Sample records for oxide chemical vapor

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  2. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (4745 Trinity Dr., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kodas, Toivo T. (5200 Noreen Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  3. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

  4. Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

  5. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  6. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  7. On the possibility to grow zinc oxide-based transparent conducting oxide films by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrutis, Adulfas, E-mail: adulfas.abrutis@chf.vu.lt; Silimavicus, Laimis; Kubilius, Virgaudas; Murauskas, Tomas; Saltyte, Zita; Kuprenaite, Sabina; Plausinaitiene, Valentina [Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD) was applied to grow zinc oxide (ZnO)-based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Indium (In)-doped ZnO films were deposited using a cold wall pulsed liquid injection CVD system with three nichrome wires installed at a distance of 2?cm from the substrate holder. The wires were heated by an AC current in the range of 0–10 A. Zn and In 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionates dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxyethane were used as precursors. The hot wires had a marked effect on the growth rates of ZnO, In-doped ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films; at a current of 6–10 A, growth rates were increased by a factor of ?10–20 compared with those of traditional CVD at the same substrate temperature (400?°C). In-doped ZnO films with thickness of ?150?nm deposited on sapphire-R grown at a wire current of 9?A exhibited a resistivity of ?2?×?10{sup ?3} ?cm and transparency of >90% in the visible spectral range. These initial results reveal the potential of HW-CVD for the growth of TCOs.

  8. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  9. Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7920 Received 7 January 1999; accepted 21 May 1999 Active sampling mass spectrometry has been used for process

  10. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 924930 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Robert F.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 924­930 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CIGS) or plastic substrates [1,2,8]. In this paper, we report on the deposition of aluminum- doped zinc

  11. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  12. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  13. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  15. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

  16. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  17. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  19. Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  1. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  3. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place...

  4. assisted chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline...

  5. Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor Eunsung Kan,a,b Seongyup Kim,a and Marc A.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ep.10205 Oxidation of dilute TCE vapors in a foam reactor using Fenton's reagent composition of Fenton's reagents, the foam reactor configuration provided a higher rate absorption and greater

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  7. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    ADVANCED CHEMICAL HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured... in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam...

  8. Low-temperature germanium ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition for back-end photonic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) grown on amorphous Si (a-Si) by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) over oxide barriers at low temperatures (Tles450degC) exhibits a larger grain size and lower defect ...

  9. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  11. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  12. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  13. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  14. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  15. DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

  16. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  17. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

  19. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  20. Nextel{trademark}/SiC composites fabricated using forced chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, B.L. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States); Lowden, R.A.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Schwarz, O.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated employing the forced-flow, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Composites using Nextel{sup TM} fibers of varying composition were prepared to investigate the effectiveness of each Nextel{sup TM} fiber as a reinforcement for the given matrix. A carbon interface coating was used for the baseline materials, however, alternate interlayers with improved oxidation resistance were also explored Room-temperature flexure strengths of as-fabricated composites and specimens heated in air at 1273 K were measured and compared to results for other SiC-matrix composites.

  1. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  2. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  3. Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas Phase Complex Formation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas Phase Complex Received June 6, 2000 The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of titanium nitride can be carried out with TiCl4 Titanium nitride thin films have a variety of proper- ties, such as extreme hardness, high chemical

  4. Momentum and thermal boundary-layer thickness in a stagnation flow chemical vapor deposition reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    reactor David S. Dandy and Jungheum Yun Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University stagnation flows characteristic of highly convective chemical vapor deposition pedestal reactors. Expressions of diamond via low- pressure chemical vapor deposition, direct current (dc) arcjet reactor systems3­8 have

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, April Denise, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

  6. Molecular-jet chemical vapor deposition of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubben, D.; Jellison, G.E.; Modine, F.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SiC films have been deposited by molecular-jet chemical vapor deposition (MJCVD) on Si(001) substrates. Methylsilane (MS) diluted in He was used as a precursor for deposition under conditions which produced a MS molecular beam with 0.365 eV translational energy. Films grown at temperatures between 1000 and 1150 C and above {approx}1200 C were single crystal as judged by electron channeling, while those grown at intermediate temperatures were polycrystalline. Films grown at lower temperatures generally had a smoother surface morphology for moderate thicknesses, although all films showed at least some degree of faceting. The best thick films, up to 4 {mu}m, were obtained for substrate temperatures of {approx}1210 C under flow conditions which produced a deposition rate of {approx}1200 {angstrom} per minute.

  7. Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamri Yusop, Mohd [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10?nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870?V/?m for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200?nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

  8. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  9. Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

  10. Electronic Properties of Large-scale Graphene Films Chemical Vapor Synthesized on Nickel and on Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    transport properties of graphene films grown on Ni and Cu. Sample Preparation The synthesis of graphene film1 Electronic Properties of Large-scale Graphene Films Chemical Vapor Synthesized on Nickel of large scale graphene films grown by chemical vapor synthesis on Ni and Cu, and then transferred to SiO2

  11. Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modifications of reactor configurations and manual control of operating conditions becomes prohibitivelyComputational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon in a horizontal rotating disk reactor. A three

  12. Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8 D.-X. Yea,*, S. Pimanpanga chemical vapor deposition with a metallorganic Co2(CO)8 precursor. After Ar sputtering of the surface, Co2(CO)8, has been extensively used in cobalt CVD and is attractive, since Co is in its elemental

  13. Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Imido Dimer Formation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Imido Dimer Formation- ization of Ti(NR2)2NH in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of titanium nitride films. This study uses lead to the formation of higher oligomers. Introduction Titanium nitride thin films have a number

  14. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

  15. Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition Seung Yong Bae a , Hee Won 2003 Abstract Porous structured GaN nanowires were synthesized with a large scale by chemical vapor to 1 mm. The porous GaN nanowires consist of the wurtzite single crystal grown with the [0 1 1

  16. Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. © 2001 American Vacuum

  17. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  18. Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

  19. Optical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, X.X.; Eklund, P.C.; Zhang, J.G.; Rao, A.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)); Perry, T.A.; Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Physics Department, General Motors Research Laboratory, Warren, MI (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of room-temperature optical studies on {similar to}10 micron thick, free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a methane/hydrogen mixture. The as-grown, free surface of the films exhibited a surface roughness of scale {sigma}{similar to}0.2 to 5 microns, depending on the methane/hydrogen mixture, which introduces significant optical scattering loss for frequencies greater than 0.5 eV. Specular reflection and transmission spectra in the range 0.01--10 eV were collected. Below the threshold for interband adsorption near {similar to}5 eV, the films studied behaved approximately as thin parallel plates of refractive index 2.4, with the rough free surface leading to increasingly larger loss of specular transmission/reflection with decreasing wavelength. Structure in the mid-infrared transmission spectra was observed and attributed to disorder-induced one-phonon absorption, intrinsic multi-phonon absorption, and infrared active --C--H{sub 2} stretching modes. The strength of the C--H band was observed to increase with increasing methane pressure in the growth chamber. At 5.3 eV, the onset of interband absorption was observed, in good agreement with the value of the indirect bandgap in type IIa (intrinsic) diamond.

  20. Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Tallant, D.R.; Hills, C.R.; Staley, D.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors have developed two techniques: electrophoretic deposition and screen printing, to form nonmined diamond powder precursors on substrates. They then densify these precursors in a hot filament assisted reactor. Analysis indicated that a hot filament assisted chemical vapor infiltration process forms intergranular diamond deposits with properties that are to some degree different from predominantly hot-filament-assisted CVD material.

  1. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor decomposition pressures and increased control over local stoichiometry and defect formation. While we focus here

  2. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrieta, Marie

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to design, assemble, and demonstrate the initial performance of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB-CVD) system capable of producing thin, uniform zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings (1 to 10 micrometers...

  3. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  4. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

  5. Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

  6. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaunig, James E., E-mail: jklauni@indiana.edu; Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

  7. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  8. Ge incorporation inside 4H-SiC during Homoepitaxial growth by chemical vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ge incorporation inside 4H-SiC during Homoepitaxial growth by chemical vapor deposition. Kassem Ilmenau (Germany) Abstract. In this work, we report on the addition of GeH4 gas during homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC by chemical vapour deposition. Ge introduction does not affect dramatically the surface

  9. Multiplexed mass spectrometry for real-time sensing in a spatially programmable chemical vapor deposition reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    deposition reactor Yuhong Cai, Laurent Henn-Lecordier, and Gary W. Rubloffa Department of Materials Science locations in a spatially programmable chemical vapor deposition SP-CVD reactor prototype, where such chemical sensing is essential to achieve the benefits of a new paradigm for reactor design. The spatially

  10. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  11. Methyl isocyanate liquid and vapor permeation through selected respirator diaphragms and chemical protective clothing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Moyer, E.S.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initially, a study was undertaken to evaluate selected chemical protective clothing suitable for use by emergency response personnel confronted with methyl isocyanate (MIC). Twenty-two chemical protective clothing materials were tested against liquid methyl isocyanate. Chemical permeation breakthrough times for these clothing materials demonstrate that only one of these garments can be considered as a candidate material against liquid MIC. In a subsequent study, three chemical protective clothing materials were evaluated against approximately 800 ppm MIC vapor. Chemical permeation breakthrough times demonstrate that these materials can be considered candidate materials. A final study tested self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) diaphragms. Four SCBA diaphragms were tested and all experienced rapid breakthrough when exposed to liquid MIC. Next, three SCBA diaphragms were exposed to approximately 800 ppm MIC vapor. The data demonstrate that the SCBA should be worn inside a total encapsulating suit.

  12. Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

  13. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor chamber, and (2

  14. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy the equations that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor

  15. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  16. Method and apparatus for detection of chemical vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark (Knoxville, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Caja, Josip (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a gas detector and method for using the gas detector for detecting and identifying volatile organic and/or volatile inorganic substances present in unknown vapors in an environment. The gas detector comprises a sensing means and a detecting means for detecting electrical capacitance variance of the sensing means and for further identifying the volatile organic and volatile inorganic substances. The sensing means comprises at least one sensing unit and a sensing material allocated therein the sensing unit. The sensing material is an ionic liquid which is exposed to the environment and is capable of dissolving a quantity of said volatile substance upon exposure thereto. The sensing means constitutes an electrochemical capacitor and the detecting means is in electrical communication with the sensing means.

  17. Diamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filamentsubstrate separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Polycrystalline diamond films have been grown by hot filament (HF) chemical vapor deposition on WC-Co bar is an established technique for growing hard, wear- resistant polycrystalline diamond films on a range of substratesDiamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filament

  18. Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

  19. Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

  20. Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial processing capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial these limitations, a novel CVD reactor system has been developed that can explicitly control the spatial profile flexibility, we introduced a new CVD reactor concept that enables control of film deposition characteristics

  1. Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond films by ion implantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2002; published 5 February 2003 Phosphorus doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown using ion the electrical char- acteristics of diamond FEAs to lower the operating voltage. Polycrystalline diamond hasField emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond

  2. Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing

  3. Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exfoliation of graphite [1], sublimation of epitaxial SiC [4], and catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [5­9]. However, mechanical exfoliation of graphite can only supply small-size graphene (see Fig than that of graphene obtained via exfoli- ation of graphite as summarized in Fig. 1. While many

  4. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of titanium in a nitrogen atmosphere forms TiN with only a slight dependence on substrate temperatureAtmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium, Massachusetts 02138 (Received 15 December 1994; accepted 28 October 1995) Near stoichiometric titanium nitride

  5. Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth Lynn (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Paul M. (Albuquerque, NM); Custer, Jonathan S. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Ronald V. (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolet, Marc-A. (Pasadena, CA); Madar, Roland (Eybens, FR); Bernard, Claude (Brie et Angonnes, FR)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF.sub.6, either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W--Si--N or W--B--N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

  8. Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated Activated Carbon treated cloths exhibit high adsorption capacities for water (0.5-0.67 m u g of fiber) and 100% desorption upon heating to 100 "C. The untreated and treated ACCBO samples exhibited no degradation upon heating

  9. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

  10. Molecular orbital studies of titanium nitride chemical vapor deposition: gas phase b-elimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular orbital studies of titanium nitride chemical vapor deposition: gas phase b) of titanium nitride can be carried out using TiNR24 and NH3 (R Me or Et). Imido compounds are thought. Ó 2001 Pub- lished by Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction It is well known that titanium nitride

  11. Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

  12. Simulation of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition based on 3D images: a local scale approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    infiltration of ceramic matrix composites is presented. This computational model requires a 3D representation/reaction problems; Random walks; 3D image-based modeling 1. Introduction Ceramic Matrix Composites and Carbon with a matrix. One of the most efficient ones is Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI), by which gaseous precursors

  13. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor In ltration II: Two Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    -solid reactions with solid deposition are exempli#12;ed by the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites through #3) process, during which a matrix of ceramic #12;bers is chemically vapor deposited within a porous preform practical approach to fabricate ceramic composites. Among these composites, #12;ber-reinforced composites

  14. Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol Pei Zhao, and systematically investigate the growth of graphene from ethanol and compare its self-limiting behavior over copper facets with different identities. Results show that the growth of graphene from ethanol in the LPCVD

  15. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  16. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  17. Validating optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic of microwave activated CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond. Several tracer species are monitored in order to gain used for diamond chemical vapor deposition Jie Ma,1 Michael N. R. Ashfold,1,a and Yuri A. Mankelevich2 spectroscopic methods used to diagnose microwave MW plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition CVD . Zhu

  18. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

  19. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites by Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Zhan Jun [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Yang, Ying Chao [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Li, Kai Yuan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Tao, Xin Yong [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Zhang, Li Tong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China; Li, Xiao Dong [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Pan, Zhengwei [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their exceptional stiffness and strength1 4, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have long been considered to be an ideal reinforcement for light-weight, high-strength, and high-temperature-resistant ceramic matrix composites (CMCs)5 10. However, the research and development in CNT-reinforced CMCs have been greatly hindered due to the challenges related to manufacturing including poor dispersion, damages during dispersion, surface modification, densification and sintering, weak tube/matrix interfaces, and agglomeration of tubes at the matrix grain boundaries5,11. Here we report the fabrication of high-quality aligned CNT/SiC composites by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), a technique that is being widely used to fabricate commercial continuous-filament CMCs12 15. Using the CVI technique most of the challenges previously encountered in the fabrication of CNT composites were readily overcome. Nanotube pullouts, an important toughening mechanism for CMCs, were consistently observed on all fractured CNT/SiC samples. Indeed, three-point bending tests conducted on individual CNT/SiC nanowires (diameters: 50 200 nm) using an atomic force microscope show that the CNT-reinforced SiC nanowires are about an order of magnitude tougher than the bulk SiC. The tube/matrix interface is so intimate and the SiC matrix is so dense that a ~50-nm-thick SiC coating can effectively protect the inside nanotubes from being oxidized at 1600 C in air. The CVI method may be extended to produce nanotube composites from a variety of matrix

  20. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  1. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  2. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  3. Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  4. Red emission from Eu-doped GaN luminescent films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    chemical vapor deposition on GaN/Al2O3 substrates. Trimethylgallium TMGa , ammonia (NH3), and europium 2 europium doping was performed utilizing a europium beta-diketonate, eu- ropium 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3

  5. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  6. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  7. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  8. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  9. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  10. Mass densification and defect restoration in chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using Ar plasma excited by microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawase, Kazumasa, E-mail: Kawase.Kazumasa@ak.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Motoya, Tsukasa; Uehara, Yasushi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been treated with Ar plasma excited by microwave. The changes of the mass densities, carrier trap densities, and thicknesses of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films with the Ar plasma treatments were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis using synchrotron radiation. The densities of carrier trap centers due to defects of Si-O bond network were estimated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) time-dependent measurement. The changes of the thicknesses due to the oxidation of Si substrates were estimated with the XRR and XPS. The mass densities of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are increased by the Ar plasma treatments. The carrier trap densities of the films are decreased by the treatments. The thicknesses of the films are not changed by the treatments. It has been clarified that the mass densification and defect restoration in the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are caused by the Ar plasma treatments without the oxidation of the Si substrates.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition techniques and related methods for manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sadwick, Laurence P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wernsman, Bernard R. (Clairton, PA)

    2002-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs made using the methods of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  12. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

  13. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A. [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10?nm and 20?nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100?±?10?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

  14. Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

    1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  15. III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

  16. Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

  17. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: • Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, • Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, • Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  18. Characteristics of ultra low-k nanoporous and fluorinated silica based films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi-Firouzjah, M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) silica based films were deposited on p-type silicon and polycarbonate substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at low temperature. A mixture of tetraethoxysilane vapor, oxygen, and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was used for the deposition of the films in forms of two structures called as SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z}. Properties of the films were controlled by amount of porosity and fluorine content in the film matrix. The influence of RF power and CF{sub 4} flow on the elemental composition, deposition rate, surface roughness, leakage current, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the films were characterized. Moreover, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the plasma process at the different parameters. Electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films with metal-oxide-semiconductor structure were investigated using current-voltage analysis to measure the leakage current and breakdown field, as well as capacitance-voltage analysis to obtain the film's dielectric constant. The results revealed that SiO{sub x}C{sub y} films, which are deposited at lower RF power produce more leakage current, meanwhile the dielectric constant and refractive index of these films decreased mainly due to the more porosity in the film structure. By adding CF{sub 4} in the deposition process, fluorine, the most electronegative and the least polarized atom, doped into the silica film and led to decrease in the refractive index and the dielectric constant. In addition, no breakdown field was observed in the electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films and the leakage current of these films reduced by increment of the CF{sub 4} flow.

