operation, maintenance, and D&D of the proposed DUF6 conversion facility at each site; Transportation of uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility;

192

Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

Muralidharan, Shylesh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Ethanol Conversion on Cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) Clusters. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion on Cyclic (MO3)3 (M Mo, W) Clusters. Ethanol Conversion on Cyclic (MO3)3 (M Mo, W) Clusters. Abstract: Oxides of molybdenum and tungsten are an important class of...

194

BETO Conversion Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing BETO Conversion Program Bryna Berendzen, Technology Manager, Bioenergy Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

195

Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SOLID-STATE SOLAR-THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CENTER NanoEngineering Group Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Gang Chen, 1 Daniel Kraemer, 1 Bed Poudel, 2 Hsien-Ping Feng, 1 J....

196

Production of cerium oxide microsheres by an internal gelation sol-gel process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to remove unreacted product and to fully gel the microspheres. Through DSC analysis it was determined that excess wash or unreacted product may be removed by an exothermic reaction at approximately 200oC. The XRD analysis of unheated spheres showed...

Wegener, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

198

Distinctive Oxidative Stress Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those involved with energy production, sulfate reduction,transduction mechanisms; energy production and conversion;up-regulated genes. “Energy production and conversion” and “

Zhou, Aifen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Plasmonic conversion of solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a novel method of solar energy conversion that can lead tofundamentals of plasmonic energy conversion are reviewed in3. Plasmonic energy conversion fundamentals Surface plasmons

Clavero, Cesar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Iterated multidimensional wave conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

Brizard, A. J. [Dept. Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D. [Dept. Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 (United States); Kaufman, A. N. [LBNL and Physics Dept., UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richardson, A. S. [T-5, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zobin, N. [Dept. Mathematics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 (United States)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Gas-Phase OH Oxidation of Monoterpenes: Gaseous and Particulate Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Smog chamber experiments have beenconducted in which cyclic monoterpenes were oxidisedin the gas phase by OH. The evolved secondary organicaerosol (SOA) was analysed by LC-MSn and thegas-phase products were analy...

Bo. R. Larsen; Dario Di Bella; Marianne Glasius…

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hyperbaric oxygen and hypoxia alter production of nitric oxide by J774 murine macrophages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improvements in rates of healing of wounds and bacterial clearance in infected tissue during intermittent exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) have been documented. Increased bacterial clearance may partly stem from changes in production of nitric...

Burden, Kyland Irle

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Synthesis Gas Production by Combined Reforming of CO2-Containing Natural Gas with Steam and Partial Oxidation in a Multistage Gliding Arc Discharge System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis Gas Production by Combined Reforming of CO2-Containing Natural Gas with Steam and Partial Oxidation in a Multistage Gliding Arc Discharge System ... with low-current arcs available in the literature. ... Larkin, D. W.; Caldwell, T. A.; Lobban, L. L.; Mallinson, R. G.Oxygen pathways and carbon dioxide utilization in methane partial oxidation in ambient temperature electric discharges Energy Fuels 1998, 12, 740 ...

Krittiya Pornmai; Narissara Arthiwet; Nongnuch Rueangjitt; Hidetoshi Sekiguchi; Sumaeth Chavadej

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

204

District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conversion Blaine County School District This project will impact the geothermal energy development market by showing that ground source heat pump systems using production...

205

Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

Somorjai, G.A.; Frei, H.; Park, J.Y.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

206

A Multidimensional Gas Chromatographic Method for Analysis of n-Butane Oxidation Reaction Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......laboratory-scale reactor systems. The...lection of the reactor product gas and subsequent analysis. This method...high degree of reliability using unattended...typical on-line analysis of a butane...catalyst. The reactor feed gas for......

P.L. Mills; W.E. Guise; Jr.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

208

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Processing and Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The strategic goal of Conversion Research and Development (R&D) is to develop technologies for converting feedstocks into commercially viable liquid transportation fuels, as well as bioproducts...

210

QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Melvin Calvin Januaryas it occurs in modern photosynthesis can only take place inof the problem or photosynthesis, or any specific aspect of

Calvin, Melvin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The effect of oxide layers on gas-generating hydride particles during production of aluminium foams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melt routes to metallic foam production offer attractions of low cost and the potential for good microstructural control. In situ gas generation may be preferable to external gas injection in terms of the important objective of generating a fine and uniform cell structure. The main difficulty with this approach has been that of ensuring that the gas-generating powder is suitably dispersed throughout the melt before the gas is released and the cells are formed. In the present paper, procedures are outlined for preparation of powders for use in aluminium melts, where gas will be released only after a suitable delay, allowing the powders to first become well-dispersed in the melt and solidification to start. Pre-treatment of the foaming agent also facilitates a flexible production of castings with various porosity at the same processing conditions simply by varying the thickness of a diffusion barrier layer on the gas-releasing agent. The role of the melt viscosity history, as a function of a heat extraction rate from the solidifying melt and an alloy composition, on the final porosity of the castings is also briefly discussed.

Gergely, V.; Clyne, T.W. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Syngas Production from Catalytic Partial Oxidation of n-Butane: Comparison between Incipient Wetness and Sol?gel Prepared Pt/Al2O3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Syngas Production from Catalytic Partial Oxidation of n-Butane: Comparison between Incipient Wetness and Sol?gel Prepared Pt/Al2O3 ... (30, 31) To start the reaction, a Bunsen burner was used to heat the catalyst bed to its ignition temperature. ... for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited. ...

Rainer J. Bass; Timothy M. Dunn; Yu-Chuan Lin; Keith L. Hohn

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

215

Noble Metal-Free Reduced Graphene Oxide-ZnxCd1-xS Nanocomposite with Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic H2Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar energy by production of hydrogen from water splitting is of great importance from both theoretical strategy for solving simultaneously the incoming energy and environmental problems.2 So far, numerousNoble Metal-Free Reduced Graphene Oxide-ZnxCd1-xS Nanocomposite with Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic

Gong, Jian Ru

216

A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cells using hydrogen as fuel are efficient, quiet, and have near zero harmful emissions. Elemental fuel cells that use precious metal catalysts such as platinum require hydrogen fuel which contains lessA Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from

Mukasyan, Alexander

217

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Make solar cells more efficient Theoretical energy conversion efficiency limit of single junction-bandgap photons are not absorbed: Carrier relaxation to band edges: Photon energy exceeding bandgap is lost

Glashausser, Charles

218

A comprehensive kinetics model for CO oxidation during char combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important parameter in representing energy feedback to a particle during char combustion concerns the oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/. If substantial oxidation of CO occurs near a particle, then the greater heat of combustion for the complete oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ (94.1 kcal/mole vs. 26.4 kcal/mole for oxidation to CO) is available for energy feedback mechanisms. ''Energy feedback'' is here defined as any situation in which an individual particle receives a significant fraction of its heat of combustion directly, through the localized oxidation of emitted combustible species, i.e. CO. Conversely, if the oxidation of CO does not occur near a particle, then energy feedback will occur only indirectly, through heating of the bulk gas. The primary reaction product at the particle surface during char combustion is generally considered to be CO, and the location of the subsequent CO oxidation zone plays a very important role in determining the particle temperature. Ayling and Smith performed experimental and modeling work which indicates that CO oxidation is not of major importance under the conditions they investigated, although they noted the need for improved accuracy in measuring char reactivities, as well as for better modeling of the gas phase CO oxidation kinetics. The modeling work presented in this paper attempts to develop an improved understanding of the boundary layer oxidation of CO through the use of a comprehensive set of kinetic expressions.

Haussmann, G.; Kruger, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical characteristics capable of maintaining optimal joule heating and glass forming properties during the conversion process.

Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

59: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, 59: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site Summary This site-specific EIS considers the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the Paducah site; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion co-product; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold. This EIS also considers a no action alternative that assumes continued storage of DUF6 at the Paducah site. A

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

In situ NMR spectroscopy: Inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium—SnCl4 addition controls product distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ 1H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight.

Yingxiong Wang; Christian Marcus Pedersen; Yan Qiao; Tiansheng Deng; Jing Shi; Xianglin Hou

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 10, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the tenth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Attempts at improving the sensitivity of our GC based analytical systems were also made with some success. Methanol oxidation studies were initiated. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Methane oxidation testing of a suite of catalysts promoted with most of the first row transition metals was completed. Several of these materials produced low, difficult to quantify yields of formaldehyde. (2) Characterization of these materials by XRD and FTIR was performed with the goal of correlating activity and selectivity with catalyst properties. (3) We began to characterize catalysts prepared via modified synthesis methods designed to enhance acidity using TGA measurements of acetonitrile chemisorption and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether as a test reaction. (4) A catalyst prepared in the presence of naphthalene methanol as a structural disrupter was tested for activity in methane oxidation. It was found that this material produced low yields of formaldehyde which were difficult to quantify. (5) Preparation of catalysts with no Bronsted acid sites. This was accomplished by replacement of exchangeable protons with potassium, and (6) Methanol oxidation studies were initiated to provide an indication of catalyst activity for decomposition of this desired product and as a method of characterizing the catalyst surface.

McCormick, R.L.

1995-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

224

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jones and w.s. Fong, Biomass Conversion of Biomass to Fuels11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII RonaldLBL-11902 Biomass Energy Conversion in Hawaii Ronald 1.

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

SYNGAS PRODUCTION VIA HIGH-TEMPERATURE CO-ELECTROLYSIS OF STEAM AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN A SOLID-OXIDE STACK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of recent experiments conducted at the INL studying coelectrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a 10-cell high-temperature solid-oxide electrolysis stack. Coelectrolysis is complicated by the fact that the reverse shift reaction occurs concurrently with the electrolytic reduction reactions. All reactions must be properly accounted for when evaluating results. Electrochemical performance of the stack was evaluated over a range of temperatures, compositions, and flow rates. The apparatus used for these tests is heavily instrumented, with precision mass-flow controllers, on-line dewpoint and CO2 sensors, and numerous pressure and temperature measurement stations. It also includes a gas chromatograph for analyzing outlet gas compositions. Comparisons of measured compositions to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium co-electrolysis model are presented, along with corresponding polarization curves. Results indicate excellent agreement between predicted and measured outlet compositions. Coelectrolysis significantly increases the yield of syngas over the reverse water gas shift reaction equilibrium composition. The process appears to be a promising technique for large-scale syngas production.

Carl M. Stoots; James E. O'Brien; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biochemical Conversion Projects Biochemical Conversion Projects A photo of a woman looking at the underside of a clear plastic tray. The tray has a grid of small holes to hold sample tubes. An NREL researcher examines a sample tray used in the BioScreen C, an instrument used to monitor the growth of microorganisms under different conditions. NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three basic steps to convert biomass feedstocks to fuels: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock Fermenting these biomass intermediates using biocatalysts (microorganisms including yeast and bacteria) Processing the fermentation product to yield fuel-grade ethanol and other fuels. Among the current biochemical conversion RD&D projects at NREL are: Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

228

Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conversions Inc Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc Place Frederick, Maryland Sector Biomass Product Atlantic Biomass Conversions is working on a system and a genetically modified bacteria to convert sugar beet pulp waste into methanol. Coordinates 45.836395°, -98.507249° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.836395,"lon":-98.507249,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

229

Conversion of lignin precursors to carbon fibers with nanoscale graphitic domains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fiber, monolithic structures or powders that could be used directly in the production of anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report processing parameters relevant for the conversion of lignin precursors into electrochemically active carbon fibers, the impact of lignin precursor modification on melt processing and the microstructure of the final carbon material. The conversion process encompasses melt spinning of the lignin precursor, oxidative stabilization and a low temperature carbonization step in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. To assess electrochemical performance, we determined resistivities of individual carbon fiber samples and characterized the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The chemical modification and subsequent thermomechanical processing methods reported here are effective for conversion into carbon fibers while preserving the macromolecular backbone structure of lignin. Modification of softwood lignin produced functionalities and rheological properties that more closely resemble hardwood lignin thereby enabling the melt processing of softwood lignin in oxidative atmospheres (air). Structural characterization of the carbonized fibers reveals nanoscale graphitic domains that are linked to enhanced electrochemical performance.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Jones, Eric B [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johs, Alexander [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Wave Energy Conversion Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wave Energy Conversion Technology Wave Energy Conversion Technology Speaker(s): Mirko Previsic Date: August 2, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn Scientists have been working on wave power conversion for the past twenty years, but recent advances in offshore and IT technologies have made it economically competitive. Sea Power & Associates is a Berkeley-based renewable energy technology company. We have developed patented technology to generate electricity from ocean wave energy using a system of concrete buoys and highly efficient hydraulic pumps. Our mission is to provide competitively priced, non-polluting, renewable energy for coastal regions worldwide. Mirko Previsic, founder and CEO, of Sea Power & Associates will discuss ocean wave power, existing technologies for its conversion into

231

Avatar augmented online conversation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most important roles played by technology is connecting people and mediating their communication with one another. Building technology that mediates conversation presents a number of challenging research and ...

Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Modern Biomass Conversion Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of key biomass conversion technologies currently deployed and technologies that may...2...capture and sequestration technology (CCS). In doing so, special at...

Andre Faaij

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISÃ? and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISÃ?) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

234

Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of applications, notably energy conversion. As researchnanowires for energy conversion. Chemical Reviews, 2010.Implications for solar energy conversion. Physical Review

Fardy, Melissa Anne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Structured luminescence conversion layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Conversion Plan | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

document the conversion plan that clearly defines the system or project's conversion procedures; outlines the installation of new and converted filesdatabases; coordinates the...

237

Plasmonic conversion of solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar energy into electricity in photovoltaic cells orsolar energy conversion aimed at photovoltaic applicationsenergy conversion, opening a new venue for photovoltaic and

Clavero, Cesar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Plasmonic conversion of solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carriers allows maintaining the energy conversionenergy conversion 8 Timescale of charge separation, carrierin this energy conversion method, i.e. carrier regeneration

Clavero, Cesar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Production of elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate by the oxidation of H2S containing water vapor and ammonia over V/Zr-PILC catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of water and ammonia was studied over V2O5 supported on Zr-pillared clay catalysts (V/Zr-PILCs). The synthesized catalysts were examined using a variety of characterization techniques. A catalytic performance study using V/Zr-PILC catalysts showed that H2S was successfully converted to elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) without considerable emission of sulfur dioxide. The H2S conversion over V/Zr-PILCs increased with increasing the content of vanadia up to 6 wt.%. This superior catalytic performance might be related to the uniform dispersion of vanadia species on the Zr-PILC support.

Kanattukara Vijayan Bineesh; Moon-il Kim; Goo-Hwa Lee; Manickam Selvaraj; Kyu Hyun; Dae-Won Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Co-Solvent Enhanced Production of Platform Fuel Precursors From Lignocellulosic Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies for Biomass Conversion into Chemicals andBioethanol Production." Biomass Conversion and Biorefineryin the field of biomass conversion, greater emphasis should

Cai, Charles Miao-Zi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Energy Conversion Devices Inc aka ECD Ovonics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conversion Devices Inc aka ECD Ovonics Conversion Devices Inc aka ECD Ovonics Jump to: navigation, search Name Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics) Place Rochester Hills, Michigan Zip 48309 Sector Solar Product Michigan-based materials developer and holding company for thin-film silicon PV manufacturer United Solar Ovonics. References Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics) is a company located in Rochester Hills, Michigan . References ↑ "Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Energy_Conversion_Devices_Inc_aka_ECD_Ovonics&oldid=34484

242

Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC) Place Washington, DC Product GWECC is a global alternative energy company headquartered in Washington DC, USA. References Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC) is a company located in Washington, DC . References ↑ "Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Global_Waste_to_Energy_Conversion_Company_GWECC&oldid=345924" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

243

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration A DOE Assessment DOE/NETL-2005/1217 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory April 2005 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

244

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature and by-products formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature efficiency together with the catalyst activation temperature when a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is placed the advantageous plasma catalyst coupling effect on the lowering of the catalyst activation temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Selective production of methanol from syngas over LaTi1?xCuxO3 mixed oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide hydrogenation was studied over partially substituted copper-containing LaTi1?xCuxO3 oxides and on copper supported on La2O3. The unsubstituted (x = 0) oxide was weakly active for CO hydrogenation,...

R. van Grieken; J. L. Peña; A. Lucas; G. Calleja; M. L. Rojas…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Characterization of hydrogen dissociation over aluminium-doped zinc oxide using an efficient massively parallel framework for QM/MM calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...evaluations, the new methods result in a two-level...dissociation of a hydrogen molecule over a...physisorbed atomic hydrogen. parallelization...catalysis|zinc oxide|hydrogen dissociation| 1...electronics, energy production, conversion and...user. The QM/MM method (Warshel Levitt...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

248

Existing potato markers and marker conversions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Existing potato markers and marker conversions Walter De Jong PAA Workshop August 2009 1 #12;What of us will continue to use agarose gels for years to come #12;Example of a potato marker 4 PVY (Ryadg) ­ Kasai et al. 2000 Genome 43:1-8 allele specific amplification of a diagnostic product - potatoes

Douches, David S.

249

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

Kotter, Dale K. (North Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Chapter 24 - Fuel Cells: Energy Conversion Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The drive for fuel cell technology research and development stems from cleanliness of the technology, high chemical to electrical conversion efficiency and versatile applications ranging from large-scale, stand-alone stationary power plant to modular distributed generation systems to advanced mobile auxiliary power units. Portable systems and those that can be carried are also currently being designed for civilian and military markets. Fuel cells are capable of generating electricity with virtually negligible to zero pollution (e.g. SOx, NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matters (PMs)). They also offer a reduced carbon footprint and have the potential to be engineered for ‘zero carbon’ systems. Despite the potential to meet the pressing needs for clean and efficient fuel cell–based power generation systems, high capital and maintenance cost remains a challenge for large-scale commercialisation and global market entry. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is one of the most promising fuel cell technologies as it offers significantly higher electrical efficiency as well as co-production of high-quality process heat. The system lifetime, its reliability and cost, however, remain a concern due to the performance degradation with time, commonly associated with the instability of materials in complex operating environment and high exposure temperature (650–1000)°C. New materials, systems design and operating conditions are being developed to increase the lifetime. Centralised and distributed SOFC power systems in the range of hundreds of kilowatt to megawatt are being considered for integration with advanced coal power plants, hybrid systems integrated with energy storage and carbon-capture technologies to fully exploit the commercial potential.

Manoj K. Mahapatra; Prabhakar Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Steady-state and transient catalytic oxidation and coupling of methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses the conversion of methane from natural gas into ethane, ethylene and higher hydrocarbons. Our research explores the mechanistic and practical implications of carrying out the methane oxidative coupling reaction in reactor designs other than conventional packed-beds with co-fed reactants. These alternate reactor designs are needed to prevent the full oxidation of methane, which limits C{sub 2}, yields in methane oxidative coupling reactions. The research strategy focuses on preventing contact between the 0{sub 2} reactant required for favorable overall thermodynamics and the C{sub 2+} products of methane coupling. The behavior of various reactor designs are simulated using detailed kinetic transport models. These simulations have suggested that the best way to prevent high C0{sub 2} yields is to separate the oxygen and hydrocarbon streams altogether. As a result, the project has focused on the experimental demonstration of proton transport membrane reactors for the selective conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons.

Iglesia, E.; Perry, D.L.; Heinemann, H.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar degradation products, collectively termed as chars and/or pseudo-lignin. In order to understand the factors derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary

California at Riverside, University of

254

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

Singh, Anup

255

Energy Conversion to Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Energy Conversion to Electricity D. Clark...continuing growth in the demand for energy, and of electricity as the route...the electricity share of the total energy market and of the substitution of electricity...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Solar Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity fuel and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology materials and especially nanoscience.

George W. Crabtree; Nathan S. Lewis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

review and input from scholars with expertise in climate change and communication. #12; Welcome Thank youCampus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CAMPUS Southwestern Pennsylvania Program booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

258

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Conversion of Waste Biomass into Useful Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are produced. To control the pH, these acids are neutralized with calcium carbonate. The resulting calcium salts can be used to reduce sulfur emissions from industrial furnaces by directly spraying salt solutions into the combustor. Alternatively, the calcium...

Holtzapple, M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

FT-IR product studies of the Cl-initiated oxidation of CH{sub 3}Cl in the presence of NO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deleterious effect of chlorine chemistry on stratospheric ozone levels is now well documented. The Cl-atom initiated oxidation of CH{sub 3}Cl has been studied at 296 K using two different FTIR/environmental chamber systems. In the presence of NO, the carbon-bearing products observed are HCOCl, HCHO, and CO, with yields in 700 Torr of air of (56 {+-} 10), (32 {+-} 6), and (12 {+-} 5)%, respectively. This product distribution is different from previous studies conducted in the absence of NO, in which a nearly 100% yield of HCOCl was obtained. The different product distribution observed in the presence of NO is attributed to the formation and subsequent decomposition of chemically activated CH{sub 2}ClO radicals, formed in the exothermic reaction of CH{sub 2}ClO{sub 2} with NO.

Bilde, M. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Orlando, J.J.; Tyndall, G.S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Div.] [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Div.; Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Kaiser, E.W. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

262

Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production is obtained from proved reserves but the determinants of the scale of production in the industry and country components of the world total are many and complex with some unique to the individual com...

D. C. Ion

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Synthetic biology and biomass conversion: a match made in heaven?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Y. 2007 Harnessing energy from plant biomass. Curr. Opin. Chem...processes for conversion of biomass to useful products...Biodegradation, Environmental Biomass Biotechnology methods...Biology methods Ecology Energy-Generating Resources...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Advanced Energy Conversion LLC AEC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LLC AEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Energy Conversion LLC (AEC) Place: New York Zip: 12020 Product: R&D company focused on power electronics, motion control systems...

265

Hydrogen production by methane steam reforming over Ru supported on Ni–Mg–Al mixed oxides prepared via hydrotalcite route  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Catalytic performance of Ru/NixMg6?xAl2 800 800 mixed oxides, with x = 2, 4 and 6, x being the molar ratio, towards Methane Steam Reforming, was studied. NixMg6?xAl2 800 oxide, used as support, was prepared via hydrotalcite route. It was thermally stabilized at 800 °C, impregnated with 0.5 wt.% ruthenium using ruthenium (III) nitrosyl nitrate Ru(NO) (NO3)3 precursor and then calcined again at 800 °C under an air flow. Ruthenium impregnation significantly enhanced the reactivity of the oxides in Methane Steam Reforming. In fact, it was found, that even with a low ruthenium content (0.5 wt.%), ruthenium oxide particles are formed but are well dispersed over the surface of the oxide NixMg6?xAl2 800. Ru/Ni6Al2 800 800 showed better catalytic performances, towards Methane Steam Reforming, than ruthenium impregnated on the two other supports. Indeed, nickel content is higher in Ni6Al2 800 than in the other studied supports and therefore the probability of Ni–Ru interaction should be greater and consequently catalytic performances could be improved.

Mira Nawfal; Cédric Gennequin; Madona Labaki; Bilal Nsouli; Antoine Aboukaïs; Edmond Abi-Aad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion for Space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat is converted to electricity by using a heated surface (the emitter) that radiates infrared (IR) photons to an adjacent low bandgap photovoltaic cell (typically made with binary, ternary, or quaternary semiconductors such as InGaAs, GaSb, InAs, or InGaAsSb), which converts these IR photons to electricity. ... Solid-state TPV energy conversion uses photovoltaic devices in the form of a p?n diode to convert radiant thermal photons directly into electricity. ... The overall system efficiency of a TPV system is the product of factors attributable to the TPV cell efficiency, the spectral filter, and the cell module factor which includes effects of parasitic photon absorption in the nonactive diode area and is defined as the total photonic energy absorbed in the active diode area divided by the total photonic energy absorption. ...

V. L. Teofilo; P. Choong; J. Chang; Y.-L. Tseng; S. Ermer

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

Wind energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Proton Conductor based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 S. (Elango) Elangovan, Joseph Hartvigsen, Insoo Bay, and Feng Zhao High efficiency operation is one of the primary attractions to use solid oxide fuel cells as the energy conversion device. High efficiency requires maximizing of the product of operating voltage and fuel utilization. The maximum possible operating voltage however is limited by the Nernst potential near the fuel exhaust. In oxygen conducting electrolyte based fuel cells (O-SOFC) as the fuel utilization increases, the Nernst potential continues to decrease with the dilution of fuel by the reaction products. In contrast, in a proton conducting electrolyte based fuel cell (P-SOFC) the reaction product is formed on the cathode side allowing for high operating voltage at high fuel

269

Conversion of Questionnaire Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh,,111...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the incident beam's translational energy, and approaches unity for energies greater than 1.3 eV. Comparison for methanol synthesis. One method is the direct partial oxidation of methane, CH4 + 1/2 O2 CO + 2H2. 1 This process has been extensively studied using high surface area supported Rh catalysts in flow reactors

Sibener, Steven

271

Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion By MelissaNanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion by MelissaNanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion by Melissa

Fardy, Melissa Anne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draft Programmaticof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop DOE introduction slides to the Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop webinar. ctabwebinardoe.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion...

