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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Efficiency Potential Study.  Technical Report Energy Efficiency  Potential Study.  Technical Report Energy Efficiency   Renewable Energy Technologies   Transportation   Assessment of Household Carbon Footprint Reduction Potentials is the final report 

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

5

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of Sediment Containing Fe-silicates and Fe-oxides: Effect of Redox Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent...

6

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

8

Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

KAPLAN, DANIEL

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

9

Concomitant thionation and reduction of graphene oxide through...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concomitant thionation and reduction of graphene oxide through solidgas metathetical sulfidation reactions at high temperatures Authors: Jeon, K.-W. and Seo, D.-K. Title:...

10

Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics , D. Wang2*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics Z. Wei1* , D. Wang2* , S contributed equally to this work. paul.sheehan@nrl.navy.mil elisa.riedo@physics.gatech.edu Graphene is now in graphene oxide (GO) has risen for producing large-scale flexible conductors and for its potential to open

11

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country Mexico Central America References Greenhouse Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials for Buildings[1] Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report represents the first comprehensive description of the factors that determine the present and future impacts of residential and commercial

12

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

13

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

14

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Title Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Xun, Shidi, Xiangyun Song, Michael E. Grass, Daniel K. Roseguo, Z. Liu, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Gao Li Journal Electrochemical Solid-State Letters Volume 14 Start Page A61 Issue 5 Pagination A61-A63 Date Published 02/2001 Keywords Electrochemistry, elemental semiconductors, etching, lithium, nanoparticles, secondary cells, silicon, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra Abstract This study characterizes the native oxide layer of Si nanoparticles and evaluates its effect on their performance for Li-ion batteries. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to identify the chemical state and morphology of the native oxide layer. Elemental and thermogravimetric analysis were used to estimate the oxide content for the Si samples. Hydrofluoric acid was used to reduce the oxide layer. A correlation between etching time and oxide content was established. The initial electrochemical performances indicate that the reversible capacity of etched Si nanoparticles was enhanced significantly compared with that of the as-received Si sample.

15

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country South Africa UN Region Southern Africa References South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings[1] South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report aims to provide: a summary quantification of the influence of buildings on climate

16

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:58am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 After identifying petroleum reduction strategies, a Federal agency should estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies for vehicles and mobile equipment. The table below provides steps for identifying optimal vehicle acquisition strategies. Table 1. Framework for Identifying Optimal Vehicle Acquisition Strategies Step Summary Purpose PLAN and COLLECT 1 Determine vehicle acquisition requirements Establish a structured Vehicle Allocation Matrix (VAM) to determine the numbers and types of vehicles required to accomplish your fleet's mission

17

Cost reduction potential in LMFBR design  

SciTech Connect

LWR capital costs have escalated continuously over the years to the point where today its economics represent a bar to further LWR deployment in the U.S. High initial costs and the promise of a similar pattern of cost escalation in succeeding years for the LMFBR would effectively stop LMFBR deployment in this country before it could even begin. LWR cost escalation in the main can be traced to large increases in both amounts and unit costs of construction materials and to greatly lengthened construction times. Innovative approaches to LMFBR design are now being pursued that show promise for substantial cost reductions particularly in those areas that have contributed most to LWR cost increases.

Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Potentials of GHG reductions from wastewater treatment for the CDM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study aims to evaluate the potential of GHG (greenhouse gas) reductions by installing an ... break-even point of additional investment to reduce GHG is obtained by exchanging carbon price as ... that the meth...

Takaaki Furubayashi; Toshihiko Nakata

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded.

Wan, Wubo [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Zongbin, E-mail: zbzhao@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hu, Han [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gogotsi, Yury [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction  

SciTech Connect

This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Assessment of Tire Technologies and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use ReductionsPractices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions Maythe study involving research on waste and energy saving tire

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Regnier, Justin; Burke, Andy; Melaina, Marc W; Bremson, Joel; Keteltas, Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Website: www.adb.org/documents/studies/carbon-efficiency-prc/carbon-efficiency- Country: China UN Region: Eastern Asia Coordinates: 35.86166°, 104.195397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.86166,"lon":104.195397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

24

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 2: Data Gathering and Analysis Project Description It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher first costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches.

25

Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Microwave heating of a metal oxide in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes may result in...

26

Reduction of nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust: Prospects for use of synthesis gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Already commercialized and some of the most promising technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction in automotive diesel exhaust are compared. The Boreskov Institute of Catalysis... x ...

V. A. Kirillov; E. I. Smirnov; Yu. I. Amosov; A. S. Bobrin…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Graphene oxide-based micropatterns via high-throughput multiphoton-induced reduction and ablation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, a developed temporal focusing-based femtosecond laser system provides high-throughput multiphoton-induced reduction and ablation of graphene oxide (GO) films. Integrated...

Li, Yi-Cheng; Yeh, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsin-Chieh; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Cheng, Li-Chung; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Teng, Hsisheng; Chen, Shean-Jen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Reduction of Sintering during Annealing of FePt Nanoparticles Coated with Iron Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are first obtained by reduction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and platinum(II) acetylacetonateReduction of Sintering during Annealing of FePt Nanoparticles Coated with Iron Oxide Chao LiuVised Manuscript ReceiVed October 12, 2004 FePt/iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles are synthesized by a two step

Laughlin, David E.

29

Potential oxidative stress due to Pb exposure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increases in oxidation of glutathione in K562 myelogenous leukemia cells at low Pb levels. The approach consisted of incubating K562 cells in solutions of 0, 300, and 700 ppb Pb dissolved in RPMI cell medium for a total of 96 hours. After this period...

Elms, Rene' Davina

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

30

Mercury oxidation over a vanadia-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The process of the reaction among elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and reactive flue gas components across the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was studied in a laboratory-scale reactor. Prepared vanadia-based SCR catalysts were characterized and analyzed to understand the potential reaction pathways. Mercury oxidation was observed when pro-exposure of the SCR catalyst to HCl, followed by passing through Hg{sup 0}/N{sub 2} in the absence of gas-phase HCl. At testing conditions, Hg{sup 0} was found to desorb from the catalyst surface by adding HCl to the gas stream, which implies that HCl adsorption onto the SCR catalyst is strong relative to the mercury. Surface analysis verified the absorption of HCl onto the SCR catalysts, and the potential reaction pathways were proposed. Indeed, the monomeric vanadyl sites on the catalyst surface were found to be responsible for the adsorption of both Hg{sup 0} and HCl, which means they are active for mercury oxidation. Furthermore, the detailed Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was proposed to explain the mercury oxidation on the SCR catalyst, where reactive Cl generated from adsorbed HCl reacts with adjacent Hg{sup 0}. 44 refs., 10 figs.

Sheng He; Jinsong Zhou; Yanqun Zhu; Zhongyang Luo; Mingjiang Ni; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Siderite, oxidation, and neutralization potential determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the nature of native soils overlying lignite seams in Texas, mixed overburden is allowed as a topsoil substitute. Determination of suitable topsoil replacements is based on chemical analysis, including neutralization potential (NP), a...

Porter, Elizabeth Brooke

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Electronic structure of perovskite oxide surfaces at elevated temperatures and its correlation with oxygen reduction reactivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective is to understand the origin of the local oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity on the basis of the local electronic structure at the surface of transition metal oxides at elevated temperatures and in oxygen ...

Chen, Yan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE CATALETIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE NITH AMMONIA OVER TETRARPMINECOPPER(11) COMPLEXES A Thesis by Margaret Deron Oates Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Chemistry THE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE WITH AMMONIA OVER TETRAAMMINECOPPER(IZ) COMPLEXES A Thesis by Margaret Deron Dates Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Member...

Oates, Margaret Deron

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

After identifying petroleum reduction strategies, a Federal agency should estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies for vehicles and mobile equipment. The table below provides steps for identifying optimal vehicle acquisition strategies.

35

Effects of Congo Red on the drag reduction properties of polyethylene oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Addition of minute amounts of Congo Red (a benzidine derivative) to polymer additives of polyethylene oxide greatly affect the turbulent drag reduction characteristics of the polymer. A dipole type cross coupling mechanism is suggested which could possibly explain the flow behavior of these dilute additive solutions in drag reduction.

Claes Inge; Arne V. Johansson; E. Rune Lindgren

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts  

SciTech Connect

The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Digby Macdonald

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Microsoft PowerPoint - Baker_IPRC_2012-Oxide_Reduction_v2 [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a a kg-Scale Oxide Reduction Module for Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel 2012 International Pyroprocessing Research Conference Fontana, Wisconsin, USA August 26 - 29, 2012 Clint Baker, Tom M Pfeiffer, Steven D Herrmann - Idaho National Laboratory Sung B Park, Si-Hyung Kim - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Overview  Background / Motivation  Challenges Faced - Design - Operating Environment  Major System Features  Design Details of Subassemblies  Thermal Analysis Results 2 International Pyroprocessing Research Conference August 26-29, 2012 Background / Motivation  Evaluate the recycling of used LWR oxide fuels via electrochemical technologies  Produce metallic fuel from used oxide fuel (to enable subsequent electrorefining) 3 International Pyroprocessing Research Conference August 26-29, 2012 Electrolytic Oxide Reduction  Oxide

38

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants  

SciTech Connect

A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long-term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the first year of the project, the catalysts were investigated by the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) technique. The results from TPR indicated that the interaction with support appears to promote reduction at lower temperatures. Copper oxide in excess of monolayer coverage reduces at temperatures close to the reduction temperature of the unsupported copper oxide. Increased dispersion increases the support effect. Low activity of ceria in NO reduction may be due to its resistance to reduction at low temperatures.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Plasma-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide at Low Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure for Flexible Conductor Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide at Low Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure for Flexible Conductor Applications ... The method allows rapid deoxygenation of bulk graphite oxide (GO) in an atmosphere of ... ...

Seung Whan Lee; Cecilia Mattevi; Manish Chhowalla; R. Mohan Sankaran

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions with regenerative thermal oxidizers  

SciTech Connect

Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been extensively used for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from various sources. However, very little information is available on the ability of RTOs to control carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. This paper presents the results of extensive tests conducted on two RTOs to determine their VOC and CO control efficiencies. The inlet gas stream to the RTOs includes VOC and CO concentrations as high as 2,000 ppm and 3,600 ppm, respectfully. The testing demonstrated that both RTOs were capable of controlling greater than 98% of both inlet VOCs and CO. While the destruction efficiencies within the combustion chambers exceeded 99.9%, direct leakage past valves accounted for the lower control efficiencies. The tests indicated that the overall VOC and CO control efficiencies of the RTOs may be limited by valve leakage. The design and permitting of a RTO should include conservative control estimates which account for possible valve leakage.

Firmin, S.M.; Lipke, S.; Baturay, A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Use of Oxygen Isotopic Exchange to Explore Catalytic Activity and the Mechanism of Oxygen Reduction on Oxides.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The electrochemical performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells is limited by high polarization losses incurred from the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode.… (more)

Kan, Cynthia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Efforts continued towards the synthesis of new pillared clay catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by ammonia. The possibility of utilizing hydrocarbons was also investigated.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Reduction of a phosphorus oxide and acid reaction set  

SciTech Connect

It has been predicted for some time that hypersonic aircraft will suffer from diminished fuel efficiency due to the slow speed of radical recombination in the nozzle of the aircraft and the consequent expulsion of high-energy fragments during high Mach number flight. The addition of small amounts of phosphine combustion products (phosphorus oxides and acids) to water vapor has been found to result in a faster relaxation rate of OH to its equilibrium density following H{sub 2}O photolysis. This article describes the systematic construction of a reaction model of 162 phosphorus reactions among 17 phosphorus-containing species. Those reactions that contribute to the reestablishment of equilibrium following the perturbation of the system by H{sub 2}O photolysis or by an increase in temperature are identified. A thermodynamic free energy function is used to quantify the rate of system relaxation back to equilibrium for a series of 36 reaction conditions covering a temperature range of 1,500 to 3,000 K, a gas density range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/cm{sup 3} and a fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8 to 1.2.

Twarowski, A. [Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)] [Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of Sediment Containing Fe-silicates and Fe-oxides: Effect of Redox Cycling on Fe(III) Bioreduction  

SciTech Connect

Microbial reduction of iron has been shown to be important in the transformation and remediation of contaminated sediments. Re-oxidation of microbially reduced iron may occur in sediments that experience oxidation-reduction cycling and can thus impact the extent of contaminant remediation. The purpose of this research was to quantify iron oxidation in a flow-through column filled with biologically-reduced sediment and to compare the iron phases in the re-oxidized sediment to both the pristine and biologically-reduced sediment. The sediment contained both Fe(III)-oxides (primarily goethite) and silicate Fe (illite/vermiculite) and was biologically reduced in phosphate buffered (PB) medium during a 497 day column experiment with acetate supplied as the electron donor. Long-term iron reduction resulted in partial reduction of silicate Fe(III) without any goethite reduction, based on Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. This reduced sediment was treated with an oxygenated PB solution in a flow-through column resulting in the oxidation of 38% of the biogenic Fe(II). Additional batch experiments showed that the Fe(III) in the oxidized sediment was more quickly reduced compared to the pristine sediment, indicating that oxidation of the sediment not only regenerated Fe(III) but also enhanced iron reduction compared to the pristine sediment. Oxidation-reduction cycling may be a viable method to extend iron-reducing conditions during in-situ bioremediation.

Komlos, John; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zachara, John M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM and in situ XRD Q. Jeangros1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell (SOFC) technology, as it determines the structure of the electronic conductor on the anode side reduction and subsequent Ni behaviour under H2 is of practical importance in the field of solid oxide fuel the Scherrer formula) and H2/H2O mass spectrometer signals are monitored. The recorded images and diffraction

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

50

Borohydride reduction: A technique to synthesize nanosize transition metal oxides and nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes recent studies of using borohydride reduction to synthesize W, transition metal oxides such as WO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 2}, and Fe-Al{sub x}B{sub y}O{sub z}

Zhu, Yuntian T.; Lowe, T.C.; Stout, M.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Manthiram, A.; Guggilla, S. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Author's personal copy Microbial reduction of chlorite and uranium followed by air oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Microbial reduction of chlorite and uranium followed by air oxidation, University Park, PA, USA c Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA d Department of Geology, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA e Biosciences Division, Argonne

Burgos, William

52

Using a Potential Game for Power Reduction in Distributed Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a Potential Game for Power Reduction in Distributed Storage Systems Koji Hasebe, Takumi--We present a game-theoretic approach for power reduction in large-scale distributed storage systems. The key the running time of the disks in active mode by 12.7­18.7%, with an overall average response time of 50­190 ms

Banbara, Mutsunori

53

Synthesis of graphene nanosheets via oxalic acid-induced chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide  

SciTech Connect

Preparing high-quality graphene through reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by oxalic acid is demonstrated in this paper. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry were taken to confirm the reduction of GO and the formation of graphene under these mild conditions. Thermogravimetric analysis and conductivity measurements further testify the excellent thermal stability and conductivity of the obtained graphene. A possible mechanism for the reduction process was also proposed. Furthermore, a Pt-graphene composite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation was observed. With advantages of low toxicity, simple purification process and high quality of the product, oxalic acid provides a feasible route to prepare graphene from GO under mild conditions, thus facilitating the use of graphene-based materials for large-scale applications.

Song, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Mingxun; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Framework to Analyze the Reduction Potential of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automobile manufacturers are increasingly obligated to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their vehicle fleets. In this paper a framework to analyze the reduction potential of the life cycle CO2 emissions of ...

Christoph Herrmann; Karsten Kieckhäfer…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A quantum chemical study of nitric oxide reduction by ammonia (SCR reaction) on V2O5 catalyst surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum chemical study of nitric oxide reduction by ammonia (SCR reaction) on V2O5 catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide by ammonia on (0 1 0) V2O5 surface represented by a V2O9/6-31G** level. The computations indicated that SCR reaction consisted of three main parts

Senkan, Selim M.

57

In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q, Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a large, high fuel utilization or a shut down without protection gas. The important expansion during oxidation

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

58

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

SciTech Connect

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

59

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

60

Oxidation of mercury across selective catalytic reduction catalysts in coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model for predicting the amount of mercury (Hg) oxidation across selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems in coal-fired power plants was developed and tested. The model incorporated the effects of diffusion within the porous SCR catalyst and the competition between ammonia and Hg for active sites on the catalyst. Laboratory data on Hg oxidation in simulated flue gas and slipstream data on Hg oxidation in flue gas from power plants were modeled. The model provided good fits to the data for eight different catalysts, both plate and monolith, across a temperature range of 280-420{sup o}C, with space velocities varying from 1900 to 5000 hr{sup -1}. Space velocity, temperature, hydrochloric acid content of the flue gas, ratio of ammonia to nitric oxide, and catalyst design all affected Hg oxidation across the SCR catalyst. The model can be used to predict the impact of coal properties, catalyst design, and operating conditions on Hg oxidation across SCRs. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Constance L. Senior [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Observations of Oxygen Ion Behavior in the Lithium-Based Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide  

SciTech Connect

Parametric studies were performed on a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process at bench-scale to investigate the behavior of oxygen ions in the reduction of uranium oxide for various electrochemical cell configurations. Specifically, a series of eight electrolytic reduction runs was performed in a common salt bath of LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O. The variable parameters included fuel basket containment material (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh and sintered stainless steel) and applied electrical charge (i.e., 75 – 150% of the theoretical charge for complete reduction of uranium oxide in a basket to uranium metal). Samples of the molten salt electrolyte were taken at regular intervals throughout each run and analyzed to produce a time plot of Li2O concentrations in the bulk salt over the course of the runs. Following each run, the fuel basket was sectioned and the fuel was removed. Samples of the fuel were analyzed for the extent of uranium oxide reduction to metal and for the concentration of salt constituents, i.e., LiCl and Li2O. Extents of uranium oxide reduction ranged from 43 – 70% in stainless steel wire mesh baskets and 8 – 33 % in sintered stainless steel baskets. The concentrations of Li2O in the salt phase of the fuel product from the stainless steel wire mesh baskets ranged from 6.2 – 9.2 wt%, while those for the sintered stainless steel baskets ranged from 26 – 46 wt%. Another series of tests was performed to investigate the dissolution of Li2O in LiCl at 650 °C across various cathode containment materials (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh, sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia) and configurations (i.e., stationary and rotating cylindrical baskets). Dissolution of identical loadings of Li2O particulate reached equilibrium within one hour for stationary stainless steel wire mesh baskets, while the same took several hours for sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia baskets. Rotation of an annular cylindrical basket of stainless steel wire mesh accelerated the Li2O dissolution rate by more than a factor of six.

Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li; Brenda E. Serrano-Rodriguez

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry Title Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ke, Jing, Nina Zheng, David Fridley, Lynn K. Price, and Nan Zhou Date Published 06/2012 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords cement industry, china energy, china energy group, emission reduction, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, policy studies Abstract This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trends in China's cement industryas the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement andcarbon reduction in 2011-2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses ofhistorical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three productionprojections, energy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practicescenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal thepotential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related directemission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011-2030 under the best practice scenarios. Thecontinuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules andreduce CO2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiencyis the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity,given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storagebefore 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way ofreducing total energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

63

Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECT OF BACTERIUM OCEANOSPIRILLUM ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL AND OXYGEN REDUCI1ON OF AISI 4340 STEEL A Thesis by SNEZANA N. POPOVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF BACTERIUM OCEANOSPIRILLUM ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL AND OXYGEN REDUCTION OF AISI 4340 STEEL A Thesis by SNEZANA N. POPOVA Appmved as to style...