  19. Electrochromic Devices Deposited on Low-Temperature Plastics by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, Joshua; Seman, Michael

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows have been identified by the Basic energy Sciences Advisory committee as an important technology for the reduction of energy spent on heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. Electrochromic devices have the ability to reversibly alter their optical properties in response to a small electric field. By blocking ultraviolet and infrared radiation, while modulating the incoming visible radiation, electrochromics could reduce energy consumption by several Quads per year. This amounts to several percent of the total annual national energy expenditures. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate proof of concept for using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for depositing all five layers necessary for full electrochromic devices, as an alternative to sputtering techniques. The overall goal is to produce electrochromic devices on flexible polymer substrates using PECVD to significantly reduce the cost of the final product. We have successfully deposited all of the films necessary for a complete electrochromic devices using PECVD. The electrochromic layer, WO3, displayed excellent change in visible transmission with good switching times. The storage layer, V2O5, exhibited a high storage capacity and good clear state transmission. The electrolyte, Ta2O5, was shown to functional with good electrical resistivity to go along with the ability to transfer Li ions. There were issues with leakage over larger areas, which can be address with further process development. We developed a process to deposit ZnO:Ga with a sheet resistance of < 50 W/sq. with > 90% transmission. Although we were not able to deposit on polymers due to the temperatures required in combination with the inverted position of our substrates. Two types of full devices were produced. Devices with Ta2O5 were shown to be functional using small aluminum dots as the top contact. The polymer electrolyte devices were shown to have a clear state transmission of 69% and a darkened state transmission 11%. These un-optimized devices compared well with commercially available products, which have a stated clear transmission of 59% and dark transmission of 4%. The PECVD oxides have displayed advantages over films produced by sputtering. The first advantage is that deposition rates were significantly higher than typical sputtering rates. Rates of 100 nm/min were achieved for WO3, and rates of 50 nm/min produced quality V2O5 and Ta2O5 films. Faster rates will produce a significant reduction in cost due to higher throughput. Another advantage was that films were less dense than those produced by sputtering as reported in the literature. This leads to high diffusion coefficients and fast switching times. Also less dense films have been shown to produce larger contrast ratios in WO3 and larger storage capacity in V2O5. From the data collected in this category 1 project we have shown that PECVD is feasible and beneficial for the deposition of working layers for electrochromic devices. These results and the lessons learned can be applied toward deposition on polymers and equipment scale-up in future work.

  20. Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

  1. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  2. A study of heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Baum, H.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process have been studied for general values of the torch speed. Three-dimensional temperature fields have been obtained over the entire cross section of the tube and the effects of tube rotation and localized torch heating in the axial and circumferential directions have been studied. The particle trajectories have been calculated from a formulation that includes the contributions from forced flow, i.e., Poiseuille flow in the axial direction, rigid body rotation about the tube axis, and thermophoretic contributions in the axial, radial, and angular directions. The particle trajectories are helices and are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation.

  3. Selective charge doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene by interface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shengnan, E-mail: wang.shengnan@lab.ntt.co.jp; Suzuki, Satoru; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Orofeo, Carlo M.; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)] [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The doping and scattering effect of substrate on the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are revealed. Wet etching the underlying SiO{sub 2} of graphene and depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilane between graphene and SiO{sub 2} are used to modify various substrates for CVD graphene transistors. Comparing with the bare SiO{sub 2} substrate, the carrier mobility of CVD graphene on modified substrate is enhanced by almost 5-fold; consistently the residual carrier concentration is reduced down to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}. Moreover, scalable and reliable p- and n-type graphene and graphene p-n junction are achieved on various silane SAMs with different functional groups.

  4. Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

  5. Growth of FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Yuji, E-mail: fujiwara@phen.mie-u.ac.jp; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Hori, Kenta; Takase, Sho; Sato, Hideki; Maeda, Kohji; Kobayashi, Tadashi [Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Kurima-machiya-cho 1577, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Jimbo, Mutsuko [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Daido University, Takiharu-cho 10-3, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition using an Fe/Pt bilayer catalyst. The CNTs were grown according to the base growth model. Selected area electron diffraction results revealed that the encapsulated particles were A1-FePt, L1{sub 0}-FePt, and Fe{sub 3}PtC. The crystal structures of particles found at the root parts of CNTs were not able to be identified, however. The layered structure of catalytic films seemed to be responsible for the difference in Pt content between particles found at tip and root parts of CNTs. Approximately 60% of CNTs grown at 800?°C had particles at their tip parts, compared to only 30% when the growth temperature was 700?°C, indicating that higher process temperatures promote particle encapsulation in CNTs.

  6. Carbon nanowalls grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition during the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jiangling; Su Shi; Kundrat, Vojtech; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhou Lei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Fajer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Ouyang Defang [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); James, David; Roberts, Darren [Thermo Fisher Scientific, Stafford House, Hemel Hempstead HP2 7GE (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We used microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) to carbonize an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to form carbon fibers. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the fibers at different evolution stages. It was found that MPECVD-carbonized PAN fibers do not exhibit any significant change in the fiber diameter, whilst conventionally carbonized PAN fibers show a 33% reduction in the fiber diameter. An additional coating of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was formed on the surface of the carbonized PAN fibers during the MPECVD process without the assistance of any metallic catalysts. The result presented here may have a potential to develop a novel, economical, and straightforward approach towards the mass production of carbon fibrous materials containing CNWs.

  7. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of lattice-matched AlInN alloy grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Thermoelectric properties of lattice-matched AlInN alloy grown by metal organic chemical vapor Seebeck coefficient and resistance measurement system for thermoelectric materials in the thin disk geometry Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 025101 (2012) High-temperature thermoelectric properties of Cu1­xInTe2

  9. Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    implantation of Cu, Li and Ag into silicon doped GaN films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition temperature (700-900°C) annealing. Low temperature (6K) photoluminescence (PL) for Cu-implanted GaN showed recovery of standard crystalline GaN features. Additional donor-acceptor pair features are observed below 3

  10. Deposition of silicon carbide films using a high vacuum metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method with a single source precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    , high temperature, and high radiation environments. Conventional silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition CVD processes generally utilized multiple precursors such as silane and hydrocarbons, and required temperature alternatives to the conventional SiC CVD methods must be considered. To do this, a relatively

  11. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Forest Grown via Chemical Vapor Deposition from Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles, by XPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique chemical and physical properties. Herein, we report an XPS analysis of a forest of multiwalled CNTs using monochromatic Al K? radiation. Survey scans show only one element: carbon. The carbon 1s peak is centered 284.5 eV. The C 1s envelope also shows the expected ? ? ?* shake-up peak at ca. 291 eV. The valence band and carbon KVV Auger signals are presented. When patterned, the CNT forests can be used as a template for subsequent deposition of metal oxides to make thin layer chromatography plates.1-3

  12. Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.

  13. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel Olivier Herbineta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate Olivier Herbineta , William of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from

  14. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor vessel is described for chemical vapor deposition of a uniform semiconductor film on a substrate, comprising: a generally cylindrical reaction chamber for receiving a substrate and a flow of reaction gas capable of depositing a film on the substrate under the conditions of the chamber, the chamber having upper and lower portion and being oriented about a vertical axis; a supporting means having a substrate support surface generally perpendicular to the vertical axis for carrying the substrate within the lower portion of the reaction chamber in a predetermined relative position with respect to the upper portion of the reaction chamber, the upper portion including a cylindrically shaped confinement chamber. The confinement chamber has a smaller diameter than the lower portion of the reaction chamber and is positioned above the substrate support surface; and a means for introducing a reaction gas into the confinement chamber in a nonaxial direction so as to direct the reaction gas into the lower portion of the reaction chamber with a non-axial flow having a rotational component with respect to the vertical axis. In this way the reaction gas defines an inward vortex flow pattern with respect to the substrate surface.

  15. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H. [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T. K. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T. K. [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  16. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  17. Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

  18. Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of tungsten from tungsten hexacarbonyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from W(CO)/sub 6/ has been investigated below 670 K as an alternate process to WF/sub 6/ CVD for coating glass microspheres. The major advantages of W(CO)/sub 6/ CVD are the elimination of the HF damage to the glass microspheres and potentially a lower deposition temperature for coating DT-filled microspheres. W(CO)/sub 6/ CVD can be utilized, in principle, to coat the microspheres with 1 to 5 ..mu..m of tungsten or to flash coat the microspheres for further coating by WF/sub 6/ CVD. Test coatings were deposited in a fluidized-bed reactor with a hydrogen carrier gas. The coatings were found to contain nearly equal portions of carbon and oxygen, ranging from 16 to 25 at.% for each element. The high carbon and oxygen concentrations are believed to result principally from the physical entrapment of chemisorbed CO molecules at the surface of the growing deposit. The general quality and adhesion of the W(CO)/sub 6/-derived coatings are unsatisfactory at this time for ICF applications.

  19. Short communication Chemically abrupt interface between Ce oxide and Fe films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    layer barrier. This situation can lead to partial oxidation of the ferromagnetic metals and degradationShort communication Chemically abrupt interface between Ce oxide and Fe films H.G. Lee a,b , D. Lee online 24 May 2005 Abstract A chemically abrupt Fe/Ce oxide interface can be formed by initial oxidation

  20. Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nominanda, Helinda

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

  1. Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Dennis M. (Livermore, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

  2. Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Cheng [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China) [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)] [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore) [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

  3. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  4. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor Infiltration III: Three Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    is an important technol- ogy to fabricate ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). In this paper, a three) is an important and widely used tech- nology for fabricating fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC temperature. A vapor precursor of the matrix ma- terial, such as the methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), diffuses

  5. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor Infiltration I: Two Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    infiltration (CVI) process is an important approach to fabricating ceramic matrix composite(CMC's). Two. In CVI a vapor precursor of the matrix material, such as methyl­ trichlorosilane (MTS), diffuses through the inter­fiber void. As matrix growth progresses, avenues for gas transport become more tortuous and begin

  6. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

  7. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  8. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  9. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  10. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  11. Design of a compact ultrahigh vacuum-compatible setup for the analysis of chemical vapor deposition processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Theodor; Nowak, Martin; Zielasek, Volkmar, E-mail: zielasek@uni-bremen.de; Bäumer, Marcus [Institut für Angewandte und Physikalische Chemie, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mundloch, Udo; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina [Physikalische Chemie I, Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing thin film deposition techniques requires contamination-free transfer from the reactor into an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface science analysis. A very compact, multifunctional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactor for direct attachment to any typical UHV system for thin film analysis was designed and built. Besides compactness, fast, easy, and at the same time ultimately clean sample transfer between reactor and UHV was a major goal. It was achieved by a combination of sample manipulation parts, sample heater, and a shutter mechanism designed to fit all into a NW38 Conflat six-ways cross. The present reactor design is versatile to be employed for all commonly employed variants of CVD, including Atomic Layer Deposition. A demonstration of the functionality of the system is provided. First results of the setup (attached to an Omicron Multiprobe x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system) on the temperature dependence of Pulsed Spray Evaporation-CVD of Ni films from Ni acetylacetonate as the precursor demonstrate the reactor performance and illustrate the importance of clean sample transfer without breaking vacuum in order to obtain unambiguous results on the quality of CVD-grown thin Ni films. The widely applicable design holds promise for future systematic studies of the fundamental processes during chemical vapor deposition or atomic layer deposition.

  12. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  13. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  14. Effect of Mo Dispersion Size and Water Vapor on Oxidation of Two-Phase Directionally Solidified NiAl-9Mo In-Situ Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of two-phase NiAl-9Mo eutectics with 3 different growth rates/2nd phase Mo dispersion sizes were investigated at 900 C in air and air with 10% water vapor. Good oxidation resistance via alumina formation was observed in dry air, with Mo volatilization loss minimized by fine submicron Mo dispersions. However, extensive Mo volatilization and in-place internal oxidation of prior Mo phase regions was observed in wet air oxidation. Ramifications of this phenomenon for the development of multi-phase high-temperature alloys are discussed

  15. Oxidative corrosion of spent UO{sub 2} fuel in vapor and dripping groundwater at 90{degree}C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, R. J.

    1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of spent UO{sub 2} fuel has been studied in experiments conducted for nearly six years. Oxidative dissolution in vapor and dripping groundwater at 90 C occurs via general corrosion at fuel-fragment surfaces. Dissolution along fuel-grain boundaries is also evident in samples contacted by the largest volumes of groundwater, and corroded grain boundaries extend at least 20 or 30 grains deep (> 200 {micro}m), possibly throughout millimeter-sized fragments. Apparent dissolution of fuel along defects that intersect grain boundaries has created dissolution pits that are 50 to 200 nm in diameter. Dissolution pits penetrate 1-2 {micro}m into each grain, producing a ''worm-like'' texture along fuel-grain-boundaries. Sub-micrometer-sized fuel shards are common between fuel grains and may contribute to the reactive surface area of fuel exposed to groundwater. Outer surfaces of reacted fuel fragments develop a fine-grained layer of corrosion products adjacent to the fuel (5-15 {micro}m thick). A more coarsely crystalline layer of corrosion products commonly covers the fine-grained layer, the thickness of which varies considerably among samples (from less than 5 {micro}m to greater than 40 {micro}m). The thickest and most porous corrosion layers develop on fuel fragments exposed to the largest volumes of groundwater. Corrosion-layer compositions depend strongly on water flux, with uranyl oxy-hydroxides predominating in vapor experiments, and alkali and alkaline earth uranyl silicates predominating in high drip-rate experiments. Low drip-rate experiments exhibit a complex assemblage of corrosion products, including phases identified in vapor and high drip-rate experiments.

  16. MOMENTUM AND THERMAL BOUNDARY-LAYER THICKNESS IN A STAGNATION FLOW CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    REACTOR DAVID S. DANDY AND JUNGHEUM YUN Department of Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort deposition pedestal reactors. Expressions for the velocity and temperature profiles within the boundary

  17. ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

  18. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  19. Ultra-narrow ferromagnetic resonance in organic-based thin films grown via low temperature chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, H.; Harberts, M.; Adur, R.; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, E., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Lu, Y. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States); Epstein, A. J., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the growth of thin films of the organic-based ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]{sub x} (x???2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene) via chemical vapor deposition. Under optimized growth conditions, we observe a significant increase in magnetic homogeneity, as evidenced by a Curie temperature above 600?K and sharp magnetization switching. Further, ferromagnetic resonance studies reveal a single resonance with full width at half maximum linewidth of 1.4?G, comparable to the narrowest lines measured in inorganic magnetic materials and in contrast to previous studies that showed multiple resonance features. These characteristics are promising for the development of high frequency electronic devices that take advantage of the unique properties of this organic-based material, such as the potential for low cost synthesis combined with low temperature and conformal deposition on a wide variety of substrates.