274

Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

275

PRODUCTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABOUT AS CLOSE as a U. S. plant can be to rich Caribbean bauxite deposits, close to natural gas supplies, close to caustic soda supplies—these factors enable Reynolds Metals to cut transportation costs in its La Quinta-San Patricio aluminum processing facilities near Corpus Christi, Tex. ... The Corpus Christi faculties consist of two plants, La Quinta, which converts bauxite to aluminum oxide, and San Patricio, which reduces the alumina to metallic aluminum. ...

1954-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

276

Experimental and Analytical Studies on Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .other pyroelectric energy conversion methods . . . . Chapter6 Pyroelectric Energy Conversion using PLZT and

Lee, Felix

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Chemomechanics of ionically conductive ceramics for electrical energy conversion and storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Functional materials for energy conversion and storage exhibit strong coupling between electrochemistry and mechanics. For example, ceramics developed as electrodes for both solid oxide fuel cells and batteries exhibit ...

Swallow, Jessica Gabrielle

278

Methane-to-hydrogen conversion in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at a high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncatalytic process of partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at high pressures has been considered. ... conversion process — the maximum temperature in the...

Yu. M. Dmitrenko; P. A. Klyovan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Water – A magic solvent for biomass conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrothermal biomass conversion processes provide the opportunity to use feedstocks with high water content for the formation of energy carriers or platform chemicals. The water plays an active role in the processes as solvent, reactant and catalyst or catalyst precursor. In this paper, the different hydrothermal processes of carbonization, gasification and liquefaction are introduced and the specific role of water is discussed for each of them. The high reactivity of the polar components of biomass in hot compressed water and its changing properties with temperature are the key to obtain high selectivities of the desired products. Despite the obvious advantages of hydrothermal conversion examples for industrial applications are rare. The main reason for not commercial application of water in the high temperature state is that there are no products that can be sold with profit and cannot be produced cheaper, with less capital risk, and with more simple processes.

Andrea Kruse; Nicolaus Dahmen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Novel methods of hydrogen production: aluminum-gallium-indium-tin systems and copper boron oxide as photocatalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In recent years, hydrogen production and storage has attracted a lot of attention in both academia and industry due to its variety of applications in… (more)

Lang, Yizhao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

283

Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(5, 6) The ideal process to produce biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass would be a single step reactor at short residence times where solid biomass is directly converted into a liquid fuel. ... with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). ... conversion processes that include combustion, gasification, liquefaction, hydrogenation and pyrolysis, have been used to convert the biomass into various energy products. ...

Yu-Ting Cheng; George W. Huber

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

Conversion of synthesis gas and methanol to hydrocarbons using zeolite catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion on siiicalite were studied. Various catalysts based on the small-pore zeolites chabazite and erionite, combined with a methanol synthesis component, zinc oxide, were prepared. Certain of the catalysts contained either sulfur or selenium as a... conversion on siiicalite were studied. Various catalysts based on the small-pore zeolites chabazite and erionite, combined with a methanol synthesis component, zinc oxide, were prepared. Certain of the catalysts contained either sulfur or selenium as a...

Matthews, Michael Anthony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

22 - Conversion Factors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter details the viscosity and pressure conversion chart. To convert absolute or dynamic viscosity from one set of units to another, one must locate the given set of units in the left-hand column then multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right-hand side, under the set of units desired. The chapter also explains that to convert kinematic viscosity from one set of units to another, one must locate the given set of units in the left-hand column and multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right-hand side, under the set of units desired. The chapter also defines how the conversion from natural gas to other fuels has progressed from possibility to reality for many companies and will become necessary for many others in months and years ahead. Fuels that are considered practical replacements for gas include coal, heavy fuel oils, middle distillates (such as kerosine–typeturbo fuel and burner fuel oils) and liquefied petroleum gas.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

Murphy, L.M.

1985-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

289

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900 °C.

Tian, H.; Chaudhari, K.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Liu, T.; Sanders, T.; Veser, G.; Siriwardane, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuO/bentonite and CuO?BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction?oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation?reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO?BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700?900 °C.

Tian, Hanjing; Chaudhari, K.P.; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, J.A.; Liu, Tengfei; Sanders, Tom; Veser, Goetz; Siriwardane, R.V.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Biochemical Conversion- Biorefinery Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

One of the essential elements in the economical and efficient production of cellulosic biofuels is the development of biorefineries. Similar in concept to traditional petroleum refineries,...

294

Product Selectivity Control and Organic Oxygenate Pathways from Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution from organic oxygenate products to ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. This is because the energy, are located in remote areas, so that it is economically infeasible to transport the gas via pipeline. One

Mallinson, Richard

295

Wind energy conversion system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a wind energy conversion system comprising: a propeller rotatable by force of wind; a generator of electricity mechanically coupled to the propeller for converting power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load; means coupled between the generator and the electric load for varying the electric power drawn by the electric load to alter the electric loading of the generator; means for electro-optically sensing the speed of the wind at a location upwind from the propeller; and means coupled between the sensing means and the power varying means for operating the power varying means to adjust the electric load of the generator in accordance with a sensed value of wind speed to thereby obtain a desired ratio of wind speed to the speed of a tip of a blade of the propeller.

Longrigg, P.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

296

Quantum optical waveform conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

297

Energy conversion by gravitational waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... out that if such particles are charged, the accelerations will constitute a mechanism for the conversion of gravitational ... of gravitational energy into electromagnetic ...

H. BONDI; F. A. E. PIRANI

1988-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

299

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

300

Investigation of Gas-Phase Reactions and Ignition Delay Occurring at Conditions Typical for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Gas-Phase Reactions and Ignition Delay Occurring at Conditions Typical for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas ... A detailed kinetic model based on a free-radical mechanism has been developed, which allows the adequate calculation of the feed conversions and product selectivities. ... The production of synthesis gas from natural gas by partial oxidation has been extensively investigated as an alternative for the steam-reforming process since it results directly in a H2/CO ratio of 2:1 which is required for methanol and Fischer?Tropsch synthesis. ...

R. J. Berger; G. B. Marin

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

1989-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

302

Portfolio Manager Technical Reference: Thermal Conversion Factors | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal Conversion Factors Thermal Conversion Factors Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

303

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Conversion Regulations Conversion Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on AddThis.com... Conversion Regulations All vehicle and engine conversions must meet standards instituted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and state agencies like the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

304

Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

None

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

307

Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

309

Study of Co/CeO2-?-Al2O3 catalysts for steam and oxidative reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cobalt catalysts supported on ?Al2O3, CeO2 and CeO2-?Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method and applied to steam and oxidative reforming of ethanol. The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (TPR-H2), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-physisorption and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the ultra-violet visible range (DRS-UV–Vis). Steam reforming of ethanol was carried out at 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C with an ethanol/water feed in a molar ratio of 1:3. The oxidative reforming of ethanol was carried out at 500 °C with an ethanol/H2O/O2 feed in molar proportion 1:3:0.20. Analysis of the gaseous products showed that the Co/?Al2O3 and Co/CeO2-?Al2O3 catalysts were highly selective for H2 and CO2, and this was attributed to the high specific surface area of these catalysts. The addition of O2 to the feed improved the hydrogen selectivity and reduced the carbon formation on Co/?Al2O3, which suffered fast deactivation in the SRE reaction at low temperature.

Thaisa A. Maia; José M. Assaf; Elisabete M. Assaf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN (Sept. 8-12) featured the following sessions (approx. 6 speakers per session): (1) Quantum Dots and Nanorods for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (2) Artificial Photosynthesis: Water Oxidation; (3) Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Fuels (2 half-day sessions); (4) Organic Solar Cells; (5) Novel Concepts for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (6) Emerging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion; (7) Interfacial Electron Transfer

Lian, Tianquan [PI, Emory Univ.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage 625 West A Street | Lincoln, NE 68522-1794 | LesterElectrical.com P: 402.477.8988 | F: 402.441.3727, 402.474.1769 (Sales) MEMORANDUM TO: United States Department of Energy (DOE), Via Email, expartecommunications@hq.doe.gov FROM: Spencer Stock, Product Marketing Manager, Lester Electrical DATE: June 18, 2012 RE: Ex Parte Communications, Docket Number EERE-2008-BT-STD-0005, RIN 1904-AB57 On Monday, June 11, 2012, representatives from Lester Electrical and Ingersoll Rand met with DOE to discuss the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) for Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies, Docket Number EERE-2008-BT-STD-0005, RIN 1904-AB57.

312

Partial oxidation of lower alkanes by active lattice oxygen of metal oxide systems: 2. Synthesis of solid contacts and syngas production in a pilot plant with a riser reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxide systems with a high lattice-oxygen content, which exhibit reversibility of oxidationreduction transitions, have been synthesized and characterized. Oxidant Solid Contacts have been prepared using t...

I. M. Gerzeliev; N. Ya. Usachev; A. Yu. Popov; S. N. Khadzhiev

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

5, 35333559, 2005 Catalytic conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurement technique, employing selective gas- phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde it the second most abundant organic trace gas after methane. Methanol can play an important role in upper tropoACPD 5, 3533­3559, 2005 Catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde S. J. Solomon et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Luis A. Vega, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) by Luis A. Vega, Ph.D. Published and 100 MW Plants 15 Co-Products of OTEC 16 OTEC Energy Carriers 19 Externalities in the Production Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Luis A. Vega, Ph.D.1, 2 Abstract A straightforward analytical model

316

CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Emergency Management program at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide

317

Life cycle assessment of Brassica carinata biomass conversion to bioenergy and platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The extraction, supply and use of fossil energy carriers and chemicals is a day-by-day increasingly critical issue, linked as it is to severe damages to environment and human health, not to talk of the shrinking availability of fossil fuels worldwide. Therefore, research on suitable alternatives to the extensive use of fossil-based fuels and chemicals is crucial: the potential of Brassica carinata, a non-food oil crop, to grow on marginal lands in Campania Region was investigated, focusing on the production of biodiesel from seeds and platform chemicals from agricultural and extraction residues via an innovative conversion route (so-called Biofine process) in a local industry. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of such an agro-industrial system for biodiesel and bio-chemicals. A comparison with an equivalent system only producing biodiesel and thermal energy is also carried out. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed by means of commercial LCA software (Simapro 7.3.0), investigating energy requirements and environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, abiotic depletion, human toxicity, eutrophication and photochemical oxidation). Results show that, in spite of claims of biomass-based “greenness”, both systems still rely on large fractions of non-renewable energy sources (around 90% of the total use) and mostly affect the same impact categories (abiotic depletion and global warming). The agricultural phase contributes to the total impact more than the industrial extraction and conversion steps, being the nitrogen fertilizers responsible for most of impacts of both systems. However, the conversion of lignocellulosic residues into chemicals instead of heat, conserves the structural quality of natural polymers in the form of marketable value added products (ethyl levulinate and formic acid), also translating into large energy savings compared to traditional chemical routes.

G. Fiorentino; M. Ripa; S. Mellino; S. Fahd; S. Ulgiati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Effect of Inhibitors on the Ubiquinone Binding Capacity of the Primary Energy Conversion Site in the Rhodobacter capsulatus Cytochrome bc1 Complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Inhibitors on the Ubiquinone Binding Capacity of the Primary Energy Conversion Site-transducing organelles. The key primary energy conversion reaction of this complex is the two-electron oxidation: A key issue concerning the primary conversion (QO) site function in the cytochrome bc1 complex

Gibney, Brian R.