Popova, Snezana N.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reductions in Northeast Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets December 2011 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the U.S. Department of Energy

65

CO{sub 2} reduction potential in power production and its cost efficiency  

SciTech Connect

CO{sub 2} reduction potential and the economy of it in power production are handled in this presentation. The main focus is on combined heat and power production, CHP. The reference case has been the conventional coal fired condensing power plant and district heating with heavy fuel oil. Various CHP concepts are handled as substitutive technology for the reference case. Considered fuels are coal and biomass. CO{sub 2} produced in biomass firing processes is not regarded to increase the net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. Reference case can be substituted by a more efficient coal-fired power plant, so called USC plant or by natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant. Both changes lead to very limited reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand the shifting is profitable. CO{sub 2} reduction potential differs in various CHP concepts according to the fuel used. With biomass the reduction is 100% and in the smallest considered coal-fired industrial power plant it is only 6%. Looking at CO{sub 2} reduction costs, ECU/t CO{sub 2}, the best alternative seems to be the changing to coal-fired CHP in industrial power plants. Due to different reduction potentials of different methods the reduction cost illustrates poorly the quality of the method. For example, in a case where the profitability is good but reduction potential is small the reduction cost is strongly negative and the case seems to be cost-effective. To avoid the previous effects the profitability of the changes has to be studied with and without CO{sub 2} emission fees. Biomass-CHP will be cost-effective compared to coal-CHP with the prices 2.5--5 ECU/t CO{sub 2} saved. The industrial CHP plant will be cost-effective despite of the fuel used and without CO{sub 2} emission fees. The district heating CHP plant will be cost-effective, if the plant size is large. The small district heating CHP plants are cost-effective, if the saved CO{sub 2} ton has a price.

Aijala, M.; Salokoski, P.; Alin, J.; Siikavirta, H.; Nykaenen, J.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Selective reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over vanadia on pillared titanium phosphate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the catalyst. Shikada et al. (1981) compared AlzOz, SiOz, and SiO, ? TiOz (equimolar) supports for VzOs using a simulated flue gas containing 100 ppni SOz. The silica- titanium dioxide supported catalyst showed the highest NO conversions followed by those...SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE YVITH AMMONIA OVER VANADIA ON PILLARED TITANIUM PHOSPHATE A Thesis LAWRENCE JOSEPH CZARNECKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

Czarnecki, Lawrence Joseph

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Thermodynamic Analysis of Syngas Production via the Solar Thermochemical Cerium Oxide Redox Cycle with Methane-Driven Reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Analysis of Syngas Production via the Solar Thermochemical Cerium Oxide Redox Cycle with Methane-Driven Reduction ... Of particular interest is the storage of solar energy in chemical bonds via the splitting of water and carbon dioxide to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide, referred to collectively as syngas. ... The coupled cycle produces high-quality syngas by the partial oxidation of methane in the ceria reduction step in addition to the carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by splitting carbon dioxide and water in the oxidation step. ...

Peter T. Krenzke; Jane H. Davidson

2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

Oxidative Dissolution Potential of Biogenic and Abiogenic TcO2...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potential of Biogenic and Abiogenic TcO2 in Subsurface Sediments. Oxidative Dissolution Potential of Biogenic and Abiogenic TcO2 in Subsurface Sediments. Abstract: Technetium-99...

70

Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic reduction and oxidation processes of hydrothermally synthesized titania nanotubes.  

SciTech Connect

Titania nanotubes having diameters 8 to 12 nm and lengths of 50-300 nm were prepared using a hydrothermal method. Further, the titania nanotubes were calcined over the temperature range 200-800 C in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties by altering their morphology. The calcined titania nanotubes were characterized by using X-ray diffraction and surface area analysis and their morphological features were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nanotubes calcined at 400 C showed the maximum extent of photocatalyitc reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, whereas samples calcined at 600 C produced maximum photocatalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to interrogate the effects of nanotube structure on the charge separation and trapping as a function of calcination temperature. EPR results indicated that undercoordinated titania sites are associated with maximum CO{sub 2} reduction occurring in nanotubes calcined at 400 C. Despite the collapse of the nantube structure to form nanorods and the concomitant loss of surface area, the enhanced charge separation associated with increased crystallinity promoted high rates of oxidation of acetaldehyde in titania materials calcined at 600 C. These results illustrate that calcination temperature allows us to tune the morphological and surface features of the titania nanostructures for particular photocatalytic reactions.

Viayan, B.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Rajh, T.; Gray, K.; Northwestern Univ.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

71

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission reduction potentials in sugar production processes in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sugarcane is one of the most promising sources of green energy for a major sugar producing country like Thailand. Any efforts to improve energy efficiency in sugar industry would result for green energy production and more avoided GHG emissions. This paper assesses the potentials for energy saving and GHG emission reduction in sugar production in Thailand. It is found that there is a wide gap between the most efficient mills and the less efficient ones among the country’s 47 mills, with specific steam consumption ranging from 400 to 646 kg steam/ton cane. Thus significant potential exists for energy saving and GHG emission reduction in many mills, using some of the 17 commonly common technologies/measures identified. For the nine mills studied, which could have resulted in a combined saving savings of 23–32% of the total mill energy consumption, further savings of 5–14% could be achieved.

Sumate Sathitbun-anan; Bundit Fungtammasan; Mirko Barz; Boonrod Sajjakulnukit; Suthum Pathumsawad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

73

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

74

Synthesis of full-density nanocrystalline tungsten carbide by reduction of tungstic oxide at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

Among the hard alloys, WC alloys find wide industrial applications as tips for cutting tools and wear-resistant parts. Their intrinsic resistance to oxidation and corrosion at high temperatures also makes them desirable as a protective coating for devices at elevated temperatures. In the industrial scale of production, WC is prepared by a direct union of the elements at a temperature of 3,273 to 3,473 K. Accordingly, the high cost of preparation is a disadvantage of this process. Here, the authors report a novel technique for preparing a large amount of WC powder using a simple method. This process is based on mechanical solid-state reduction (MSSR) followed y solid-state reaction (SSR) during room-temperature ball milling (a high energy ball mill, Fritsch P6, was used at a rotation speed of 4.2 s{sup {minus}1}) of a mixture of WO{sub 3}, Mg, and C powders.

El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Omori, M.; Ishikuro, M.; Konno, T.J.; Takada, K.; Sumiyama, K.; Hirai, T.; Suzuki, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

76

GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012  

SciTech Connect

Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Application of a nonisothermal thermogravimetric method to the kinetic study of the reduction of metallic oxides: Part 2. A theoretical treatment of powder bed reduction and its application to the reduction of tungsten oxide by hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical treatment of nonisothermal kinetic studies has been extended in the present work to gas-solid reactions in powder beds. An expression for the activation energies for the reaction has been derived on the basis that the reaction proceeds by the movement of the reaction front, the velocity of the movement being kept constant. The reliability of the method has been tested by applying the same to the reduction of tungsten oxide by hydrogen. The experiments were carried out using thermogravimetric technique under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. The reaction front is considered to consist of a thin layer of small particles. The rate of the reduction seems to be controlled by the chemical reaction between the product and the unreacted core existing in each of the small particles. Using the expression derived in the present work, the activation energy of the reaction was calculated from the results of the nonisothermal experiments to be 83.62 kJ/mol. This value is in good agreement with the value of 83.17 kJ/mol evaluated from isothermal experiments.

Bustnes, J.A.; Sichen, D.; Seetharaman, S. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Theoretical Metallurgy)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Synthesis of Nanosize Tungsten Oxide and Its Evaluation as an Electrocatalyst Support for Oxygen Reduction in Acid Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most critical challenge in the development of PEMFCs is the discovery of low cost, high activity, stable electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). ... (11) Thus, tungsten oxides are considered to be a promising candidate for the electrocatalyst support at the PEMFC cathode, and several groups have already reported enhanced methanol oxidation activity for Pt/WO3–x anode electrocatalysts. ... Basic concepts for quantifying the electronic interaction at metal/oxide interfaces are compared to well-developed contact theories and calcn. ...

Ying Liu; Sujan Shrestha; William E. Mustain

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

79

Iron oxide and chromia supported on titania-pillared clay for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia  

SciTech Connect

TiO{sub 2}-pillard clay (PILC) with high surface area, large pore volume, and large interlayer spacing was used as the support for mixed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3}. The Fe/Cr ratio was varied at a fixed total amount of oxide dopant of 10% (wt). The Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC with Fe/Cr=3 showed the highest activity. Compared with commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts, the activity (on a per gram basis) of the doped pillared clay was approximately twice as high under H{sub 2}O- and SO{sub 2}-free conditions and was approximately 40% higher under conditions with H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In addition, its activity for SO{sub 2} oxidation was only 20%-25% of that of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts. TPD of NH{sub 3} on the Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst showed that both M=O and M-OH (M=Fe or Cr) were necessary for the SCR reaction. In situ IR spectra of NH{sub 3} showed that there was a higher Bronsted acidity than the Lewis acidity on the surface under reaction conditions and that there existed a direct correlation between the SCR activity and the Bronsted acidity among pillared clays with different Fe/Cr ratios. These results, along with the transient response to O{sub 2}, indicated that a similar mechanism to that on the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst was operative. The TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay used as the support also contributed to the high activity of the Fe-Cr catalyst. The TiO{sub 2} pillars combined with the tetrahedral SiO{sub 2} surfaces of the clay apparently gave rise to a high dispersion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 52 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Ning Chen [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Electronic Activation At Oxide Hetero-structure At Elevated Temperatures Source Of Markedly Accelerated Oxygen Reduction Kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

performance. Therefore, it is needed to synthesize cathode materials with high oxygen reduction activity activity and ionic conductivity give a promising alternative approach to achieve high-performance cathodes, based on such understanding, we aim to design novel oxide hetero-structure as highly active cathode

Yildiz, Bilge

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Reversible Oxidative Addition and Reductive Elimination of Fluorinated Disulfides at Gold(I) Thiolate Complexes: A New Ligand Exchange Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert E. Bachman *§, Sheri A. Bodolosky-Bettis ‡, Chelsea J. Pyle § and Margaret Anne Gray § ... (a) Bodolosky-Bettis, S. Gold Thiolates: Luminescent Properties and Reductive-Elimination/Oxidative Addition Processes. ... Bachman, R. E., Bodolosky-Bettis, S. A., Glennon, S. C., and Sirchio, S. A. J. Am. ...

Robert E. Bachman; Sheri A. Bodolosky-Bettis; Chelsea J. Pyle; Margaret Anne Gray

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

83

Conducting oxide formation and mechanical endurance of potential solid-oxide fuel cell interconnects in coal syngas environment  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation properties of potential SOFCs materials Crofer 22 APU, Ebrite and Haynes 230 exposed in coal syngas at 800 °C for 100 h were studied. The phases and surface morphology of the oxide scales were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The mechanical endurance and electrical resistance of the conducting oxides were characterized by indentation and electrical impedance, respectively. It was found that the syngas exposure caused the alloys to form porous oxide scales, which increased the electrical resistant and decreased the mechanical stability. As for short-term exposure in syngas, neither carbide nor metal dusting was found in the scales of all samples.

Liu, Kejia; Luo, Junhang; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo; Lang, J.; Mao, S.X.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator  

SciTech Connect

A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Mercury oxidation promoted by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst under simulated Powder River Basin coal combustion conditions  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal combustion fly ash was injected into the entrained-flow reactor along with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and trace Hg{sup 0}. Concentrations of Hg{sup 0} and total mercury (Hg) upstream and downstream of the SCR catalyst were measured using a Hg monitor. The effects of HCl concentration, SCR operating temperature, catalyst space velocity, and feed rate of PRB fly ash on Hg0 oxidation were evaluated. It was observed that HCl provides the source of chlorine for Hg{sup 0} oxidation under simulated PRB coal-fired SCR conditions. The decrease in Hg mass balance closure across the catalyst with decreasing HCl concentration suggests that transient Hg capture on the SCR catalyst occurred during the short test exposure periods and that the outlet speciation observed may not be representative of steady-state operation at longer exposure times. Increasing the space velocity and operating temperature of the SCR led to less Hg{sup 0} oxidized. Introduction of PRB coal fly ash resulted in slightly decreased outlet oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) as a percentage of total inlet Hg and correspondingly resulted in an incremental increase in Hg capture. The injection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) for NOx reduction by SCR was found to have a strong effect to decrease Hg oxidation. The observations suggest that Hg{sup 0} oxidation may occur near the exit region of commercial SCR reactors. Passage of flue gas through SCR systems without NH{sub 3} injection, such as during the low-ozone season, may also impact Hg speciation and capture in the flue gas. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Chun W. Lee; Shannon D. Serre; Yongxin Zhao; Sung Jun Lee; Thomas W. Hastings [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Energy reduction potential from the shift to electric vehicles: The Flores island case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The increase of fossil fuel demand raises concerns on availability of resources for future energy demand and on potential environmental impacts. Electric vehicles (EVs) appear as one alternative to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources. This research work analyzes the benefits of the introduction of \\{EVs\\} in a small energy system, the Flores island, Azores, in terms of primary energy and CO2 emissions. Four scenarios were designed considering different penetration rates of \\{EVs\\} (Low and High) and different time of recharging strategies (Fixed and Flexible). The high shares of RES in the electricity production system (60–62%) did not guarantee a significant use of RES for the recharging of \\{EVs\\} (10–40%), as the additional electricity required had to be produced mainly from the diesel generators. The flexible recharging strategies allowed doubling the share of RES in the recharging of the \\{EVs\\} when compared to fixed recharging, and consequently double the impact on the reduction of primary energy consumption and fossil fuels imports. While the reduction of primary energy ranged between 0.2% and 1.1%, for CO2 emissions there was a decrease between 0.3 and 1.7%, proving that \\{EVs\\} can help improve the sustainability of energy systems.

André Pina; Patrícia Baptista; Carlos Silva; Paulo Ferrão

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

What is the Rate of the Csp2?Csp2 Reductive Elimination Step? Revealing an Unusually Fast Ni-Catalyzed Negishi-Type Oxidative Coupling Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

What is the Rate of the Csp2?Csp2 Reductive Elimination Step? ... For a direct quantitative investigation of the Csp2?Csp2 reductive elimination rate within a catalytic cycle, a novel oxidative coupling system in the presence of a Ni catalyst and desyl chloride as the oxidant is devised. ... This allows direct measurement of the Csp2?Csp2 reductive elimination rate constant within a catalytic cycle. ...

Liqun Jin; Hua Zhang; Peng Li; John R. Sowa, Jr.; Aiwen Lei

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

88

The Potential for Reduction of Radiation Doses to Patients Undergoing some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Undergoing some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania W.E. Muhogora A.M. Nyanda The potential...undergoing some common X ray examinations in Tanzania. | The potential for patient dose reduction...Commission, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. | Journal Article Research Support......

W.E. Muhogora; A.M. Nyanda

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Presentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, at the International Energy Agency in Paris. The goal of the workshop is to better quantify the global potentialPresentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp, and it will imply a fundamental rethinking of the sector's strategy. 251 #12;#12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE

90

Measuring the Kinetics of the Reduction of Iron Oxide with Carbon Monoxide in a Fluidized Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combusting a solid fuel in the presence of a metal oxide rather than air, chemical looping combustion, generates CO2suitable for sequestration and the reduced metal. For the case of iron, the reduced oxide can be...

C. D. Bohnt; J. P. Cleeton; C. M. Miiller…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Place-exchange mechanism of Pt (111) oxidation/reduction as observed by synchrotron X-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect

Structural changes in the Pt(111) single crystal surface associated with incipient electrochemical oxidation/reduction were studied by {ital in}{ital situ} synchrotron x-ray reflectivity. It was shown that lifting of Pt atoms of the surface layer occurs, substantiating the long-standing hypothesis of a place-exchange mechanism for solution/metal interface oxidation. It was also shown that, for a charge transfer of {approx_lt}1.7 e{sup -}/Pt atom, the initially flat surface structure could be recovered by electrochemical reduction. In constrast, the surface was irreversibly roughened for amounts of charge transfer exceeding {approx}1.7 e{sup -}/Pt, but the roughening involved only the atoms in the top layer of the original flat surface. A detailed mechanism is proposed for the place-exchange mechanism and the subsequent roughening of the electrode surface.

You, H.; Nagy, Z.; Zurawski, D.J.; Chiarello, R.P.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation an important role in lignin degradation. On the other hand, the expression patterns of the related CROs suggest of the global carbon cycle. This substrate is composed of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose and is degraded

Fried, Jeremy S.

93

Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Distributed the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells September 29, 2013 DOE/NETL- 342/093013 NETL Contact: Katrina Krulla Analysis Team: Arun Iyengar, Dale Keairns, Dick Newby Contributors: Walter Shelton, Travish Shulltz, Shailesh Vora OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY Table of Contents Executive Summary .........................................................................................................................1 1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................2 2 DG Market Opportunity ................................................................................................................3 3 SOFC Technology Development Plan ..........................................................................................6

94

Selective CO{sub 2} reduction conjugated with H{sub 2}O oxidation utilizing semiconductor/metal-complex hybrid photocatalysts  

SciTech Connect

We developed a new hybrid photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction, which is composed of a semiconductor and a metal complex. In the hybrid photocatalyst, ?G between the position of conduction band minimum (E{sub CBM}) of the semiconductor and the CO{sub 2} reduction potential of the complex is an essential factor for realizing fast electron transfer from the conduction band of semiconductor to metal complex leading to high photocatalytic activity. On the basis of this concept, the hybrid photocatalyst InP/Ru-complex, which functions in aqueous media, was developed. The photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to formate using water as an electron donor and a proton source was successfully achieved as a Z-scheme system by functionally conjugating the InP/Ru-complex photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction with a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for water oxidation. The conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy was ca. 0.04%, which approaches that for photosynthesis in a plant. Because this system can be applied to many other inorganic semiconductors and metal-complex catalysts, the efficiency and reaction selectivity can be enhanced by optimization of the electron transfer process including the energy-band configurations, conjugation conformations, and catalyst structures. This electrical-bias-free reaction is a huge leap forward for future practical applications of artificial photosynthesis under solar irradiation to produce organic species.

Morikawa, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sato, S., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Arai, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Uemura, K., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Yamanaka, K. I., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Suzuki, T. M., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Kajino, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Motohiro, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R and D Labs, Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

95

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, China’sthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedworld-best-practice-energy-intensity-values-selected-One main reason for the energy intensity reduction in recent

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Advanced Experimental Analysis of Controls on Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction - Final Report - 09/16/1996 - 03/16/2001  

SciTech Connect

Considering the broad influence that microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction can have on subsurface metal/organic contaminant biogeochemistry, understanding the mechanisms that control this process is critical for predicting the behavior and fate of these contaminants in anaerobic subsurface environments. Knowledge of the factors that influence the rates of growth and activity of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria is critical for predicting (i.e., modeling) the long-term influence of these organisms on the fate of contaminants in the subsurface, and for effectively utilizing Fe(III) oxide reduction and associated geochemical affects for the purpose of subsurface metal/organic contamination bioremediation. This research project will refine existing models for microbiological and geochemical controls on Fe(III) oxide reduction, using laboratory reactor systems that mimic, to varying degrees, the physical and chemical conditions of the subsurface. Novel experimental methods for studying the kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and measuring growth rates of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria will be developed. These new methodologies will be directly applicable to studies on subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction.

Roden, Eric E.

2001-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Fundamental studies of heterostructured oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction at high temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Searching for active and cost-effective catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis is essential for the development of efficient clean electrochemical energy technologies. Perovskite oxides are active for surface oxygen exchange ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) Sorbed on Al (hydr)oxides. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Fe(II) Sorbed on Al (hydr)oxides. Abstract: Technetium speciation, solubility and sorption behavior is strongly dependent on its valence state. Under oxic conditions, Tc exists...