  20. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  1. Vapor phase ketonization of acetic acid on ceria based metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Karim, Ayman M.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activities of CeO2, Mn2O3-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO2 were measured for acetic acid ketonization under reaction conditions relevant to pyrolysis vapor upgrading. We show that the catalyst ranking changed depending on the reaction conditions. Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 oC, while ZrO2 - CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 450 oC. Under high CO2 and steam concentration in the reactants, Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 and 450 °C. The binding energies of steam and CO2 with the active phase were calculated to provide the insight into the tolerance of Mn2O3-CeO2 to steam and CO2.

  2. Lithium manganese oxide films fabricated by electron beam directed vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    material for high energy den- sity battery applications.7,8 Lithium­transition metal oxide films can.2. After annealing in air at 700 °C, thin films grown with a low jet speed had a cubic spinel structure Li/Li-ion batteries. © 2008 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2823488 I. INTRODUCTION Thin film

  3. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  4. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrelli, David Christopher

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

  5. Microbridge testing of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposited silicon oxide films on silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is typically encountered in applications involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS.016212 PACS number(s): 05.45.-a, 85.85.+j, 62.25.-g, 47.52.+j I. INTRODUCTION Microelectromechanical systems

  6. Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Sung Gap

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

  7. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the preparation of graphene sheets from graphite. After numerous failed attempts to create graphene-based sheetsSynthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide Sasha of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate results

  8. Chemical oxidation of tryptic digests to improve sequence coverage in peptide mass fingerprint protein identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Jessica Elaine

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    residues can be oxidized by a variety of chemical reagents. DMSO (Dimethylsulfoxide)/HCl/acetic acid33,35,38, Fe(III)/ascorbic acid/O238, hydrogen peroxide37,38 and peracids29-32,38 are a few reagents commonly used for oxidation. Unfortunately...

  9. Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ~10 nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ~190 ??m for step height hS = 10 nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

  10. X-ray diffraction analysis of InGaP/GaAs heterointerfaces grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nittono, T.; Hyuga, F. [NTT System Electronics Laboratories 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-01 (Japan)] [NTT System Electronics Laboratories 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-01 (Japan)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaP/GaAs heterointerfaces grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition have been characterized by a high-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis of multiple quantum well structures. The flow of AsH{sub 3} to InGaP surface produces an InGaAs-like interfacial layer at the GaAs-on-InGaP interface, indicating P atoms of the InGaP surface are easily replaced by As atoms. The flow of PH{sub 3} to GaAs surface, on the other hand, does not make any detectable interfacial layer, indicating that almost no As atoms of the GaAs surface are replaced by P atoms. It is also found that the flow of trimethylgallium (TMG) to the InGaP surface produces a GaP-like interfacial layer. This interfacial layer is probably formed by the reaction between TMG and excessive P atoms on the InGaP surface or residual PH{sub 3} in the growth chamber. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films by bias-enhanced nucleation and bias-enhanced growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua, E-mail: tzengyo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Texas in Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Rd, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of biasing voltage-current relationship on microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films on (100) silicon in hydrogen diluted methane by bias-enhanced nucleation and bias-enhanced growth processes are reported. Three biasing methods are applied to study their effects on nucleation, growth, and microstructures of deposited UNCD films. Method A employs 320?mA constant biasing current and a negative biasing voltage decreasing from ?490?V to ?375?V for silicon substrates pre-heated to 800?°C. Method B employs 400?mA constant biasing current and a decreasing negative biasing voltage from ?375?V to ?390?V for silicon pre-heated to 900?°C. Method C employs ?350?V constant biasing voltage and an increasing biasing current up to 400?mA for silicon pre-heated to 800?°C. UNCD nanopillars, merged clusters, and dense films with smooth surface morphology are deposited by the biasing methods A, B, and C, respectively. Effects of ion energy and flux controlled by the biasing voltage and current, respectively, on nucleation, growth, microstructures, surface morphologies, and UNCD contents are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy, and UV Raman scattering.

  12. Fe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    amorphous materials, such as ferrihydrite, to well-crystallized minerals such as goethite and hematite (5 assemblages. Experimental Section Oxide Synthesis and Characterization.A variety of synthetic Fe(III) oxides included a series of goethites with differing crystallinity and surface area, synthesized from Fe(NO3

  13. Crystalline SiGe films grown on Si substrates using laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, J.-H.; Lee, H.-Y. [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared with conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD) can be used to deposit crystalline SiGe films on Si substrates at low temperature. In the LAPECVD system, a CO{sub 2} laser with a wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m was utilized to assist the pyrolytical decomposition of SiH{sub 4} and GeH{sub 4} reactant gases. The resultant Si{sub 0.78}Ge{sub 0.22} films were obtained and verified through the use of the Auger electron spectroscopy measurement. As the diffraction pattern of a glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction measurement had indicated, several significant diffraction peaks corresponding to a diamond-cubic structure at (111) (220), and (311) were clearly observed. Crystalline SiGe films were also identified by the electron diffraction pattern of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  14. Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    for copper-based materials, and at 950 °C for iron- and manganese-based materials. Methane or syngas (50% COEvaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden

  15. Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

  16. Effects of arrival rate and gas pressure on the chemical bonding and composition in titanium nitride films prepared on Si(100) substrates by ion beam and vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuoka, M.; Isotani, S.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Chubaci, J.F.D.; Ogata, K.; Kuratani, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paolo, SP (Brazil); Nissin Electric Company, Ltd., 47, Umezu-Takase-cho, Ukyo-ku, Kyota 615-8686 (Japan)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin titanium nitride films were prepared at room temperature by titanium metal vapor deposition on silicon substrates with simultaneous irradiation by a 2 keV nitrogen ion beam. Arrival rate ratios, ARR(N/Ti), defined as the ratio of the flux of incident atomic nitrogen particles in the ion beam relative to the flux of titanium atoms transported to the substrate, ranged from 0.17 to 2.5. The gas pressure in the vacuum chamber was maintained at 1.3x10{sup -3} or 6.7x10{sup -3} Pa during the deposition and irradiation process. Analyses of Ti 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicated the presence of metal Ti{sup 0}, nitride TiN, oxide TiO{sub 2}, oxynitride TiN{sub x}O{sub y}, and carbide TiC phases. The Ti{sup 0} phase was observed exclusively and predominantly in the films prepared at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa and ARR(N/Ti)=0.17, 0.21, and 0.28, and the TiN phase is major in the others, as confirmed by the x-ray diffractometry analyses. The chemical composition ratio N/Ti in the films prepared at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa increased linearly with increasing ARR(N/Ti) up to ARR(N/Ti)=0.42 and tended to be constant with further increase in ARR(N/Ti), while this ratio in the films prepared at 6.7x10{sup -3} Pa was almost constant independently of ARR(N/Ti), similar to the constant value observed at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa and higher ARR(N/Ti). This dependence may be understood by comparison with the flux of evaporated titanium atoms, the flux of nitrogen in the beam, and the impingement rate of nitrogen gas in the vacuum chamber, evaluated through the kinetic theory of gases. On the other hand, titanium is known to be one of the chemically active materials which form stable compounds with gases by chemisorption, this fact leading to considerable incorporation of contaminant oxygen and carbon in the depositing titanium film.

  17. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. John, E-mail: ajhart@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  18. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01oxides.

  19. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  20. Environmentally focused patterning and processing of polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Nathan J. (Nathan Jeffrey)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new millennium has brought fourth many technological innovations made possible by the advancement of high speed integrated circuits. The materials and energy requirements for a microchip is orders of magnitude higher ...

  1. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Schutte, Erick J. (Thornton, CO); Rolfe, Sara L. (Loveland, CO)

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  2. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  3. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that will be able to withstand a few MW proton beam and hopefully will be able to be used after possible future upgrades to the SNS to greater than a 3MW beam.

  4. Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

  5. Synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite by low temperature hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Bi, Kaifeng; Liu, Yanhong; Qin, Fuwen; Liu, Hongzhu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Dong [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China)] [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China); Miao, Lihua [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Computer and Mathematical Basic Teaching, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyan 110034 (China)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ?-SiC thin films were synthesized directly on graphite by hot filament chemical vapor deposition at low temperature. SiH{sub 4} diluted in hydrogen was employed as the silicon source, while graphite was functioned as both substrate and carbon source for the as-grown ?-SiC films. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis indicate that SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite was formed after post annealing treatment, and its crystalline quality can be remarkably improved under optimized annealing conditions. The possible growth mechanism was proposed based on in situ etching of graphite by reactive hydrogen radicals at the atomic level.

  6. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Zhibin; Yang, Shuangyong; Tian, Kun; Hao, Yue [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Su, Xujun [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Shi, Xuefang [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  7. Tailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activity at the surface of implants, mainly by modifying their topography and physicochemical properties, such as its surface chemistry and energy, roughness, and topography [6]. It is generally accepted that roughTailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation Fabio Variola a,b , Ji

  8. DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900122 Influence of Treatment Conditions on the Chemical Oxidative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of H2SO4/H2O2 Mixtures for Modulating the Topography of Titanium** By Fabio Variola, Alessandro Lauria composition, energy, roughness, and topography.[5­11] The key to achieving improved bioactivity generated on titanium (cpTi) and Ti6Al4V alloy by chemical oxidation with a H2SO4/H2O2 mixture. Here, we

  9. The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

  10. Hole-blocking titanium-oxide/silicon heterojunction and its application to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hole-blocking titanium-oxide/silicon heterojunction and its application to photovoltaics Sushobhan-bandgap semiconducting heterojunctions on silicon. Here, we present a wide-bandgap heterojunction--between titanium oxide and crystalline silicon--where the titanium oxide is deposited via a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

  11. Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment that involves the oxidative weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and acidification that causes mobilization of metals in the unsaturated zone, with subsequent formation of enriched ore deposits of chalcocite (CuS) and covellite (Cu{sub 2}S) in the reducing conditions below the water table. We examine and identify some significant conceptual and computational issues regarding the oxidative weathering processes through the modeling tool. The dissolution of gaseous oxygen induced by the oxidation reduces oxygen partial pressure, as well as the total pressure of the gas phase. As a result, the gas flow is modified, then the liquid phase flow. Results indicate that this reaction effect on the fluid flow may not be important under ambient conditions, and gas diffusion can be a more important mechanism for oxygen supply than gas or liquid advection. Acidification, mobilization of metals, and alteration of primary minerals mostly take place in unsaturated zone (oxidizing), while precipitation of secondary minerals mainly occurs in saturated zone (reducing). The water table may be considered as an interface between oxidizing and reducing zones. Moving water table due to change of infiltration results in moving oxidizing zone and redistributing aqueous chemical constitutes and secondary mineral deposits. The oxidative weathering processes are difficult to model numerically, because concentrations of redox sensitive chemical species such as O{sub 2}(aq), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HS{sup -} may change over tens of orders of magnitude between oxidizing and reducing conditions. In order to simulate substantial reaction progress over geologic time, one can benefit from the quasi-stationary state (QSS) approximation. A significant saving of computing time using QSS is demonstrated through the example. In addition, changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation are also addressed in some degree. Even though oxidative weathering is sensitive to many factors, this work demonstrates that our model provides a comprehensive suite of process modeling capabilities, which could serve as a prototype for oxidative weathering processes with broad significance for geoscientific, engineering, and environmental applications.

  12. The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1 , Marc A. Deshusses b mechanisms existed. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria biotrickling filters were the most effective in controlling phase bioreactor; Mercury control; Combustion gases 1. Introduction Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous chemical

  13. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  14. Study of the effect of the acid-base surface properties of ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxides on their gas sensitivity to ethanol vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpova, S. S., E-mail: sskarpova@list.ru; Moshnikov, V. A.; Maksimov, A. I. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation); Mjakin, S. V. [St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University) (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University) (Russian Federation); Kazantseva, N. E. [Tomas Bata University in Zlin (Czech Republic)] [Tomas Bata University in Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Binary (ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and ternary (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) gas-sensitive oxide materials are synthesized, and the correlation between their sensitivity to ethanol vapor and the functional chemical composition of the surface is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and by the technique of the adsorption of acid-base indicators. It is found that the sensitivity to ethanol increases with increasing content of Broensted acid sites with the acidity index pK{sub a} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 and with increasing percentage of surface oxygen involved in OH/CO{sub 3}/C-O groups. This interrelation is attributed to the specific features of interaction between ethanol molecules and hydroxyl groups on the surface of the oxides.

  15. Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Zinc oxide ZnO is a wide direct band-gap 3.37 eV semiconductor with a broad range of applications. Dimethylzinc DMZn , N2 gas, and high-purity O2 were used as the zinc source, carrier gas, and oxidizing agent including light-emitting devices,1 varistors,2 solar cells,3 and gas sensors.4 Moreover, ZnO is a promising

  16. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew [Carus Corporation, 315 5th Street, Peru, IL 61354 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  17. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  18. Inversion by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from N- to Ga-polar gallium nitride and its application to multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth approach for inverting N-polar to Ga-polar GaN by using a thin inversion layer grown with high Mg flux. The introduction of this inversion layer allowed us to grow p-GaN films on N-polar GaN thin film. We have studied the dependence of hole concentration, surface morphology, and degree of polarity inversion for the inverted Ga-polar surface on the thickness of the inversion layer. We then use this approach to grow a light emitting diode structure which has the MQW active region grown on the advantageous N-polar surface and the p-layer grown on the inverted Ga-polar surface.

  19. Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?×?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?×?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  1. Toward epitaxially grown two-dimensional crystal hetero-structures: Single and double MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures by chemical vapor depositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Meng-Yu [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chung-En [Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Display, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung; Chen, Chi [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform large-size MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures fabricated directly on sapphire substrates are demonstrated with layer-number controllability by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images provide the direct evidences of layer numbers of MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures. Photo-excited electron induced Fermi level shift of the graphene channel are observed on the single MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structure transistors. Furthermore, double hetero-structures of graphene/MoS{sub 2}/graphene are achieved by CVD fabrication of graphene layers on top of the MoS{sub 2}, as confirmed by the cross-sectional HRTEM. These results have paved the possibility of epitaxially grown multi-hetero-structures for practical applications.

  2. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  3. Co-Pt core-shell nanostructured catalyst prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition of Pt on Co as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Sang-Joon; Chung, Ho-Kyoon [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Korea and School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Heeyeop; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min Cho, Sung, E-mail: sungmcho@skku.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of PtCo/C catalyst for use as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells was prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition (CVPD) of Pt on the surface of Co. The activity of the prepared catalyst for oxygen reduction was higher than that of a catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation (IMP) with the two metallic components. This catalytic activity difference occurs because the former catalyst has smaller Pt crystallites that produce stronger Pt-Co interactions and have a larger Pt surface area. Consequently, the CVPD catalyst has a great number of Co particles that are in close contact with the added Pt. The Pt surface was also electronically modified by interactions with Co, which were stronger in the CVPD catalyst than in the IMP catalyst, as indicated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements of the catalysts.

  4. Correlative analysis of the in situ changes of carrier decay and proton induced photoluminescence characteristics in chemical vapor deposition grown GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Jasiunas, A.; Meskauskaite, D.; Pavlov, J.; Tekorius, A.; Vaitkus, J. [Vilnius University, Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Kovalevskij, V.; Remeikis, V. [Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT-02300 (Lithuania)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to evaluate carrier densities created by 1.6?MeV protons and to trace radiation damage of the 2.5??m thick GaN epi-layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique, a correlation between the photoconductivity transients and the steady-state photoluminescence spectra have been examined. Comparison of luminescence spectra induced by proton beam and by laser pulse enabled us to evaluate the efficiency of a single proton generation being of 1?×?10{sup 7}?cm{sup ?3} per 1.6?MeV proton and 40 carrier pairs per micrometer of layer depth. This result indicates that GaN layers can be an efficient material for detection of particle flows. It has been demonstrated that GaN material can also be a rather efficient scintillating material within several wavelength ranges.