319

Oxygen-Free Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Vanadium Oxide Catalysts: Reactivity and Kinetic Modelling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Propane conversion to propylene has been the subject of intensive researches. This is due to the increasing demand for propylene. Current propylene production processes suffer… (more)

Al-Ghamdi, Sameer Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Management and Uses Conversion Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion Conversion Depleted UF6 Conversion DOE is planning to build two depleted UF6 conversion facilities, and site-specific environmental impact statements (EISs) to evaluate project alternatives. The Final Plan for Conversion and the Programmatic EIS The eventual disposition of depleted UF6 remains the subject of considerable interest within the U.S. Congress, and among concerned citizens and other stakeholders. Congress stated its intentions in Public Law (P. L.) 105-204, signed by the President in July 1998. P. L. 105-204 required DOE to develop a plan to build two depleted UF6 conversion facilities, one each at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. DOE submitted the required plan, Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, to Congress in July 1999. This document provided a discussion of DOE's technical approach and schedule to implement this project. Although much of the information provided in this report is still valid, a few aspects of this plan have changed since its publication.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

EPA Redesigns Conversion Certification Policies  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

EPA Redesigns EPA Redesigns Conversion Certification Policies At a recent meeting held in Washington, DC, officials from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) opened dialogue about proposed changes to its emission certification policies that affect alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). "We are trying to accommo- date the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) and Executive Order requirements while trying to change enforce- ment policies and guidance with respect to conversions," said Rich Ackerman of EPA's Enforcement Office. The meeting, attended by representatives of more than 60 organizations, was held to discuss actions addressing AFV emission certification. Specifically, topics included * Conversion emissions perfor- mance data * Status of environmental laws pertaining to alternative fuel

322

Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Changing World Technologies' Changing World Technologies' Thermal Conversion Process Commercial Demonstration Plant DOE/EA 1506 Weld County, Colorado December 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GOLDEN FIELD OFFICE 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration - Weld County, CO TABLE OF CONTENTS Environmental Assessment Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration Project Weld County, Colorado SUMMARY............................................................................................................................. S-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1-1 1.1. National Environmental Policy Act and Related Procedures...........................1-1

323

Thermo Physical Properties of Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are energy conversion devices that convert chemical energy to electrical energy with high efficiency and have the added advantage of least production of pollutants during their operation. SOFCs comprise of a number of components such as the anode the electrolyte the cathode and the interconnect. Each of these components is made of a different material with different thermophysical and electrical properties. Thermal expansion coefficient is one of the most important properties of these compounds. Various components should have matching thermal expansion behaviour to avoid cracking during thermal cycling and for long term operation of SOFCs. In this article the thermophysical properties of materials for solid oxide fuel cells will be discussed with special emphasize on their thermal expansion behaviour.

S. R. Bharadwaj

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

US energy conversion and use characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Western Oil Shale Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Govermnent nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, express of implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or re.presents that its use weuld not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsemem, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Govertunent or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. This report has been reproduced directly ft'ore the best available copy..Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the O_ce of Scientific and

C. Y. Cha; L. J. Fahy; R. W. Grimes; C. Y. Cha; Lj. Fahy; R. W. Grimes

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All yttrium. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

327

[Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All yttrium. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

328

Model-based Interpretation of the Performance and Degradation of Reformate Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid oxide fuel cells offer great prospects for the sustainable, clean and safe conversion of various fuels into electrical energy. In this thesis, the performance-determining… (more)

Kromp, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...multiple carrier generation...renewable energy|solar energy conversion|photovoltaic...photovoltaic energy conversion process...minority carriers in the p-type...efficiency carrier multiplication...for solar energy conversion. Phys...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Conversions Conversions Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on AddThis.com... Vehicle Conversions Photo of converted to run on propane. What kinds of conversions are available? Natural Gas Propane Electric Hybrid Ethanol An aftermarket conversion is a vehicle or engine modified to operate using

331

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Conversions to someone by E-mail Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Propane Vehicle Conversions Related Information Conversion Basics Regulations Vehicle conversions provide alternative fuel options beyond what is

332

Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H. [and others

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Cohesive means in Slovenian spontaneous dialectal conversations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

— 17 — Cohesive means in Slovenian spontaneous dialectal conversations1 Danila zuljan kumar Inštitut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, Raziskovalna postaja Nova Gorica, Delpinova 12, SI – 5000 Nova Gorica, DZuljan@zrc-sazu.si V... Centre SASA. SCN III/1 [2010], 17–34 — 18 — Slavia Centralis 1/2010 Danila Zuljan Kumar 0 Introduction A discourse (or a text as its product) is not a structural unit, like a clause or a sentence. Rather, it is a semantic unit, which means...

Kumar, Danila Zuljan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - a-1 fuel production Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& Biomaterials Waste Cooking Oil Crops Intermediate Products Conversion... Technologies Bioenergy Products Ethanol Biodiesel Electricity & Heat Other Fuels, Chemicals, &...

335

Plasmonic conversion of solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

Clavero, Cesar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164403]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

337

Energy Conversion Devices | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name: Energy Conversion Devices Place: Rochester Hills, MI Website: http:www.energyconversiondev References: Energy Conversion Devices1...

338

Layered Tantalum Oxynitride Nanorod Array Carpets for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Solar Energy: Experimental and DFT Insights  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Layered Tantalum Oxynitride Nanorod Array Carpets for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Solar Energy: Experimental and DFT Insights ... This difference in bond energy resulted in narrower band gap energies in oxynitrides compared to their metal oxide counterparts. ...

Nageh K. Allam; Basamat S. Shaheen; Ahmed M. Hafez

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

339

The United States pit disassembly and conversion project -- Meeting the MOX fuel specification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US is actively involved in demonstrating the disassembly of nuclear weapons pits to an unclassified form readied for disposition. The MOX option is the most likely path forward for plutonium that originated from nuclear weapon pits. The US demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion is known as ARIES, the advanced recovery and integrated extraction system. The ARIES demonstration line is being used to gather data in an integrated fashion of the technologies needed for pit disassembly and conversion. These activities include the following modules: pit bisection, hydride-dehydride, oxide conversion, canning, electrolytic decontamination, and nondestructive assay (NDA). Pit bisection swages in a pit in half. Hydride-dehydride converts the pit plutonium metal to an unclassified metal button. To convert the plutonium metal to an oxide the US is investigating a number of options. The primary oxide conversion approach involves variations of combining plutonium hydriding and subsequent oxidation. Another approach is to simply oxidize the metal under controlled conditions-direct metal oxidation (DMO). To remove the gallium from the plutonium oxide, a thermal distillation approach is being used. These pyrochemical approaches will substantially reduce the wastes produced for oxide conversion of weapon plutonium, compared to traditional aqueous processing. The packaging of either the plutonium metal or oxide to long term storage criteria involves the canning and electrolytic decontamination modules. The NDA suite of instruments is then used to assay the material in the containers, which enables international verification without the need to open the containers and repackage them. All of these processes are described.

Nelson, T.O.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Criticality Safety program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Mechanistic Studies of Water Electrolysis and Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation on High Temperature Ceria-Based Solid Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion devices with multicomponent materials (e.g., solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers-Based Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Chunjuan Zhang,,# Yi Yu,,# Michael E. Grass,,# Catherine Dejoie spectroscopy (APXPS) and a single-sided solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), we have studied the mechanism

Li, Weixue

343

Atmospheric chemistry of tetrachloroethene (Cl{sub 2}C{double{underscore}bond}CCl{sub 2}): Products of chlorine atom initiated oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The products following Cl atom initiated oxidation of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} at 700--760 Torr of air and 230--299 K in the presence and absence of NO{sub x} were investigated using three different FTIR smog chamber techniques. There was no measurable effect of temperature on the product yields. CCl{sub 3}C(O)Cl and COCl{sub 2} were formed with molar yields of 68 {+-} 6% and 77 {+-} 12% in the presence of NO{sub x} and 0.84 and 0.16 in the absence of NO{sub x}. Contrary to a recent report by Hasson and Smith, variation of the initial C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} by a factor of 300 over the range (0.016--5.6) x 10{sup 14} molecule cm{sup {minus}3} had no discernible effect ({lt}10%) on the product distributions. The different product distribution observed in the presence of NO{sub x} may reflect the formation and subsequent decomposition of chemically activated C{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}O radicals, formed in the exothermic reaction of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}O{sub 2} with NO. The kinetics of the reaction of Cl atoms with C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were measured in 2.0--700 Torr of air at 296 K. The results are in good agreement with the previous study by Nicovich et al. The combined data can be described using F{sub c} = 0.6, k{sub o}= (1.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup {minus}28} cm{sup 6} molecule{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and k{sub {infinity}} = (4.0 {sup {minus}} 0.4) x 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}.

Thuener, L.P.; Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H.; Wallington, T.J.; Christensen, L.K.; Orlando, J.J.; Ramacher, B.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

344

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources, Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells, and Geopressured Resources Project Type / Topic 3 Low Temperature Resources Project Description Using mass-produced chiller equipment for "reverse refrigeration" to generate electricity: This approach allows Johnson Controls to take advantage of the economies of scale and manufacturing experience gained from current products while minimizing performance risks. Process efficiencies will be increased over the current state of the art in two ways: better working fluids and improved cycle heat management.

345

Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side reactions and prolong membrane life. With the Argonne approach, oxygen does not contact the ethane/ethylene stream, so oxidation products are not formed. Consequently, higher selectivity to ethylene and fewer by-products can be achieved. Some benefits are: (1) Simplifies overall product purification and processing schemes; (2) Results in greater energy efficiency; (3) Completely eliminates greenhouse gases from the reactor section; and (4) Lowers the cost of the 'back end' purification train, which accounts for about 70% of the capital cost of a conventional ethylene production unit.

Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L. (Energy Systems); ( CSE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Identification of the Dinuclear and Tetranuclear Air-Oxidized Products Derived from Labile Phenolate-Bridged Dimanganese(II) Pyridyl-Chelate Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dioxygen-sensitive dinuclear manganese complexes of the phenoxo-hinged dinucleating ligand 2,6-bis{l_brace}[N,N{prime}-bis(2-picolyl)amino]methyl{r_brace}-4-tert-butylphenolato (bpbp{sup -}) containing exogenous labile THF, water and perchlorato ligands are described. The manganese(II) complexes [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}(THF)]{sup +} (1) and [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(ClO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (2) have been isolated as the salts 1{center_dot}ClO{sub 4}{center_dot}THF{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, 1{center_dot}B(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 4}{center_dot}4THF and 2{center_dot}(ClO{sub 4})2{center_dot}H{sub 2}O. Complexes 1 and 2 are spontaneously oxidised in air in solution and the solid state. The reaction products of the air oxidation in THF, water and methanol solutions are labile dinuclear Mn{sup II}-Mn{sup III}, Mn{sup III}{sub 2} and Mn{sup III}-Mn{sup IV} complexes containing water- and methanol-derived exogenous ligands. In addition, a Mn{sub 4} complex has been isolated. Magnetic susceptibility data confirm the Mn{sup II}-Mn{sup III} oxidation state assignment with an S = 2/S = 5/2 model with weak antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -3.7 cm{sup -1}) in [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(CH{sub 3}O){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} [3{center_dot}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}]. A tetranuclear complex, [Mn{sub 4}(O){sub 4-n}(OH){sub n}(bpbp){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 4} [n = 1 or 2; 7{center_dot}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 4}], recovered from THF shows a Mn{sub 4}O{sub 6} adamantane-type core with the O bridges furnished by the two phenolato groups and four hydroxide/oxide bridges. We have arrived at two feasible formulations for the core metal oxidation states and oxo-bridge protonation states, namely [Mn{sup III}{sub 4}(O){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(bpbp){sub 2}]{sup 4+} and [Mn{sup III}{sub 3}Mn{sup IV}(O){sub 3}(OH)(bpbp){sub 2}]{sup 4+}, for 7, on the basis of a bond valence sum analysis of the crystal structure, elemental analysis and XANES. Thus, complex 7 is at least two oxidation state levels lower than known complexes with the Mn{sub 4}O{sub 6} adamantane core structure. The magnetism of 7 was fitted well to an MnIII4 three-J model. Complex cations related to 3 by homology, and to 7 by hydration/solvation, have been identified by ESI mass spectrometry. The [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2+} ion (4) present in aqueous solutions on dissolution of 1{center_dot}ClO4{center_dot}THF{center_dot}3H2O in air or by simple dissolution of 3 in water-containing solvent is isoelectronic to 3. In the presence of significant amounts of water the Mn{sup II}-Mn{sup III} complexes 3 and 4 are susceptible to further metal oxidation and concomitant aquo ligand deprotonation to give ions assignable to [Mn{sup III/IV}{sub 2}(bpbp)O(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} (5) and [Mn{sup III}{sub 2}(bpbp)(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} (6). ESI mass spectra of water or methanol solutions of 1, 2, 3 and 7 show predominantly an ion assignable to the oxide [Mn{sub 2}(bpbp)(O)]{sup 2+} (8). Cation 8 is most likely not present in solution. Using mild source conditions and MS-MS techniques, the gas-phase fragmentation pathways to generate 8 have been mapped.