100

Hydrous oxide species as inhibitors of oxygen reduction at platinum activated fuel cell cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The successful development of a methanol/air fuel cell requires optimum performance of the air/ oxygen cathode at about 0.8 V vs RHE. ... oxygen gas reduction on platinum (the best electrocatalyst for this reacti...

L. D. Burke; J. K. Casey; J. A. Morrissey…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reduction of native oxides on InAs by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Thin high-{kappa} oxide films on InAs, formed by atomic layer deposition, are the key to achieve high-speed metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. We have studied the native oxide and the interface between InAs and 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} layers using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Both films lead to a strong oxide reduction, obtaining less than 10% of the native As-oxides and between 10% and 50% of the native In-oxides, depending on the deposition temperature. The ratio of native In- to As-oxides is determined to be 2:1. The exact composition and the influence of different oxidation states and suboxides is discussed in detail.

Timm, R.; Fian, A.; Hjort, M.; Thelander, C.; Lind, E.; Andersen, J. N.; Wernersson, L.-E.; Mikkelsen, A. [Department of Physics, Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22 100 Lund (Sweden)

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

102

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production instantly reaches the current world best practice energyworld best practice and implement aggressive energy efficiency and carbon reduction measures in all cement productionenergy intensity of China’s cement production would reach current world

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

104

Interfacial Reduction - Oxidation Mechanisms Governing Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

Many soil contamination sites at Department of Energy installations contain radionuclides and toxic metals such as technetium (Tc), uranium (U) and chromium (Cr). In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) using dilute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as reductant is a technology uniquely suitable for the vadose zone soil remediation to reduce and immobilize these contaminants. It is conceivable that the ISGR approach can be applied either to immobilize pre-existing contaminants or to create a reductive permeable reactive barrier (PRB) through hydrogen sulfide gas treatment of soils for contaminant interception. This project aims to improve our understanding of the complex interactions among the contaminants (U and Tc), H2S, and various soil constituents. The collaborative effort involving the University of Missouri-Columbia, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Illinois Institute of Technology will provide the knowledge needed to further develop and optimize the ISGR technology. Specific research tasks include: (a) examine the reduction kinetics of Tc(VII) and U(VI) by H2S; (b) measure the reduction kinetics of Tc(VII) and U(VI) by iron sulfides; (c) characterize the speciation of immobilized Tc and U and investigate the immobilization mechanisms; (d) assess the long-term stability of the contaminants immobilized by the ISGR treatment; and (e) validate the pure phase experimental results under natural soil conditions.

Deng, Baolin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for increased pressure predict a wider temperature range at which significant nitric oxide can be removed and also in the case of RAPRENOx process the levels of N20 (a by-product in the case of the RAPRENOx process) are significantly lower. The accounting...

Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Evidence of Nanocrystalline Semiconducting Graphene Monoxide during Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide in Vacuum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our results indicate that the resulting thermally reduced G-O (TRG-O) consists of a two-dimensional nanocrystalline phase segregation: unoxidized graphitic regions are separated from highly oxidized regions of GMO. ... Two different systems are used as a platform to explore these interactions, namely, epitaxial graphene/SiC(0001) functionalized with atomic oxygen (graphene ... ...

Eric C. Mattson; Haihui Pu; Shumao Cui; Marvin A. Schofield; Sonny Rhim; Ganhua Lu; Michael J. Nasse; Rodney S. Ruoff; Michael Weinert; Marija Gajdardziska-Josifovska; Junhong Chen; Carol J. Hirschmugl

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

107

Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 ?M of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu2 +-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)/liver-X receptor ? (LXR?)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPAR?/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPAR? siRNA or PPAR? expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent.

Jing-Hsien Chen; Chia-Wen Tsai; Chi-Ping Wang; Hui-Hsuan Lin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. Cylinder Concentrations of Flow Constituents. . . . . 16 Table 2. Maximum Output and Use of Flow ControHers. . . . 17 Table 3. Manufacturers and Purity Levels of Four Liquid Additives. . . . 30 Table 4. Nominal Inlet Concentrations of Simulated... OF THE EXPERIMENT Experimental Apparatus Species Calibration . Liquid Additive Mixture Preparation. Baseline Testing Additive Testing . . Data Acquisition and Reduction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Baseline Case . . Hydrogen . Methane. . . Ethylene...

Standridge, Brad Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

109

Microsensor Measurements of Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Oxidation in Compact Microbial Communities of Aerobic Biofilms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...studied by measuring concentration...simple one-dimensional diffusion...oxic-anoxic interface, although...technique for measuring sulfate reduction...20 C) in standard pH buffers...checked for by measuring several microprofiles...biofilm-water interface and through...law of one-dimensional diffusion...

Michael Kühl; Bo Barker Jørgensen

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor for reduction of perchlorate and other oxidized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor for reduction of perchlorate and other. For drinking water treatment, an electron donor must be added. Hydrogen is an ideal electron donor, as it is non-toxic, inexpensive, and sparsely soluble. We tested a hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane

Nerenberg, Robert

111

Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

REDUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE AND PROTECTION FROM RE-OXIDATION  

SciTech Connect

This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-I0S simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table 1 shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit.

DUNCAN JB; JOHNSON JM; MOORE WP; HAGERTY KJ; RHODES RN; MOORE RC

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000. “Potentials for Energy Efficiency Improvement in theBenefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” EnergyC. , and Price, L. , 2008. Energy Efficiency Improvement

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter, progress was made in three tasks. The poisoning effects of alkali metals (as Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}0 and Cs{sub 2}O) on iron oxide pillared clay (Fe-Bentonite) catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} were investigated. The effects of sulfur dioxide and water vapor on the performance of the high activity catalyst, that is, Ce-doped Fe-Bentonite pillared clay (Ce-Fe-Bentonite) were examined. In addition, an iron ion-exchanged titania pillared clay (Ti-PILC) was prepared and its catalytic activity for the SCR of NO with NH{sub 3} was studied, which showed a high activity and a high S0{sub 2} and H{sub 2}0 resistance at high temperatures (i.e., above 400{degree}C).

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

An evaluation of the potential of coastal wetlands for hurricane surge and wave energy reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential, a segmented marsh may offer comparable surge protection to that of a continuous marsh. Wave heights are generally increased within the marsh due to the transmission of wave energy through marsh channels. Results presented in this thesis may assist...

Loder, Nicholas Mason

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Study of oxygen reduction mechanism on Ag modified1 Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to oxygen dissociation and diffusion process.26 KEYWORDS: Solid oxide fuel cell; Silver infiltrationStudy of oxygen reduction mechanism on Ag modified1 Sm1.8Ce0.2CuO4 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell2 3 4 Li-Ping Sun1 -- Hui Zhao1 -- Qiang Li1 -- Li-Hua Huo1 -- Jean-Paul Viricelle*2 --5 Christophe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Manganese reduction/oxidation reaction on graphene composites as a reversible process for storing enormous energy at a fast rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) is a basic process for fuel cells or metal air batteries. However, ORR/OER generally requires noble metal catalysts and suffers from low solubility (10-3 molar per liter) of O2, low kinetics rate (10-6 cm2/s) and low reversibility. We report a manganese reduction/oxidation reaction (MRR/MOR) on graphene/MnO2 composites, delivering a high capacity (4200 mAh/g), fast kinetics (0.0024 cm2/s, three orders higher than ORR/OER), high solubility (three orders than O2), and high reversibility (100%). We further use MRR/MOR to invent a rechargeable manganese ion battery (MIB), which delivers an energy density of 1200 Wh/Kg (several times of lithium ion battery), a fast charge ability (3 minutes), and a long cycle life (10,000 cycles). MRR/MOR renders a new class of energy conversion or storage systems with a very high energy density enabling electric vehicles run much more miles at one charge.

Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Chunguang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

An Inner Membrane Cytochrome Required Only for Reduction of High Redox Potential Extracellular Electron Acceptors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and offer different amounts of available energy. Despite this, metal-reducing bacteria...strategies to take advantage of these energy differences. Disruption of imcH, encoding...to generation of different amounts of energy for growth. The redox potentials that...

Caleb E. Levar; Chi Ho Chan; Misha G. Mehta-Kolte; Daniel R. Bond

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Metal-gate-induced reduction of the interfacial layer in Hf oxide gate stacks  

SciTech Connect

The properties of high-{kappa} metal oxide gate stacks are often determined in the final processing steps following dielectric deposition. We report here results from medium energy ion scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of oxygen and silicon diffusion and interfacial layer reactions in multilayer gate stacks. Our results show that Ti metallization of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks reduces the SiO{sub 2} interlayer and (to a more limited extent) the HfO{sub 2} layer. We find that Si atoms initially present in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer incorporate into the bottom of the high-{kappa} layer. Some evidence for Ti-Si interdiffusion through the high-{kappa} film in the presence of a Ti gate in the crystalline HfO{sub 2} films is also reported. This diffusion is likely to be related to defects in crystalline HfO{sub 2} films, such as grain boundaries. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and corresponding electron energy loss spectroscopy scans show aggressive Ti-Si intermixing and oxygen diffusion to the outermost Ti layer, given high enough annealing temperature. Thermodynamic calculations show that the driving forces exist for some of the observed diffusion processes.

Goncharova, L. V.; Dalponte, M.; Gustafsson, T.; Celik, O.; Garfunkel, E.; Lysaght, P. S.; Bersuker, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); SEMATECH, 2705 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Energy use and CO2 emissions reduction potential in passenger car fleet using zero emission vehicles and lightweight materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introduction of \\{ZEVs\\} (zero emission vehicles) and lightweight materials in a conventional steel-intensive internal combustion engine vehicle fleet will affect energy consumption and automotive material requirements. We developed a bottom-up dynamic accounting model of the light-duty vehicle fleet, including vehicle production and disposal, with detailed coverage of powertrains and automotive materials. The model was used to study the potential for energy consumption and CO2 emissions reduction of \\{ZEVs\\} and lightweight materials in the Colombian passenger car fleet from 2010 to 2050. Results indicate that passenger car stock in Colombia is increased by 6.6 times between 2010 and 2050. In the base scenario energy consumption and CO2 emissions are increased by 5.5 and 4.9 times respectively. Lightweighting and battery electric vehicles offer the largest tank-to-wheel energy consumption and CO2 emissions reductions, 48 and 61% respectively, compared to 2050 baseline values. Slow stock turnover and fleet size increment prevent larger reductions. Switching to electric powertrains has larger impact than lightweighting on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Iron and steel remain major materials in new cars. Aluminum consumption increases in all scenarios; while carbon fiber reinforced polymer consumption only increases due to fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle or lightweight vehicle use.

Juan C. González Palencia; Takaaki Furubayashi; Toshihiko Nakata

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Reduction of iron oxide as an oxygen carrier by coal pyrolysis and steam char gasification intermediate products  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the reduction of oxygen carrier Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in chemical-looping combustion using solid fuel (lignite) provided a gasifying agent like steam was introduced into the reactor was investigated with a fixed-bed reactor. The X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope were used for the characterization of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its reduction residue. Results strongly supported the feasibility of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduction by lignite and obtaining pure CO{sub 2} from the off-gases. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fully converted to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by pyrolysis and gasification intermediates primarily H{sub 2} and CO, which was confirmed by both the off-gas concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. A 0.75 g portion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be completely reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by the volatile matter released from 0.1 g coal, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fully reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by steam char gasification products provided that the molar ratio of carbon in char to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 1:6. The purity of CO{sub 2} in the outlet gases was higher than 85% when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced by intermediate products during coal pyrolysis, and the purity of CO{sub 2} in the off-gases was higher than 95% when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced by intermediate products resulting from steam char gasification, making CO{sub 2} sequestration disposal desirable for high purity CO{sub 2}. The char gasification reaction rate was slow compared with the reactivity of the iron oxide with the char gasified intermediates, indicating that char gasification was the rate-limiting step in the reduction process. In the steam char gasification process, the times it took to reach 90% carbon conversion for K-10-char and Ca-10-char were 15 and 30 min, respectively, at 1123 K, but the time for the raw char was 50 min at 1173 K. 40 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Oxygen reduction on gas-diffusion electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cells by a potential decay method  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of gaseous oxygen on carbon-supported platinum electrodes has been studied at 150 C with polarization and potential decay measurements. The electrolyte was either 100 weight percent phosphoric acid or that acid with a fluorinated additive, potassium perfluorohexanesulfonate (C{sub 6}F{sub 13}SO{sub 3}K). The pseudo-Tafel curves of the overpotential vs log (ii{sub L}/(i{sub L}{minus}i)) show a two-slope behavior, probably due to different adsorption mechanisms. The potential relaxations as functions of log (t+r) and log({minus}d{eta}/dt) have been plotted. The variations of these slopes and the dependence of the double-layer capacitance on the overpotential depended on the electrode manufacture and the kind of electrolyte (whether containing the fluorinated additive or not).

Li Qingfeng; Xiao Gang; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, R.W.; Bjerrum, N.J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Second semiannual report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

During the first six months of the program, the work has progressed as planned. We have constructed a reactor system and assembled all laboratory essentials for conducting the three-year project. First, the catalytic activities of the Cu(2+) ion exchanged alumina-pillared clay for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ethylene were measured. The temperature range was 250-500{degrees}C. The activities of this catalyst were substantially higher than the catalyst that has been extensively studied in the literature, Cu-ZSM-5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the acidity of the catalyst. The second part of the work was an in-depth FTIR study of the NO decomposition mechanism on the catalyst. This was planned as the first and the key step to obtain an understanding of the reaction mechanism. Key surface intermediates were identified from the FTIR spectra, and a redox type Eley-Rideal mechanism was proposed for the NO decomposition on this catalyst. This report will be divided into two parts. In Part One, we report results on the catalytic activities of the Cu-alumina-pillared clay and a direct comparison with other known catalysts. In Part two, we focus on the FTIR study and from the results, we propose a NO decomposition mechanism on this new catalyst. Plans for the next six months include tests of different pillared clays as well as the catalytic mechanism. The micro reactor will continue to be the key equipment for measuring the catalytic activities. FTIR will continue to be the major technique for identifying surface species and hence understanding the reaction mechanism.

Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Sirilumpen, M.; Tharapiwattananon, N.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Room temperature reduction of multilayer graphene oxide film on a copper substrate: Penetration and participation of coper phase in redox reactions.  

SciTech Connect

A self-reduction of graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature after prolonged storage on a copper substrate is evidenced by decrease of oxygen content and a dramatic, 6 orders in magnitude, increase in dc conductivity. Experiments revealed that the stored GO film contains copper hydroxide phase embedded in the reduced GO structure.

Voylov, Dmitry N [ORNL] [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Shulga, Y.M. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Arbuzov, Artem [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated...

Oh, Hyuk Jin

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the washability and comprehensive characterization of 975 raw coal channel samples collected from the Eastern, Central, and Western Regions (including Alaska) of the United States. All of this information is sorted in the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Coal Technology Data Base. Individual reports for each region were completed previously as Volumes 1, 2, and 3 and included the detailed data for each of the 975 samples. This report is a summation of the results of those three reports on a state- and region-wide basis only, and does not include the data for individual samples, but only includes the composite data for each state and region. Graphical summations are presented by state, section or rank, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions and showing the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. The statistical evaluations in the Appendices present the composited washability data of 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities of separation, the selected chemical and physical properties, and the composited washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. 13 refs., 93 figs., 9 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA)); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3]. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter, progress has been made in four tasks as summarized below: Task 1: A delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay was synthesized and carefully characterized. The chemical composition was measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The structural changes in the clay as well as the iron oxide particle sizes were characterized by X-ray diffraction techniques. Task 2: The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, i.e., NO reduction with NH{sub 3}) activities of the delaminated pillared clay were tested and compared with four other most active SCR catalysts: a commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst, a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay, and two supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts (on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}). The delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay exhibited the highest SCR activities. Catalyst stability test showed that the delaminated sample was also stable. Task 3: To further increase the SCR activity of the delaminated pillared clay, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was doped as a promoter by incipient wetness. Task 4: Deactivation effects of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on the SCR activities of the delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay were studied, and compared with other SCR catalysts. The delaminated clay catalyst showed the least deactivation.

Chen, J.P.; Cheng, L.S.; Hausladen, M.C.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Yang, R.T.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

SciTech Connect

China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

133

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

134

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications....

137

Potential energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions through higher efficiency standards for polyphase electric motors in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Japan has shut down more than 70% of its nuclear power plants since the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The country has been challenged with power shortages in the short-term and faces complex energy security decisions in the long-term. Japan has a long history of implementing energy conservation policies, such as the Top Runner Program, which covers 23 products including appliances and industrial equipment. However, Japan's efficiency policy for polyphase electric motors is considered below international standards. Polyphase electric motors accounted for about 55% of the nation's total power consumption in 2008. The aim of this study is to estimate potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions (2014–2043) by examining scenarios involving adopting two different polyphase motor efficiency standards and comparing them to a base case and concludes by suggesting pathways for further policy development using the results obtained. The study finds that if level IE2 of the international efficiency standard IEC 60034-30 were implemented, it would save 8.3 TWh (or 0.03 quads) per year, which is equivalent to about 0.8% of Japan's total electric power consumption in 2010. If level IE3 of the IEC 60034-30 were implemented instead, it would save about 13.3 TWh (or 0.05 quads) per year. The corresponding cumulative energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions for the IE2 scenario would be 249 TWh (or 0.85 quads) and 93 Mt. The corresponding cumulative energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions for the IE3 scenario would be 398 TWh (or 1.36 quads) and 149 Mt.

Chun Chun Ni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Understanding ammonia selective catalytic reduction kinetics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Catalytic properties are examined using NO oxidation, ammonia oxidation,...

139

Study of mercury oxidation by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst in a pilot-scale slipstream reactor at a utility boiler burning bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

One of the cost-effective mercury control technologies in coal-fired power plants is the enhanced oxidation of elemental mercury in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) followed by the capture of the oxidized mercury in the wet scrubber. This paper is the first in a series of two in which the validation of the SCR slipstream test and Hg speciation variation in runs with or without SCR catalysts inside the SCR slipstream reactor under special gas additions (HCl, Cl{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3}) are presented. Tests indicate that the use of a catalyst in a SCR slipstream reactor can achieve greater than 90% NO reduction efficiency with a NH{sub 3}/NO ratio of about 1. There is no evidence to show that the reactor material affects mercury speciation. Both SCR catalysts used in this study exhibited a catalytic effect on the elemental mercury oxidation but had no apparent adsorption effect. SCR catalyst 2 seemed more sensitive to the operational temperature. The spike gas tests indicated that HCl can promote Hg{sup 0} oxidation but not Cl{sub 2}. The effect of Cl{sub 2} on mercury oxidation may be inhibited by higher concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO, or H{sub 2}O in real flue-gas atmospheres within the typical SCR temperature range (300-350{sup o}C). SO{sub 2} seemed to inhibit mercury oxidation; however, SO{sub 3} may have some effect on the promotion of mercury oxidation in runs with or without SCR catalysts. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bobby Chen; Jiang Wu; Hong Cui; John Smith; Chi-Kuan Chen; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Final technical report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The most advanced and proven technology for NO{sub x} control for stationary sources is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). In SCR, NO{sub x} is reduced by NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The commercial catalysts are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}, and the vanadium-based catalysts are patented by the Japanese (Mitsubishi). However, there are three main advantages for the vanadium-based SCR catalyst: (a) a tendency to be poisoned in the flue gas; (b) oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} by V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, this is a particularly severe problem due to the higher sulfur content of American coals compared with coals used in Japan (from Australia) and in Europe; (c) environmental problems involved in the disposal of the spent catalyst (due to the toxicity of vanadium). In order to overcome these problems, in addition to the undesirable dominance by the Japanese patent position, the authors have studied in this project a new type of catalyst for the SCR reaction; namely, pillared clays, which have adjustable, unique structures and acidity. Three types of catalysts were developed and tested for this reaction, i.e. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clays, delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clays, and ion-exchanged pillared clays. The project was divided into sixteen tasks, and will be reported as such.

Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Cheng, L.S.; Kikkinides, E.S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

On the Theory of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer. V. Comparison and Properties of Electrochemical and Chemical Rate Constants  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Using a theory of electron transfers which takes cognizance of reorganization of the medium outside the inner coordination shell and of changes of bond lengths inside it, relations between electrochemical and related chemical rate constants are deduced and compared with the experimental data. A correlation is found, without the use of arbitrary parameters. Effects of weak complexes with added electrolytes are included under specified conditions. The deductions offer a way of coordinating a variety of data in the two fields, internally as well as with each those in another. For example, the rate of oxidation or reduction of a series of related reactants by one reagent is correlated with that of another and with that of the corresponding electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, under certain specified conditions. These correlations may also provide a test for distinguishing an electron from an atom transfer mechanism. (auth)

Marcus, R. A.

1962-00-00T23:59:59.000Z

142

Lactose oxidation kinetics with oxygen in catalyst-solution-gas three-phase system with simultaneous electrical potential measurement of supported gold catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lactose oxidation kinetics was studied on an supported gold catalyst with simultaneous control of catalyst potential. The experimental data were described well...

D. Yu. Murzin; E. V. Murzina; A. V. Tokarev…

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Synthesis and Evaluation of 3',5'-Di-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyflavones as Potential Inhibitors of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis and Evaluation of 3',5'-Di-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyflavones as Potential Inhibitors of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation ...

Guy Lewin; Yves Rolland; Sylvie Privat; Christine Breugnot; Albert Lenaers; Jean Paul Vilaine; Jean-Pierre Baltaze; Jacques Poisson

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

An integrated assessment of the energy savings and emissions-reduction potential of combined heat and power  

SciTech Connect

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, or cogeneration systems, generated electrical/mechanical and thermal energy simultaneously, recovering much of the energy normally lost in separate generation. This recovered energy can be used for heating or cooling purposes, eliminating the need for a separate boiler. Significant reductions in energy, criteria pollutants, and carbon emissions can be achieved from the improved efficiency of fuel use. Generating electricity on or near the point of use also avoids transmission and distribution losses and defers expansion of the electricity transmission grid. Several recent developments make dramatic expansion of CHP a cost-effective possibility over the next decade. First, advances in technologies such as combustion turbines, steam turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells. and heat-recovery equipment have decreased the cost and improved the performance of CHP systems. Second, a significant portion of the nation's boiler stock will need to be replaced in the next decade, creating an opportunity to upgrade this equipment with clean and efficient CHP systems. Third, environmental policies, including addressing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, have created pressures to find cleaner and more efficient means of using energy. Finally, electric power market restructuring is creating new opportunities for innovations in power generation and smaller-scale distributed systems such as CHP. The integrated analysis suggests that there is enormous potential for the installation of cost-effective CHP in the industrial, district energy, and buildings sectors. The projected additional capacity by 2010 is 73 GW with corresponding energy savings of 2.6 quadrillion Btus, carbon emissions reductions of 74 million metric tons, 1.4 million tons of avoided SO{sub 2} emissions, and 0.6 million tons of avoided NO{sub x} emissions. The authors estimate that this new CHP would require cumulative capital investments of roughly $47 billion over ten years.

Kaarsberg, T.M.; Elliott, R.N.; Spurr, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System. • B. Procedures. Catalyst Preparation Infrared DiskPreparation. Catalyst Characterization. PreliminaryReduction by CO Over a Pt Catalyst," M.S. thesis, Department

Lorimer, D.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Final report - Reduction of mercury in saturated subsurface sediments and its potential to mobilize mercury in its elemental form  

SciTech Connect

The goal of our project was to investigate Hg(II) reduction in the deep subsurface. We focused on microbial and abiotic pathways of reduction and explored how it affected the toxicity and mobility of Hg in this unique environment. The project’s tasks included: 1. Examining the role of mer activities in the reduction of Hg(II) in denitrifying enrichment cultures; 2. Investigating the biotic/abiotic reduction of Hg(II) under iron reducing conditions; 3. Examining Hg(II) redox transformations under anaerobic conditions in subsurface sediments from DOE sites.

Bakray, Tamar [Rutgers University

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

HYDROGEN-BASED, HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANE BIOFILM REACTOR FOR REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE AND OTHER OXIDIZED CONTAMINANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYDROGEN-BASED, HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANE BIOFILM REACTOR FOR REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE AND OTHER be added. Hydrogen is an ideal electron donor, as it is non-toxic, inexpensive, and sparsely soluble. We tested a hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for reduction of perchlorate

Nerenberg, Robert

149

Elementary steps of the catalytic NO{sub x} reduction with NH{sub 3}: Cluster studies on reaction paths and energetics at vanadium oxide substrate  

SciTech Connect

We consider different reaction scenarios of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO in the presence of ammonia at perfect as well as reduced vanadium oxide surfaces modeled by V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(010) without and with oxygen vacancies. Geometric and energetic details as well as reaction paths are evaluated using extended cluster models together with density-functional theory. Based on earlier work of adsorption, diffusion, and reaction of the different surface species participating in the SCR we confirm that at Brønsted acid sites (i.e., OH groups) of the perfect oxide surface nitrosamide, NH{sub 2}NO, forms a stable intermediate. Here adsorption of NH{sub 3} results in NH{sub 4} surface species which reacts with gas phase NO to produce the intermediate. Nitrosamide is also found as intermediate of the SCR near Lewis acid sites of the reduced oxide surface (i.e., near oxygen vacancies). However, here the adsorbed NH{sub 3} species is dehydrogenated to surface NH{sub 2} before it reacts with gas phase NO to produce the intermediate. The calculations suggest that reaction barriers for the SCR are overall higher near Brønsted acid sites of the perfect surface compared with Lewis acid sites of the reduced surface, examined for the first time in this work. The theoretical results are consistent with experimental findings and confirm the importance of surface reduction for the SCR process.

Gruber, M.; Hermann, K. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)] [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

3-Hydroxylysine, a Potential Marker for Studying Radical-Induced Protein Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5-Hydroxylysines are natural products formed by lysyl oxidase and are therefore not good markers of radical-mediated oxidation. ... Free radicals are known to be generated either by normal metabolic processes during electron transport chains and redox reactions of enzymes or as a result of exposure to exogenous factors such as UV light, radiation, and various chemicals. ... As 5OHLys is a naturally occuring amino acid (present in collagen as a result of lysine oxidation by the enzyme lysyl oxidase) and 4OHLys is not fully recovered after protein hydrolysis treatment, these species are probably not useful markers for protein oxidation. ...

Bénédicte Morin; William A. Bubb; Michael J. Davies; Roger T. Dean; Shanlin Fu

1998-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

151

Increased nitration and carbonylation of proteins in MRL +/+ mice exposed to trichloroethene: Potential role of protein oxidation in autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

Even though reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are implicated as mediators of autoimmune diseases (ADs), little is known about contribution of protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) in the pathogenesis of such diseases. The focus of this study was, therefore, to establish a link between protein oxidation and induction and/or exacerbation of autoimmunity. To achieve this, female MRL +/+ mice were treated with trichloroethene (TCE), an environmental contaminant known to induce autoimmune response, for 6 or 12 weeks (10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4{sup th} day). TCE treatment resulted in significantly increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT) and induction of iNOS in the serum at both 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, but the response was greater at 12 weeks. Likewise, TCE treatment led to greater NT formation, and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in the livers and kidneys. Moreover, TCE treatment also caused significant increases ({approx}3 fold) in serum protein carbonyls (a marker of protein oxidation) at both 6 and 12 weeks. Significantly increased protein carbonyls were also observed in the livers and kidneys (2.1 and 1.3 fold, respectively) at 6 weeks, and to a greater extent at 12 weeks (3.5 and 2.1 fold, respectively) following TCE treatment. The increases in TCE-induced protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) were associated with significant increases in Th1 specific cytokine (IL-2, IFN-{gamma}) release into splenocyte cultures. These results suggest an association between protein oxidation and induction/exacerbation of autoimmune response. The results present a potential mechanism by which oxidatively modified proteins could contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response and necessitates further investigations for clearly establishing the role of protein oxidation in the pathogenesis of ADs.

Wang Gangduo; Wang Jianling; Ma Huaxian [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 2.319 Mary Moody Northen, Galveston, TX 77555-0438 (United States); Khan, M. Firoze [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 2.319 Mary Moody Northen, Galveston, TX 77555-0438 (United States)], E-mail: mfkhan@utmb.edu

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Nonlinear response of the surface electrostatic potential formed at metal oxide/electrolyte interfaces. A Monte Carlo simulation study  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of surface potential nonlinearity at metal oxide/electrolyte interfaces is presented. By using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model of an interface, we show a correlation exists between ionic strength as well as surface site densities and the non-Nernstian response of a metal oxide electrode. We propose two approaches to deal with the 0-nonlinearity: one based on perturbative expansion of the Gibbs free energy and another based on assumption of the pH-dependence of surface potential slope. The theoretical anal ysis based on our new potential form gives excellent performance at extreme pH regions, where classical formulae based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation fail. The new formula is general and independent of any underlying assumptions. For this reason, it can be directly applied to experimental surface potential measurements, including those for individual surfaces of single crystals, as we present for data reported by Kallay and Preocanin [Kallay, Preocanin J. Colloid and Interface20 Sci. 318 (2008) 290].

Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Hydrogen production from the steam-iron process with direct reduction of iron oxide by chemical looping combustion of coal char  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results performed with a fluidized-bed reactor supported the feasibility of the three processes including direct reduction of iron oxide by char, H{sub 2} production by the steam-iron process, and the oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} resulting from the steam-iron process to the original Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air. Chars resulting from a Chinese lignite loaded with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were used successfully as a reducing material, leading to the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to FeO and Fe for the steam-iron process, which was confirmed by both the off-gases concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. The reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by K-10-char at 1073 K is desirable from the perspective of the carbon conversion rate and high concentration of CO{sub 2}. The carbon in char was completely converted to CO{sub 2} when the mass ratio of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K-10-char was increased to 10/0.3. The oxidation rate of K-10-char by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without a gasifying agent was comparable to the K-10-char steam gasification rate. The fractions of FeO and Fe in the reduced residue were 43 and 57%, respectively, in the case of 3 g of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 g of K-10-char, which was verified by the total H{sub 2} yield equaling 1000 mL/g K-10-char from the steam-iron process. The time that it took to achieve complete oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air with an 8.7% O{sub 2} concentration at 1073 K was about 15 min. 53 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Assessment of the potential of CHP technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries.

156

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

On the preparation of TiAl alloy by direct reduction of the oxide mixtures in calcium chloride melt  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, TiAl-based intermetallic alloys are being increasingly considered for application in areas such as (i) automobile/transport sector (passenger cars, trucks and ships) (ii) aerospace industry (jet engines and High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system) and (iii) industrial gas turbines. These materials offer excellent (i) high temperature properties (at higher than 6000C) (ii) mechanical strength and (iii) resistance to corrosion and as a result have raised renewed interest. The combination of these properties make them possible replacement materials for traditional nickel-based super-alloys, which are nearly as twice as dense (than TiAl based alloys). Since the microstructures of these intermetallic alloys affect, to a significant extent, their ultimate performance, further improvements (by way of alteration/modification of these microstructures), have been the subject matter of intense research investigations. It has now been established that the presence of alloy additives, such as niobium, tantalum, manganese, boron, chromium, silicon, nickel and yttrium etc, in specific quantities, impart marked improvement to the properties, viz. fatigue strength, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility, of these alloys. From a number of possible alloy compositions, {gamma}-TiAl and Ti-Al-Nb-Cr have, of late, emerged as two promising engineering alloys/materials. . The conventional fabrication process of these alloys include steps such as melting, forging and heat treatment/annealing of the alloy compositions. However, an electrochemical process offers an attractive proposition to prepare these alloys, directly from the mixture of the respective oxides, in just one step. The experimental approach, in this new process, was, therefore, to try to electrochemically reduce the (mixed) oxide pellet to an alloy phase. The removal of oxygen, from the (mixed) oxide pellet, was effected by polarizing the oxide pellet against a graphite electrode in a pool of molten calcium chloride at a temperature of 9000C. The dominant mechanism of the oxygen removal was the ionization of oxygen followed by its subsequent discharge, as CO2/CO, at the anode surface. The removal of oxygen from the oxide mixture helped form the alloy in situ. The presentation shall cover the detailed experimental results pertaining to the preparation, evaluation and characterization of Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (atom%) alloy.

Prabhat K. Tripathy; Derek J. Fray

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

The use of oxidation-reduction dyes in the determination of the shelf-life of meats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

!. hvle?o l, lu . re inc t r'on th ie 21 0 2 4 6 8 IO l2 REDUCTION TIN(E (HOURS) I'~Coot C. Rolaticn botuo o now'&o o o. ' rt(it oo, " ~i;m- io r'sic' o;. t ttoz 1. it ni . 't. tio . t it. 22 ~t 7 C & 0 3- I 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 l4 REDUCTIOI'J Tll... 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 00 0 4 0 y = 7 8131 ?. 3069X e k kkk 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 REDUCTION TIME (HOURS) Figure 19. Relation b tw en number of o: idase-uos itive bacterra in all products and rcsasurin red iction tim e @ 0 Z, 6...

Bush, Janis Carolyn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers X Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment March 2000 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

160

Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology to Identify Potential Reductions in Utility and Process Energy Consumption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This case study describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Solutia Inc. chemical production facility in Springfield, Massachusetts. The assessment focused on finding ways to reduce the plant's use of steam, electricity, compressed air, and water. Assessment recommendations had a potential total annual energy savings of about 9.6 million kWh for electricity and more than 338,000 MBtu for natural gas, with potential annual cost savings amounting to nearly $3.3 million.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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161

PILC-based monolithic catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by methane in oxygen excess  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work was the study and development of aluminum-pillared clay (Al-PILC)-based monolithic Pd catalysts for reducing \\{NOx\\} emissions from natural gas-fired power plants using methane as a selective reductant. During preparation of the support, the same raw material used to synthesize the pillared clays was used as a permanent inorganic binder. This confers high surface area and acidity to the extrudates, in addition to high hydrothermal resistance and mechanical strength. The influence of the method used for active phase incorporation on the physico-chemical properties and DeNOx activity and selectivity was studied. Conclusions were drawn from the use of different solution pH values and precursors in relation to the isoelectric point of the solid. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and NH3 and CO chemisorption.

F. Mohino; P. Avila; P. Salerno; A. Bahamonde; S. Mendioroz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

163

Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and and Frictional Drag on a Floating Sphere in a Flowing Plasma I. H. Hutchinson Plasma Science and Fusion Center Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA The interaction of an ion-collecting sphere at floating potential with a flowing colli- sionless plasma is investigated using the "Specialized Coordinate Electrostatic Particle and Thermals In Cell" particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC[1, 2]. Code calculations are given of potential and the total force exerted on the sphere by the flowing plasma. This force is of crucial importance to the problem of dusty plasmas, and the present results are the first for a collisionless plasma to take account of the full self-consistent potential. They reveal discrepancies amounting to as large as 20% with the standard analytic expressions, in parameter regimes where the analytic approximations might have been expected

164

Effects of CH{sub 4} and CO on the reduction of nitric oxide to nitrogen in a discharge reactor  

SciTech Connect

Additives are often added to enhance the efficiency of NO removal. This study uses a radio frequency (rf) discharge to consider the effect of added CH{sub 4} and CO to simulated NO/N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures on the elevation of NO conversion and the reduction of NO into N{sub 2}. The enhancement levels of NO conversion when using various additives were found to be in this order: +CH{sub 4}>+CO>no additive. NO conversion reached 99.3%, 86.2%, and 77.6% when adding CH{sub 4}, CO, and without additive, respectively, at inlet additive/NO molar ratio (R) = 5 and at 120 W. Moreover, the fraction of total N atoms converted from NO into N{sub 2} (F{sub N2}) was very high, reaching 99.4% and 99.5% when adding CH{sub 2}4 and CO, respectively, at R = 1 and at 120 W. The better operating conditions are using CH{sub 4} as the additive at R = 1 and a power of >60 W to reach a higher NO conversion with a higher F{sub N2}. However, it should be noted that this rf plasma approach is not practical at this stage because of its relative low pressure. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Cheng-Hsien Tsai; Lien-Te Hsieh; Juu-En Chang; Yi-Ming Kuo; Ying-I Tsai [National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Department of Chemical and Material Engineering

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Annual technical report, September 30, 1993--September 29, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay catalyst was prepared for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} at above 300{degrees}C. The delaminated pillard clay was characterized by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) chemical analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction) structure and line broadening analyses, micropore size probing, and Moessbauer analysis. These analyses showed that the catalyst contained fragmented Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay forming {open_quotes}house-of-cards{close_quotes} structure with dispersed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles approximately 170 {angstrom} in size. The SCR activity of the delaminated pillard clay was higher than the commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst, and also higher than the undelaminated pillard clay and supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, under conditions with SO{sub 2}. Infrared measurements of adsorbed NH{sub 3} showed strong Bronsted acidity which was caused possibly by interactions between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and clay.

Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Yang, R.T.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994  

SciTech Connect

In the last Quarterly Technical Progress Report the authors reported the synthesis and (partial characterization) and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO) activity for a delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PILC). The SCR activity for this PILC was substantially higher than that of the commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. During the past quarter, the authors first completed the characterization of the delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PILC catalyst. Both physical characterization (micropore probing by adsorption and Moessbauer spectroscopy) and chemical characterization (by IR spectroscopy) were performed. Since the synthesis of this PILC sample was undertaken under a specific set of conditions and it is known that the PILC properties depend strongly on the synthesis conditions, they then proceeded to examine in a systematic manner the dependence of the catalytic properties of the PILC on its synthesis conditions. Four parameters in the synthesis were studied: Fe precursors, pH of the pillaring solution, concentration of the pillaring solution, and the starting clay. Finally, the effect of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} promoter on the SCR activity of the pillar clay was studied. Results are reported.

Chen, J.P.; Li, W.B.; Hausladen, M.C.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Yang, R.T.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Lattice dynamics of the potential-induced breathing model: Phonon dispersion in the alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We find the dynamical matrix for the potential-induced breathing (PIB) model for ionic solids, and calculate with no adjustable parameters the phonon-dispersion relations for the alkaline-earth oxides in the B1 structure. Our approach is similar to that of Gordon and Kim, in which the crystalline charge densities are estimated by overlapping atomic charge densities, which are then converted to energy by electron-gas approximations. It goes beyond the original Gordon-Kim model by allowing for spherical breathing of the atoms in response to the long-range potential, and beyond later refinements of the modified-electron-gas models by explicitly including the effects of PIB on the self-energy and the overlap interactions. This allows us to treat general deformations and lattice dynamics including the many-body PIB effects. PIB couples the long- and short-range forces in a way that is not present in any other lattice-dynamical model, since the spherical charge relaxation is coupled to the long-range electrostatic potential. PIB gives better agreement for the splitting of the longitudinal- and transverse-optic mode frequencies than is found with rigid-ion models, as well as much improved acoustic branches. PIB is a nonempirical model; no experimental data are used other than the values of fundamental constants such as Planck’s constant and the atomic masses.