  5. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  6. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  7. Microstructure and interface control of GaN/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition: Substrate-orientation dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, G.; Chikyow, T. [Advanced Electric Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Chichibu, Shigefusa F. [CANTech, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN films with single-crystal and polycrystalline structure were deposited on (111) and (100) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a substrate modified by chemical etching and thermal passivation. The interface structure and chemical bonding state of the GaN/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} interface was investigated using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and resulting valence band spectra. Our results indicate that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffered layer induced by thermal passivation of the (111) substrate remains unchanged during GaN deposition, which is primarily responsible for the epitaxial growth of GaN on (111) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrate. However, for the as-processed (100) substrate, interfacial reactions take place between the formed MgO-terminated surface and GaN films and GaN with a polycrystalline structure on (100) substrate forms. From the interface engineering viewpoint, the appropriate interface modification will allow control of the interface reaction to obtain high-quality GaN films for future optoelectronic devices.

  8. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  9. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  10. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  11. Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: TiClm(NH2)n, TiClm(NH2)nNH, and TiClm(NH2)nN. An ab Initio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor with these basis sets augmented by multiple sets of polarization and diffuse functions using the B3LYP optimized geometries. Bond dissociation energies, heats of atomization, heats of formation, and entropies have been

  12. In situ chemical sensing in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for real-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    , Linthicum, Maryland 21090 Rinku Parikh and Raymond A. Adomaitis Department of Chemical Engineering materials have distinguished themselves to be key materials for future semiconductor de- vices aimed at high

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Byungyou

    , scanning probes, nanoscale electronic devices, hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite., 1995). These properties make CNTs good candidates for many applications such as field emission devices on a nanostructured transition metal catalyst such as Co, Ni, or Fe. The growth mechanisms of CNTs are divided

  14. Guidance Document Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful gases, vapors and fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Document FumeHoods Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful the maximum safe mark (provided by Facilities Management during annual test) Use secondary containment (a hood without permission from EHS. Call EHS or Facilities Management if a hood is not functioning

  15. Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibration curve showed a good linear response from 5 to 500 nM. The capability of SERS detection of adenosine in real normal human urine samples based on G/CuNPs was also investigated and the characteristic peaks of adenosine were still recognizable. The reproducible and the ultrasensitive enhanced Raman signals could be due to the presence of an ultrathin graphene layer. The graphene shell was able to enrich and fix the adenosine molecules, which could also efficiently maintain chemical and optical stability of G/CuNPs. Based...

  16. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  17. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  18. Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alagar; T. Theivasanthi; A. Kubera Raja

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

  19. Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alagar, M; Raja, A Kubera; 10.3923/jas.2012.398.401

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

  20. Investigation of forced and isothermal chemical vapor infiltrated SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A.D.; Vaidyanathan, R. [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical properties of two different layups for each of the forced CVI (41 specimens) and isothermal CVI (36 specimens) materials were investigated in air at room temperature (RT), 1000C, and at room temperature after thermal shock (RT/TS) and exposure to oxidation (RT/OX). The FCVI specimens had a nominal interfacial coating thickness of 0.3 {mu}m of pyrolytic carbon, while CVI specimens had a coating thickness of 0.1 {mu}m. Effect of reinforcement and interfacial bond on mechanical properties of composite were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the fiber-matrix interface and the toughening mechanisms in this ceramic composite system.

  1. A three-dimensional analysis of the flow and heat transfer for the modified chemical vapor deposition process including buoyancy, variable properties, and tube rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.T.; Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of the heat transfer, flow, and particle deposition relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The effects of variable properties, buoyancy, and tube rotation have been included in the study. The resulting three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields have been obtained for a range of conditions. The effects of buoyancy result in asymmetric temperature and axial velocity profiles with respect to the tube axis. Variable properties cause significant variations in the axial velocity along the tube and in the secondary flow in the region near the torch. Particle trajectories are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation and are helices for large rotational speeds. The component of secondary flow in the radial direction is compared to the thermophoretic velocity, which is the primary cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process. Over the central portion of the tube the radial component of the secondary flow is most important in determining the motion of the particles.

  2. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of hard fluorinated carbon films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Baumvol, I.J.R.; Radke, C.; Jacobsohn, L.G.; Zamora, R.R.M.; Freire, F.L. Jr. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 3807, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22453-970 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000 (Brazil); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, P. O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 3807, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22453-970 (Brazil)

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard amorphous fluorinated carbon films (a-C:F) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were annealed in vacuum for 30 min in the temperature range of 200-600 deg. C. The structural and compositional modifications were followed by several analytical techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Nanoidentation measurements and lateral force microscopy experiments were carried out in order to provide the film hardness and the friction coefficient, respectively. The internal stress and contact angle were also measured. RBS, ERDA, and XPS results indicate that both fluorine and hydrogen losses occur for annealing temperatures higher than 300 deg. C. Raman spectroscopy shows a progressive graphitization upon annealing, while the surface became slightly more hydrophobic as revealed by the increase of the contact angle. Following the surface wettability reduction, a decrease of the friction coefficient was observed. These results highlight the influence of the capillary condensation on the nanoscale friction. The film hardness and the internal stress are constant up to 300 deg. C and decrease for higher annealing temperatures, showing a direct correlation with the atomic density of the films. Since the thickness variation is negligible, the mass loss upon thermal treatment results in amorphous structures with a lower degree of cross-linking, explaining the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the a-C:F films.

  3. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G. [Mechanical and Material Engineering Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasive and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.

  4. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  5. Strain effects and microstructural evolution in Ge-Si system materials prepared by ion implantation and by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu Hailing; Xiao Qinghua; Ma Tongda [General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, No. 2, Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Appropriately utilizing some microstructures may be very helpful to acquire desirable Ge-Si system materials. In this work, the Ge-Si system materials have been prepared either by ion implantation or ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD). The interesting microstructures including half-loop dislocations, SiGe nanoclusters, and dislocation dipoles have been found in these two kinds of Ge-Si system materials. It is demonstrated that the evident surface strain state and adequate surface layer quality have been realized by employing these microstructures. Compared with the dipole dislocations in the Ge-Si systems deposited by UHVCVD on the compliant silicon on insulator, the half-loop dislocations and the SiGe nanoclusters induced by Ge ion implantation and subsequent annealing can relax the SiGe layer more effectively and lead to relatively large strain in the surface silicon. It may provide some new approaches to the control of misfit strains for fabricating desirable Ge-Si system materials.

  6. As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka [Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Yokomichi, Nagakute 480-1192 (Japan)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traps of energy levels E{sub c}-0.26 and E{sub c}-0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

  7. Chemical dynamics and bonding at gas/semiconductor and oxide/semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applied to alternative semiconductor materials to determinephase oxides and semiconductor surfaces. Both experimentalunderstanding of the oxide/semiconductor interface. The

  8. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diodes using conducting polymers deposited by oxidative chemical vapor deposition process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chelawat, Hitesh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difficulties with traditional methods of synthesis and film formation for conducting polymers, many of which are insoluble, motivate the development of CVD methods. Indeed, conjugated polymers with rigid linear backbones ...

  9. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  10. Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W on TiN/Ti/SiO2 structures for integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W through the 106-nm-thick TiN film. W piles up at the TiN/Ti interface, while F rapidly saturates the TiN-sectional and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that WF6 penetrates into the TiN layer

  11. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  12. Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

  13. SPIN (Version 3. 83): A Fortran program for modeling one-dimensional rotating-disk/stagnation-flow chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltrin, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kee, R.J.; Evans, G.H.; Meeks, E.; Rupley, F.M.; Grcar, J.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In rotating-disk reactor a heated substrate spins (at typical speeds of 1000 rpm or more) in an enclosure through which the reactants flow. The rotating disk geometry has the important property that in certain operating regimes{sup 1} the species and temperature gradients normal to the disk are equal everywhere on the disk. Thus, such a configuration has great potential for highly uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD),{sup 2--5} and indeed commercial rotating-disk CVD reactors are now available. In certain operating regimes, the equations describing the complex three-dimensional spiral fluid motion can be solved by a separation-of-variables transformation{sup 5,6} that reduces the equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Strictly speaking, the transformation is only valid for an unconfined infinite-radius disk and buoyancy-free flow. Furthermore, only some boundary conditions are consistent with the transformation (e.g., temperature, gas-phase composition, and approach velocity all specified to be independent of radius at some distances above the disk). Fortunately, however, the transformed equations will provide a very good practical approximation to the flow in a finite-radius reactor over a large fraction of the disk (up to {approximately}90% of the disk radius) when the reactor operating parameters are properly chosen, i.e, high rotation rates. In the limit of zero rotation rate, the rotating disk flow reduces to a stagnation-point flow, for which a similar separation-of-variables transformation is also available. Such flow configurations ( pedestal reactors'') also find use in CVD reactors. In this report we describe a model formulation and mathematical analysis of rotating-disk and stagnation-point CVD reactors. Then we apply the analysis to a compute code called SPIN and describe its implementation and use. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  14. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  15. Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor for the bulk production of graphene based materials, are found to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    #12;Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor), is the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powders that was first synthesized over a cen atomic layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms (Fig. 1a). In 2004, it was isolated by mechanical exfoliation

  16. Tuning the properties of complex transparent conducting oxides: Role of crystal symmetry, chemical composition, and carrier generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    Tuning the properties of complex transparent conducting oxides: Role of crystal symmetry, chemical; revised manuscript received 24 February 2010; published 17 March 2010 The electronic properties of singleO3, , and -Ga2O3, rock salt and wurtzite ZnO, and layered InGaZnO4 reveals the role of the following

  17. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  18. Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

  19. Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

  20. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  1. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  2. Chemical Reaction Mechanisms for Modeling the Fluorocarbon Plasma Etch of Silicon Oxide and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HO,PAULINE; JOHANNES,JUSTINE E.; BUSS,RICHARD J.; MEEKS,ELLEN

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a project with SEMATECH, detailed chemical reaction mechanisms have been developed that describe the gas-phase and surface chemistry occurring during the fluorocarbon plasma etching of silicon dioxide and related materials. The fluorocarbons examined are C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CHF{sub 3} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, while the materials studied are silicon dioxide, silicon, photoresist, and silica-based low-k dielectrics. These systems were examined at different levels, ranging from in-depth treatment of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} plasma etch of oxide, to a fairly cursory examination of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} etch of the low-k dielectric. Simulations using these reaction mechanisms and AURORA, a zero-dimensional model, compare favorably with etch rates measured in three different experimental reactors, plus extensive diagnostic absolute density measurements of electron and negative ions, relative density measurements of CF, CF{sub 2}, SiF and SiF{sub 2} radicals, ion current densities, and mass spectrometric measurements of relative ion densities.

  3. Comparative electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes with different chemical functionalities for quantum dot attachment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Krueger, Michael, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de; Eck, Michael [Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Albertstr. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to different chemically treated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A narrow EPR signal is visible at g?=?2.0029 in both GO and CNT-Oxide from carbon-related dangling bonds. EPR signals became broader and of lower intensity after oxygen-containing functionalities were reduced and partially transformed into thiol groups to obtain thiol-functionalized reduced GO (TrGO) and thiol-functionalized CNT (CNT-SH), respectively. Additionally, EPR investigation of CdSe quantum dot-TrGO hybrid material reveals complete quenching of the TrGO EPR signal due to direct chemical attachment and electronic coupling. Our work confirms that EPR is a suitable tool to detect spin density changes in different functionalized nanocarbon materials and can contribute to improved understanding of electronic coupling effects in nanocarbon-nanoparticle hybrid nano-composites promising for various electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  4. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel, biomass and biofuel, and industrial processes. Nitrous oxide emissions related to biofuel, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a more useful quantity. The GWP of N2O is the time- integrated radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg

  5. New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

  6. Low trap states in in situ SiN{sub x}/AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xing; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Huaxing; Liu, Chao; Lau, Kei May, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the use of SiN{sub x} grown in situ by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition as the gate dielectric for AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Two kinds of trap states with different time constants were identified and characterized. In particular, the SiN{sub x}/AlN interface exhibits remarkably low trap state densities in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12?}cm{sup ?2}eV{sup ?1}. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the in situ SiN{sub x} layer can provide excellent passivation without causing chemical degradation to the AlN surface. These results imply the great potential of in situ SiN{sub x} as an effective gate dielectric for AlN/GaN MIS devices.

  7. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  8. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  9. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  10. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Ground Water: Permanganate Reactive Barrier Systems for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Frank W.

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of chlorinated solvents by permanganate has proven to be effective in destroying these compounds in the aqueous phase. A semi-passive, well-based permanganate reactive barrier system (PRBS) was designed in order for the long-term treatment of dissolved contaminant in the ground water. Results from laboratory experiments indicate the PRBS could deliver permanganate at a stable, constant and controllable rate. In this paper, different field designs of the PRBS are discussed. Numerical simulation was conducted to elucidate the parameters that will influence the field implementation of a PRBS. We investigated issues such as permanganate consumption by aquifer materials, variable density flow effect, as well as lateral spreading under different geological settings. Results from this study continue to point to the promise of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme. PRBS provides a potential treatment of the contaminated ground water at relatively low management cost as compared with other alternatives.

  11. Chemical bath method to grow precipitated nanorods of iridium oxide on alumina membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    for water splitting or methanol oxidation in fuel cells [11, 12]. The recent success in fabricating one considerable attention because of its stable elec- trical transport properties [3]. Endowed with lower

  12. Long-Term Oxidation of Candidate Cast Iron and Advanced Austenitic Stainless Steel Exhaust System Alloys from 650-800 C in Air with Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Leonard, Donovan N [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 C compared to 650-700 C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  13. Dresden Unit 2 hydrogen water chemistry: Chemical surveillance, oxide-film characterization, and recontamination during Cycle 10: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, C.P.; Peterson, J.P.; Robinson, R.N.; Sundberg, L.L.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides an Executive Summary of work performed under Project RP1930-7, BWR Hydrogen Water Chemistry - Chemical Surveillance. It describes the work performed to monitor chemical and radiological performance at Commonwealth Edison's Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 during Cycle 10, its second full fuel cycle on Hydrogen Water Chemistry. It includes the results of water chemistry measurements, shutdown gamma scan/dose rate measurements, and the results of stainless steel oxide film characterization. This experience at Dresden-2 continues to demonstrate that a plant can operate on Hydrogen Water Chemistry with only minor impact on plant parameters, compared with the beneficial effect on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation of sensitized stainless steel components. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Models of the formation of oxide phases in nanostructured materials based on lead chalcogenides subjected to treatment in oxygen and iodine vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraeva, E. V., E-mail: jenvmar@mail.ru; Moshnikov, V. A.; Tairov, Yu. M. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Model concepts concerning control over the formation of oxide layers during the course of oxidation are developed on the basis of experimental results of studies of systematic features of the formation of nanostructured layers after diffusion annealing. Data on a variation in the composition of oxide phases as the extent of deviation from stoichiometry is changed in the initial lead chalcogenide are presented. Model concepts related to the possibility of varying the thickness of the coating oxide phases using annealing in an oxygen-containing medium are developed. It is shown that annealing in an iodine atmosphere ensures the effective penetration of oxygen into the grains, which is necessary for an increase in the photoluminescence efficiency.

  15. OSHA List of Hazardous Chemicals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AS CR CALCIUM CYANAMIDE CALCIUM CYCLAMATE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CALCIUM OXIDE CALCIUM SILICATE CALCIUM SULFATE CAMPHOR, SYNTHETIC CAPROLACTAM DUST CAPROLACTAM VAPOR CAPTAFOL CAPTAN...

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  17. Room-temperature cw operation of InGaP/InGaAlP visible light laser diodes on GaAs substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishikawa, M.; Ohba, Y.; Sugawara, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakanisi, T.

    1986-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Room-temperature cw operation for InGaP/InGaAlP double heterostructure (DH) laser diodes on GaAs substrates was achieved for the first time. The DH wafers were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using methyl metalorganics. A lasing wavelength of 679 nm and a threshold current of 109 mA at 24C were obtained for an inner stripe structure laser diode with a 250- m-long and 7- m stripe geometry. The laser operated at up to 51C. The characteristic temperature T0 was 87 K at around room temperature. The lowest threshold current density, 5.0 kA/cmS, was obtained with a 20- m stripe width laser diode under room-temperature pulsed operation.