Larsen,F.; Boisen, A.; Berry, K.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K.; McKee, V.; Scarrow, R.; McKenzie, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Final report, October 1, 1986--July 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project explored conversion of methane to useful products by two techniques that do not involve oxidative coupling. The first approach was direct catalytic dehydrocoupling of methane to give hydrocarbons and hydrogen. The second approach was oxidation of methane to methanol by using heterogenized versions of catalysts that were developed as homogeneous models of cytochrome-P450, an enzyme that actively hydroxylates hydrocarbons by using molecular oxygen. Two possibilities exist for dehydrocoupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons: The first, oxidative coupling to ethane/ethylene and water, is the subject of intense current interest. Nonoxidative coupling to higher hydrocarbons and hydrogen is endothermic, but in the absence of coke formation the theoretical thermodynamic equilibrium yield of hydrocarbons varies from 25% at 827{degrees}C to 65% at 1100{degrees}C (at atmospheric pressure). In this project we synthesized novel, highly dispersed metal catalysts by attaching metal clusters to inorganic supports. The second approach mimics microbial metabolism of methane to produce methanol. The methane mono-oxygenase enzyme responsible for the oxidation of methane to methanol in biological systems has exceptional selectivity and very good rates. Enzyme mimics are systems that function as the enzymes do but overcome the problems of slow rates and poor stability. Most of that effort has focused on mimics of cytochrome P-450, which is a very active selective oxidation enzyme and has a metalloporphyrin at the active site. The interest in nonporphyrin mimics coincides with the interest in methane mono-oxygenase, whose active site has been identified as a {mu}-oxo dinuclear iron complex.We employed mimics of cytochrome P-450, heterogenized to provide additional stability. The oxidation of methane with molecular oxygen was investigated in a fixed-bed, down-flow reactor with various anchored metal phthalocyanines (PC) and porphyrins (TPP) as the catalysts.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Posin, B.M.; Chan, Yee-Wai

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states (present day, monsoon, and glacial transition) considered in the TSPA-LA, as well as conversion factors for compliance evaluation with the groundwater protection standards. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

M.A. Wasiolek

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

Oxidized copper for photothermal conversion of solar energy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A high absorptance (>0.90) is an essential factor in the efficient use of a .solar collector. However, equally important is the need to keep the… (more)

Chibuye, T.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Pd modified Au on carbon as an effective and durable catalyst for the direct oxidation of HMF to FDCA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the modification of a gold/carbon catalyst with Pt or Pd produces stable and recyclable catalysts for the selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). This finding is a significant advance over current conversion technology because of the technological importance of FDCA. Indeed, FDCA has been identified as one of twelve potential building blocks for the production of value added chemicals derived from biosources.1 FDCA is a potential replacement source of terephthalic acid, the monomer presently used for the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and derived from hydrocarbon sources.2

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Schiavoni, Marco [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Campisi, Sebastiano [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION IN PARTHENIUM ARGENTATUM (GUAYULE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion of solar energy is the production of hydrocarbonsproduction of hydrocarbons. Mankind's use of biologically converted solar energy

Bauer, T.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Conversion Electrons of Radium D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conversion electrons of radium D have been studied with thin sources on thin backings in a beta-ray spectrograph using calibrated photographic emulsions. The number of conversion electrons due to the 47-kev gamma-ray has been measured to be 74±5 per hundred disintegrations. The L:M:N ratio is 1:0.26:0.077. This implies a complex decay scheme for radium D, since earlier results give 3.5 unconverted 47-kev gamma-rays per hundred disintegrations.

Lawrence Cranberg

1950-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Recirculation in multiple wave conversions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Selective Production of Hydrogen for Fuel Cells Via Oxidative Steam Reforming of Methanol Over CuZnAl Oxide Catalysts: Effect of Substitution of Zirconium and Cerium on the Catalytic Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

H2 fuel, for fuel cells, is traditionally produced from methanol by the endothermic steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which is highly exothermic, has also been suggested as ....

S. Velu; K. Suzuki

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time–temperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. • Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. • Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Energy production from corn  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several physical and chemical factors limit the production of biofuels, such as the complex process required for the conversion of plant biomass into ethanol. For example, fossil energy inputs needed for the prod...

Jessica Zhang; Sarah Palmer; David Pimentel

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

Roegel, Denis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

HELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a solar flare 11 2.3.1 Flare luminosity and mechanical energy 11 2.3.2 The impulsive phase (hard X with the term "solar flare" dominate our thinking about energy conversion from magnetic storage to other forms approaches to the problems involved in phys- ically characterizing the solar atmosphere; see also the lecture

Hudson, Hugh

362

Process feasibility of DME to olefin conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrocarbons via a synthetic route has been extensively studied by Mobil through its methanol based Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) process. An alternative approach using dimethyl ether (DME) has been developed by the University of Akron -- UA/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbons Process. The process feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from DME has been illustrated in a bench scale, fluidized bed reactor using ZSM-5 type catalyst. In an effort to satisfy the growing demand for olefins as an intermediate chemical feedstocks a mechanistic/kinetic study was developed. The synthesis of olefins has been studied in packed bed micro-reactor using ZSM-5 catalyst. Experimental work has given details of reaction kinetics and mechanism in the conversion of DME to olefins. DME concentration weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), as well as reactor temperature and pressure were investigated in the study. This work was used as a precursor to the production of olefins/hydrocarbons from DME in a fluidized bed reactor. Product gas analysis was performed using an external GC standard method.

Tartamella, T.L.; Fullerton, K.L.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Grain-size effects in nanoscaled electrolyte and cathode thin films for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Due to their high energy conversion efficiencies and low emissions, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) show promise as a replacement for combustion-based electrical generators at… (more)

Peters, Christoph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Environmental Compliance program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

365

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Vehicle Conversion Vehicle Conversion Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on AddThis.com... Vehicle Conversion Basics Photo of a Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A converted vehicle or engine is one modified to use a different fuel or

367

Conversion of Hydroperoxoantimonate Coated Graphenes to Sb2S3@Graphene for a Superior Lithium Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of Hydroperoxoantimonate Coated Graphenes to Sb2S3@Graphene for a Superior Lithium Battery Anode ... We describe a method for conformal coating of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by stibnite nanocrystallites. ... antimony sulfide; stibnite; reduced graphene oxide; lithium battery; sulfurization ...

Petr V. Prikhodchenko; Jenny Gun; Sergey Sladkevich; Alexey A. Mikhaylov; Ovadia Lev; Yee Yan Tay; Sudip K. Batabyal; Denis Y. W. Yu

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

369

Biomass Deconstruction and Conversion Lead: Lee Lynd Activity I  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Deconstruction and Conversion Deconstruction and Conversion Lead: Lee Lynd Activity I 2.1 Conversion Fundamentals Lead: Mike Himmel Activity II 2.2 Ethanol Production by CBP Lead: Lee Lynd 2.1.2 Microbial Fundamentals Relevant to CBP (Elkins) 2.1.3 Fundamentals of the Enzyme-Microbe Substrate Interface (Crowley) 2.1.1 CBP Enzymatic Fundamentals (Bomble) TASK 1. C. thermocellum structure/function - Bomble TASK 2. Caldi. minimum, gene set & SLH-domain proteins - Kelly TASK 3. C. thermocellum non-native GHs - Himmel TASK 1. Quantitative physiology - Paye TASK 2. Pretreatment inhibition & resistance - Elkins TASK 3. Yeast cellulase expression & secretion - Wiswal TASK 1. Kinetics of microbe/enzyme substrate attachment - Elkins TASK 2. Higher order Models of EMS interface - Crowley

370

New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion of Biomass to Fuels Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. February 7, 2013 Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the production of energy-dense fuels, so these linear chains can then be converted into alkanes used in gasoline and diesel fuel. Image by Josh Smith, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the

371

New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion of Biomass to Fuels Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. February 7, 2013 Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the production of energy-dense fuels, so these linear chains can then be converted into alkanes used in gasoline and diesel fuel. Image by Josh Smith, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the

372

Constraining resonant photon-axion conversions in the early universe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of a primordial magnetic field would have induced resonant conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) during the thermal history of the Universe. These conversions would have distorted the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this context, we derive bounds on the photon-ALP resonant conversions using the high precision CMB spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. We obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant g times the magnetic field strength B down to gB ?< 10{sup ?13} GeV{sup ?1} nG for ALP masses below the eV scale.

Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner Heisenberg Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Günter, E-mail: amirizzi@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: javier.redondo@desy.de, E-mail: sigl@iap.fr [II. Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Not surprisingly furfural has, like 5-HMF, also been pinpointed an interesting platform chemical. Similarly to the production route of the DMF from 5-HMF, furfural conversion into 2-methylfuran (MF)...14.5a. In c...

Jessica Hoffmann; Thomas H. Pedersen…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Ten-percent solar-to-fuel conversion with nonprecious materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...solar-to-fuels conversion. Distributed and grid-scale adoption of nondispatchable, intermittent...Energy (2013) Hydrogen, fuel cells, & infrastructure technologies program. Hydrogen production. Available...2003 ) Design considerations for a hybrid amorphous silicon/photoelectrochemical...

Casandra R. Cox; Jungwoo Z. Lee; Daniel G. Nocera; Tonio Buonassisi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

376

Jet-dilepton conversion in spherical expanding quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the production of large mass dileptons from the jet-dilepton conversion in spherical expanding quark-gluon plasma at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. The jet-dilepton conversion exceeds the thermal dilepton production and Drell-Yan process in the large mass region of 4.5 GeV$energies. The energy loss of jets in the hot and dense medium is also included.

Fu, Yong-Ping

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Jet-dilepton conversion in spherical expanding quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the production of large mass dileptons from the jet-dilepton conversion in spherical expanding quark-gluon plasma at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. The jet-dilepton conversion exceeds the thermal dilepton production and Drell-Yan process in the large mass region of 4.5 GeV$energies. The energy loss of jets in the hot and dense medium is also included.

Yong-Ping Fu; Qin Xi

2014-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

378

Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy Michael Gratzel * * ( michael...industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have...promising perspectives. renewable energy|solar energy conversion|photovoltaic...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Grounded Situation Models for Situated Conversational Assistants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Situated Conversational Assistant (SCA) is a system with sensing, acting and speech synthesis/recognition abilities, which engages in physically situated natural language conversation with human partners and assists them ...

Mavridis, Nikolaos

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy ... In this article, the author considers the use of inorganic photochemical reactions for the conversion and storage of solar energy. ... HOMO?LUMO energy difference values compared ... ...

Charles Kutal

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900{degree}C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO{sub 2} from fuel gas at 800 and 900{degree}C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700{degree}C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900{degree}C. 48 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Hanjing Tian; Karuna Chaudhari; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston; Tengfei Liu; Tom Sanders; Goetz Veser; Ranjani Siriwardane [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Russian arms conversion and its impact on the energy problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of the Russian arms industry to civil production poses a key issue in the overall context of the problem of economic transformation. Its impact is enormous and bears upon the energy problem in several ways. If it succeeds the conversion will largely determine the nature of economic development in Russia and the CIS, influence the prospects of economic recovery in eastern Europe in a positive way, and play a substantial role in securing Russia's future place in the world economy. Because of the novel opportunities provided by market reforms, which generally increase production efficiency and enable profound structural changes towards the environmentally benign energy consumption, the consequences of arms conversion should be put under closer scrutiny. At the same time the possibility of using the idle capacity of arms industries to revamp the energy sector itself and to enhance the construction of modem infrastructures to run an efficient market economy deserves greater attention. Although great uncertainties exist when one attempts to assess the impact of arms conversion, nonetheless, new opportunities for Western investment and trade should be pointed out. Hence, one should highlight the problem as worthy of closer monitoring.

Vadim Nikolajew

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean depths of 20 m (surface water) and 1,000 m. OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, the process Energy Conversion. At first, OTEC plantships providing electricity, via submarine power cables, to shore

385

3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1/124 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium (Introduction to Thermodynamics) Ron h�dm, h = u + p/ Picture: SEHB06 56/124 3.5: Energy balances; Conversion work work, work heat 96/124 Energy conversion heat work /1 "the essential rules" Picture:IO06 #12;97/124 Energy

Zevenhoven, Ron

386

Energy Conversion Technologies 1.0 Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Energy Conversion Technologies 1.0 Introduction In these notes, we describe the infrastructure. By "energy conversion," we mean the conversion of energy into some form of electric energy. By "available now that is available to be considered in the generation and planning functions. We classify this information by Energy

McCalley, James D.