Ronald E. Cohen; L. L. Boyer; M. J. Mehl

1987-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 247 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Western Region of the United States. Although the Western Region includes Alaska, coal data from this state will often be cited apart from the Western Region data from the lower United States. This is the third of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Western Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, rank, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 3 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 8, April--June, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Techno-economic performance and cost reduction potential for the substitute/synthetic natural gas and power cogeneration plant with CO2 capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The cogeneration of substitute/synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power from coal based plants with CO2 capture is an effective way to improve energy efficiency and to reduce CO2 emissions. In this paper, we evaluate the techno-economic performance of a SNG and power cogeneration technology with CO2 capture. Current localization level (the cost difference of a technology in different nations and districts) of each subunit of this technology is analyzed. The cost reduction potential of this technology is also predicted, and the role of technology localization and efficiency upgrade in cost reduction is investigated based on a range of learning rates and different coal prices from 90$/t to 150$/t. Results show that the unit investment of this cogeneration technology presented in our previous paper is around 1700$/kW currently and the investment of SNG synthesis, coal gasification and combined cycle unit comprises over 60% of the total investment. The equivalent SNG production cost is quite sensitive to coal prices and ranges from 0.15 to 0.50$/Nm3. Through localization, the unit investment of this technology can be decreased by 30% currently. The key technologies including coal gasification, SNG synthesis and high performance gas turbine need further localization because of their relatively low current localization levels and big localization potential. Through cost learning, the future investment of the technology can be decreased to 700–1100$/kW, which may be competitive with the unit investment of IGCC technology with CO2 capture and even may be lower than that of the pulverized coal power plant with CO2 capture. Technology localization and efficiency upgrade will play important roles in cost reduction, which can contribute 300–500$/kW and 125–225$/kW to cost reduction, respectively. The results presented in this paper indicate that the coal to SNG and power technology with CO2 capture is a promising and competitive option for energy saving and CO2 abatement, and can be a support for policy making, technology options etc.

Sheng Li; Hongguang Jin; Lin Gao; Xiaosong Zhang; Xiaozhou Ji

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

An open-access method for targeting revegetation based on potential for emissions reduction, carbon sequestration and opportunity cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We propose a simple heuristic that uses open-access models and government data on agricultural activities to estimate total carbon emissions from agriculture, the gross carbon benefit and the opportunity cost per tonne CO2-e from revegetating to environmental plantings or plantation forestry. We test this across ten areas of mixed land-use that represent diverse Australian agricultural systems along a rainfall transect. The local value of agricultural production was obtained from government statistics and used to estimate the current economic opportunity cost of converting cleared agricultural land to mixed environmental plantings for carbon sequestration. Gross carbon benefit from revegetation was closely related to current agricultural use, as was financial opportunity cost. These were not related simply to site productivity potential or rainfall. The proportion of land cleared for agriculture that would need to be re-vegetated to achieve a localised zero-carbon land-use scenario was calculated by the ratio of current agricultural emissions to gross carbon benefit from revegetation; this ranged from 13% to 66% for groups of agricultural industries across Australian rainfall transects. While the heuristic does not capture the detail of models built specifically for local research questions it does provide a different lens on the questions policy makers and land managers may ask about the costs and benefits of revegetating agricultural land, and provides open-access methods to guide them.

Andrew Longmire; Chris Taylor; Craig J. Pearson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Potentials for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions of the industrial sector in transitional economies -- A case study of implementation of absorption chiller and co-generation  

SciTech Connect

Central and East European (CEE) countries together with former USSR emitted about 25 percent of the world carbon dioxide emissions, predominantly because of high energy intensity of their industries and dependence on coal. The paper focuses on technologies which would reduce the need for fossil fuel burning by improving energy efficiency in industry. In the process industry, heat demand is usually met by combustion of fossil fuels, cold is produced with electricity. Technical potentials of absorption chillers (AC) and co-generation in the process industry as well as their market penetration potentials are analyses for Slovenia, one of the fastest transforming CEE economies. Technical potentials are not necessarily realized in production. New technology employment in firms depends on several factors. This paper first summarizes the existing models explaining adoption of technology by firms. Then, it focuses selectively on the impact of macro economic and institutional factors and points out which policy instruments could facilitate faster diffusion of the technologies and thereby reduction of energy related carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector.

Remec, J. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Dolsak, N. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Economics]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Deactivation and Regeneration of Oxygen Reduction Reactivity on Double Perovskite Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6?x Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deactivation and Regeneration of Oxygen Reduction Reactivity on Double Perovskite Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6?x Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Most notably, cathodic polarization treatment, for example, current discharge from BBSC, can be utilized to recover the original ORR performance. ... After evaporation of water at 120 °C, a dark purple gel was recovered. ...

Wei Zhou; Jaka Sunarso; Julius Motuzas; Fengli Liang; Zhigang Chen; Lei Ge; Shaomin Liu; Anne Julbe; Zhonghua Zhu

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

177

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Relationship of Hydrogen Bioavailability to Chromate Reduction in Aquifer Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Media Ecosystem Fresh Water microbiology Geologic...Oxidation-Reduction Water Supply georef;2010007932...studies geochemistry ground water hydrogen laboratory studies...Oklahoma pollution reduction remediation sediments United States...

Tamara L. Marsh; Michael J. McInerney

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Instructions for use Role of Cerium Oxide in the Enhancement of Activity for the Oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

activity for various fuel cell reactions, such as the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR),4 oxygen reduction. Recently, CeOx has been also utilized as a cocatalyst with Pt catalyst for ORR in PEM fuel cells.17 at the Pt oxide formation potential. INTRODUCTION Fuel cells, especially polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM

Tsunogai, Urumu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Among the numerous chemicals discharged into the surrounding environment, bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) have been shown to increase oxidative stress in body by disturbing the prooxidant/antioxidant balance of cells. Cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE) is a natural product rich in polyphenolic compounds that have antioxidant activity. This study was designed to investigate the protective efficacy of CAE against oxidative disorders induced by BPA and OP in male albino rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups (10 rats each) and treated orally, 3 times weekly for 50 days. Group 1: control vehicle (olive oil); group 2 (25 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day); group 3 (25 mg OP/kg b.wt./day); group 4 (200 mg CAE/kg b.wt./day); group 5 (CAE 2 h before BPA administration); and group 6 (CAE 2 h before OP administration). BPA- and OP-exposed groups showed insignificant elevation in the final body weight; weight gains and significant reduction only in the relative kidneys weight. Also, BPA and OP exposure resulted in significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and kidney, brain, testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Significant reduction in tissues reduced glutathione (GSH) contents; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also recorded in BPA and OP exposed animals compared to the control vehicle group. Pretreatment with CAE 2 h either before BPA or OP administration ameliorated the BPA- and OP-induced body weight; weight gains and relative organs weight changes and biochemical adverse effects. CAE pretreatment also protected against the recorded pathological changes in kidney, brain and testis. In conclusion, CAE could ameliorate the oxidative toxic effects of BPA and OP indicating its protective antioxidant effect.

Ashraf M. Morgan; Salah S. El-Ballal; Badre E. El-Bialy; Nermeen B. EL-Borai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

engineering controls Metal oxides in lean adsorption rich reduction cycles NO x Sorption (NO x Traps) Disadvantages Typical Usage Method Pioneering Science and Technology...

183

Characterization and catalytic performance of vanadium supported on sulfated Ti-PILC catalysts issued from different Ti-precursors in selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide by ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vanadium supported on sulfated Ti-pillared clay catalysts (STi-PILCs) issued from different Ti-precursors were investigated for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3 in the presence of O2. The STi-PILC...

J. Arfaoui; L. Khalfallah Boudali; A. Ghorbel; G. Delahay

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

185

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

186

Effects of Reduction Temperature and Metal-Support Interactions on the Catalytic Activity of Pt/g-Al2O3 and Pt/TiO2 for the Oxidation of CO in the Presence and Absence of H2.  

SciTech Connect

TiO2- and -Al2O3-supported Pt catalysts were characterized by HRTEM, XPS, EXAFS, and in situ FTIR spectroscopy after activation at various conditions, and their catalytic properties were examined for the oxidation of CO in the absence and presence of H2 (PROX). When {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used as the support, the catalytic, electronic, and structural properties of the Pt particles formed were not affected substantially by the pretreatment conditions. In contrast, the surface properties and catalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 were strongly influenced by the pretreatment conditions. In this case, an increase in the reduction temperature led to higher electron density on Pt, altering its chemisorptive properties, weakening the Pt-CO bonds, and increasing its activity for the oxidation of CO. The in situ FTIR data suggest that both the terminal and bridging CO species adsorbed on fully reduced Pt are active for this reaction. The high activity of Pt/TiO2 for the oxidation of CO can also be attributed to the ability of TiO2 to provide or stabilize highly reactive oxygen species at the metal-support interface. However, such species appear to be more reactive toward H{sub 2} than CO. Consequently, Pt/TiO{sub 2} shows substantially lower selectivities toward CO oxidation under PROX conditions than Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Alexeev,O.; Chin, S.; Engelhard, M.; Ortiz-Soto, L.; Amiridis, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 5, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 2, October--December 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide NO{sub x} control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide NO{sub x} control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

196

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

198

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

202

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

203

China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of GDP)to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. Thecommitted to reduce its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reduction in energy consumption per unit of GDP from 2006 toEnergy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of GDP)

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation  

SciTech Connect

Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using {sup 14}C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

Picardal, F.W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Low electrical potential anode modified with Fe/ferric oxide and its application in marine benthic microbial fuel cell with higher voltage and power output  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Low voltage and power output limit the widespread application of marine benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFCs). To increase the cell power, a Fe/Ferric oxide modified anode fabricating by electrolytic deposition is reported here. The novel anode has a lower surface contact angle and higher wettability, which favors the adhesion of bacteria. It is firstly demonstrated that the electrical potential of the modified anode is about ?775 mV, much lower than that of the plain graphite (about ?450 mV). Open circuit potential of BMFC with the modified anode is about 1050 ± 50 mV, while the potential for the plain cells is only 700 ± 50 mV. In comparison with the plain graphite, the modified anode presents a 393-fold exchange current density and a higher kinetic activity. The output power reaches 7.4 × 10?2 mW cm?2, 17.4-fold higher than that of the plain graphite. A composite mechanism of both chemical and microbial enhancement of the modified anode is proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance. The modified anode has potential for high-power output cell and novel voltage-booster design to make the BMFC utilization feasibility.

Yubin Fu; Qian Xu; Xuerong Zai; Yuanyuan Liu; Zhikai Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 725 (1983) 25-33 25 MEMBRANE POTENTIAL-DEPENDENT REDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME b-6 IN AN ALGAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Key words." Cytochrome b-6," Membrane potential; Photosynthesis," Photosystem I," (Chlorella sorokinia) Absorption changes induced by illumination of a double mutant strain of the green alga Chlorella sorokinia

208

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

210

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

211

Potential-induced breathing model for the elastic moduli and high-pressure behavior of the cubic alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A parameter-free model is presented for the elastic constants and high-pressure behavior of the alkaline-earth oxides MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The model is based on a Gordon-Kim-type calculation for the short-range energy of a crystal. Spherically symmetric relaxation of ion charge density in response to the Madelung potential, termed potential-induced breathing (PIB), is incorporated into the model as a function of strain. This charge relaxation is accomplished by the use of a Watson-sphere calculation to obtain the interaction energy of pairs of ions as a function of both interatomic distance and Coulomb potential. By this technique many-body effects, which are particularly important for the prediction of crystal elasticity, are included. The model successfully reproduces both the sign and magnitude of the deviation (?=C12-C44) from the Cauchy relation measured at zero pressure for the cubic alkaline-earth oxides. Static compression curves calculated in both the B1 and B2 phases of these compounds are found to be within 5% of the available room-temperature data. From a calculation of the pressure dependence of the elastic moduli, the role of many-body effects at high pressure is determined. The B1-B2 phase transition pressures are calculated within the PIB model to be 251 GPa (MgO), 55 GPa (CaO), 36 GPa (SrO), and 21 GPa (BaO), in very good agreement with available experimental data for these compounds.

M. J. Mehl; R. J. Hemley; L. L. Boyer

1986-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Potential for Reduction of Exhaust Emissions in a Common-Rail Direct-Injection Diesel Engine by Fueling with Fischer–Tropsch Diesel Fuel Synthesized from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the constant speed/varying load test modes, the use of CFT also resulted in a general reduction of regulated emissions. ... (5, 6) Moreover, FT diesel fuels can be used in contemporary diesel engines without any modification and with a negligible or weak improvement of engine efficiency. ... Liu, Z.; Shi, S.; Li, Y.Coal liquefaction technologies—Development in China and challenges in chemical reaction engineering Chem. ...

Chonglin Song; Guohong Gong; Jinou Song; Gang Lv; Xiaofeng Cao; Lidong Liu; Yiqiang Pei

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

213

Demand Reduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

214

The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity  

SciTech Connect

The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Effects of RutheniumThe Effects of Ruthenium--Oxidation States onOxidation States on RuRu Dissolution inDissolution in PtRuPtRu ThinThin--Film ElectrodesFilm Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential cycling causes Ru dissolution. - High anode potential may occur when fuel cell is turned off.g p y: - Methanol Oxidation M b D d ti- Membrane Degradation - Oxygen Reduction N d i ll i i h R di l i 3 Need

Park, Byungwoo

218

Data Reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data reduction has two meanings. Firstly, in analysis, it is the process of reducing large masses of data to produce a few summary statistics. This process involves grouping data into tables, visualizing the...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx...

220

SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would require large amounts of nitric acid (and subsequently larger reductant additions) unless a reducing acid is also used.

Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Strong reduction of V{sup 4+} amount in vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes by doping with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions: Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic studies  

SciTech Connect

In this work we present a complete characterization and magnetic study of vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes (VO{sub x}/Hexa NT's) doped with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. The morphology of the NT's has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the metallic elements have been quantified by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The static and dynamic magnetic properties were studied by collecting data of magnetization as a function of magnetic field and temperature and by electron paramagnetic resonance. At difference of the majority reports in the literature, we do not observe magnetic dimers in vanadium oxide nanotubes. Also, we observed that the incorporation of metallic ions (Co{sup 2+}, S = 3/2 and Ni{sup 2+}, S = 1) decreases notably the amount of V{sup 4+} ions in the system, from 14-16% (nondoped case) to 2%-4%, with respect to the total vanadium atoms (fact corroborated by XPS experiments) anyway preserving the tubular nanostructure. The method to decrease the amount of V{sup 4+} in the nanotubes improves considerably their potential technological applications as Li-ion batteries cathodes.

Saleta, M. E.; Troiani, H. E.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Ruano, G.; Sanchez, R. D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Malta, M. [Depto. de Cs. Exatas e da Terra, Univ. do Estado da Bahia, Cabula Salvador CP 2555 (Brazil); Torresi, R. M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo CP 26077, 05513-970 (Brazil)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant for Microfluidic Fuel Cells Erik Kjeang,a,c,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant for Microfluidic Fuel Cells Erik Kjeang,a,c, * Alexandre G. Brolo, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 3P6 We demonstrate a microfluidic fuel cell incorporating hydrogen and exhibits a high standard reduction potential. It also enables fuel cell operation where natural convection

Brolo, Alexandre G.

224

Allocation Reductions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Allocation Allocation Reductions Quarterly Allocation Reductions MPP (or computational) repositories that haven't used significant amounts of time are adjusted at certain times by transferring a part of the unused balance to the corresponding DOE Office reserve. The following schedule will be used for allocation year 2014 (which runs 14 January 2014 through 132January 2015). On April 9: if usage is less than 10% remove 25% of the unused balance On July 9: if usage is less than 25% remove 25% of the unused balance if usage is less than 10% remove 50% of the unused balance On October 8: if usage is less than 50% remove 25% of the unused balance if usage is less than 25% remove 75% of the unused balance if usage is less than 10% remove 90% of the unused balance On November 5:

225

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Nitrate reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Regenerative catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Currently Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (R.T.O.`s) are an accepted technology for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s). This control technology, when introduced, offered substantial reductions in operating costs, especially auxiliary fuel requirements when compared to existing control technologies such as recuperative thermal and recuperative catalytic oxidizers. While these savings still exist, there is a demand for control of new and/or hybrid technologies, one of which is Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (R.C.O.`s). This paper will explore the development of regenerative catalytic oxidation from the theoretical stage through pilot testing through a commercial installation. The operating cost of R.C.O.`s will be compared to R.T.O.`s to verify the savings that are achievable through the use of regenerative catalytic oxidation. In the development of this technology, which is a combination of two (2) existing technologies, R.T.O.`s and catalysis, a second hybrid technology was explored and pilot tested. This is a combination R.C.O. for VOC and HAP control and simultaneous SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) control. Based on the pilot and full scale testing, both regenerative catalytic oxidizers and systems which combine R.C.O. with SCR for both VOC and NOx reduction are economically viable and are in fact commercially available. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Gribbon, S.T. [Engelhard Process Emission Systems, South Lyon, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE) (2008b).  Industrial Assessment Centers Database.  of Energy’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC)  database (

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CMU  CO 2   CO 2 e  EIO?LCA  GHG  GWP  HVAC  IO  IPCC  kg 14 Supply Chain GHG3: Estimated average GHG emission factors for California

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural and water treatment motor technology measureLighting Machinery Water treatment Motor systems (pumps)Agricultural and water treatment motor technology measure

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency measures applicable to home energy,  commercial sector electricity and natural gas, industrial 

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization...

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric oxidation by-products Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

only a few electrode materials are known... exhibits some selectivity towards the reduction of nitric oxide in a net oxidising atmosphere. Several... and in the nitric oxide...

234

Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel for use in solid oxide fuel cells. This cutting edge area of research continues to be important as energy prove useful for solid oxide fuel cells. METHODS Commercial molybdenum dioxide was used for all tests

Collins, Gary S.

235

Gas phase contributions to topochemical hydride reduction reactions  

SciTech Connect

Alkali and alkali earth hydrides have been used as solid state reductants recently to yield many interesting new oxygen-deficient transition metal oxides. These reactions have tacitly been assumed to be a solid phase reaction between the reductant and parent oxide. We have conducted a number of experiments with physical separation between the reductant and oxides, and find that in some cases reduction proceeds even when the reagents are physically separated, implying reactions with in-situ generated H{sub 2} and, to a lesser extent, getter mechanisms. Our findings change our understanding of these topochemical reactions, and should enhance the synthesis of additional new oxides and nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: Topochemical reductions with hydrides: Solid state or gas phase reaction? Display Omitted - Highlights: • SrFeO{sub 2} and LaNiO{sub 2} were prepared by topochemical reduction of oxides. • Separating the reducing agent (CaH{sub 2}, Mg metal) from the oxide still results in reduction. • Such topochemical reactions can occur in the gas phase.

Kobayashi, Yoji [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Li, Zhaofei [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirai, Kei [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tassel, Cédric [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Loyer, François [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 Université de Rennes 1-CNRS, équipe CSM, Bât. 10B, Campus de Beaulieu, 263, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ichikawa, Noriya [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Abe, Naoyuki [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takafumi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Shimakawa, Yuichi [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); and others

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electrochemical behavior of liquid Sb anode system for electrolytic reduction of UO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrolytic reduction of metal oxides is a key technique of pyroprocessing, the combination of several electrochemical processes to...1–6]. The spent nuclear fuels are mainly composed of metal oxides including U...

Sung-Wook Kim; Wooshin Park; Hun Suk Im…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Investigation of the potential synergies of LNT and SCR for treating NOx emissions from a...

238

Advanced Reduction Processes - A New Class of Treatment Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new class of treatment processes called Advanced Reduction Processes (ARP) has been proposed. The ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening...

Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

239

Bioelectrical Perchlorate Reduction and Characterization of Novel Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reducing Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vs. NHE), oxidative electrolysis of water and reduction ofsystems is the electrolysis of water and the presence of anIndirect methods: electrolysis of water to hydrogen can

Thrash, James Cameron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using Cu-ZSM-5 and Va-based honeycomb monolith catalysts: effect of H2 pretreatment, NH3-to-NO ratio, O2, and space velocity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the steady-state performance of zeolite-based (Cu-ZSM-5) and vanadium-based honeycomb monolith catalysts was investigated in the selective catalytic reduction process (SCR) for NO removal using NH3. The aim was to delineate the effect...

Gupta, Saurabh

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Micro-Scale Model for Oxygen Reduction on LSM-YSZ Cathode  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a micro-scale model is developed to simulate the oxygen reduction on LSM-YSZ composite cathode. The model incorporates the effects of cathode microstructural properties on the local transport phenomena and electrochemistry inside the cathode. A detailed reaction mechanism is used in the model which has two parallel routes for oxygen conversion into oxide ions, namely two-phase boundary and three-phase boundary pathways. The model predicts field distributions of local thermodynamic values, over-potential, Faradaic current and other parameters relevant to cathode performance. Electrochemical impedance simulations are performed using the current model to analyze the contribution of various processes to the overall impedance.

Pakalapati, Suryanarayana Raju; Celik, Ismail; Finklea, Harry; Gong, Mingyang; Liu, Xingbo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Oxygen Reduction Catalyzed by Au–TiO2 Nanocomposites in Alkaline Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Au?TiO2 nanocomposite; oxygen reduction; alkaline media; RRDE; Tafel plot ... In another study, Kim et al.(14) prepared titanium oxide by heat treatment of titanium sheets in the temperature range of 600–1000 °C, and the best catalysts were identified as those prepared at 900 °C where ORR occurred at the potential of about +0.65 V versus RHE in 0.1 M H2SO4. ... In a typical measurement, 1 mg of the Au–TiO2 nanocomposite catalysts, 4 mg of carbon powder, and 10 ?L of Nafion were ultrasonically mixed in 1 mL of methanol. ...

Chan Lin; Yang Song; Lixin Cao; Shaowei Chen

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving 50% NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level 1 long-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Minimal nuclear deterrence : a nuclear arsenal reduction plan for the United States ; Nuclear arsenal reduction plan for the United States .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The global political climate has called for reductions to nuclear arsenals around the world. This thesis researches how potential deep cuts to the United States'… (more)

Laderman, Sarah (Sarah Jane)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

SciTech Connect

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

249

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Drag reduction in coal log pipelines  

SciTech Connect

It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Capsule Pipeline Research Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Faradaic reactions and their effects on dissolution of the natural oxide film on pure aluminum during cathodic polarization in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Faradaic reactions and their effects on dissolution of the natural oxide film on pure aluminum during cathodic polarization were investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) solutions using the potentiodynamic polarization, rotating disk electrode (RDE), open-circuit potential (OCP) transient, and potentiostatic current transient methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves for natural oxide-covered pure aluminum showed two Tafel slopes arising from the change in the faradaic reaction from oxygen reduction to water reduction with decreasing applied potential. The bare surface of pure aluminum was scarcely exposed to the electrolyte despite dissolution of the natural oxide film as a result of chemical attack by hydroxide ions during cathodic polarization. Chemical dissolution of the natural oxide film decreased the instantaneous value of OCP and was enhanced more by hydroxide ions resulting from water reduction than by hydroxide ions from oxygen reduction.

Moon, S.M.; Pyun, S.I. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

255

Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation).

Wright, Randy B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 (LS-2) located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This quarterly update provides a description of the flow modeling study. This modeling effort centers on evaluating the in-furnace flow and mixing phenomena for the various low NOx firing systems being demonstrated at LS-2. Testing on the 1/12 scale model of the LS-2 boiler and the 1/6 scale model of the overfire air ductwork was completed. The test matrix included an analysis of the overfire air ductwork and three different boiler configurations. This report also contains results from the Phase 1 baseline tests. Data from the diagnostic, performance, and verification tests are presented. In addition, NOx emissions data and unit load profiles collected during long-term testing are reported. At the full load condition, the baseline NOx emission level at LS-2 is 0.62 lb/mBtu.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Phosphoric acid impurities in phosphoric acid fuel cell electrolytes. 2: Effects on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of phosphorus acid additions on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes in concentrated phosphoric acid were studied. The oxygen reduction currents decreased, and the Tafel slopes became more negative upon the addition of small concentrations of phosphorus acid. In addition,the phosphorus acid oxidation current tended to complete with the oxygen reduction current. These effects became more pronounced at higher phosphorus acid concentrations and at higher temperatures. Upon the addition of phosphorus acid the number of electrons involved in the oxygen reduction reaction decreased from a value close to four to a value approaching two, suggesting promotion of a two-electron reduction to peroxide. Therefore, in studies of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in hot concentrated phosphoric acid or in fuel cell systems using hot concentrated phosphoric acid as electrolyte, it is recommended that precautions be taken against the inadvertent formation of the phosphorus acid. The removal of phosphorus acid from concentrated phosphoric acid by repeated potential cycling at 100 mV/s between + 0.5 and +1.50 V (vs. dynamic hydrogen electrode) was demonstrated.

Sugishima, Noboru; Hinatsu, J.T.; Foulkes, F.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project - honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. Most experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal will be performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation graph will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature and later sulfur will be investigated after this is complete. Also, last quarter's tests showed a potential linear relationship between SO3 conversion and mercury oxidation. As a result, SO3 samples will be taken more frequently to investigate each catalyst's ability to selectively oxidize mercury.

Alex J. Berry; Thomas K. Gale

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiencyreport estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency

McNeil, Michael A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction  

SciTech Connect

A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

Coates, John D.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evidence for Epoxide Formation from the Electrochemical Reduction of Ethylene Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evidence for Epoxide Formation from the Electrochemical Reduction of Ethylene Carbonate Xuerong agreed that the electrochemical reduction of ethylene carbonate EC plays an important role the monoethylcarbonate lithium salt. Ethylene oxide is suggested as a possible, but not exclusive, reduction product

263

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the...

264

Oxygen reduction on Pt in aqueous K sub 2 CO sub 3 and KOH  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the electrolyte concentration dependences of platinum oxidation and oxygen reduction (OR) on Pt investigated in KOH and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} electrolytes. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the oxidation processes on the Pt electrode, and the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique was used to evaluate the kinetic processes for OR in 0.1--6.9 {ital M} KOH and 0.1--4.0 {ital M} K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, at room temperature. The charge due to Pt oxidation reached a maximum at a KOH concentration of about 2--3 {ital M} for a range of electrode potentials. This is consistent with changes in the rates and the relative importances of the reversible and aging processes with changes in hydroxide-ion activity. No maxima were observed with carbonate electrolytes at comparable ionic strengths. At high overpotentials, in both electrolytes, current densities were limited by the rate of O{sub 2} adsorption onto Pt. The Tafel slope for this process was essentially infinite for the more-oxidized surfaces. At lower overpotentials, the observed Tafel slope decreased and the fraction of current passing through the 2-electron pathway increased with increasing hydroxide-ion activity.

Striebel, K.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J. (Applied Science Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Intramolecular Reduction of Oxyferryl Myoglobin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Intramolecular Reduction of Oxyferryl Iron in Horse Heart Myoglobin of Intramolecular Reduction of Oxyferryl Iron in Horse Heart Myoglobin Craig Fenwick, Stephen Marmor, K. Govindaraju, Ann M. English, James F. Wishart and Ji Sun J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3169-3170 (1994) Abstract: The observed rate constant (kobs), as determined by pulse radiolysis, for intramolecular electron transfer (ET) from a5RuII bound at His48 to the ferric heme of horse heart myoglobin was 0.059 ± 0.003 s-1 at 25 °C, pH 7.0. This value is essentially identical to that previously reported in the literature for sperm whale myoglobin. Following oxidation by H2O2 of the ferric heme to oxyferryl heme (FeIV=O), kobs for intramolecular ET from a5RuII(His48) to heme increased to 0.19 ± 0.02 s-1 at a driving force of 0.96 eV. However, at the same driving force, a rate

266

Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

NOVEL GRAPHITE SALTS OF HIGH OXIDIZING POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hr volatiles none AsFS AsFS > CF4 AsFS AsFS AsFS C13.l AsF 6C16.l AsF 6 C24.3AsF6·l/2 F2 > CF4> CF4 > CF4 Table VI-7. Graphite hexafluoroarsenate salts +

McCarron III, Eugene Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal utility boilers using medium- to high-sulfur US coal. The prototype SCR facility, built in and around the ductwork of Plant Crist Unit 5, consisted of three large SCR reactor units (Reactors A, B, and C), each with a design capacity of 5,000 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of flue gas, and six smaller reactors (Reactors D through J), each with a design capacity of 400 scfm of flue gas. The three large reactors contained commercially available SCR catalysts as offered by SCR catalyst suppliers. These reactors were coupled with small-scale air preheaters to evaluate (1) the long-term effects of SCR reaction chemistry on air preheater deposit formation and (2) the impact of these deposits on the performance of air preheaters. The small reactors were used to test additional varieties of commercially available catalysts. The demonstration project was organized into three phases: (1) Permitting, Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) Preparation, and Preliminary Engineering; (2) Detail Design Engineering and Construction; and (3) Operation, Testing, Disposition, and Final Report Preparation. Section 2 discusses the planned and actual EMP monitoring for gaseous, aqueous, and solid streams over the course of the SCR demonstration project; Section 3 summarizes sampling and analytical methods and discusses exceptions from the methods specified in the EMP; Section 4 presents and discusses the gas stream monitoring results; Section 5 presents and discusses the aqueous stream monitoring results; Section 6 presents and discusses the solid stream monitoring results; Section 7 discusses EMP-related quality assurance/quality control activities performed during the demonstration project; Section 8 summarizes compliance monitoring reporting activities; and Section 9 presents conclusions based on the EMP monitoring results.

NONE

1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

Comparison of marginal abatement cost curves for 2020 and 2030: longer perspectives for effective global GHG emission reductions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study focuses on analyses of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, from the perspective of ... order to seek effective reductions. We assessed GHG emission reduction potentials and costs in 2020 ... 2030...

Keigo Akimoto; Fuminori Sano; Takashi Homma; Kenichi Wada…

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Reduction of fuel consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Replacing standard oil pumps with bypass control by regulated oil pumps with variable oil pressure which adapt their variable oil pumping quantity to the engine oil pressure requirements promises reductions in fuel

Dieter Voigt

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Electrocatalytic Measurement Methodology of Oxide Catalysts Using a Thin-Film Rotating Disk Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition-metal oxides can exhibit high electrocatalytic activity for reactions such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. It is often difficult to measure and compare the activities of oxide catalysts ...

Suntivich, Jin

272

Cation Defects and Conductivity in Transparent Oxides  

SciTech Connect

High quality doped zinc oxide and mixed transition metal spinel oxide films have been deposited by means of sputter deposition from metal and metal oxide targets, and by spin casting from aqueous or alcoholic precursor solutions. Deposition conditions and post-deposition processing are found to alter cation oxidation states and their distributions in both oxide materials resulting in marked changes to both optical transmission and electrical response. For ZnO, partial reduction of the neat or doped material by hydrogen treatment of the heated film or by electrochemical processing renders the oxide n-type conducting. Continued reduction was found to diminish conductivity. In contrast, oxidation of the infrared transparent p-type spinel conductors typified by NiCo2O4 was found to increase conductivity. The disparate behavior of these two materials is caused in part by the sign of the charge carrier and by the existence of two different charge transport mechanisms that are identified as free carrier conduction and polaron hopping. While much work has been reported concerning structure/property relationships in the free carrier conducting oxides, there is a significantly smaller body of information on transparent polaron conductors. In this paper, we identify key parameters that promote conductivity in mixed metal spinel oxides and compare their behavior with that of the free carrier TCO’s.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Windisch, Charles F.; Ferris, Kim F.; Owings, Robert R.

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

273

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets October 7, 2013 - 10:24am Addthis Question to Answer What are appropriate GHG emission reduction targets for specific agency programs and sites? Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions. As illustrated in the figure below, two sites may have equal potential to reduce GHG emissions. But a site expecting significant mission-related growth prior to the 2020 target year may have a lower reduction target

274

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

comprehensive comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and  The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other acts of terrorism Protect high priority nuclear and radiological materials from theft and sabotage These efforts result in threat reduction by improving security on the bomb material remaining at civilian sites - each vulnerable building that is protected reduces the risk until a permanent threat reduction solution can be implemented.

276

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking R. D effort is underway to fill this "THz gap" in view of potential threat reduction applications) and Theoretical Divisions, are exploring metamaterials-based de- vices operating at THz frequencies for threat

277

OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres for high temperature composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of fibre-reinforced metal, intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in gas turbine engines offers the potential of improved fuel efficiency, higher operating temperature and greater thrust to weight ratio. The development of ceramic fibres with high strength, excellent strength retention at elevated temperatures and good creep resistance is essential to the successful implementation of composites in various high temperature components. Several single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres have been developed to meet the demanding performance requirements. Recent progress made on developing these fibers will be discussed.

J.-M. Yang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the high nitrogen content (1-2%) of the agricultural wastes, burning of the LCV gas derived from them can result in NO?emissions in excess of 2000 ppm. NO?emissions during combustion of LCV gas derived from gasification of cotton gin trash have been.... Wayne A. LePori for serving on my committee and for the advice and time he offer me. His experience on gasification and combustion of LCV gas was an invaluable source. I appreciate Dr. Mario A. Colaluca for serving on my committee and for his help...

Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Polymorphous Transformations of Nanometric Iron(III) Oxide: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its polymorphism, iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide, Fe2O3) is one of the most interesting and potentially useful phases of the iron oxides. ... Structural and magnetic properties, methods of synthesis, and applications of seven Fe(III) oxide polymorphs, including rare beta, epsilon, amorphous, and high-pressure forms, are reviewed. ... Films of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by oxidizing Fe films rapidly in air. ...

Libor Machala; Ji?í Tu?ek; Radek Zbo?il

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power plant. Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), WE Energies demonstrated the TOXECON(TM) process in a $52.9million project at the Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Mich. TOXECON is a relatively cost-effective option for achieving significant reductions in mercury emissions and increasing the

283

Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the distribution network can be improved; and added environmental pollution can be minimized. Energy efficiency improvements, especially through residential programs, are increasingly being used to mitigate this rise in peak demand. This paper examines...

Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

serving Philadelphia-area refineries primarily handle crude oil and their docks and tanks are not equipped to offload waterborne products. Figure 1. Petroleum Product Assets in...

285

Technological Potential for CO2 Emission Reductions of Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 17.1 shows the estimated development of energy demand from car fuel consumption between 2010 and 2050. Car fuel consumption is projected to increase until ... until 2050 in EU27. The share of alternative f...

Michael Krail; Wolfgang Schade

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

287

Oxidation of Propane by Doped Nickel Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... present study, however, indicate that in the absence of excess oxygen, direct oxidation of propane by the oxide lattice can occur.

D. W. McKEE

1964-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

Bimetallic Reductive Elimination from Dinuclear Pd(III) David C. Powers,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

addition of a small molecule.5 Oxidative addition can proceed via concerted,6 SN2-like,7 and radical8-mail: ritter@chemistry.harvard.edu Abstract: In 2009, we reported C-halogen reductive elimination reactions reductive elimination reactions observed. Introduction Metal-metal redox cooperation during catalysis can

Goddard III, William A.

289

INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

A composite material of uniformly dispersed sulfur on reduced graphene oxide: Aqueous one-pot synthesis, characterization and excellent performance as the cathode in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur-reduced graphene oxide composite (SGC) materials with uniformly dispersed sulfur on reduced graphene oxide sheets have been prepared by a ... the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and reduction of graphene

Hui Sun; Gui-Liang Xu; Yue-Feng Xu; Shi-Gang Sun; Xinfeng Zhang…

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual waste reduction Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on waste and climate ISWA General Secretariat Summary: the potential for waste related GHG emissions reductions. The International Solid Waste Association (ISWA... ) is committed...

293

Influence of microorganisms on the oxidation state distribution of multivalent actinides under anoxic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The fate and potential mobility of multivalent actinides in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium, uranium and neptunium are the near-surface multivalent contaminants of concern and are also key contaminants for the deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Their mobility is highly dependent on their redox distribution at their contamination source as well as along their potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. Under anoxic conditions, indirect and direct bioreduction mechanisms exist that promote the prevalence of lower-valent species for multivalent actinides. Oxidation-state-specific biosorption is also an important consideration for long-term migration and can influence oxidation state distribution. Results of ongoing studies to explore and establish the oxidation-state specific interactions of soil bacteria (metal reducers and sulfate reducers) as well as halo-tolerant bacteria and Archaea for uranium, neptunium and plutonium will be presented. Enzymatic reduction is a key process in the bioreduction of plutonium and uranium, but co-enzymatic processes predominate in neptunium systems. Strong sorptive interactions can occur for most actinide oxidation states but are likely a factor in the stabilization of lower-valent species when more than one oxidation state can persist under anaerobic microbiologically-active conditions. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their overall importance in defining the potential migration of multivalent actinides in the subsurface.

Reed, Donald Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, M. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, J. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

294

Technetium reduction in sediments of a shallow aquifer exhibiting dissimilatory iron reduction potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

product that has entered surface and groundwaters as a result of atmospheric nuclear testing, and disposal; Bioremediation 1. Introduction Technetium (99 Tc) is a long-lived (t1=2 ¼ 2:13 � 105 years) nuclear fission of medical and defense nuclear waste. During spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, 99 Tc(IV)O2 is solubilized

Roden, Eric E.

295

Influence of uranyl speciation and iron oxides on uranium biogeochemical redox reactions  

SciTech Connect

Uranium is a pollutant of concern to both human and ecosystem health. Uranium's redox state often dictates its partitioning between the aqueous- and solid-phases, and thus controls its dissolved concentration and, coupled with groundwater flow, its migration within the environment. In anaerobic environments, the more oxidized and mobile form of uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and associated species) may be reduced, directly or indirectly, by microorganisms to U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO{sub 2}. However, various factors within soils and sediments may limit biological reduction of U(VI), inclusive of alterations in U(VI) speciation and competitive electron acceptors. Here we elucidate the impact of U(VI) speciation on the extent and rate of reduction with specific emphasis on speciation changes induced by dissolved Ca, and we examine the impact of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite) varying in free energies of formation on U reduction. The amount of uranium removed from solution during 100 h of incubation with S. putrefaciens was 77% with no Ca or ferrihydrite present but only 24% (with ferrihydrite) and 14% (no ferrihydrite) were removed for systems with 0.8 mM Ca. Imparting an important criterion on uranium reduction, goethite and hematite decrease the dissolved concentration of calcium through adsorption and thus tend to diminish the effect of calcium on uranium reduction. Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) can proceed through different enzyme pathways, even within a single organism, thus providing a potential second means by which Fe(III) bearing minerals may impact U(VI) reduction. We quantify rate coefficients for simultaneous dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) in systems varying in Ca concentration (0 to 0.8 mM), and using a mathematical construct implemented with the reactive transport code MIN3P, we reveal the predominant influence of uranyl speciation, specifically the formation of uranyl-calcium-carbonato complexes, and ferrihydrite on the rate and extent of uranium reduction in complex geochemical systems.

Stewart, B.D.; Amos, R.T.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Metallic Materials in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Recently, a new type of FeC...

V. Shemet; J. Piron-Abellan; W.J. Quadakkers…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Economics of Grade Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the following abbreviations are used:* C25 diameter in inches of high pressure cylinder. c= diameter in inches of low pressure cylinder. P= boiler pressure. R}= ratio of mean effective pressure to boiler pressure in low pressure cylinder, taken from Pig. E.... But the only error of moment in such case will be in the es- timated saving in train mileage, for the same degree of efficiency or inefficiency is to be expected after the reduction of grade as before. As the estimated saving per train mile as given...