  18. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICprocess Boeing solar receiver [5J Internal detail of Boeing solar receiver [5J . 2.4 Heat

  19. A study of the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broekhuizen, Keith Edward, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms and kinetics of reactions important to the troposphere have been investigated using a high pressure, turbulent, discharge-flow technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The ability to ...

  20. The aging of organic aerosol in the atmosphere : chemical transformations by heterogeneous oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Sean Herbert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The immense chemical complexity of atmospheric organic particulate matter ("aerosol") has left the general field of condensed-phase atmospheric organic chemistry relatively under-developed when compared with either gas-phase ...

  1. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  2. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  3. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  4. An experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be burned pure in current internal combustion engines with similar performance to gasoline. Measurements Glaudeb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway, Ireland the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should

  5. Chemical and Physical Modification of Graphitic Materials by Oxidative Processes and Solvent Intercalation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werke, Carrie Beth

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . ...................................................... 42 Figure 2.6 HOPG that has been freshly peeled (left) and exposed to UV/O3 (right). ...... 45 Figure 3.1 Raman spectra for HOPG (green) and UV/O3 oxidized HOPG (blue). .......... 58 Figure 3.2 Intensity of D/G ratio as a function of exposure time...

  6. Chemical Sinks of Organic Aerosol: Kinetics and Products of the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Erythritol and Levoglucosan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Sean Herbert

    The heterogeneous oxidation of pure erythritol (C[subscript 4]H[subscript 10]O[subscript 4]) and levoglucosan (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 10]O[subscript 5]) particles was studied in order to evaluate the effects of atmospheric ...

  7. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  8. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  9. Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

  10. Process diagnostics and thickness metrology using in situ mass spectrometry for the chemical vapor deposition of W from H2 WF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    response time 4 s sensor system sampled gas directly from a commercial Ulvac ERA-1000 reactor in order wafers, at 67 Pa 0.5 Torr total pressure, and for wafer temperatures around 400 °C. A relatively fast An ideal real-time chemical sensor for monitoring pro- cesses involving multicomponent gas mixtures would

  11. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube is produced by direct powder co-extrusion. This technology has potential for domestic energy savings of up to 4.1 trillion BTU/year (4.3 x 1015J/year) and a reduction of 370,000 tons (340,000 tonnes) of CO2 emissions in short-residence-time ethylene furnaces. This represents an energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of about 3.3%. If the technology is also applied to other types of ethylene pyrolysis furnaces, total energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions could increase by up to five times. The work involved: Developing powder and consolidation processing protocols to produce an oxide-dispersion strengthened variant of Alloy 803 exhibiting creep strength comparable to Incoloy? Alloy MA956, Developing a direct powder co-extrusion protocol for fabricating co-extruded bimetallic Incoloy? Alloy MA956 / ODS Alloy 803 tubes, Characterizing the properties of the ODS Alloy 803 material, the welding characteristics of the bimetallic tubes, and the coking characteristics of the Incoloy? MA956 alloy, and Documenting the potential energy savings and user requirements for these bimetallic pyrolysis furnace tubes. The project demonstrated that oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 803 can be produced successfully using conventional mechanical alloying technology. The oxide dispersion strengthened bimetallic radiant coil technology explored under this program has significant potential for energy savings and productivity improvements for domestic ethylene producers. In today's competitive market, however, domestic furnace manufacturers and ethylene producers appear reluctant to pay any cost premium for higher-performance coil materials offering either higher temperature capabilities or longer service life. Interest in oxide dispersion strengthened radiant coils is likely to increase if furnace and ethylene producers begin to focus more on increasing tube wall temperatures to improve productivity.

  12. Electronic Structure, Oxidation State of Sn, and Chemical Stability of Photovoltaic Perovskite Variant Cs2SnI6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Zewen; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cs2SnI6, a variant of perovskite CsSnI3, is expected for a photovoltaic material. Based on a simple ionic model, it is expected that Cs2SnI6 is composed of Cs+, I-, and Sn4+ ions and that the band gap is primarily made of occupied I- 5p6 valence band maximum (VBM) and unoccupied Sn4+ 5s conduction band minimum (CBM) similar to SnO2. In this work, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and revealed that the real charge state of the Sn ion in this compound is +2 similar to CsSnI3. This is due to strong covalent nature between the I ion and the Sn ion, the VBM consists of I 5p - I 5p antibonding states, and the CBM of I 5p - Sn 5s antibonding states. The +2 oxidation state of Sn is realized by the apparent charge state of I-2/3, because the I 5p - Sn 5s antibonding states form the unoccupied CBM and apparently 1/18 of the I 5p orbitals are unoccupied. These results are further supported by comparing chemical bonding analyses with those of related compounds. The chemical stability of the Cs2SnI...

  13. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

  14. Characterization of Chemical Speciation in Ultra Thin Uranium Oxide Films by Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivation for this project is due to more than 17 kg of HEU and 400 g of Pu have been interdicted through an international effort to control nuclear smuggling. Nuclear forensics - Detection and analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion or activities, which can contribute significantly for national security. Develop new nuclear forensic methods can be applied to: (a) Environmental swipes, (b) Small particulates, and (c) Thin films. Conclusions of the project are: (1) A unique approach: Neutron Reflectometry + Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; and (2) Detection of chemical speciation with {angstrom}-level resolution.

  15. Lecture Session (LeS): E.1 In-situ chemical oxidation-1 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Lecture Session (LeS): E.1 In-situ chemical oxidation-1 ENA OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS USING, In situ Biological Degradation, Heterocyclic Hydrocarbons, PAH, Field Trial, Groundwater Circulation Wells (GCW), Hydrogen Peroxide Introduction Heterocyclic hydrocarbons (NSO-HET) containing nitrogen (N

  16. Published: January 26, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 1188 dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm102666r |Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 11881193

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    studies have shown great promise for applications in fields such as electronics, sensors, batteries. For example, treating preformed graphene or graphite oxide in ammonia at high temperatures8 or using ammonia crystal substrate by chemical vapor deposition at 800 °C.10 Arc discharge of graphite electrodes

  17. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  18. CHEMISTRY OF IMPACT-GENERATED SILICATE MELT-VAPOR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visscher, Channon [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Fegley, Bruce Jr. [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the giant impact theory for lunar origin, the Moon forms from material ejected by the impact into an Earth-orbiting disk. Here we report the initial results from a silicate melt-vapor equilibrium chemistry model for such impact-generated planetary debris disks. In order to simulate the chemical behavior of a two-phase (melt+vapor) disk, we calculate the temperature-dependent pressure and chemical composition of vapor in equilibrium with molten silicate from 2000 to 4000 K. We consider the elements O, Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti, and Zn for a range of bulk silicate compositions (Earth, Moon, Mars, eucrite parent body, angrites, and ureilites). In general, the disk atmosphere is dominated by Na, Zn, and O{sub 2} at lower temperatures (<3000 K) and SiO, O{sub 2}, and O at higher temperatures. The high-temperature chemistry is consistent for any silicate melt composition, and we thus expect abundant SiO, O{sub 2}, and O to be a common feature of hot, impact-generated debris disks. In addition, the saturated silicate vapor is highly oxidizing, with oxygen fugacity (f{sub O{sub 2}}) values (and hence H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO ratios) several orders of magnitude higher than those in a solar-composition gas. High f{sub O{sub 2}} values in the disk atmosphere are found for any silicate composition because oxygen is the most abundant element in rock. We thus expect high oxygen fugacity to be a ubiquitous feature of any silicate melt-vapor disk produced via collisions between rocky planets.

  19. Ceramic-metallic coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, D.E.; Singh, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) process is considered to be a technology that has overcome some of the difficulties or problems associated with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and metal spray processes. The EB-PVD process offers many desirable characteristics such as relatively high deposition rates (up to 100-150 {mu}m/minute with an evaporation rate {approx}10-15 Kg/hour,) dense coatings, precise compositional control, columnar and poly-crystalline microstructure, low contamination, and high thermal efficiency. Various metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides, nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temperatures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such as molybdenum, tungsten, and carbon are readily evaporated by this process. In addition, EB-PVD is capable of producing multi-layered laminated metallic/ceramic coatings on large components by changing the EB-PVD processing conditions such as ingot composition, part manipulation, and electron beam energy. Attachment of an ion assisted beam source to the EB-PVD offers additional benefits such as dense coatings with improved adhesion. In addition, textured coatings can be obtained that are desirable in many applications such as cutting tools. This laboratory has started a new thrust in the coating area by the EB-PVD process. The microstructure of thermal barrier ceramic coatings (i.e., yttria stabilized zirconia) developed by the EB-PVD process will be presented.

  20. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Effect of NH{sub 3} on the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiO{sub 2} film at low temperature using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Xuemei; Takoudis, Christos G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of NH{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} film deposition using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) and O{sub 2} as source gases in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor was studied at low temperatures ranging from 100 to 250 deg. C. TiO{sub 2} film is traditionally deposited at temperature above 300 deg. C using oxygen-based Ti precursors, such as titanium tetraisopropoxide. In this study, the authors demonstrate that a combination of both reactive precursors, i.e., TDEAT and NH{sub 3}, is an effective technique for TiO{sub 2} film deposition at lower temperatures, albeit with some nitrogen incorporation. It was found that films can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C when NH{sub 3} is used. At higher temperatures, the growth rate of TiO{sub 2} films deposited using NH{sub 3} is higher than that of films deposited without NH{sub 3} by up to one order of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that NH{sub 3} enhances the formation of TiNO and TiN, and x-ray diffraction analysis shows that all as-deposited films have amorphous structure. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiles show that nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen are uniformly distributed throughout the film. The mechanism of enhancement of growth rate using NH{sub 3} is also discussed.

  2. Double-sided reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-?} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fei; Xiong, Jie, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhao, Xiaohui; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-micrometer thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-?} (YBCO) films have been successfully deposited on both sides of LaAlO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates by using a home-made reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system, which has two opposite symmetrical shower heads and a special-designed heater. This technique can simultaneously fabricate double-sided films with high deposition rate up to 500?nm/min, and lead to doubling current carrying capability of YBCO, especially for coated conductors (CCs). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that YBCO films were well crystallized and highly epitaxial with the full width at half maximum values of 0.2°???0.3° for the rocking curves of (005) YBCO and 1.0° for ?-scans of (103) YBCO. Scanning electron microscope revealed dense, crack-free, slightly rough surface with Ba-Cu-O precipitates. The films showed critical current density (J{sub c}, 77?K, 0?T) of about 1 MA/cm{sup 2}, and overall critical current of 400?A/cm, ascribed to the double-sided structure. Our results also demonstrated that the temperature and composition in the deposition zone were uniform, which made MOCVD preparation of low cost and high performance double-sided YBCO CCs more promising for industrialization.

  3. Methyl Formate Oxidation: Speciation Data, Laminar Burning Velocities, Ignition Delay Times and a Validated Chemical Kinetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Burke, M. P.; Chaos, M.; Stein, Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Zhukov, V. P.; Finch, O.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCHO) has been studied in three experimental environments over a range of applied combustion relevant conditions: 1. A variable-pressure flow reactor has been used to quantify reactant, major intermediate and product species as a function of residence time at 3 atm and 0.5% fuel concentration for oxygen/fuel stoichiometries of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at 900 K, and for pyrolysis at 975 K. 2. Shock tube ignition delays have been determined for CH{sub 3}OCHO/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures at pressures of ? 2.7, 5.4, and 9.2 atm and temperatures of 1275–1935 K for mixture compositions of 0.5% fuel (at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5) and 2.5% fuel (at an equivalence ratio of 1.0). 3. Laminar burning velocities of outwardly propagating spherical CH{sub 3}OCHO/air flames have been determined for stoichiometries ranging from 0.8–1.6, at atmospheric pressure using a pressure-release-type high-pressure chamber. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been constructed, validated against, and used to interpret these experimental data. The kinetic model shows that methyl formate oxidation proceeds through concerted elimination reactions, principally forming methanol and carbon monoxide as well as through bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions. The relative importance of elimination versus abstraction was found to depend on the particular environment. In general, methyl formate is consumed exclusively through molecular decomposition in shock tube environments, while at flow reactor and freely propagating premixed flame conditions, there is significant competition between hydrogen abstraction and concerted elimination channels. It is suspected that in diffusion flame configurations the elimination channels contribute more significantly than in premixed environments.

  4. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  5. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures.

  6. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  7. Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

  8. Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

  9. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well and LED growth on wafer-bonded sapphire-on-polycrystalline AlN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Olson, S. M. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Banas, M.; Park, Y. -B. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Ladous, C. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Russell, Michael J.; Thaler, Gerald; Zahler, J. M. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Pinnington, T. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Koleske, Daniel David; Atwater, Harry A. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA)

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report growth of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) and LED structures on a novel composite substrate designed to eliminate the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch problems which impact GaN growth on bulk sapphire. To form the composite substrate, a thin sapphire layer is wafer-bonded to a polycrystalline aluminum nitride (P-AlN) support substrate. The sapphire layer provides the epitaxial template for the growth; however, the thermo-mechanical properties of the composite substrate are determined by the P-AlN. Using these substrates, thermal stresses associated with temperature changes during growth should be reduced an order of magnitude compared to films grown on bulk sapphire, based on published CTE data. In order to test the suitability of the substrates for GaN LED growth, test structures were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using standard process conditions for GaN growth on sapphire. Bulk sapphire substrates were included as control samples in all growth runs. In situ reflectance monitoring was used to compare the growth dynamics for the different substrates. The material quality of the films as judged by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was similar for the composite substrate and the sapphire control samples. Electroluminescence was obtained from the LED structure grown on a P-AlN composite substrate, with a similar peak wavelength and peak width to the control samples. XRD and Raman spectroscopy results confirm that the residual strain in GaN films grown on the composite substrates is dramatically reduced compared to growth on bulk sapphire substrates.

  10. Improvement of charge injection efficiency in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells by chemical modification of metal oxides with organic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudo, Naomi; Honda, Satoshi; Shimazaki, Yuta; Ohkita, Hideo; Ito, Shinzaburo; Benten, Hiroaki [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of chemical modification of metal oxide surface with dye molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid solid solar cells was studied by using double layered cells consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a flat layer of dense TiO{sub 2}. The external quantum efficiency of the chemically modified cell was nearly double that expected from the photosensitizing effect of the dye molecules. The additional increase shows that the chemical modification with dye molecules can serve not only as a photosensitizer but mainly as an energy funnel and/or an electronic mediator to significantly improve the electron injection efficiency from P3HT to TiO{sub 2}.

  11. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Optoelectronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, James J.

    ­1100 nm, visible InGaP and related compounds, and the column III nitrides for blue and ultraviolet la

  12. Quantum cascade laser investigations of CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} interconversion in hydrocarbon/H{sub 2} gas mixtures during microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Jie; Cheesman, Andrew; Ashfold, Michael N. R. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Hay, Kenneth G.; Wright, Stephen; Langford, Nigel; Duxbury, Geoffrey [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mankelevich, Yuri A. [Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules (and their interconversion) in hydrocarbon/rare gas/H{sub 2} gas mixtures in a microwave reactor used for plasma enhanced diamond chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been investigated by line-of-sight infrared absorption spectroscopy in the wavenumber range of 1276.5-1273.1 cm{sup -1} using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer. Parameters explored include process conditions [pressure, input power, source hydrocarbon, rare gas (Ar or Ne), input gas mixing ratio], height (z) above the substrate, and time (t) after addition of hydrocarbon to a pre-existing Ar/H{sub 2} plasma. The line integrated absorptions so obtained have been converted to species number densities by reference to the companion two-dimensional (r,z) modeling of the CVD reactor described in Mankelevich et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113304 (2008)]. The gas temperature distribution within the reactor ensures that the measured absorptions are dominated by CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules in the cool periphery of the reactor. Nonetheless, the measurements prove to be of enormous value in testing, tensioning, and confirming the model predictions. Under standard process conditions, the study confirms that all hydrocarbon source gases investigated (methane, acetylene, ethane, propyne, propane, and butane) are converted into a mixture dominated by CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The interconversion between these two species is highly dependent on the local gas temperature and the H atom number density, and thus on position within the reactor. CH{sub 4}->C{sub 2}H{sub 2} conversion occurs most efficiently in an annular shell around the central plasma (characterized by 1400CH{sub 4} is favored in the more distant regions where T{sub gas}<1400 K. Analysis of the multistep interconversion mechanism reveals substantial net consumption of H atoms accompanying the CH{sub 4}->C{sub 2}H{sub 2} conversion, whereas the reverse C{sub 2}H{sub 2}->CH{sub 4} process only requires H atoms to drive the reactions; H atoms are not consumed by the overall conversion.