387

GUIDED ANGLER FISH ANNUAL CONVERSION FACTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GUIDED ANGLER FISH ANNUAL CONVERSION FACTORS FOR THE 2014 FISHING YEAR NOAA FISHERIES, ALASKA via the GAF electronic reporting system. If no GAF were harvested in a year, the conversion factor is the first calendar year that GAF regulations will be in effect. Therefore, the conversion factors are based

388

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Predicted Thermochemistry for Chemical Conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermochemistry of various chemical transformations of 5-hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) were investigated using highly accurate Gaussian-4 (G4) theory. The conversion of HMF to nonane through aldol condensation, hydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis reactions was found to be thermodynamically favorable. The hydrogenation reactions involving the keto groups in the nonane reaction sequence were found to be enhanced at low temperatures and high pressures of H2. The hydrogenation, selective oxidation, and hydration of HMF were also found to be thermodynamically favorable. Gas phase enthalpies of formation of all the intermediate compounds were calculated at the G4 level of theory and compared against existing experimental data.

Assary, Rajeev S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the development of biomass conversion technologies, it isefficient and selective biomass conversion technologies is athe conversion of both carbohydrate components of biomass.

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft ProgrammaticPlan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE Assistantl OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost and improve the energy conversion efficiency, to enableefficiency solar energy conversion devices. AcknowledgementsPhotoelectrochemical Energy Conversion Neil P. Dasgupta and

Dasgupta, Neil

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Steady-State Energy Conversion. Applied ScientificElectrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in nanofluidicElectrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in nanofluidic

Duffin, Andrew Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary engineeringCompany. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission analysis

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byFifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, February1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference. June 19-

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoporous Thermal-to-Electrical Energy Conversion System (of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion AArticles: 1. “ Thermal to electrical energy conversion” , Yu

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the standard conversion factors at Annex 1. If, however, you export energy or heat to another business (or2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors yellow = Calculation results Page 1 of 15 #12;2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Annex 1

399

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids ... An efficient process was developed for the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) by using sulfated zirconia as catalyst. ... Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ...

Xinhua Qi; Haixin Guo; Luyang Li

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Impact of Pt loading methods over mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide nanocrystal on photocatalytic dye-sensitized H{sub 2} production activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: The Pt loading on the synthesized mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide nanocrystal photocatalyst was comparatively investigated by two methods: single-step sol–gel (SSSG) and photochemical deposition (PCD). The Pt loading by the PCD method was found to be superior to that by the SSSG method in enhancing photocatalytic sensitized hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. The Pt loading amount and PCD conditions, i.e. light irradiation time and light intensity, also had a strong effect on the photocatalytic hydrogen production activity. Highlights: ? Pt-loaded mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized. ? Pt loading was performed by single-step sol–gel and photochemical deposition. ? Pt loading by photochemical deposition more enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2} production. ? Pt loading amount and photochemical deposition conditions were optimized. -- Abstract: In this work, the photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation for hydrogen production was investigated by using Eosin Y-sensitized Pt-loaded mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide nanocrystal photocatalysts. The mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide with the TiO{sub 2}-to-ZrO{sub 2} molar ratio of 95:5 (i.e. 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2}) was synthesized by using a sol–gel process with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant. The Pt loading was comparatively performed via two different effective methods: single-step sol–gel (SSSG) and photochemical deposition (PCD). The synthesized photocatalysts were methodically characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy, SEM–EDX, TEM–EDX, TPR, and H{sub 2} chemisorption analyses. The results revealed that the Pt loading by the PCD method greatly enhanced the photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the synthesized mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide photocatalyst more than that by the SSSG method. The optimum Pt loading by the PCD method was experimentally observed at 0.5 wt.%, which was well associated with the maximum Pt dispersion. In addition, the PCD conditions, i.e. UV light irradiation time and UV light intensity, were investigated and optimized to be 2 h and 44 W, respectively.

Sreethawong, Thammanoon, E-mail: tsreethawong@hotmail.com [Baan Klangmuang Luzern, Soi On-nut 46, Sukhumvit 77 Road, Suanluang, Bangkok 10250 (Thailand)] [Baan Klangmuang Luzern, Soi On-nut 46, Sukhumvit 77 Road, Suanluang, Bangkok 10250 (Thailand); Yoshikawa, Susumu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fully Solar-Powered Photoelectrochemical Conversion for Simultaneous Energy Storage and Chemical Sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fully Solar-Powered Photoelectrochemical Conversion for Simultaneous Energy Storage and Chemical Sensing ... (15) Nonetheless, the storage and utilization of the oxidative energy carried by the photogenerated holes at the photoanodes are generally low, due to large overpotential for water oxidation, as well as the electric energy loss when driving charge carriers through multiple material interfaces and external circuits. ... In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. ...

Yongcheng Wang; Jing Tang; Zheng Peng; Yuhang Wang; Dingsi Jia; Biao Kong; Ahmed A. Elzatahry; Dongyuan Zhao; Gengfeng Zheng

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

404

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NETL Publications NETL Publications 2001 Conference Proceedings Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop March 29-30, 2001 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Plenary Session Selected Presentations on Current DOE Work Supporting SECA Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

405

Formation of Iron Oxyfluoride Phase on the Surface of Nano-Fe3O4 Conversion Compound for Electrochemical Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation of Iron Oxyfluoride Phase on the Surface of Nano-Fe3O4 Conversion Compound for Electrochemical Energy Storage ... (21) In this work we aim to follow an alternate route for converting iron oxides to oxyfluorides using a controlled fluorination process. ... The FBR method used in this study for conversion of iron oxide to oxyfluorides using low pressure fluorine gas mixed with an inert carrier gas (He) is a relatively simple and safe process used routinely for fluorination studies. ...

Hui Zhou; Jagjit Nanda; Surendra K. Martha; Jamie Adcock; Juan C. Idrobo; Loïc Baggetto; Gabriel M. Veith; Sheng Dai; Sreekanth Pannala; Nancy J. Dudney

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Distance-dependent radiation chemistry: Oxidation versus hydrogenation of CO in electron-irradiated H2O/CO/H2O ices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron-stimulated oxidation of CO in layered H2O/CO/H2O ices was investigated with infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) as function of the distance of the CO layer from the water/vacuum interface. The results show that while both oxidation and reduction reactions occur within the irradiated water films, there are distinct regions where either oxidation or reduction reactions are dominant. At depths less than ~ 15 ML, CO oxidation dominates over the sequential hydrogenation of CO to methanol (CH3OH), and CO2 is the major product of CO oxidation, consistent with previous observations. At its highest yield, CO2 accounts for ~45% of all the reacted CO. Another oxidation product is identified as the formate anion (HCO2-). In contrast, for CO buried more than ~ 35 ML below the water/vacuum interface, the CO-to-methanol conversion efficiency is close to 100%. Production of CO2 and formate are not observed for the more deeply buried CO layers, where hydrogenation dominates. Experiments with CO dosed on pre-irradiated ASW samples suggest that OH radicals are primarily responsible for the oxidation reactions. Possible mechanisms of CO oxidation, involving primary and secondary processes of water radiolysis at low temperature, are discussed. The observed distance-dependent radiation chemistry results from the higher mobility of hydrogen atoms that are created by the interaction of the 100 eV electrons with the water films. These hydrogen atoms, which are primarily created at or near the water/vacuum interface, can desorb from or diffuse into the water films, while the less-mobile OH radicals remain in the near-surface zone resulting in preferential oxidation reactions there. The diffusing hydrogen atoms are responsible for the hydrogenation reactions that are dominant for the more deeply buried CO layers.

Petrik, Nikolay G.; Monckton, Rhiannon J.; Koehler, Sven; Kimmel, Gregory A.

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

407

2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an...

408

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Phosphoric chemical conversion coating with excellent wax-repellent performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wax deposition on pipelines is a serious problem for the production of crude oil. In this paper, phosphoric chemical conversion coatings were exploited to solve the problem. The chemical conversion coatings were fabricated on carbon substrate by surface modification technology at different temperature. A self-designed wax deposition apparatus based on cold-finger was used to study the wax-repellent properties of coatings, which indicated that all chemical conversion coatings showed superior wax-repellent performance to bare carbon substrate and the wax deposition reduction value of 80–95% was achieved by the chemical conversion coating obtained at room temperature. The microstructure and composition of coatings were evaluated by SEM and XRD, revealing that there existed much difference in the content of Zn3(PO4)2(H2O)4 phase and the microstructure among different coatings. The contact angle results measured on a contact angle meter showed that all coatings belonged to hydrophilic surface. And the study on the wetting behavior of Zn3(PO4)2(H2O)4 phase suggested that the water wetting property of coating was a key factor for suppressing wax deposition and the weak affinity between coating and wax also played an important role.

Yuzhen Guo; Weiping Li; Liqun Zhu; Zhiwei Wang; Huicong Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

A Broad Spectrum Catalytic System for Removal of Toxic Organics from Water by Deep Oxidation - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A most pressing need for the DOE environmental management program is the removal of toxic organic compounds present in groundwater and soil at specific DOE sites. While several remediation procedures have been proposed, they suffer from one or more drawbacks. The objective of the present research was to develop new catalytic procedures for the removal of toxic organic compounds from the environment through their deep oxidation to harmless products. In water, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the deep oxidation of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds by dioxygen at 80-90 C in the presence of carbon monoxide or dihydrogen. Several classes of organic compounds were examined: benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, nitro and halo organics, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds. In every case, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 hour period. For substrates susceptible to hydrogenation, the conversions were generally high with dihydrogen than with carbon monoxide. It is clear from the results obtained that we have discovered an exceptionally versatile catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organic compounds in water. This system possesses several attractive features not found simultaneously in other reported systems. These are (a) the ability to directly utilize dioxygen as the oxidant, (b) the ability to carry out the deep oxidation of a particularly wide range of functional organics, and (c) the ease of recovery of the catalyst by simple filtration.

Sen, Ayusman

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Energy Calculator- Common Units and Conversions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Calculator - Common Units and Conversions Energy Calculator - Common Units and Conversions Calculators for Energy Used in the United States: Coal Electricity Natural Gas Crude Oil Gasoline Diesel & Heating Oil Coal Conversion Calculator Short Tons Btu Megajoules Metric Tons Clear Calculate 1 Short Ton = 20,169,000 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2007) Electricity Conversion Calculator KilowattHours Btu Megajoules million Calories Clear Calculate 1 KilowattHour = 3,412 Btu Natural Gas Conversion Calculator Cubic Feet Btu Megajoules Cubic Meters Clear Calculate 1 Cubic Foot = 1,028 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2007); 1 therm = 100,000 Btu; 1 terajoule = 1,000,000 megajoules Crude Oil Conversion Calculator Barrels Btu Megajoules Metric Tons* Clear Calculate 1 Barrel = 42 U.S. gallons = 5,800,000 Btu (based on U.S. consumption,

413

Documents: DUF6 Conversion EIS Supporting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DUF6 Conversion EIS DUF6 Conversion EIS Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents NEPA Compliance: DUF6 Conversion EIS Supporting Documents PDF Icon Notice of Change in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Approach for the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities Project 38 KB details PDF Icon Press Release: DOE Seeks Public Input for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Environmental Impact Statement 90 KB details PDF Icon Advance Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities 52 KB details PDF Icon Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities 60 KB details PDF Icon Overview: Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Management Program

414

Power conversion apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

(Data in thousand metric tons of boric oxide (B2O3) unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Data for boron production and consumption in 2008 in the United States were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over the next several years. World Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: 5 Production--All forms, Trends, and Issues: Although production data were withheld, the United States was a major world producer of boron-free reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Europe and the United States. The continued rise in energy

416

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when oxidize (redox reaction) instead of the hydrogen fuel [2]. This conversion to NiO exerts a volumetric

Petta, Jason

417

Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Award Number: CPS 25659 | April 15, 2013 | Melosh * Fabricate heterostructure semiconductor cathodes based...

418

Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

will enable energy-efficient biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels that are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Photos (clockwise from...

419

Solar Energy, Its Conversion and Utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basis of the discussions is the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory with its Solar House and its Solar-Electric Car.