Neff, Paul J.

1914-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide molecular sieves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Many variations on the process cycle were developed to improve efficiency...NOx ) emitted from lean-burn diesel engines. Many catalyst developers...hydrocarbon oxidation in conventional diesel engines and NOx reduction...reduction and system durability. General Motors achieved 50,000-mile-aged...

John D. Sherman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation). 23 figs.

Wright, R.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Reduction relations for monoid semirings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we study rewriting techniques for monoid semirings. Based on disjoint and non-disjoint representations of the elements of monoid semirings we define two different reduction relations. We prove that in both cases the reduction relation describes ... Keywords: Confluence, Congruence, Critical pair, Reduction relation, Rewriting system, Semiring, Termination

Friedrich Otto; Olga Sokratova

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The Potential of Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD DIesel Engines The Potential of Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD DIesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

304

A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

305

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED;ABSTRACT Autotrophic ammonia oxidation has been documented for the first time in deep- sea hydrothermal autotrophic ammonia oxidation at ~ 91 nM d-1 , and potentially produces de novo organic carbon at a rate (0

Luther, Douglas S.

306

Toolbox Safety Talk Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Awareness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toolbox Safety Talk Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Awareness Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety-in sheet to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is used during hospital REQUIREMENTS Because of the severe potential health effects of Ethylene Oxide (EtO) all Cornell members

Pawlowski, Wojtek

307

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonproliferation Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other

308

Dose Reduction Techniques  

SciTech Connect

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals  

SciTech Connect

LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

National Idling Reduction Network News- December 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

311

National Idling Reduction Network News- December 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

312

National Idling Reduction Network News- January 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

313

National Idling Reduction Network News- October 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

314

National Idling Reduction Network News- December 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

315

National Idling Reduction Network News- October 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

316

National Idling Reduction Network News- May 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

317

National Idling Reduction Network News- October 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

318

National Idling Reduction Network News- January 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

319

National Idling Reduction Network News- August 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

320

National Idling Reduction Network News- April 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

National Idling Reduction Network News- November 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

322

National Idling Reduction Network News- February 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

323

National Idling Reduction Network News- July 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

324

National Idling Reduction Network News- March 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

325

Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reduction Initiative An overview of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals. Global Threat Reduction Initiative More Documents &...

326

National Idling Reduction Network News- May 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

327

National Idling Reduction Network News- August 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

328

National Idling Reduction Network News- February 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

329

National Idling Reduction Network News- April 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

330

Economic Analysis of Commercial Idling Reduction Technologies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies: Which idling reduction system is most economical for truck owners? Economic Analysis of Commercial Idling Reduction Technologies: Which idling reduction system...

331

National Idling Reduction Network News- June 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

332

National Idling Reduction Network News- April 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

333

National Idling Reduction Network News- March 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

334

National Idling Reduction Network News- May 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

335

National Idling Reduction Network News- November 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

336

Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and direction on how to reduce water use and increase...

337

National Idling Reduction Network News- February 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

338

National Idling Reduction Network News- April 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

339

National Idling Reduction Network News- March 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

340

National Idling Reduction Network News- September 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling The Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction and Recycling Program was...

342

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

343

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:23am Addthis Once Federal sites have been screened for viability of different renewable energy resources to evaluate emissions profile, the next step is to establish what renewable energy resources developed at which particular sites would have the greatest impact on the agency's overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. It is important to consider that some types of renewable energy generation could impact not only Scope 1 and 2 GHG goals, but also Scope 3 goals through avoided transmission and distribution losses. Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential It is important to note that solar systems can have the greatest reduction

344

Cu- and Ag-modified cerium oxide catalysts for methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline doped ceria and Cu- and Ag-modified ceria for the complete oxidation of methane was studied in this work. The catalyst structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and related to the availability of low-temperature oxygen species. Selected samples were also analyzed by STEM/EDX, HRTEM, and XPS. Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) by H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as well as oxygen chemisorption, measurements were used to characterize the different oxygen species present on the catalyst. La and Zr were used as dopants to modify the crystal size and reduction properties of ceria. Enhanced activity for the complete oxidation of methane is discussed in terms of ceria reducibility, crystal size, and formation of oxygen defects at the surface (extrinsic oxygen vacancies). Addition of transition metal oxides (CuO) or transition metals (Ag) improves the low-temperature oxidation activity of cerium oxide. The interaction of ceria with Ag and CuO is a strong function of the crystal size of ceria. In the presence of the transition metal or metal oxide, a small crystal size of ceria favors the formation of highly reducible oxygen species and enhances the methane oxidation activity.

Kundakovic, L.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulis, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Report: Technical Uncertainty and Risk Reduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TECHNICAL UNCERTAINTY AND RISK REDUCTION TECHNICAL UNCERTAINTY AND RISK REDUCTION Background In FY 2007 EMAB was tasked to assess EM's ability to reduce risk and technical uncertainty. Board members explored this topic throughout the year as a component of their focus on the previously discussed topic of Discretionary Budgeting. Discussion Understanding the risks and variability associated with EM's projects is a challenging task that has the potential to significantly impact the program's established baselines. According to budget personnel, EM has established a database of baseline variables and possibilities; however, this tool is project-specific and does not apply to the greater complex. The Board believes that EM could benefit from incorporating an additional and more comprehensive data point into the baseline development process that budgets

346

Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets  

SciTech Connect

Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Solar Thermal and Solar Photovoltaic Installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED EMISSIONS REDUCTION CALCULATOR FOR SOLAR THERMAL AND SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATIONS Juan-Carlos Baltazar Research Associate Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/Associate Director Don R. Gilman, P.E. Senior... the potential emission reductions due to the electricity savings from the application of some of the most common solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. The methodology to estimate the potential NOx emission reduction integrates legacy analysis tools...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Synthesis of AuPd alloyed nanoparticles via room-temperature electron reduction with argon glow discharge as electron source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argon glow discharge has been employed as a cheap, environmentally friendly, and convenient electron source for simultaneous reduction of HAuCl4 and PdCl2...on the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate. The therm...

Manman Yang; Zongyuan Wang; Wei Wang; Chang-jun Liu

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The determination of potential acidity in overburden sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Weathered Overburden Samples. Determination of Total Sulfur by LECO. Determination of Non-Sulfate Sulfur by LECO. Pyritic Iron Using the ASTM Method Potential Acidity Using a Rapid Oxidation Technique - Original Method. Potential Acidity Using a Rapid... the Sample. The Addition of Excess H 02. Catalysing the Decomposition of Excess H202. Leaching the Oxidized Sample with CaC12. Comparison of Potential Acidity Methods. F and T Tests. Potential Acidity of Weathered vs. Unweathered Samples. Total S...

O'Shay, Tracey Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

350

Kinetics of oxygen reduction at IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrode in alkaline solution  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction is an industrially important electrochemical reaction, for fuel cells, electrochemical caustic concentrators, air depolarized cathodes, metal-air batteries, and oxidant production. Oxygen reduction at IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrodes fabricated by thermal decomposition was investigated by employing cyclic voltammetry and rotating-disk electrode techniques. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated that oxygen reduction begins during the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) transition on an IrO{sub 2} electrode. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode together with polarization curves, Tafel slopes, and stoichiometric number determinations, a mechanism for oxygen reduction on an IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrode is proposed.

Chang, C.C.; Wen, T.C. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

VOC reduction strategies for the aerospace industry  

SciTech Connect

The aerospace NESHAP, which was issued on September 1, 1995, requires reductions in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and organic Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions associated with the application of primer and topcoat. The regulation affects any facility that is a major source of HAPs and produces, reworks, or repairs, in any amount any commercial, civil, or military aerospace vehicle. Options for reducing VOC and organic HAP emissions include use of low VOC/organic HAP containing coatings or implementation of air pollution control systems. Use of primers and topcoats that meet the regulatory limits for VOC and organic HAP content is clearly the lowest cost option of meeting requirements of the aerospace NESHAP. However, some facilities have been unsuccessful in identifying aerospace paints and primers that meet requirements of the NESHAP and also have acceptable performance properties. For those aerospace companies considering implementation of air pollution control systems, several strategies can help to reduce the anticipated capital and operating costs. Such strategies include: segregation of specialty coatings, non-aerospace coatings, and low-use coatings not affected by the aerospace NESHAP from regulated paints and primers; reduction of airflows in affected booths; recirculation of air; and combination of exhausts from one or more booth. Estimated capital and operating costs are also provided for the air pollution control systems best suited for aircraft painting and priming operations. These systems include regenerative thermal oxidizers and fluidized bed/rotary concentrators in conjunction with thermal oxidizers. Even after implementing strategies to reduce VOC and organic HAP pollution control system costs, economics will dictate use of compliant primers and topcoats for many aerospace companies. 6 refs.

Bauer, J.P. [Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

354

Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Office made an award to Sandia National Lab (Sandia) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

355

Risk Evaluation and Reduction | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coordination Office Risk Evaluation and Reduction Risk Evaluation and Reduction The Project Management Coordination Office (PMCO) coordinates risk management activities...

356

Evaluation of platinum-based catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in phosphoric acid electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-supported catalysts of Pt, Pt/Ru, Pt/Ru/W, and Pt/Ru/Pd were evaluated for the electro-oxidation of methanol in phosphoric acid at 180 C. These catalysts were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and x-ray diffraction. Addition of Ru to a 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} Pt catalyst (1:1 atomic ratio) caused a large reduction in polarization. The open-circuit voltage was reduced by 100 mV and polarization at 400 mA/cm{sup 2} was reduced by 180 mV. A Pt/Ru (5:2) catalyst with the same Pt content lowered the open-circuit voltage 70 mV. Additions of W to form Pt/Ru/W (1:1:1, atomic ratio) and Pd to form Pt/Ru/Pd (2:2:1), all with the same platinum loading, gave the same performance as Pt/Ru (1:1) without the additions. All of the catalysts showed two Tafel slopes, 140 mV/dec at lower polarizations and 100 to 120 mV/dec at higher polarizations, indicating that the reaction mechanisms are the same for all of the catalysts. Methanol oxidation is greatly enhanced at 180 C in phosphoric acid compared to the lower operating temperatures of a perfluorosulfonic acid electrolyte. The exchange current density for methanol oxidation is higher than that for O{sub 2} reduction. Ru metal dissolves from catalysts at high potentials. Hydrogen oxidation in the presence of 1 mole percent carbon monoxide showed carbon monoxide tolerance in the order: Pt/Ru/Pd > Pt/Ru > Pt.

He, C.; Kunz, H.R.; Fenton, J.M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Livestock Odor Reduction Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Livestock Odor Reduction Demonstration Project Objectives The 1996 and 1997 Iowa General Assembly-share basis to livestock producers and operators selected to carry out various demonstration projects. Organization The Livestock Odor Reduction Demonstration Project was administered by ISU Extension. Stewart

Lin, Zhiqun

358

On the importance of correcting for the uncompensated Ohmic resistance in model experiments of the oxygen reduction reaction.  

SciTech Connect

When measuring the current due to the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) on Pt and Pt alloys in aqueous electrolyte, it is important to take care of two major sources of error that are relatively easy to correct for. First, when measuring ORR voltammetry, adsorption processes are superimposed on the current. Second, the system resistance causes an Ohmic drop that may have a profound effect on the measured curves, especially at the higher currents close to the diffusion limiting current. More importantly, we show that it also influences the kinetic part of the potential curve in such a way that the Tafel slope may be determined incorrectly when failing to correct for Ohmic drop. Finally, because electrolyte resistance lowers with increasing temperature, failure to compensate for Ohmic.

van der Vliet, D.; Strmcnik, D. S.; Wang, C.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Markovic, N. M; Koper, M. T. M.; Materials Science Division; Leiden Univ.

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over bentonite-supported metal-oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on the chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas with bentonite-supported metal oxides - such as iron oxide, nickel oxide, manganese oxide, and copper oxide - was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). During the reaction with synthesis gas containing H{sub 2}S, metal-oxide oxygen carriers were first reduced by carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and then interacted with H{sub 2}S to form metal sulfide, which resulted in a weight gain during the reduction/sulfidation step. The reduced/sulfurized compounds could be regenerated to form sulfur dioxide and oxides during the oxidation reaction with air. The reduction/oxidation capacities of iron oxide and nickel oxide were not affected by the presence of H{sub 2}S, but both manganese oxide and copper oxide showed decreased reduction/oxidation capacities. However, the rates of reduction and oxidation decreased in the presence of H{sub 2}S for all four metal oxides.

Tian, H.J.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Siriwardane, R. [US DOE, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Enhanced Power Stability for Proton Conducting Solid Oxides Fuel Cells. Calculated energy barriers for proton diffusion in Y-doped BaZrO3. Potential electrode materials for application in proton ceramic fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

A series of Quantum Mechanical (QM) calculations on Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} (BYZ) periodic structures have been performed and calculated energy barriers for the intra-octahedra and inter-octahedra proton transfer have been found. The inter-octahedra proton transfer dominates in the BYZ electrolyte. Several potential cathode materials for the Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} system were synthesized via glycine nitrate combustion method. Of the five potential cathode materials examined BaZr{sub 0.40}Pr{sub 0.40}Gd{sub 0.20}O{sub 3} and BaZr{sub 0.60}Y{sub 0.20}Co{sub 0.20}O{sub 3} appear to be the most promising for further applications in proton ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs). Potential anode electrocatalysts (metals) have been screened for reactivity with BaZr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}O{sub 3-d}, fabrication compatibility, and chemical stability in fuel cell environment.

Boris Merinov; Sossina Haile; William A. Goddard III

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Thermochemical Insight into the Reduction of CO to CH3OH with [Re(CO)]+ and [Mn(CO)]+ Complexes  

SciTech Connect

To gain insight into thermodynamic barriers for reduction of CO into CH3OH, free energies for reduction of [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CO)]+ into CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OH) have been determined from experimental measurements. Using model complexes, the free energies for the transfer of H+, H–, and e– have been determined. A pKa of 10.6 was estimated for [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOH)]+ by measuring the pKa for the analogous [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CMeOH)]+. The hydride donor ability (?G°H–) of CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OH) was estimated to be 58.0 kcal mol–1, based on calorimetry measurements of the hydride transfer reaction between CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHO) and [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOMe)]+ to generate the methylated analog, CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OMe). Cyclic voltammograms recorded on CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CMeO), CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OMe), and [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOMe)]+ displayed either a quasireversible oxidation (neutral species) or reduction (cationic species). These potentials were used as estimates for the oxidation of CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHO) or CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OH), or the reduction of [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOH)]+. Combination of the thermodynamic data permits construction of three-dimensional free energy landscapes under varying conditions of pH and PH2. The free energy for H2 addition (?G°H2) to [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CO)]+ (+15 kcal mol–1) was identified as the most significant thermodynamic impediment for the reduction of CO. DFT computations indicate that ?G°H2 varies by only 4.3 kcal mol–1 across a series of [CpXRe(L)(NO)(CO)]+, while the experimental ?G°H– values for the analogous series of CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHO) varies by 12.9 kcal mol–1. The small range of ?G°H2 values is attributed to a minimal change in the C–O bond polarization upon modification of the ancillary ligands, as determined from the computed atomic charges. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

363

Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues  

SciTech Connect

Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Modular cathode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.

Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

365

PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT OF 1995  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT OF 1995 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY INFORMATION COLLECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Chris Rouleau, PRA Officer Records Management Division Office of the Associate Chief Information Officer for IT Planning, Architecture and E-Government Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of the Chief Information Officer 2/16/2010 2 TOPICS  Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 - Law  Paperwork Reduction Act - Overview  Information Collection Requests (ICRs)  Information Collection Request Associated with A Notice of Proposed Rule Making  Program Points of Contacts  Information Collection Clearance Managers  Information Collection Requests Checklist  Drivers  Annual Information Collection Budget  Summary of What To Do  Summary of What NOT

366

Food waste within food supply chains: quantification and potential for change to 2050  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...potential for food waste reduction Interviewees...potential for food waste reduction. In developing...skills and knowledge, storage, transport and distribution...Kader 2005). For long-term sustainability...approaches to food waste reduction include...labelling and food storage also have food waste...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:48am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 Reducing petroleum consumption is the principal means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicles and mobile equipment. Each agency has the flexibility to evaluate a variety of options to ensure its strategy best fits the mission and makeup of its fleets. The purpose of this evaluation is to: Identify strategies that will best encourage the reduction of petroleum use in Federal vehicles Estimate the GHG reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies. Next Step After evaluating GHG reduction strategies, the next step in the GHG mitigation planning for vehicles and mobile equipment is to estimate the

368

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Requirements Recognizing the impact of carbon-emitting fuels on climate change and to

369

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Petroleum Reduction Petroleum Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Petroleum Reduction Requirements The Wisconsin Department of Administration's fleet management policy

370

Probing nanoscale photo-oxidation in organic films using spatial hole burning near-field scanning optical microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probing nanoscale photo-oxidation in organic films using spatial hole burning near-field scanning from a stationary NSOM tip to induce photo-oxidation. The reduction in the fluorescence yield resulting photo-oxidation as a function of time, position, and environment free from the limits of far

Buratto, Steve

371

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July Uncertainties in our understanding of the oxygen reduction mechanism (ORR) at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC studies have shown that cathodic or anodic dc polarization of the solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes

Yildiz, Bilge

372

List of Journal Publications (updated April 2014) R. Justin, B. Chen*: Strong and conductive polymer-reduced graphene oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

polymer-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for transdermal drug deliveyr. Journal of Materials*: Characterisation and drug release performance of biodegradable chitosan-graphene oxide nanocomposites. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2014, 103, 70-80. · R. Justin, B. Chen*: Body temperature reduction of graphene oxide through

Ojovan, Michael

373

Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement...

Park, Yong Tae

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

National Idling Reduction Network News Compendium  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This is a compedium of the National Idling Reduction Network News from July 2004 to April 2014. The National Idling Reduction Network News provides information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.

375

SISGR-Fundamental Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Novel Family of Oxide Catalyst Supports for Water Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it was demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 thin films of different compositions FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRO-CATALYSTS WITH REDUCED NOBLE METAL CONTENT FOR PEM BASED WATER ELECTROLYSIS 4 have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would potentially be preferred as OER electro-catalysts for PEM electrolysis. The excellent performance of the catalysts coupled with its robustness would make them great candidates for contributing to significant reduction in the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers. This s.thesis provides a detailed fundamental study of the synthesis, materials, characterization, theoretical studies and detailed electrochemical response and potential mechanisms of these novel electro-catalysts for OER processes.

Kumta, Prashant [University of Pittsburgh

2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

376

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Feature Selection with Fuzzy Decision Reducts Chris Cornelis1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the context of fuzzy rough set theory, we generalize the classical rough set framework for data confirms the potential of the approach. Keywords: fuzzy sets, rough sets, decision reducts, classification 1 Introduction Rough set theory [5] is well-suited to semantics-preserving data dimensionality

Gent, Universiteit

378

English version UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction (2009)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be directed to the ISDR Secretariat (see www.unisdr.org). Acceptable risk The level of potential losses and environmental conditions. Comment: In engineering terms, acceptable risk is also used to assess and defineEnglish version UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction (2009) Introduction The UNISDR

379

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

380

Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction...

382

Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Flare switched to stand-by 6. Acid water specification 7. Nitrogen consumption reduction 8. Compressed air optimization 9. Boiler minimum fire set-point reduction 10. Leak reduction...