  13. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Abstract: The generation of calibrated vapor samples of...

  14. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  15. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  16. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  17. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  18. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Published: November 01, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 1957 dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr2001756 |Chem. Rev. 2012, 112, 19572011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Expansion Approaches 1964 2.2.2. Diffusion Chamber 1964 2.2.3. Laminar Flow Chamber 1965 2.2.4. Turbulent Mixing Chamber 1965 2.2.5. Continuous Generation of Nucleating Vapors from Chemical Reaction sources 1965.2.3. Nucleation of H2SO4ÀH2O Assisted by Organic Acids 1977 3.2.4. Nucleation of Iodine Oxides 1979 3.2.5. Ion

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  1. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  2. aqueous chemical growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technische Universiteit Delft 36 Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device...

  3. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews3 Water Vapor

  4. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new,Scanning Radar323ARM Water Vapor IOP

  5. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  6. Vapor Synthesis and Thermal Modification of Supportless Platinum-Ruthenium Nanotubes and Application as Methanol Electrooxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson III, Robert [University of Tennessee (UT); Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Unocic, Kinga A [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Papandrew, Alexander B [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic, mixed-phase, and alloyed bimetallic Pt-Ru nanotubes were synthesized by a novel route based on the sublimation of metal acetylacetonate precursors and their subsequent vapor deposition within anodic alumina templates. Nanotube architectures were tuned by thermal annealing treatments. As-synthesized nanotubes are composed of nanoparticulate, metallic platinum and hydrous ruthenium oxide whose respective thicknesses depend on the sample chemical composition. The Pt-decorated, hydrous Ru oxide nanotubes may be thermally annealed to promote a series of chemical and physical changes to the nanotube structures including alloy formation, crystallite growth and morphological evolution. Annealed Pt-Ru alloy nanotubes and their as-synthesized analogs demonstrate relatively high specific activities for the oxidation of methanol. As-synthesized, mixed-phase Pt-Ru nanotubes (0.39 mA/cm2) and metallic alloyed Pt64Ru36NTs (0.33 mA/cm2) have considerably higher area-normalized activities than PtRu black (0.22 mA/cm2) at 0.65 V vs. RHE.

  7. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  8. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  9. The Chemical Behavior and Degradation Mitigation Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearman, Benjamin P [ORNL; Mohajeri, Nahid [ORNL; Slattery, Darlene [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); Hampton, Michael [University of Florida; Seal, Sudipta [University of Central Florida; Cullen, David A [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, the polymer of choice for polymer electrolyte hydrogen fuel cells, are susceptible to degradation due to attacks on polymer chains from radicals. Mitigation of this attack by cerium-based radical scavengers is an approach that has shown promise. In this work, two formulations of single-crystal cerium oxide nanoparticles, with an order of magnitude difference in particle size, are incorporated into said membranes and subjected to proton conductivity measurements and ex-situ durability tests. We found that ceria is reduced to Ce(III) ions in the acidic environment of a heated, humidified membrane which negatively impacts proton conductivity. In liquid and gas Fenton testing, fluoride emission is reduced by an order of magnitude, drastically increasing membrane longevity. Side-product analysis demonstrated that in the liquid Fenton test, the main point of attack are weak polymer end groups, while in the gas Fenton test, there is additional side-chain attack. Both mechanisms are mitigated by the addition of the ceria nanoparticles, whereby the extent of the durability improvement is found to be independent of particle size.

  10. Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.W. [Radian Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel.

  11. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Bleier, A.; Besmann, T.M.; Lara-Curzio, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Pessac (France)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing an oxidation-resistant interfacial coating for continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) continues to be a major challenge. CFCCs` mechanical behavior are influenced by the interfacial bonding characteristics between the fiber and the matrix. Finite element modeling studies suggest that a low-modulus interfacial coating material will be effective in reducing the residual thermal stresses that are generated upon cooling from processing temperatures. Nicalon/SiC composites with carbon, alumina and mullite interfacial coatings were fabricated with the SiC matrix deposited using a forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration process. Composites with mullite interfacial coatings exhibited considerable fiber pull-out even after oxidation and have potential as a composite system.

  12. Comprehensive chemical kinetic modeling of the oxidation of C8 and larger n-alkanes and 2-methylalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Togbe, C; Dagaut, P; Wang, H; Oehlschlaeger, M; NIemann, U; Seshadri, K; Veloo, P S; Ji, C; Egolfopoulos, F; Lu, T

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed and reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for singly methylated iso-alkanes (i.e., 2-methylalkanes) ranging from C{sub 8} to C{sub 20}. The mechanism also includes an updated version of our previously published C{sub 8} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes model. The complete detailed mechanism contains approximately 7,200 species 31,400 reactions. The proposed model is validated against new experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices including premixed and nonpremixed flames, perfectly stirred reactors and shock tubes. This new model is used to show how the presence of a methyl branch affects important combustion properties such as laminar flame propagation, ignition, and species formation.

  13. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Top Innovation. See an example of vapor retarder best practices in action. Find other case studies of Building America projects across the country that utilizes vapor retarder...

  14. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid hydrocarbons and their perdeuterated analogues have been determined by correlation-gas chromatography of cyclohexane-d12 and benzene-d6. Other hydrocarbons studied include the perdeuterated forms of hexane, toluene

  15. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  16. Vibrational spectra of CO adsorbed on oxide thin films: A tool to probe the surface defects and phase changes of oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savara, Aditya, E-mail: savaraa@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of iron oxide were grown on Pt(111) single crystals using cycles of physical vapor deposition of iron followed by oxidative annealing in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Two procedures were utilized for film growth of ?15–30 ML thick films, where both procedures involved sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. In procedure 1, the iron oxide film was fully grown via sequential deposition+oxidation cycles, and then the fully grown film was exposed to a CO flux equivalent to 8 × 10{sup ?7} millibars, and a vibrational spectrum of adsorbed CO was obtained using infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO from multiple preparations using procedure 1 show changes in the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects—some of which are correlated with another phase that forms (“phase B”), even before enough of phase B has formed to be easily detected using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). During procedure 2, CO vibrational spectra were obtained between deposition+oxidation cycles, and these spectra show that the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects changed as a function of sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. The authors conclude that measurement of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on oxide thin films provides a sensitive tool to probe chemical changes of defects on the surface and can thus complement LEED techniques by probing changes not visible by LEED. Increased use of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on thin films would enable better comparisons between films grown with different procedures and by different groups.

  17. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  18. Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    -of-the-art solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode is Ni-8-mole% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which performs very Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-­Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2S

  19. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  20. Influence of oxide impurities on the chemical tuning of the thermoelectric properties of substitution derivatives of RuIn{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner-Reetz, Maik, E-mail: Maik.Wagner@cpfs.mpg.de; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Schmidt, Marcus; Grin, Yuri, E-mail: Juri.Grin@cpfs.mpg.de

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic investigation on tuning the charge carrier concentration by substitution of the Ru position in RuIn{sub 3} is performed. Samples with nominal composition Ru{sub 0.95}T{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (T=Re, Rh, Ir) were synthesized via liquid–solid-reaction and subsequent spark plasma sintering treatment. The chemical composition was characterized by X-ray, metallographic and microstructure analysis revealing solid solutions in the samples with Rh and Ir, whereas Re cannot be incorporated in RuIn{sub 3}. Minor oxide impurities in the commercially available starting elements, the homogeneity range of RuIn{sub 3} and the redox potentials of the participating elements are the key for interpreting the observed lattice parameters and the corresponding composition. Both, substitutions with Rh or Ir and Re inclusions in RuIn{sub 3} lead independently to a significant decrease of the total thermal conductivity down to approximately one half of the value observed for binary RuIn{sub 3}, prepared with commercially available starting materials. The electrical resistivity was reduced by substitution and the temperature dependence changes from semiconductor-like, for RuIn{sub 3}, to metal-like in the substitution derivatives. At the same time the sign change in the thermopower at high temperatures, characteristic for binary RuIn{sub 3}, is suppressed, attaining only electrons as majority carriers. - Graphical abstract: Microstructure (perpendicular to the pressure axis; polarized light) of polycrystalline Ru{sub 0.95}Rh{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (a), Ru{sub 0.95}Ir{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (b) and Ru{sub 0.95}Re{sub 0.05}In{sub 3} (c) samples after SPS treatment. - Highlights: • Substitution solid solutions of RuIn{sub 3} were prepared via liquid–solid-reaction. • Chemistry of oxide impurities is crucial for explanation of experimental results. • Thermodynamic calculations support the observation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} or ZnO as impurities. • Electrical resistivity is reduced by substitution. • Temperature dependence of resistivity changes from semiconductor- to metal-like.

  1. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium accompanied by esterification; ethanol-formic acid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rim, J.K.; Bae, S.Y.; Lee, H.T.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium total pressures after reaction between ethanol and formic acid were measured at 30, 40 and 50/sup 0/C, and the compositions of the vapor and liquid phases were determined gas chromatographically. Since the presence of the carboxylic acid in the mixture induces dimerization and trimerization of the acid in the vapor phase, the modified fugacity coefficients were calculated from ''chemical'' theory using the Lewis fugacity rule, from which are calculated the activity coefficients and the vapor-phase mole fractions using the nonrandom, two-liquid (NRTL) equation. The parameters in the NRTL equation were obtained from vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary system. The calculated results agree closely with the experimental vapor-phase mole-fraction data.

  2. High-efficiency solar cells fabricated from direct-current magnetron sputtered n-indium tin oxide onto p-InP grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.; Emery, K.A.; Coutts, T.J.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells based on dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide onto epitaxially grown films of p-InP have been fabricated and analyzed. The best cells had a global efficiency of 18.4% and an air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 16.0%. The principal fabrication variable considered was the constituency of the sputtering gas and both argon/hydrogen and argon/oxygen mixtures have been used. The former cells have the higher efficiencies, are apparently stable, and exhibit almost ideal junction characteristics. The latter cells are relatively unstable and exhibit much higher ideality factors and reverse saturation current densities. The temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current indicates totally different charge transfer mechanisms in the two cases.

  3. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  4. Desorption efficiencies of toluene and n-butanol in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaney, Mary Ann

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ~ ~ ? Experimental Volume versus Theoretical Volume for n-Butanol (liquid phase). . . . . . . 13. Conceptual Adsorption of Vapor Molecules;. . . . 41 IXI'RODDCTI 019 In 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Adminj- strstion adopted permissible human exposure...&jards has become one of the most important industrial hygiene f unct i one e The levei of exposure to many organic vapor;=, is det r- mined by co' lecting the chemical on some type o solid sor- bent. Of the various adsorbents available {silica gel...

  5. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  6. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  7. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  8. Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal Reduction of the Resulting Chemical Society ABSTRACT Graphite oxide was exfoliated and dispersed in propylene carbonate (PC) by bath

  9. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  10. Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

  11. activated carbon chemically: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A: Chemical 118 (1997) 215-222 Chemical activities of graphitic carbon spheres Materials Science Websites Summary: the MVOCC process 8. Transition-metal oxides andor rare...

  12. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  13. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  14. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  15. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  16. Solution-gated graphene transistors for chemical and biological sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailly, Benjamin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various fabrication processes were developed in order to make graphene-based chemical and biological sensors on different substrates. Single-layer graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition and then transferred to ...

  17. Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Samuel William, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

  18. Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass, H.N.G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass at high temperature. It requires the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum on a nickel rich superalloy substrate that has been pre-coated with several microns of electrodeposited platinum. Here, we show

  19. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  20. Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Qin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, vol. 20, pp. 9-Chair MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologiesby MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologies many

  1. Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Solid state lighting (SSL), which uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), has the potential to be 10 times more energy...

  3. Organic lateral heterojunction devices for vapor-phase chemical detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, John C., 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the U.S. is engaged in battle overseas, there is an urgent need for the development of sensors for early warning and protection of military forces against potential attacks. On the battlefields, improvised explosive ...

  4. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  5. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  6. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  7. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football Highdefault Sign InDataCenterCenterPortal

  8. Chemical and structural investigation of the role of both Mn and Mn oxide in the formation of manganese silicate barrier layers on SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, P.; Bogan, J.; Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Lozano, J. G.; Nellist, P. D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, Mn silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) barrier layers were formed on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} using both metallic Mn and oxidized Mn films, in order to investigate the role of oxygen in determining the extent of the interaction between the deposited Mn and the SiO{sub 2} substrate. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been shown that a metallic Mn film with an approximate thickness of 1 nm cannot be fully converted to Mn silicate following vacuum annealing to 500 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggests the maximum MnSiO{sub 3} layer thickness obtainable using metallic Mn is {approx}1.7 nm. In contrast, a {approx}1 nm partially oxidized Mn film can be fully converted to Mn silicate following thermal annealing to 400 deg. C, forming a MnSiO{sub 3} layer with a measured thickness of 2.6 nm. TEM analysis also clearly shows that MnSiO{sub 3} growth results in a corresponding reduction in the SiO{sub 2} layer thickness. It has also been shown that a fully oxidized Mn oxide thin film can be converted to Mn silicate, in the absence of metallic Mn. Based on these results it is suggested that the presence of Mn oxide species at the Mn/SiO{sub 2} interface facilitates the conversion of SiO{sub 2} to MnSiO{sub 3}, in agreement with previously published studies.

  9. assisted chemical solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ray 2012-01-01 47 Study on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical Materials...

  10. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  11. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  12. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  13. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  14. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  15. The importance of snow scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies] [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies; Hoff, J.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, experimental data on the scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the atmosphere by snow were interpreted assuming that the distribution of chemical between particles and dissolved phase measured in the meltwater reflects the state of the chemical during the scavenging process. A consequence of this assumption is that vapor scavenging is found to be unimportant relative to particle scavenging. An alternative interpretation is presented that during melting repartitioning occurs from the dissolved phase to the particle-sorbed phase. Further, it is argued that a constant particle scavenging ratio may apply to all chemicals of the same class in the same precipitation event, and its value can be estimated from the scavenging characteristics of predominantly particle-sorbed, high molecular mass chemicals. This analysis suggests that for more volatile PCBs and PAHs vapor scavenging is an important, if not the dominating, snow scavenging process. Gas scavenging ratios obtained with this method are, as expected, negatively correlated with the vapor pressure of a substance, indicating that adsorption to the air-ice interface is the process responsible for vapor scavenging.