Erich A. Farber

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Economic Considerations of Biomass Conversion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Earlier chapters have described various biomass conversion processes and processing procedures. This chapter provides a systematic method of estimating biomass process economics and determining the revenue requir...

Fred A. Schooley

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

422

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading PNNL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates upgrading. ctabwebinarcarbohyd...

423

Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information Project ID ace47lagrandeur Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program- 2009 Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

424

Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Start Date: Oct '04 Program End date: Oct '10 Percent Complete: 80% 2 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program- Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review- June...

425

Developing Functionalized Graphene Materials for Biomass Conversion...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Developing Functionalized Graphene Materials for Biomass Conversion The goal of this research is to develop low cost catalysts based on graphene-derived nanomaterials, and use them...

426

Surreptitious interception of conversations with lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods are described for surreptitiously intercepting conversations by reflecting a low-power laser beam from a window pane. The essential components and optical configurations of...

Mims III, Forrest M

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Project Profile: Brayton Solar Power Conversion System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Brayton Energy, under the CSP R&D FOA, is looking to demonstrate the viability and economics of a new concentrating solar thermal power conversion system.

428

Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electricity, will become increasingly important. Indeed enhancements in efficiencies of energy conversion technologies that are readily adaptable in any environment will con-...

429

Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most pressing problems. Indeed, our success at discovering new paradigms for efficient energy conversion, with minimal environmental impact, will largely determine humankind's...

430

Solid-State Energy Conversion Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

eere.energy.gov 1 Solid-State Energy Conversion Overview John W. Fairbanks Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review June 11, 2010 Vehicle Technologies Program...

431

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels ? Carbohydrates...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

balance measurements Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons - R&D Activities Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 5 Feedstocks Organism design for...

432

Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Microscale-enhanced thermionic emitters will enable high-efficiency, solar-to-electrical conversion by taking advantage of both heat and light. Image from Stanford University...

433

"Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

"Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News...

434

"Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events...

435

Thermochemical Conversion Related Links | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

website's Information Resources section. Some key publications are: Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Fuel and Power: Thermochemical Conversion (January 2011) Thermochemical...

436

Zeolite pore size determination by methanol-to-gasoline conversion test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of methanol over a shape selective zeolite to high octane gasoline is a well known process. In this work, a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) conversion test is utilized for the pore size determination of zeolites with active sites. The dimension of a zeolite`s pores is revealed by the size distribution of its MTG hydrocarbon products. A simple fixed bed MTG test unit capable of on-line sampling for direct gas chromatographic analysis and the collection of liquid and gaseous products for GC-MS analysis is described. The size distributions of MTG hydrocarbon products are presented for several small, intermediate, and large pore zeolites.

Yuen, L.; Zones, S.I. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fig. 1. The conversational case retrieval process in CCBR CaseQuery := Case-Query-formalize(InitialProblemDescription);  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fig. 1. The conversational case retrieval process in CCBR CaseQuery := Case questions to ask the user in the conversational process. There are two ways to realize this task: one successfully probed in the troubleshooting domain [3], and in the selection of products or services in E

Aamodt, Agnar

438

Total cross-section for photon-axion conversions in external electromagnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reconsider the conversion of the photon into axion in the external electromagnetic fields, namely in the static fields and in a periodic field of the wave guide. The total cross-sections for the conversion are evaluated in detail. The result shows that with strong strength of external electromagnetic fields, the cross-sections are large enough to measure the axion production. In the wave guide there exists the resonant conversion at the low energies, in which the value of cross-sections is much enhanced

D. V. Soa; H. N. Long; T. D. Tham

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

High-Throughput Screening Technique for Biomass Conversion in Hot Compressed Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Throughput Screening Technique for Biomass Conversion in Hot Compressed Water ... Formic acid is known to be converted completely to gaseous products, mainly CO2 and H2 at high temperatures. ... The Ru/TiO2 catalyst is able to convert WSIS (char) to gas, while leaving the oil product practically unaltered with respect to compn. ...

Pavlina Nanou; Wim P. M. van Swaaij; Sascha R. A. Kersten; Guus van Rossum

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

440

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Who is Responsible for the DUF6 Conversion Facility EISs?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Who is Responsible Who is Responsible Who Is Responsible for the Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EISs? The U.S. DOE Office of Environmental Management is preparing the two Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EISs, with assistance from Argonne National Laboratory. Responsibilities The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for preparation of the Depleted UF6 Conversion EIS. Argonne National Laboratory is assisting EM in preparation of the EIS. About the Office of Environmental Management (EM) In 1989, the Department of Energy created the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to mitigate the risks and hazards posed by the legacy of nuclear weapons production and research. Although the nation continues to maintain an arsenal of nuclear weapons, as well as some production capability, the United States has embarked on new missions. The most ambitious and far ranging of these missions is dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War. Like most industrial and manufacturing operations, the nuclear complex has generated waste, pollution, and contamination. However, many problems posed by its operations are unique. They include unprecedented amounts of contaminated waste, water, and soil, and a vast number of contaminated structures that will remain radioactive for thousands of years.

442

(Data in thousand metric tons of boric oxide (B2O3), unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The estimated value of boric oxide contained in minerals and compounds produced in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was centered in southern California. The largest producer operated an open-pit tincal and kernite mine domestic producer continued mining and processing ore at its open pit mine. The production of boron, sodium year to 60,000 tons per year by 2002. Turkey is building a 274,000-ton-per-year pyrite-burning sulfuric

443

Biomass conversion in South Africa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

South Africa is using or is investigating the potential of forest biomass sugar-cane, maize, grain sorghum, cannery...6...GJ per annum. These materials can also be utilized for the production of chemicals and foo...

Hans Jurgens Potgieter

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February » February » Conversion of biomass to fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. February 7, 2013 Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the production of energy-dense fuels, so these linear chains can then be converted into alkanes used in gasoline and diesel fuel. Image by Josh Smith, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the

445

Union Carbide pursuing direct conversion of methane to ethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Union Carbide has begun developing an alternative source for ethylene. If a new program is successful, Carbide will be able to supplement present sources of ethylene by direct catalytic conversion of methane. The program also will provide an alternative means for possible future production of distillate motor fuels. Most ethylene consumed today is derived from dehydrogenation of ethane or propane. These sources are becoming increasingly tight, and alternatives are being sought by most polyethylene producers. Alternative sources have been on Carbide's research agenda at least since 1969, when the possibilities of converting methane were first examined. Following the Arab oil embargo of 1974 and the subsequent crude oil and natural gas price rises, most attention turned to coal conversion, at least in the U.S. However, inherent difficulties diminished the immediate prospects for utilizing coal as a source of fuels and petrochemical feedstocks.

Haggin, J.

1988-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy Conversion DevicesEnergy Conversion Devices Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Development Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for several groups of electrocatalysts ECD PEMFC Catalyst Development Evaluation programs exist for severalEnergy Conversion Devices PEMFC Electrocatalyst Development Program Contact information: Dr. Peter Faguy pfaguyEnergy Conversion DevicesEnergy Conversion Devices Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Development Program

447

Personal Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients For Photons To 1 GEV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity Effective Dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are usually worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm X 30 cm X 15 cm slab-type phantom. For this condition the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H{sub p,slab}(d) and the depths, d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several MeV, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H{sub p,slab}(10) and H{sub p,slab}(3) using both the kerma approximation and by tracking secondary charged particles. For H{sub p}(0.07) the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H{sub p,slab}(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared to the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance.

Veinot, K. G.; Hertel, N. E.

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

448

Gene conversion in the rice genome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Over 60% of the conversions we detected were between chromosomes. We found that the inter-chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P < 0.05). The frequencies...

Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun; Vang, SÃ ¸ ren; Li, Ruiqiang; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoguang

2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

449

Approaches for biological and biomimetic energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biological and biomimetic energy conversion 10.1073...that are related to energy conversion: specifically...synthetic and/or hybrid devices is still...systems that produce energy in an efficient...costs are related to infrastructure, such as supporting...inverters, and grid connections. For...

David A. LaVan; Jennifer N. Cha

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography using bottom pressure sensors to measure form and mixing U0 Form drag pressure Tidal energy conversion Form drag causes: - internal wave generation - eddy Sound, WA Point Three Tree Previous work McCabe et al., 2006 > Measured the internal form drag

Warner, Sally

451

Application of Planck's law to thermionic conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, highly accurate, mathematical model of heat-to-electricity conversion is developed from Planck's law for the distribution of the radiant exitance of heat at a selected temperature. An electrical power curve is calculated by integration of the heat law over a selected range of electromagnetic wavelength corresponding to electrical voltage. A novel wavelength-voltage conversion factor, developed from the known wavelength-electron volt conversion factor, establishes the wavelength ({lambda}) for the integration. The Planck law is integrated within the limits {lambda} to 2{lambda}. The integration provides the ideal electrical power that is available from heat at the emitter temperature. When multiplied by a simple ratio, the calculated ideal power closely matches published thermionic converter experimental data. The thermal power model of thermionic conversion is validated by experiments with thermionic emission of ordinary electron tubes. A theoretical basis for the heat law based model of thermionic conversion is found in linear oscillator theory.

Caldwell, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Synthesis and structure of complex metal oxides produced by interaction of iron and nickel acetylacetonates with hydrolysis products of titanium and zirconium alcoholates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interaction of nickel and iron acetylacetonates with hydrolysis products of titanium and zirconium alcoholates and their mixture has been studied. It was shown that chemical synthesis of organometallic gel...

M. V. Tsodikov; O. V. Bukhtenko…

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Conversion of Biomass Derived Products by Anodic Activation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fatty acids and carbohydrate carboxylic acids are homo- and heterocoupled to intermediates for polyesters, new oleochemicals and potential enzyme inhibitors. — L-Ketogulonic acid is decarboxylated quantitatively ...

Hans J. Schäfer; Silke Kratschmer…

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels ? Bio-Oil Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 2 Dr. David C. Dayton Director, Chemistry and Biofuels Center for Energy Technology RTI International 2007 - present RTI International 1993...

455

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 900°C. raw Illinois coal, the ash content was quite low.30% from the feed coal on a moisture and ash free basis. In~ Solids (ash, FeSx. , unreacted coal) L . - - - - - - I

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aluminum were all performed by atomic absorption in a PerkinElmer Model 360 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Samplesvolume and run on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Conversion of Methane and Carbon Dioxide to Higher Value Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, proven world natural gas reserves are estimated to 6609 trillion cubic feet or around 187 trillion cubic meters according to the latest reports (U.S. Energy Information Administration, Figure 1). ... lignite ...

Vesna Havran; Milorad P. Dudukovi?; Cynthia S. Lo

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

459

Catalytic partial oxidation of iso-octane over rhodium catalysts: An experimental, modeling, and simulation study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic partial oxidation of iso-octane over a rhodium/alumina coated honeycomb monolith is experimentally and numerically studied at short-contact times for varying fuel-to-oxygen ratios. A new experimental set-up with well-defined inlet and boundary conditions is presented. The conversion on the catalyst and in the gas-phase is modeled by detailed reaction mechanisms including 857 gas-phase and 17 adsorbed species. Elementary-step based heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction mechanisms are implemented into two-dimensional flow field description of a single monolith channel. Experiment and simulation provide new insights into the complex reaction network leading to varying product distribution as function of fuel-to-oxygen ratio. At fuel rich conditions, the formation of by-products that can serve as coke precursors is observed and interpreted. (author)

Hartmann, M.; Minh, H.D. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Maier, L. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutschmann, O. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Quaternary Ammonium Salts and their Low-Melting Eutectics for the Conversion of Cellulose and Cellulose-Derived Sugars.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The use of Ionic Liquids (ILs) as solvents presents a promising route for the conversion of cellulosic biomass feedstock to value-added products, like 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF),… (more)

Parvathikar, Sameer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

462

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Conversion of Units of Measurement Gordon S. Novak Jr. \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the programmer; this can be both burdensome and error­prone, since the conversion factors used by the programmer guidelines for use of SI units and tables of conversion factors. Several books provide conversion factors, the accuracy of the conversion factors, and the algorithms that some books present for unit conversion

Novak Jr., Gordon S.