Theising, T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

DOE/EA-1472: Finding of No Significant Impact for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air Integration System Emission Reduction Technology (03/11/03)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IMPACT IMPACT COMMERCIAL DEMONSRATION OF THE LOW NOx BURNER/SEPARATED OVER- FIRE AIR (LNB/SOFA) INTEGRATON SYSTEM EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY HOLCOMB STATION SUNFLOWER ELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION FINNEY COUNTY, KANSAS AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ACTION: Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) SUMMARY: The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower's Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO,

384

Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0, SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction Don Newburry Research & Development Manager...

385

Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0, SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel...

386

Calculation of the emission of nitrogen oxides in electric resistance heating furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper is devoted to the least studied topic in the field of use of modern electric heating equipment, namely, pollution of the atmosphere by nitrogen oxides and reduction of the intensity of this e...

A. V. Aksenov; V. A. Belyakov; Z. G. Sadykova

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

Kauffman, Douglas R.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on chemical looping of coal-derived synthesis gas over bentonite-supported metal---oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas with bentonite-supported metal oxidesssuch as iron oxide, nickel oxide, manganese oxide, and copper oxideswas investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). During the reaction with synthesis gas containing H2S, metal-oxide oxygen carriers were first reduced by carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and then interacted with H2S to form metal sulfide, which resulted in a weight gain during the reduction/sulfidation step. The reduced/sulfurized compounds could be regenerated to form sulfur dioxide and oxides during the oxidation reaction with air. The reduction/oxidation capacities of iron oxide and nickel oxide were not affected by the presence of H2S, but both manganese oxide and copper oxide showed decreased reduction/oxidation capacities. However, the rates of reduction and oxidation decreased in the presence of H2S for all four metal oxides.

Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Siriwardane, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Catalytic reactions on well-characterized vanadium oxide catalysts. 1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of carbon monoxide over unsupported and supported vanadium oxide catalysts was investigated from the standpoint of structure sensitivity. The activity of unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ markedly decreased the turnover frequency, while the reduction-oxidation treatment of the fused catalyst increased it. The turnover frequency of V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with low V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content was much smaller than that of the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with high V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content or the unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Such a retarding effect of the TiO/sub 2/ support on the activity of the oxidation of carbon monoxide is in contrast to the known promoting effect of TiO/sub 2/ for the oxidations of various hydrocarbons. From these results coupled with the characterization of the catalysts, it was concluded that the oxidation of carbon monoxide on vanadium oxide catalysts is a structure-sensitive reaction and that the activity of surface defects such as steps, kinks, and vacancies is much higher than that of the surface V=O species in the smooth (010) face of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Mori, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Murakami, Y.

1984-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

390

Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation Meeting arravt041tibaird2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project Vehicle...

391

Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Peer Evaluation arravt041esbaird2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project North...

392

Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

-- Washington D.C. tiarravt041baird2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project Idaho Petroleum Reduction Leadership Project Utah Clean...

393

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems...

394

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

395

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

396

Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Initiative Global Threat Reduction Initiative The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011. Global Threat Reduction Initiative More Documents &...

397

Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the...

398

NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Reduction A leader in federal greenhouse gas (GHG) management, NREL has conducted GHG inventories, developed reduction goals, and reported emissions since 2000. NREL...

399

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

400

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate over La-Co and La-Cu oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lanthanum-containing mixed oxides (La-Co and La-Cu) were synthesized by several methods: exotemplating, evaporation, glycine-nitrate and glycine-nitrate-exotemplating. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, N2 adsorption, temperature programmed reduction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The materials obtained were tested as catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation, as a model volatile organic compound. La-Cu samples showed poor catalytic performance, but La-Co materials were much more active than the individual components. Catalytic activity seems to be mainly determined by the easiness of reduction of the catalysts, which is related to the availability of oxygen from the lattice. Catalysts containing Co or Cu in excess of La (on a molar base) were more active than the corresponding mixed oxides consisting of equal amounts of La and the transition metal. Samples prepared by the evaporation method were more active than those prepared by exotemplating, for the same molar ratio. Samples prepared by evaporation and glycine-nitrate methods calcined at 600 °C had a better performance than the corresponding oxides calcined at 300 °C. The most active sample found in this study was the La-Co mixed oxide prepared by the glycine nitrate method and calcined at 600 °C, 100% conversion of ethyl acetate to H2O and CO2 being achieved at 230 °C.

X. Chen; S.A.C. Carabineiro; P.B. Tavares; J.J.M. Órfão; M.F.R. Pereira; J.L. Figueiredo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

405

NETL: Turbine Projects - Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Reduction Cost Reduction Turbine Projects Cost Reduction Single Crystal Turbine Blades Enhancing Gas Turbine Efficiency Data/Fact Sheets Enabling and Information Technologies to Increase RAM of Advanced Powerplants Data/Fact Sheets Development of NDE Technology for Environmental Barrier Coating and Residual Life Estimation Data/Fact Sheets Welding and Weld Repair of Single Crystal Gas Turbine Alloy Data/Fact Sheets Combustion Turbine Hot Section Coating Life Management Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating [PDF] Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle RAM Data/Fact Sheets Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine [PDF]

406

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Credits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Credits Any state mobile emissions reduction credits program must allow credits for emissions reductions achieved by converting a vehicle to operate on an

407

Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Armstrong County, PA); Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells approaching the two-dimensional limit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We model electrochemical kinetics and physical conduction mechanisms for carrier transport in electrolyte membranes to determine the limits of dimensionality reduction (down to 1?nm) on maximum power output of solid oxide fuel cells with symmetric Pt electrodes. Using Y-doped ZrO2 we find a minimum thickness of ?6?nm to realize near ideal chemical potential in such fuel cells which is limited by electronic breakdown when approaching the dielectric breakdown strength. For larger electrolyte thicknesses the greatest source of electronic leakage influencing power loss is from Ohmic transport of minority carriers and emission of trapped carriers. For porous metallic electrodes an ideal microstructure with the particle size comparable to particle spacing dimensions is found to accurately model experimental results. The role of electronic trap states in the electrolyte band gap on power density characteristics is highlighted.

K. Kerman; S. Ramanathan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Wake-up effects in Si-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films  

SciTech Connect

Hafnium oxide based ferroelectric thin films have shown potential as a promising alternative material for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports the switching stability of a Si-doped HfO{sub 2} film under bipolar pulsed-field operation. High field cycling causes a “wake-up” in virgin “pinched” polarization hysteresis loops, demonstrated by an enhancement in remanent polarization and a shift of negative coercive voltage. The rate of wake-up is accelerated by either reducing the frequency or increasing the amplitude of the cycling field. We suggest de-pinning of domains due to reduction of the defect concentration at bottom electrode interface as origin of the wake-up.

Zhou, Dayu, E-mail: zhoudayu@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xu, Jin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Qing; Guan, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Müller, Johannes [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Schenk, Tony; Schröder, Uwe [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

412

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A team from the University of Maryland and Sandia National Laboratories joined ALS scientists on Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 to overcome the vacuum limitations of conventional XPS instruments using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), providing the first in situ measurements of local surface oxidation states and electric potential in active MIEC electrodes.

413

Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Power Plant Emission Reductions Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard by J. Alan Beamon, Tom Leckey, and Laura Martin There are many policy instruments available for reducing power plant emissions, and the choice of a policy will affect compliance decisions, costs, and prices faced by consumers. In a previous analysis, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, assuming a policy instru- ment patterned after the SO 2 allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 1 This report compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard (GPS) as an instrument for reducing CO 2 emissions. 2 In general, the results of the two analyses are similar: to reduce

414

Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

complimentary copy. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http:php.aip.orgphpcopyright.jsp rate and frequency spectra in both the unstable and damped-...

415

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

416

NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels ... NOx emissions appear to be different for biodiesels from different feedstocks. ... For the suite of biodiesels prepared from nearly pure fatty acids, all biodiesel fuels produced higher NOx than certification diesel with the following exceptions:? methyl palmitate, methyl laurate, ethyl stearate, and the ethyl ester of hydrogenated soybean oil. ...

Sandun Fernando; Chris Hall; Saroj Jha

2005-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

417

Coupled anoxic nitrification/manganese reduction in marine sediments STEFAN HULTH,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coupled anoxic nitrification/manganese reduction in marine sediments STEFAN HULTH,1, * ROBERT C distributions of oxygen, manganese, and nitrogen from hemipelagic and shelf sediments sometimes indicate a close by biological reworking of Mn-oxide-rich surface sediments into underlying anoxic zones. Surface sediment from

Boyer, Edmond

418

Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel Bench-Scale Experiment Results  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex. The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 ºC. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and the fuel was sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

Steven D. Herrmann

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Mineralogical and Microbial Controls on Iron Reduction in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

terminal electron accepting processes, iron reduction has the added complexity that its oxidized form (ferric iron) exists primarily as one of several solid phases in environments with pH greater than 3. Thus, the distribution and form of ferric iron...

Howson, Andrea Melissa

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

Engineering Organic/inorganic hybrids comprise a mixture of oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

examine the current status of using organic/inorganic hybrids in fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells, and reactions on solid oxide fuel cell catalysts. The objectives of his research program are (i) developing of potential applications in coatings, fuel cells, solar cells, and sensors. Organic amino (-NH2) silane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

NiMnOx/C: A Non-noble Ethanol-Tolerant Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Exchange Membrane DEFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A non-noble oxygen reduction catalyst based on nickel?manganese oxide supported on high-surface area carbon has been synthesized by a mild hydrothermal treatment, resulting in nanocrystalline needles. Cyclic volt...

Amanda C. Garcia; Jose J. Linares; Marian Chatenet; Edson A. Ticianelli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal are being performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation correlations will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature are also being investigated. SO2 oxidation is also being investigated for each test condition.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Minimal nuclear deterrence : a nuclear arsenal reduction plan for the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The global political climate has called for reductions to nuclear arsenals around the world. This thesis researches how potential deep cuts to the United States' large strategic nuclear arsenal would affect its current ...

Laderman, Sarah (Sarah Jane)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Hexavalent Chromium Reduction by Free and Immobilized Cell-free Extract of Arthrobacter rhombi-RE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction potential of chromium reductase associated with the cell-free extracts (CFE) of Arthrobacter rhombi-RE species was evaluated. Arthrobacter rhombi-RE, a...

R. Elangovan; Ligy Philip; K. Chandraraj

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation JL Eftang DBP Huynh DJ Knezevic EM Rønquist a framework for adaptive reduction of the degrees of freedom associated with ports in static condensation (SC reduction for the interior of a component with model order reduction on the ports in order to rapidly

Rønquist, Einar M.

426

Energy Reduction Techniques for Caches and Multiprocessors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Reduction Techniques for Caches and Multiprocessors #12;#12;Energy Reduction Techniques-90-72298-03-4 Keywords: Energy reduction, Caches, Multi processor scheduling Cover design: Floris de Langen Copyright c the years. #12;#12;Energy Reduction Techniques for Caches and Multiprocessors Pepijn de Langen Abstract E

Kuzmanov, Georgi

427

High-throughput synthesis and characterization of vanadium mixed metal oxide pigments using synchroton radiation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??UNA range of inorganic vanadium mixed metal oxides, with potential applications as inorganic pigments, have been synthesised and characterised in terms of their crystal structure,… (more)

Russu, Sergio

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Determination of an Optimal Potential Window for Catalysis by E. coli Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase and Hypothesis on the Role of Mo(V) in the Reaction Pathway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As depicted in Figure 1, DmsABC comprises three subunits:? the catalytic subunit DmsA (85.8 kDa) (8) is the site of DMSO reduction and contains a molybdenum atom coordinated by dithiolene linkages to two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotides, i.e., Mo-bisMGD; the electron-transfer subunit DmsB (23.1 kDa) contains four [4Fe-4S] clusters; by contrast, the third subunit DmsC (30.8 kDa) is located within the membrane and contains the MQH2 binding site (9?11). Figure 1 also shows the reduction potentials of the centers at pH 7 (Em,7), as determined by EPR (9, 12, 13). ... Protein concentrations were determined using a modified Lowry assay with a bovine serum albumin standard (1), and reductase activity was assayed with trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) as electron acceptor and lapachol as electron donor (39). ...

Kerensa Heffron; Christophe Léger; Richard A. Rothery; Joel H. Weiner; Fraser A. Armstrong

2001-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction to Idle Reduction to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Benefits & Considerations Heavy-Duty Vehicles Medium-Duty Vehicles Light-Duty Vehicles School Buses Laws & Incentives Research & Development Related Links Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Idle Reduction Photo of fleet trucks

430

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Incentives Cascade Sierra Solutions (CSS) provides comprehensive idle reduction solutions for commercial trucks and trailers. Financing, loans, and grant

431

An evaluation of operating speed reduction as a surrogate measure for accident experience on horizontal curves on two-lane rural highways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the relationship between operating speed reduction and accident experience, and (2) compare operating speed reduction and degree of curvature as predictors of accident potential. Chapter V presents a summary of the analysis and results, conclusions which were... the relationship between operating speed reduction and accident experience, and (2) compare operating speed reduction and degree of curvature as predictors of accident potential. Chapter V presents a summary of the analysis and results, conclusions which were...

Anderson, Ingrid Bernice

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

432

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel Reduction Potentials-04-004 February 2005 Revised: October 2005 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor, State of California #12;Biomass Tiangco, CEC Bryan M. Jenkins, University of California #12;Biomass Potentials from California Forest

433

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioner Reduction Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioner Reduction Project to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Use by 30% Conditioner Reduction Project to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Use by 30% United States map depicting number of millions of gallons of cooling and dehumidification by state: Alabama 167, Alaska 1, Arizona 43, Arkansas 86, California 730, Colorado 76, Connecticut 61, Delaware 19, Florida 753, Georgia 251, Hawaii 68, Idaho 26, Illinois 242, Indiana 142, Iowa 68, Kansas 75, Kentucky 95, Louisiana 176, Maine 21, Maryland 118, Massachusetts 86, Michigan 186, Minnesota 86, Mississippi 85, Missouri 144, Montana 12, Nebraska 40, Nevada 61, New Hampshire 90, New Jersey 167, New Mexico 52, New York 273, North Carolina 187, North Dakota 12, Ohio 229, Oklahoma 109, Oregon 66, Pennsylvania 238, Rhode Island 15, South Carolina 127, South Dakota 17, Tennessee 179, Texas 735, Utah 43, Vermont 9, Virginia 187, Washington 64, West Virginia 37, Wisconsin 167, and Wyoming 7

434

Oxidative Stress Resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...phosphate pathway (683). The energy required for the recovery process...considerable potential interest and sustainable global significance for the...tetrad. FIG. 2. Sources of energy and building blocks in oxidatively...Both can be used as sources of energy, while polyphosphates also...

Dea Slade; Miroslav Radman

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Nanofiber Scaffold for Cathode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

A high performance solid oxide fuel cell cathode using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanofibers scaffold with the infiltrated La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM) shows an enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. Such a cathode offers a continuous path for charge transport and an increased number of triple-phase boundary sites.

Mingjia Zhi; Nicholas Mariani; Randall Gemmen; Kirk Gerdes; Nianqiang Wu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...membrane to the outer membrane to drive a number of outer membrane receptors...nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas via nitrite and ammonium. Environ...ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. ASM News 67 :456-463. 49. Kuypers...associated with global nitrogen gas production. Environ. Microbiol...

Laura van Niftrik; Mike S. M. Jetten

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

439

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Reduction Pilot Plant - WV 01  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Reduction Pilot Plant - WV 01 Reduction Pilot Plant - WV 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: REDUCTION PILOT PLANT (WV.01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: International Nickel Company WV.01-1 Location: Cole Street at Alterizer Ave. , Huntington , West Virginia WV.01-2 Evaluation Year: 1987 WV.01-1 Site Operations: Manufactured powdered Nickel for use at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants and Nickel plated a small quantity of Uranium slugs. WV.01-2 WV.01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Limited quantities of radioactive material used on the site. Potential for residual radioactive material from AEC operations conducted at the site considered remote - confirmed by radiological survey. WV.01-1 WV.01-3

440

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

442

City-level energy and CO2 reduction effect by introducing new residential water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation models for a variety of new water heater systems were developed and the models were integrated into a city-level residential energy end-use model for Osaka City. Using the model, the potential of energy conservation and CO2 emission-reduction by introducing new residential water heaters was evaluated at the city-level. Optimal water-heating systems for each household category for primary energy reduction, CO2 emission-reduction, or cost reduction were identified by applying the end-use demand model. The effect of subsidies for installing more efficient systems and the influence of diffusion of these systems on electricity load curves were also discussed.

Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Tomo Okamura; Yohei Yamaguchi; Yukio Yamaguchi; Ayako Taniguchi; Takao Morikawa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

p. 1 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT OF RENEWABLES October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Do TCEQ: Vince Meiller, Bob Gifford ERCOT: Warren Lasher USEPA: Art Diem, Julie Rosenberg ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS p. 3 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 RENEWABLES Solar PV Solar Thermal Hydro Biomass Landfill Gas Geothermal p. 4...

Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The reduction of packaging waste  

SciTech Connect

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A vehicle may not idle at a loading zone, parking or service area, route terminal, or other off-street areas, except for the following situations:

446

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A motor vehicle engine may not operate for more than five consecutive minutes when the vehicle is not in motion, with the following exceptions:

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirements Effective May 1, 2014, a driver may not idle his or her motor vehicle for more than five minutes in a 60-minute period. This limit does not apply if

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Diesel vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating over 10,000 pounds may not idle for more than five minutes in any continuous 60 minute period.

449

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement The owner or operator of a diesel powered vehicle must limit the length of time their vehicle remains idle. The limit is based on the outside

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Motor vehicles may not idle unnecessarily for longer than five consecutive minutes during any 60-minute period. This includes heavy-duty diesel

451

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Diesel truck or bus engines may not idle for more than 15 consecutive minutes. Exemptions apply to diesel trucks or buses for which the Nevada

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A person that operates a diesel powered motor vehicle in certain counties and townships may not cause or allow the motor vehicle, when it is not in

453

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A commercial vehicle or gasoline powered vehicle may not idle for more than five minutes during any 60-minute period. Exemptions are allowed for the

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reductions Emissions Reductions Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reductions Grants The Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (Program) provides incentives to cover the incremental cost of purchasing engines and

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A gasoline-fueled motor vehicle is not allowed to operate for more than three consecutive minutes when the vehicle is not in motion, with the

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A diesel- or gasoline-powered motor vehicle may not idle for more than three consecutive minutes, except under the following conditions: 1) to

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Motor vehicles licensed for commercial or public service may not idle for more than three minutes in commercial or residential urban areas, unless

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Idling of any unattended vehicle is prohibited in Utah. Violators are subject to a penalty of up to $750 and/or up to 90 days imprisonment.

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement On-road heavy-duty motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or greater may not idle for more than three consecutive

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Loans Idle Reduction Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Loans The Small Business Pollution Prevention Assistance Account Loan Program provides low interest rate loans to small businesses undertaking projects in Pennsylvania that reduce waste, pollution, or energy use, including the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxidation reduction potential" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Petroleum Reduction Petroleum Reduction Initiative to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Petroleum Reduction Initiative The Petroleum Savings and Independence Advisory Commission (Commission) was established to provide recommendations and monitor programs designed to

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A motor vehicle may not idle for more than five consecutive minutes. This regulation does not apply to: 1) vehicles being serviced, provided that

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Vehicle operators may not idle any commercial diesel vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds for more than 10 minutes

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement School bus operators may not idle a school bus engine for more than three consecutive minutes except under the following conditions: uncontrollable

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Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A commercial motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more may not idle for more than 15 minutes in any 60-minute

466

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A vehicle may not idle for more than five minutes from April through October in cities and counties where the local government has signed a

467

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A driver may not idle a vehicle on a roadway outside a business or residential district when it is practical to stop and park the vehicle. A

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