  16. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  17. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  18. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  19. Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

  20. CHEMICAL STORAGE SEGREGATION GUIDELINES In order to store chemicals properly, they must be segregated based on the associated hazard. Never

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    CHEMICAL STORAGE SEGREGATION GUIDELINES In order to store chemicals properly, they must RECOMMENDED STORAGE METHOD CHEMICAL EXAMPLES INCOMPATIBLES SEE SAFETY DATA SHEETS IN ALL CASES Compressed a flammable gas cabinet for storage. Methane, Acetylene, Hydrogen Oxidizing and toxic compressed gases

  1. Oxidation catalysis by supported gold nano-clusters T.V. Choudhary and D.W. Goodman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    investigated for the direct vapor-phase oxidation of propylene to propylene oxide in the presence of molecular oxygen; these investigations are highlighted in this work. KEY WORDS: CO oxidation; PROX; propylene-gold-catalyzed reactions: CO oxidation [3­13], combustion of hydrocarbons [14­ 16], propylene epoxidation [17,18], methanol

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  3. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chafin, Richard B. (Hurricane, WV); Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  4. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chafin, R.B.; Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using a catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  5. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  6. 6, 80698095, 2006 Water vapor in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Sciences, Beijing, China 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Received: 23 May 2006 vapor from European Center for Medium-Range Weather20 Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. 1 Introduction Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor (UTWV) is a key greenhouse gas which exerts a major influence on the energy balance

  7. Chemical System Decontamination at PWR Power Stations Biblis A and B by Advanced System Decontamination by Oxidizing Chemistry (ASDOC-D) Process Technology - 13081

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeb, Andreas; Runge, Hartmut; Stanke, Dieter [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)] [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Bertholdt, Horst-Otto [NCT Consulting, Leonhardstrasse 16-18, 90443 Nuernberg (Germany)] [NCT Consulting, Leonhardstrasse 16-18, 90443 Nuernberg (Germany); Adams, Andreas; Impertro, Michael; Roesch, Josef [RWE Power, 68643 Biblis (Germany)] [RWE Power, 68643 Biblis (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For chemical decontamination of PWR primary systems the so called ASDOC-D process has been developed and qualified at the German PWR power station Biblis. In comparison to other chemical decontamination processes ASDOC-D offers a number of advantages: - ASDOC-D does not require separate process equipment but is completely operated and controlled by the nuclear site installations. Feeding of chemical concentrates into the primary system is done by means of the site's dosing systems. Process control is performed by standard site instrumentation and analytics. - ASDOC-D safely prevents any formation and precipitation of insoluble constituents - Since ASDOC-D is operated without external equipment there is no need for installation of such equipment in high radioactive radiation surrounding. The radioactive exposure rate during process implementation and process performance may therefore be neglected in comparison to other chemical decontamination processes. - ASDOC-D does not require auxiliary hose connections which usually bear high leakage risk. The above mentioned technical advantages of ASDOC-D together with its cost-effectiveness gave rise to Biblis Power station to agree on testing ASDOC-D at the volume control system of PWR Biblis unit A. By involving the licensing authorities as well as expert examiners into this test ASDOC-D received the official qualification for primary system decontamination in German PWR. As a main outcome of the achieved results NIS received contracts for full primary system decontamination of both units Biblis A and B (each 1.200 MW) by end of 2012. (authors)

  8. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  9. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  10. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

  11. Molecular-Flow Properties of RIB Type Vapor-Transport Systems Using a Fast-Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Gerald D [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Liu, Yuan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of the fast-valve device, described previously, permits measurement of molecular-flow times of chemically active or inactive gaseous species through radioactive ion beam (RIB) target ion source systems, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. Thus, decay losses of short-half-life RIBs can be determined for a given target/vapor-transport system in advance of on-line operation, thereby ascertaining the feasibility of the system design for successful processing of a given isotope. In this article, molecular-flow-time theory and experimentally measured molecular-flow time data are given for serial- and parallel-coupled Ta metal RIB vapor-transport systems similar to those used at ISOL based RIB facilities. In addition, the effect of source type on the molecular-flow time properties of a given system is addressed, and a chemical passivation method for negating surface adsorption enthalpies for chemically active gaseous species on Ta surfaces is demonstrated.

  12. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  13. Method for producing chemical energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  14. The Homogeneous Forcing of Mercury Oxidation to Provide Low-Cost Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Linda Castiglone

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized mercury formed in combustors (e.g., HgCl{sub 2}) is much more easily captured in existing pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers for SO{sub 2}) than elemental mercury. This is principally due to the high solubility of the oxidized form in water. Work over the last several years in our laboratory and elsewhere has identified the general outlines of the homogeneous chemistry of oxidation. The goal of the work reported here is to make use of this knowledge of the oxidation mechanism to devise simple and inexpensive ways to promote the oxidation. The hypothesis is that simple fuels such as hydrogen or CO can promote oxidation via the free radicals they generate during their decomposition. These free radicals then promote the formation of Cl from HCl via reactions such as OH+HCl {yields} H{sub 2}O+Cl. The Cl (and Cl{sub 2} derived from Cl recombination) are considered the principal oxidizing species. In our studies, mercury vapor is exposed to HCl under isothermal conditions in a gas containing N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. The experiments systematically explore the influence of reaction temperature, HCl concentration, and H{sub 2}O concentration. These baseline conditions are then perturbed by the addition of varying amounts of H{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}/CO added jointly. The following report presents the results of a literature review associated with the dissertation of the student supported by the program. This outlines the state-of-the-art in mercury behavior. It then describes the experimental facilities and the results of tests involving the promotion of the oxidation reaction by H{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}/CO combinations. These results indicate a substantial enhancement of oxidation under isothermal conditions at 900-1000 K, while the additives inhibit oxidation at 1200 K. The next step is to determine whether the existing chemical kinetic models of mercury oxidation are capable of reproducing this behavior. These models can then be used to extrapolate the findings to nonisothermal conditions typical of boiler environments. This would provide guidance on where to inject the oxidation promoters in a practical boiler, and how much promoter is required.

  15. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  16. Glass durability evaluation using product consistency, single-pass flow-through, and vapor hydration tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.; Kim, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current approach to assessing chemical durability of waste glasses focuses on a suite of short-term laboratory tests such as dynamic single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests, static product consistency tests (PCT), and vapor hydration tests. The behavior of the glasses in the three types of tests is quite different, but each test provides insight into the glass corrosion process. The PCT data showed that at constant alumina, silica, and sodium levels the glass durability order for different glass systems is: Boron-series > Boron-Calcium-series > Calcium-series, while the opposite order is observed in SPFT tests. The order for vapor hydration tests is similar to that observed in the PCT tests. The PCT results are consistent with the current understanding of glass structure and are consistent with vapor hydration tests. The SPFT results can be explained using arguments based on solution chemistry.

  17. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  18. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  19. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  20. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  1. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  2. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  3. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  4. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  5. Harvard Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Guide Glove Material Applications Butyl A synthetic rubber material that offers the highest permeation resistance to gas and water vapors. Esp. suited for use with esters and ketones. Neoprene A synthetic rubber and caustics. Moderate abrasion resistance. Nitrile A synthetic rubber material that offers chemical

  6. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  7. The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jing; Zalloum, Othman; Roschuk, Tyler; Heng Chenglin; Wojcik, Jacek; Mascher, Peter [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium-doped silicon oxides with cerium concentrations of up to 0.9 at. % were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Bright cerium related photoluminescence, easily seen even under room lighting conditions, was observed from the films and found to be sensitive to film composition and annealing temperature. The film containing 0.9 at. % Ce subjected to anneal in N{sub 2} at 1200 deg. C for 3 h showed the most intense cerium-related emission, easily visible under bright room lighting conditions. This is attributed to the formation of cerium silicate [Ce{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} or Ce{sub 4.667} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O], the presence of which was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Solid oxide electrochemical cell fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dollard, Walter J. (Churchill Borough, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Pal, Uday B. (Cambridge, MA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to form an electrochemical cell (12) is characterized by the steps of thermal spraying stabilized zirconia over a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube (14) to provide an electrolyte layer (15), coating conductive particles over the electrolyte, pressurizing the outside of the electrolyte layer, feeding halide vapors of yttrium and zirconium to the outside of the electrolyte layer and feeding a source of oxygen to the inside of the electrolyte layer, heating to cause oxygen reaction with the halide vapors to close electrolyte pores if there are any and to form a metal oxide coating on and between the particles and provide a fuel electrode (16).

  9. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  10. Proposal to Lead the Virtual Center on Carbon Materials, and support the Chemical Hydrides Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanoscale carbons, SWNTs, MWNTs by laser vaporization, chemical vapor deposition, hot wire CVD, and arc-discharge methods. Experience with dopant and/or catalyst incorporation NREL Capabilities in Carbon Materials laser by transition metal hydride complexes (funded by DOE BES) Lead DOE lab for new SiH4 production process ­ pilot

  11. Response of passive organic vapor dosimeters to a mixed gas exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott Merritt

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Richard B. Konzen The effects of the sampling order of two chemicals adsorbed onto a DuPont Pro-Tek Organic Vapor Dosimeters were investigated. The dosimeters were exposed to varying known concentrations of methyl methacrylate... experiment, Mr. Marvin Harrington of Rohm and Haas of Texas, and Mr. Fred Gsweng of Dupont for providing essential materials for the completion of this research. A special thank you must be extended to the National Institute for Occupational Safety...

  12. Tribology Letters Vol. 10, No. 3, 2001 179 Activation of the SiC surface for vapor phase lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    above 500 C [2,3,11,12]. Since liquid lubricants cannot withstand such extreme conditions, a number deposition 1. Introduction The lubrication of ceramic surfaces working at extremely high temperatures has lubrication by Fe chemical vapor deposition from Fe(CO)5 Daxing Ren, Dougyong Sung and Andrew J. Gellman

  13. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  14. Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.

    Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays the amount of data to be processed. This work is a first example in feature extraction from tin-oxide sensors element array of tin-oxide sensors is presented. Results are extrapolated to other arrays of chemical

  15. The Homogeneus Forcing of Mercury Oxidation to provide Low-Cost Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kramlich; Linda Castiglone

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace amounts of mercury are found in all coals. During combustion, or during thermal treatment in advanced coal processes, this mercury is vaporized and can be released to the atmosphere with the ultimate combustion products. This has been a cause for concern for a number of years, and has resulted in a determination by the EPA to regulate and control these emissions. Present technology does not, however, provide inexpensive ways to capture or remove mercury. Mercury that exits the furnace in the oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) is known to much more easily captured in existing pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers for SO{sub 2}), principally due to its high solubility in water. Work funded by DOE has helped understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to mercury oxidation in furnaces. The scenario is as follows. In the flame the mercury is quantitatively vaporized as elemental mercury. Also, the chlorine in the fuel is released as HCl. The direct reaction Hg+HCl is, however, far too slow to be of practical consequence in oxidation. The high temperature region does supports a small concentration of atomic chlorine. As the gases cool (either in the furnace convective passes, in the quench prior to cold gas cleanup, or within a sample probe), the decay in Cl atom is constrained by the slowness of the principal recombination reaction, Cl+Cl+M{yields}Cl{sub 2}+M. This allows chlorine atom to hold a temporary, local superequilibrium concentration . Once the gases drop below about 550 C, the mercury equilibrium shifts to favor HgCl{sub 2} over Hg, and this superequilibrium chlorine atom promotes oxidation via the fast reactions Hg+Cl+M{yields}HgCl+M, HgCl+Cl+M{yields}HgCl{sub 2}+M, and HgCl+Cl{sub 2}{yields}HgCl{sub 2}+Cl. Thus, the high temperature region provides the Cl needed for the reaction, while the quench region allows the Cl to persist and oxidize the mercury in the absence of decomposition reactions that would destroy the HgCl{sub 2}. Promoting mercury oxidation is one means of getting moderate-efficiency, 'free' mercury capture when wet gas cleanup systems are already in place. The chemical kinetic model we developed to describe the oxidation process suggests that in fuel lean gases, the introduction of trace amounts of H{sub 2} within the quench region leads to higher Cl concentrations via chain branching. The amount of additive, and the temperature at the addition point are critical. We investigated this process in a high-temperature quartz flow reactor. The results do indicate a substantial amount of promotion of oxidation with the introduction of relatively small amounts of hydrogen at around 1000 K ({approx}100 ppm relative to the furnace gas). In practical systems the source of this hydrogen is likely to be a small natural gas steam reformer. This would also produce CO, so co-injection of CO was also tested. The CO did not provide any additional promotion, and in some cases led to a reduction in oxidation. We also examined the influence of NO and SO{sub 2} on the promotion process. We did not see any influence under the conditions examined. The present results were for a 0.5 s, isothermal plug flow environment. The next step should be to determine the appropriate injection point for the hydrogen and the performance under realistic temperature quench conditions. This could be accomplished first by chemical kinetic modeling, and then by tunnel flow experiment.

  16. Efficient ternary sources of working-body vapors for thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalandarishvili, A.G.; Kashiya, V.G.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of experiments to determine the energy characteristics of a cylindrical thermionic converter (TC) are presented. The TC investigated had ternary working-body vapor sources based on multicomponent cesium systems with either bismuth oxide, vanadium oxide, or tungsten oxide additions. Sorption characteristics of the systems were first determined, and then the ternary source was operated as part of the TC. The kinetics of the interaction of cesium vapor with the oxides was studied gravimetrically at various collector temperatures. The cesium TC electrical power output was increased 40 to 60% with a Cs{sub 12}Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary source in the arc mode. A Cs{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} system increased TC output power from 20 to 40%, depending on emitter temperature. For the two Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} sources examined, power increased almost 50%. The ternary sources examined also extended the working temperature range of the TC. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  18. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  19. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  20. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  2. ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ammonia, and Terephthalic Acid, December 2007 ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Ethylene, Caustic-Chlorine, Ethylene Oxide, Ammonia, and...

  3. A FIRST ORDER PROJECTION-BASED TIME-SPLITTING SCHEME FOR COMPUTING CHEMICALLY REACTING FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A FIRST ORDER PROJECTION-BASED TIME-SPLITTING SCHEME FOR COMPUTING CHEMICALLY REACTING FLOWS, surface catalytic reactors for methane to methanol conversion and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process ANDREAS PROHL1 Abstract. The simulation of chemically reacting ows in speci#12;c situations is a basic

  4. A FIRST ORDER PROJECTIONBASED TIMESPLITTING SCHEME FOR COMPUTING CHEMICALLY REACTING FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A FIRST ORDER PROJECTION­BASED TIME­SPLITTING SCHEME FOR COMPUTING CHEMICALLY REACTING FLOWS catalytic reactors for methane to methanol conversion and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process modeling ANDREAS PROHL 1 Abstract. The simulation of chemically reacting flows in specific situations is a basic

  5. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  6. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  7. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  8. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  9. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  10. advanced oxidation process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new tools for nuclear forensic science to facilitate the identification of chemical process history in uranium oxides. Nuclear forensics (more) Plaue, Jonathan 2013-01-01...

  11. advanced oxidation processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new tools for nuclear forensic science to facilitate the identification of chemical process history in uranium oxides. Nuclear forensics (more) Plaue, Jonathan 2013-01-01...

  12. acid generate oxidative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst Materials Science Websites Summary: Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from...

  13. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical...

  14. airway nitric oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on biologic mechanisms (e.g. , oxidative stresseffects on cytokine- mediated airway inflammation, at least partly through exposure to redox active chemicals and...

  15. The catalytic oxidation of propane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  16. The catalytic oxidation of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  17. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  18. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  20. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  1. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  2. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  3. Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, V.L.

    1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

  4. Help cut pollution with vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woinsky, S.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are common in chemical process industries plants. In addition to separating phases, these devices can aid in reducing pollution in the plant. Two-phase separators achieve pollution prevention via recycling of intermediates and final products. It is doubtful that most vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are used specifically for pollution prevention projects. They may have another purpose yet provide pollution prevention as a bonus. The first step in achieving pollution prevention by design is for operating companies to be aware of vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators as potential pollution prevention devices. Then, likely applications need to be investigated. Since the quantities of material recovered are relatively small, higher value products are the most likely targets, especially for liquid/liquid separators. However, for vapor/liquid separators, the costs involved are usually relatively low since only the cost of a separator pad is normally involved, and more moderately valued products can be targets.

  5. Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

  6. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  8. Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brook James

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective removal of toxic chemicals from water is a problem of increasing importance. Aqueous phase oxidation of dilute organic contaminants is an attractive alternative to separation and/or incineration for the treatment of waste water...

  9. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  10. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  11. Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.

    with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective... allows for firing temperatures much higher than possible with liquid/vapor systems. The high energy density per unit mass and the independence of the vapor pressure from the refrigerant concentration (p = f (T), p "# f( x)) over a wide range leads...

  12. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  13. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of 'MicroPorous' Aerosol Particles (Compact and 'Fractal' Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

  14. FIRST DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN A PRE-STELLAR CORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caselli, Paola; Douglas, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Yildiz, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van der Tak, Floris F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Nisini, Brunella, E-mail: p.caselli@leeds.ac.uk [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H{sub 2} ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H{sub 2} molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

  15. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  16. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  17. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  18. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract... Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in refrigeration cycles as an economically viable alternative to CFC refrigerants. Complex compound refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present refrigeration...