464

Microbial Production of Energy Sources from Biomass [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Microbial Production of Energy Sources from Biomass [and Discussion] R. C. Righelato...product. However, the capital and energy costs of operating microbial conversions...recovery methods which consume little energy. Ethanol production is unlikely...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Coal conversion. 1979 technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Multidimensional gas chromatography of oxidative degradation products in algae-derived fuel oil samples using narrow heartcuts and rapid cycle times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To characterize a fuel's thermal and storage stability an understanding of the process of oxidation and oxidation pathways is essential. Oxidation pathways commence with hydroperoxides which quickly decompose to form a range of alcohols, acids and other oxygen-containing species. In the presence of significant levels of hydrocarbon-based matrix, analysis of these heteroatomic species is difficult. Applying multidimensional gas chromatography with very narrow heart-cut windows (0.20 min) minimizes the number of compounds transferred to the second dimension (2D) column during each heart-cut. Successive heart-cuts every 2.00 min are taken throughout the analytical run, since each heart-cut has a maximum retention on 2D of <2.00 min on the fast elution 2D column. Subsequent analyses involve incrementing or offsetting the heart-cut windows by 0.20 min, so after 10 analyses, a complete coverage of the sample components can be obtained. On the polar 1D and non-polar 2D phase column arrangement, non-polar matrix compounds elute last on the 2D column, and this determines the largest 2tR; i.e. 2tR < PM to ensure retained components on 2D will not overlap with subsequent heart-cuts. Heartcutting is supported by cryotrapping at the start of the 2D column in order to provide significantly better resolution. Good quality MS library match data generally demonstrate the high resolution separation of oxygenates achieved. Whilst 1D GC–MS was unsuccessful in identifying any of the oxygen-containing compounds reported here, good correlation of MS data (with average MS library similarity data) for acids (903), alcohols (909), ketones (941) and aldehydes (938) in the sample is obtained. The method requires ten sequential runs, and this can be accomplished automatically once the events table is set up. However if fewer target compounds are to be transferred, a reduced number of sequential runs can be implemented.

Blagoj Mitrevski; Renée L. Webster; Paul Rawson; David J. Evans; Hyung-Kyoon Choi; Philip J. Marriott

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Grassland Management and Conversion into Grassland: Effects on Soil Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Grassland Soil Carbon Grassland Soil Carbon Grassland Management and Conversion into Grassland: Effects on Soil Carbon DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/tcm.005 Ecological Applications 11(2): 343-355 (2001) R. Conant, K. Paustian, and E. Elliot Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorada State University Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory logo Sponsor: US Environmental Protection Agency, Ruminant Livestock Efficiency Program Abstract Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component for sustaining production in grassland ecosystems is the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM), which can be strongly influenced by management. Many management techniques intended to increase forage production may potentially increase SOM, thus sequestering atmospheric

468

Utilizing Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion Create new materials that: capture, convert, store sunlight Learn from Nature... ...build with chemistry ANL Photosynthesis Group Fundamental Studies  Solar energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis Resolve mechanisms, design principles  Unique capabilities Time-resolved, multi-frequency EPR Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray Ultrafast spectroscopy Multi-molecular: Artificial systems for H 2 photocatalysis  Limitations:  Large solvent, molecular dependencies  Diffusion  Lifetimes  Uncontrolled back-reactions  Most PS contain noble metals  Organic solvent/high proton

469

CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Industrial Safety and Industrial Health programs at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

470

Modification of space charge transport in nanocrystalline cerium oxide by heterogeneous doping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the search for new materials for energy conversion and storage technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells, nano-ionic materials have become increasingly relevant because unique physical and transport properties that ...

Litzelman, Scott J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Post-test analysis of electrode-supported solid oxide electrolyser cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam is a very efficient power-to-gas process as long as waste heat is...1], the opposite direction of energy conversion than solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) do. In the last...

M. Al Daroukh; F. Tietz; D. Sebold; H. P. Buchkremer

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Chapter 7 - Hydrolysis in Near- and Supercritical Water for Biomass Conversion and Material Recycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Supercritical water (SCW) has been investigated for about 20 years for chemical reactions and processes. Water above its critical point (Tc = 374 °C, pc = 22.1 MPa, ?c = 0.322 g/cm3) has remarkable tunable properties and has been at the origin of a number of major developments especially due to its environmental innocuousness. SCW has been extensively used in the last 15 years to perform hydrolysis reactions. We propose to discuss in this book chapter the main fields of the application of the SCW hydrolysis reactions: (1) biomass liquefaction toward biofuels and platform molecules and (2) material recycling. SCW has been identified as an efficient medium in the transformation of biomass. Actually, Supercritical Biomass Valorization is a new generation of SCW-based technology, following the R&D development performed in SCW Oxidation. Two main routes can be investigated: the SuperCritical Biomass Gasification process and the SuperCritical Biomass Liquefaction process. Moreover, at present, the increase in the plant sourcing in the chemical industry is inescapable because of the social request for low environmental impact products and the high prices of products from fossil resources. In this context, biomass is particularly interesting because it is abundant and can be easily mobilized. Since lignocellulosic materials constitute approximately 95% of the total plant biomass, the discovery and the investigation of novel and effective pathways for their conversion are very important. In this chapter, we will present the direct SCW liquefaction of this new resource of carbon in order to produce two types of “biobased” products: 2G biofuels and platform molecules. In the context of a sustainable society, material recycling has an important role to play. Nowadays, the industry cannot produce consumer goods or industrial products without thinking about the future of each product in an environment and energetic point of view. Therefore in the field of environmentally friendly processes, a major challenge is the recycling of man-made materials. SCW has also been identified as an interesting medium for this aim. In this chapter, we will present two major aspects of material recycling using SCW: recycling of plastics and composite materials. We will see that hydrolysis reactions can be completed with alcoholysis reactions using near- and supercritical alcohols.

Anne Loppinet-Serani; Cyril Aymonier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Chemical-looping combustion of simulated synthesis gas using nickel oxide oxygen carrier supported on bentonite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology for clean and efficient utilization of fossil fuels for energy production. This process which produces sequestration ready CO2 systems is a promising technology to be utilized with coal gasification systems. In the present work, chemical-looping combustion has been studied with an oxygen carrier, NiO/bentonite (60 wt % NiO) for the gasification systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data on multicycle tests conducted with NiO/bentonite at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. The rate of reduction increased slightly with an increase in temperature, while the rate of oxidation decreased at 900 °C. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the particle size between 20 and 200 mesh. The rates of reactions depended on the particle size of the oxygen carrier. The smaller the particle size, the higher the reaction rates. The multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for the production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. The data from a one cycle test on the effect of the pressure on the performance with NiO/bentonite utilizing the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) showed a positive effect of the pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of the NiO phase in NiO/bentonite with the oxidized sample in the highpressure reactor and Ni phase with the reduced sample. The presence of a small amount of NiO in the reduced sample detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) may be due to its exposure to air during sample transfer from the reactor to XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed no significant changes in morphology of NiO/bentonite reacted in the temperature range 700-800 °C in an atmospheric TGA for 10 oxidation-reduction cycles, but some loss of surface area and porosity was observed at 900 °C. This effect was found to be greater with increase in the particle size of the oxygen carrier.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Poston, J.A.; Zinn, A.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(46, 58) Sabatier et al. did a comparative investigation of ethanol dehydration on various oxide catalysts, among which ThO2, Al2O3, and W2O3 gave the best performance in terms of ethylene selectivity. ... (59) In a microchannel reactor and at lower temperatures (i.e., 380 °C), Chen et al. also found that ethanol conversion decreased from ?86% to ?65% as water content increased from ?5 wt % to 90 wt % over TiO2/?-Al2O3, while diethyl ether selectivity increased at the expense of ethylene. ... (72, 73) Therefore, different strategies to improve mass transfer and to provide more accessible acidic sites have been attempted. ...

Junming Sun; Yong Wang

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

477

Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

478

Paducah DUF6 Conversion Final EIS - Appendix G: Consultation Letters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paducah DUF Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX G: CONSULTATION LETTERS Consultation Letters G-2 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-3 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LETTERS TO STATE AGENCIES AND RECOGNIZED NATIVE AMERICAN GROUPS Consultation Letters G-4 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-5 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-6 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-7 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-8 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-9 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-10 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-11 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-12 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS

479

Micro Electret Energy Harvesting Device with Analogue Impedance Conversion Circuit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro Electret Energy Harvesting Device with Analogue Impedance Conversion Circuit Yuji Suzuki1 using a low-power-consumption impedance conversion circuit. Key words: Energy harvesting, Electret, CYTOP, Parylene spring, Impedance conversion 1. INTRODUCTION Energy harvesting from environmental

Kasagi, Nobuhide

480

Health Risks Associated with Conversion of Depleted UF6  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion Conversion DUF6 Health Risks line line Accidents Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Transportation Conversion A discussion of health risks associated with conversion of depleted UF6 to another chemical form. General Health Risks of Conversion The potential environmental impacts, including potential health risks, associated with conversion activities will be evaluated in detail as part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride management program after a contract is awarded for conversion services. This section discusses in general the types of health risks associated with the conversion process. The conversion of depleted UF6 to another chemical form will be done in an industrial facility dedicated to the conversion process. Conversion will involve the handling of depleted UF6 cylinders. Hazardous chemicals, such

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxide conversion product" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Coupling of Catalytic Partial Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methane to Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methane-to-syngas (i.e.CO and H2...) conversion reactions involving exothermic oxidative conversion of methane and endothermic steam reforming of methane have been carried simultaneously NiO-CaO (Ni...4/02 (1.8 –...

V. R. Choudhary; A. M. Rajput; B. Prabhakar

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

PSO-2002 FU-2207 final report Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 2. Gas-phase conversion of Cl, S, and K/Na in biomass combustion (I) 13 2.1. Mechanism Biomass Combustion 33 2.3. The Effect of NO and SO2 on the Oxidation of CO-H2 mixtures 65 2.4. Thermal-phase mechanisms for NOx formation in biomass combustion (II) 119 3.1. Ammonia Chemistry under Fuel-Rich Conditions

484

NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion Capabilities Conversion Capabilities NREL researchers are developing gasification and pyrolysis processes for the cost-effective thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. Gasification-heating biomass with about one-third of the oxygen necessary for complete combustion-produces a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, known as syngas. Pyrolysis-heating biomass in the absence of oxygen-produces a liquid bio-oil. Both syngas and bio-oil can be used directly or can be converted to clean fuels and other valuable chemicals. Areas of emphasis in NREL's thermochemical conversion R&D are: Gasification and fuel synthesis R&D Pyrolysis R&D Thermochemical process integration. Gasification and Fuel Synthesis R&D Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video.

485

Depleted UF6 Conversion facility EIS Topics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Topics Topics Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EIS Topics A listing of topics included in the Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EISs. DOE addressed the following environmental issues when assessing the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives in the two site-specific EISs. DOE solicited comment from the Federal agencies, Native American tribes, state and local governments, and the general public on these and any other issues as part of the public scoping process: Potential impacts on health from DUF6 conversion activities, including potential impacts to workers and the public from exposure to radiation and chemicals during routine and accident conditions for the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of DUF6 conversion facilities.

486

Overview of Capabilities Conversion System Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycles Heat exchanger design and optimization TES Material Integration & Optimization: Solar power plantOverview of Capabilities Conversion System Technology - Power System Demonstrations - Systems Conceptual Design/Trade Space Exploration - Simulation Modeling for Manufacturing - Hybrid Energy Systems

Lee, Dongwon

487

Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Omar Yaghi  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, in the first of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 11th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

Omar Yaghi

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

488

Ris Energy Report 2 Bioenergy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6.3 Risø Energy Report 2 Bioenergy conversion There is a wide range of technologies to derive operate automatically and are in many regions an economic alternative, e.g. Austria and Finland

489

Analyzing Biomass Conversion into Liquid Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variants of the Fischer–Tropsch producer-gas conversion into liquid hydrocarbons are analyzed under the ... is attained in the reactions occurring in the biomass gasification. When the raw material is wood ... th...

V. D. Meshcheryakov; V. A. Kirillov

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Chapter 13 - Heterogeneous Catalysts and Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The application of heterogeneous catalysts to conversion processes based on biomasses is described and discussed. The role of heterogeneous catalysts in the development of renewable industrial chemistry is emphasized.

Guido Busca

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

CO2 Conversion to CH4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A power-to-gas technology that converts renewable energy to methane...16]. Conversion of renewable energy, that is, solar or wind, into fuel is an easy way to store solar energy, characterized by low energy densi...

V. Barbarossa; C. Bassano; P. Deiana; G. Vanga

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Energy Balances for Biomass Conversion Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass conversion systems of any type, irrespective of ... measured on a consistent scale which identifies the energy efficiency of the process and of the overall system. Accurate energy balances, as well as mat...

Raphael Katzen

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z