  19. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  20. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  1. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  2. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with Teflon bags) flue gas obtained while firing PRB coal in a 35 kW combustor. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the Hg speciation after fly ash injection. Wall effects in the combustor complicated interpretation of testing data, although a number of observations could still be made. The amount of Hg collected in the Ontario Hydro impingers was lower than anticipated, and is probably due to sorption of Hg by the fly ash. While firing PRB coal without any ash injection, the percent oxidized Hg in the gas stream was fairly high (average of 63%). The high levels of vapor phase oxidized Hg in these base line tests may be due to catalytic effects from the refractory materials in the combustor. When PRB fly ash was injected into a filtered PRB flue gas stream, the percentage of oxidized Hg in the gas stream decreased dramatically. Decreases in the percentage of oxidized Hg were also observed while injecting Blacksville fly ash, but to a lesser extent. Injecting whole Blacksville fly ash into the filtered PRB flue gas appeared to result in greater concentrations of oxidized Hg relative to the tests where whole PRB fly ash was injected. However, because the Blacksville fly ash has a relatively high surface area, this may be only a surface area effect.

  3. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  4. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Vogel, Fredreric (Villigen PSI, CH); Steffin, Carsten R. (Herne, DE)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  5. Published: August 29, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 4352 dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl2024678 |Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 43524356

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    - als are available in macroscopic amounts, soluble in common solvents (e.g., toluene) and can easily GNRs, SWNTs opened by oxidation treatment were exposed to coronene or perylene vapor in reactors sealed

  6. r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl2024678 |Nano Lett. XXXX, XXX, 000000 pubs.acs.org/NanoLett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    in macroscopic amounts, soluble in common solvents (e.g., toluene) and can easily be sublimated.20 Coronene opened by oxidation treatment were exposed to coronene or perylene vapor in reactors sealed with argon

  7. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles W. Brullot a coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized to chemical treatments and biocompatible [12]. An impression of an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with a PEG

  8. Diameter-Controlled Vapor-Solid Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    . Introduction Wurtzitic zinc oxide is a direct, wide band gap semiconductor that has attracted tremendous (ultraviolet or green/blue) electro-optical devices, chemical sensors, and varistors.1-5 In recent years oxide, so their commercial potential has been limited. Here we report a facile, template-free method

  9. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods composites on graphene coated PET flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn; Guo, Guilue; Liu, Yang; Chang, Quanhong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods synthesized on CVD-graphene and rGO surfaces, respectively. • ZnO/CVD-graphene and ZnO/rGO form a distinctive porous 3D structure. • rGO/ZnO nanostructures possibility in energy storage devices. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO nanorods composites were synthesized on graphene coated PET flexible substrates. Both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared following by hydrothermal growth of vertical aligned ZnO nanorods. Reduced graphene sheets were then spun coated on the ZnO materials to form a three dimensional (3D) porous nanostructure. The morphologies of the ZnO/CVD graphene and ZnO/rGO were investigated by SEM, which shows that the ZnO nanorods grown on rGO are larger in diameters and have lower density compared with those grown on CVD graphene substrate. As a result of fact, the rough surface of nano-scale ZnO on rGO film allows rGO droplets to seep into the large voids of ZnO nanorods, then to form the rGO/ZnO hierarchical structure. By comparison of the different results, we conclude that rGO/ZnO 3D nanostructure is more desirable for the application of energy storage devices.

  10. Surface oxidation of GaN(0001): Nitrogen plasma-assisted cleaning for ultrahigh vacuum applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhashis [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany and Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031 Rajasthan (India); Schmidt, Thomas, E-mail: tschmidt@ifp.uni-bremen.de; Kruse, Carsten; Figge, Stephan; Hommel, Detlef; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cleaning of metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxial GaN(0001) template layers grown on sapphire has been investigated. Different procedures, performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, including degassing and exposure to active nitrogen from a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source have been compared. For this purpose, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy have been employed in order to assess chemical as well as structural and morphological surface properties. Initial degassing at 600?°C under ultrahigh vacuum conditions only partially eliminates the surface contaminants. In contrast to plasma assisted nitrogen cleaning at temperatures as low as 300?°C, active-nitrogen exposure at temperatures as high as 700?°C removes the majority of oxide species from the surface. However, extended high-temperature active-nitrogen cleaning leads to severe surface roughening. Optimum results regarding both the removal of surface oxides as well as the surface structural and morphological quality have been achieved for a combination of initial low-temperature plasma-assisted cleaning, followed by a rapid nitrogen plasma-assisted cleaning at high temperature.

  11. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  12. Ductless fume hoods are designed to remove hazardous fumes and vapors from the work area by passing the exhaust air through a filter and/or adsorbent, such as an activated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    I. Policy Ductless fume hoods are designed to remove hazardous fumes and vapors from the work area to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories); 5154.1 (Ventilation Requirements for Laboratory-Type Hood Operations require use of fume hoods to control exposure to hazardous or odorous chemicals. IV. Definitions Activated

  13. Electrochromic properties of tungsten trioxide thin films prepared by photochemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin films were prepared by a photochemical vapor deposition. The source material was tungsten carbonyl. A 6 W low pressure mercury lamp was used as a light source. Amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature of 200 C. The UV radiation enhances the oxidation of tungsten, in addition to the acceleration of the deposition of the films. Reduction and oxidation of the films in a 0.3M LiClO[sub 4] propylene carbonate solution resulted in desirable changes in optimal absorption. The bleaching time was short compared to the amorphous CVD film. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 222 cm[sup 2]/C.

  14. Bifacial solar cell with SnS absorber by vapor transport deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangperawong, Artit [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Hsu, Po-Chun; Yee, Yesheng; Herron, Steven M.; Clemens, Bruce M.; Cui, Yi; Bent, Stacey F., E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The SnS absorber layer in solar cell devices was produced by vapor transport deposition (VTD), which is a low-cost manufacturing method for solar modules. The performance of solar cells consisting of Si/Mo/SnS/ZnO/indium tin oxide (ITO) was limited by the SnS layer's surface texture and field-dependent carrier collection. For improved performance, a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate was used in place of the Mo to smooth the topography of the VTD SnS and to make bifacial solar cells, which are potentially useful for multijunction applications. A bifacial SnS solar cell consisting of glass/FTO/SnS/CdS/ZnO/ITO demonstrated front- and back-side power conversion efficiencies of 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively.

  15. Calculation of the Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Heavy Water Saturated Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulavin, L A; Makhlaichuk, V N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is the most common substance on Earth.The discovery of heavy water and its further study have shown that the change of hydrogen for deuterium leads to the significant differences in their properties.The triple point temperature of heavy water is higher,at the same time the critical temperature is lower.Experimental values of the second virial coefficient of the EOS for the vapor of normal and heavy water differ at all temperatures.This fact can influence the values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor.The equilibrium properties of the dimerization process are described with the methods of chemical thermodynamics.The chemical potentials for monomers (m) and dimers (d)are the functions of their concentrations.The interactions of monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer types are taken into account within the solution of equation for chemical potentials.The obtained expression for the dimerization constant contains the contributions of these types.The averaged potentials are modeled by the Sutherlan...

  16. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM: APPLICATION TO THE NRTL is adequately modeled by the Non­Random Two Liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient expression and the vapor phase property of the Gibbs free energy expression involving the NRTL equation is provided. It is subsequently

  17. Calculation of the Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Heavy Water Saturated Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Bulavin; S. V. Khrapatiy; V. N. Makhlaichuk

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is the most common substance on Earth.The discovery of heavy water and its further study have shown that the change of hydrogen for deuterium leads to the significant differences in their properties.The triple point temperature of heavy water is higher,at the same time the critical temperature is lower.Experimental values of the second virial coefficient of the EOS for the vapor of normal and heavy water differ at all temperatures.This fact can influence the values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor.The equilibrium properties of the dimerization process are described with the methods of chemical thermodynamics.The chemical potentials for monomers (m) and dimers (d)are the functions of their concentrations.The interactions of monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer types are taken into account within the solution of equation for chemical potentials.The obtained expression for the dimerization constant contains the contributions of these types.The averaged potentials are modeled by the Sutherland potential.Theoretical values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor at different temperatures are compared to those for normal water.We see the exceeding of the values for the heavy water at all temperatures.This fact is in good agreement with all experimental data that is available.The excess is related to the differences in the character of the heat excitations of the dimers of normal and heavy water,their rotational constants and energy of their vibrational excitations.Significant role is also played by the monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer interactions.

  18. Microwave-assisted chemical process for treatment of hazardous waste: Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, R.; Nandi, S.P.; Cleaveland, D.C.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave energy provides rapid in situ uniform heating and can be used to initiate chemical processes at moderate temperatures. We investigate the technical feasibility of microwave-assisted chemical processes for detoxification of liquid hazardous waste. Trichloroethylene, a major constituent of waste streams, was selected for this detoxification study. Experiments were performed to investigate the oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene over active carbons (with and without catalysts) in air streams with microwave in situ heating, and to examine the feasibility of regenerating the used carbons. This study established that trichloroethylene in a vapor stream can be adsorbed at room temperature on active carbon beds that are loaded with Cu and Cr catalysts. When the bed is heated by a microwave radiation to moderate temperatures (<400/sup 0/C) while a moist air stream is passed through it, the trichloroethylene is readily converted into less-noxious products such as HCl, CO, CO/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/. Conversion higher than 80% was observed. Furthermore, the used carbon bed can be conveniently regenerated by microwave heating while a moist-N/sub 2/ or moist-air stream is passed through the bed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  20. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  1. Decontamination of metals using chemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

  2. Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.-S.; Lin, T.-W.; Huang, B.-W.; Juang, F.-S.; Lei, P.-H. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Hu, C.-Z. [Chilin Technology Co. Ltd., Tainan County 71758, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO{sub x}:OH) films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition at 200 and 25 deg. C are in turn deposited onto the GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) to enhance the associated light extraction efficiency. The refractive index, porosity, and photocatalytic effect of the deposited films are correlated strongly with the deposition temperatures. The efficiency is enhanced by a factor of {approx}1.31 over that of the uncoated LEDs and exhibited an excellent photocatalytic property after an external UV light irradiation. The increase in the light extraction is related to the reduction in the Fresnel transmission loss and the enhancement of the light scattering into the escape cone by using the graded-refractive-index a-TiO{sub x}:OH film with porous structures.

  3. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1939, pp. International Acetylene Association. Acetylene Transmission for Chemical Synthesis. Internat. Acetylene ASSOC., New York (no date), 40 pp. Jackson, J. L., and R....

  4. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

    2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  5. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  6. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed... for lowering energy consumption in the distillation process through various heat recovery techniques. (3-8) One such technique utilizes mechanical vapor recompression. (9-12) The principle of this ap proach involves the use of a compressor to recycle...

  7. Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krenek, Gregory Joel

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

  8. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  9. A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, Rodolfo

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DESCRIPTION OF TIIE YAPOP, PHASE IN THF. LITHIUM THIONYI. CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis by RODOLFO MORALES, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEzM University in partial fulfrHment of the requirement for the degree oi' MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A DESCRIPTION OF THE VAPOR PHASE IN THE LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis bv RODOLFO 'vIORALES, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chairman of Committee) James...

  10. Solubility parameter and activity coefficient of HDEHP dimer in select organic diluents by vapor pressure osmometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.; Nilsson, M. [University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Zalupski, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)

  11. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  12. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  13. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  14. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment of Energy Photo of a vapor retarder

  15. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual ModelLists forMercury Vapor page? For detailed

  16. Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Coltrin, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

  17. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    . Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature systems, simultaneous electronic excitation and exposure to aggressive chemicals can acceler- ate etching-induced neutral particle desorption and surface erosion on single- crystal sodium chloride in the presence of low

  18. Misfit layered Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} as a high figure of merit p-type transparent conducting oxide film through solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksit, M.; Kolli, S. K.; Slauch, I. M.; Robinson, R. D., E-mail: rdr82@cornell.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films synthesized through solution processing are shown to be high-performing, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). The synthesis method is a cost-effective and scalable process that consists of sol-gel chemistry, spin coating, and heat treatments. The process parameters can be varied to produce TCO thin films with sheet resistance as low as 5.7?k?/sq (????57 m? cm) or with average visible range transparency as high as 67%. The most conductive Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} TCO thin film has near infrared region optical transmission as high as 85%. The figure of merit (FOM) for the top-performing Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin film (151 M?{sup ?1}) is higher than FOM values reported in the literature for all other solution processed, p-type TCO thin films and higher than most others prepared by physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition. Transparent conductivity in misfit layered oxides presents new opportunities for TCO compositions.

  19. acetone vapor sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 7 ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR PROFILES DERIVED FROM REMOTE-SENSING RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS CiteSeer Summary: The feasibility and preliminary testing of a low...

  20. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air...

  1. alkali vapor species: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in...

  2. alkali atom vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low power requirements, these "chip-scale" atomic Popovic, Zoya 3 Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis Physics...

  3. A new vapor pressure equation originating at the critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuckols, James William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tence curve has been developed from critical scaling theory. The agreement between published vapor pressures and vapor pressures predicted by this equation is very good, especially in the critical region where many other vapor pressure equations fail... vapor pressure data f' or Ar, N2, 02H6, and H20, w1th the parameters ai to a being determined by an unweighted least squares curve 5 fit. The method of least squares has been described adequately elsewhere, e. g. Wylie (1966), and the theory w111...

  4. atmospheric water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greenhouse gas, contributing to approximately two-thirds of the Earth's greenhouse effect Mitchell, 1989; IntergovernmentalA meta-analysis of water vapor...

  5. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons William Hanshaw, Marjorie Nutt, and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and liquid vapor pressures from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 510 K of a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been protocols are also made, and agreement generally is quite good. Introduction Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  6. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which will cause erosion and wear in turbine blades. It is impractical to design a compressor that handles two vapor expands isentropically in turbine and produces work. 4-1: Const P heat rejection High quality

  7. High quality graphene sheets from graphene oxide by hot-pressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature thermal exfoliation are annealed at 1500 °C and 40 MPa uniaxial pressures for 5 min in vacuum Since its successful isolation by mechanical exfoliation [1,2], graphene has attracted a strong recent mechanical exfoliation, chemical exfoliation, epitaxial growth on SiC and chemical vapor deposition on metal

  8. The control of confined vapor phase explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

  9. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  10. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krssig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H....

  11. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horprathum, M., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Eiamchai, P., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P. [Optical Thin-Film Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chananonnawathorn, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121 (Thailand)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

  12. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  13. Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum for understanding the fundamental chemical mechanisms underlying the selective oxidation of propene to acrolein to form acrolein, and acrolein desorption. The formation of -allyl intermediate is reversible

  14. Hydrazine-reduction of graphite-and graphene oxide Sungjin Park a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) particles, which were not exfoliated, and completely exfoliated individual graphene oxide platelets hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide platelets pro- duced agglomerates of exfoliated platelets, the reduction of GO particles produced particles that were not exfoliated. The degree of chemical reduction

  15. 1-Dimensional Numerical Model of Thermal Conduction and Vapor Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    developed by Samar Khatiwala, 2001 extended to variable thermal properties and irregular grid by Norbert Sch for c. Upper boundary condition: a) Radiation Q + k T z z=0 = T4 z=0 Q is the incoming solar flux of Water Vapor with Phase Transitions developed by Norbert Sch¨orghofer, 2003­2004 3 phases: vapor, free

  16. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  17. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  18. Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Biotreatment techniques get chemical help

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizardo, K. (Solvay Interox, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological treatment methods for contaminated soils and groundwater, including landfarming, pump-and-treat bioreactors and in situ bioremediation, are using hydrogen peroxide (H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) as an oxidant to reduce cleanup time and save money. Some examples of how the chemical is being used include the following: recent studies indicate peroxygen compounds, such as calcium peroxide, can be used to chemically aerate soils in landfarming applications. Pump-and-treat bioreactor systems for treating halogenated aliphatics can use an H[sub 2]O[sub 2] solution to deliver oxygen to oxygen-deficient systems. The solution has proven effective for improving bioreactor efficiency during limited oxygen solubility; in situ peroxidation can be used to partially oxidize soil contaminants to reduce their toxicity and enhance their biodegradability in the unsaturated zone prior to in situ bioremediation.

  20. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.