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Sample records for oxford big-bang nucleosynthesis

  1. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang ...

  2. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created of a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and

  3. Big bang nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse method measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Lalmansingh, J.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.

    2014-05-10

    Nuclear reaction rates are among the most important input for understanding primordial nucleosynthesis and, therefore, for a quantitative description of the early universe. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross-sections of {sup 2}H(d, p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d, n){sup 3}He, {sup 7}Li(p, α){sup 4}He, and {sup 3}He(d, p){sup 4}He reactions is given. These are among the most uncertain cross-sections used and input for big bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Their measurements through the Trojan Horse method are also reviewed and compared with direct data. The reaction rates and the corresponding recommended errors in this work were used as input for primordial nucleosynthesis calculations to evaluate their impact on the {sup 2}H, {sup 3,4}He, and {sup 7}Li primordial abundances, which are then compared with observations.

  4. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis and primordial CNO abundances after Planck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nuclaires et de Sciences de la Matire (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Universit Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Btiment 104, F91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth, E-mail: coc@csnsm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: uzan@iap.fr, E-mail: vangioni@iap.fr [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-10-01

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the three historical strong evidences for the big bang model. The recent results by the Planck satellite mission have slightly changed the estimate of the baryonic density compared to the previous WMAP analysis. This article updates the BBN predictions for the light elements using the cosmological parameters determined by Planck, as well as an improvement of the nuclear network and new spectroscopic observations. There is a slight lowering of the primordial Li/H abundance, however, this lithium value still remains typically 3 times larger than its observed spectroscopic abundance in halo stars of the Galaxy. According to the importance of this ''lithium problem{sup ,} we trace the small changes in its BBN calculated abundance following updates of the baryonic density, neutron lifetime and networks. In addition, for the first time, we provide confidence limits for the production of {sup 6}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B and CNO, resulting from our extensive Monte Carlo calculation with our extended network. A specific focus is cast on CNO primordial production. Considering uncertainties on the nuclear rates around the CNO formation, we obtain CNO/H?(5-30)10{sup -15}. We further improve this estimate by analyzing correlations between yields and reaction rates and identified new influential reaction rates. These uncertain rates, if simultaneously varied could lead to a significant increase of CNO production: CNO/H?10{sup -13}. This result is important for the study of population III star formation during the dark ages.

  5. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Paris, Mark W.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multienergy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our code provides the ability to dissect the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe in the absence of neutrino flavor oscillations. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the νe, ν¯e, νμ, ν¯μ, ντ, ν¯τ energy distribution functions alongsidemore » and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and flow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. This calculation reveals nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions (e.g., electron-positron pair densities), with implications for the phasing between scale factor and plasma temperature; the neutron-to-proton ratio; light-element abundance histories; and the cosmological parameter Neff. We find that our approach of following the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma results in changes in the computed value of the BBN deuterium yield. For example, for particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium. These changes are potentially significant in the context of anticipated improvements in observational and nuclear physics uncertainties.« less

  6. Astrophysical S-factor for destructive reactions of lithium-7 in big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komatsubara, Tetsuro; Kwon, YoungKwan; Moon, JunYoung; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Moon, Chang-Bum; Ozawa, Akira; Sasa, Kimikazu; Onishi, Takahiro; Yuasa, Toshiaki; Okada, Shunsuke; Saito, Yuta; Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-05-02

    One of the most prominent success with the Big Bang models is the precise reproduction of mass abundance ratio for {sup 4}He. In spite of the success, abundances of lithium isotopes are still inconsistent between observations and their calculated results, which is known as lithium abundance problem. Since the calculations were based on the experimental reaction data together with theoretical estimations, more precise experimental measurements may improve the knowledge of the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. As one of the destruction process of lithium-7, we have performed measurements for the reaction cross sections of the {sup 7}L({sup 3}He,p){sup 9}Be reaction.

  7. Refined scenario of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis allowing for nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tsukida, Kazuki [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Division of Advanced Plasma Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Oaza-Obuchi-Aza-Omotedate, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    The standard scenario of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is generalized to take into account nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma. These reactions are naturally triggered in the BBN epoch by fast particles generated in various exoergic processes. It is found that, although such particles can appreciably enhance the rates of some individual reactions, their influence on the whole process of element production is not significant. The nonthermal corrections to element abundances are obtained to be 0.1% ({sup 3}H), -0.03% ({sup 7}Li), and 0.34 %-0.63% (CNO group).

  8. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  9. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise February 11, 2015 Collaboration project defeats explosives threats through enhanced detection...

  10. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise February 11, 2015 Collaboration project defeats explosives threats through enhanced detection technologies LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Feb. 11, 2015-Having long kept details of its explosives capabilities under wraps, a team of Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists is now rolling out a collaborative project to defeat explosives threats through enhanced detection technologies. "We're aiming to create a collaboration of

  11. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unveils explosives detection expertise A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise A team of scientists is now rolling out a collaborative...

  12. John C. Mather, the Big Bang, and the COBE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John C. Mather, the Big Bang, and the COBE Resources with Additional Information * Videos John C. Mather Courtesy of NASA "Dr. John C. Mather of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Mather shares the prize with George F. Smoot of the University of California for their collaborative work on understanding the Big Bang. Mather and Smoot analyzed data from NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), which

  13. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. We study the impact on the ...

  14. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and reaction rates in a model-independent way we use lattice QCD ...

  15. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  16. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  17. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    expertise unveils explosives detection expertise A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise A team of scientists is now rolling out a collaborative project to defeat explosives threats through enhanced detection technologies. February 11, 2015 Instructors discuss the production of aluminum based explosives, part of an advanced course in worldwide threats from homemade explosives created by the Los Alamos Collaboration for Explosives Detection (LACED).

  18. COLLOQUIUM: Seeing the Big Bang More Clearly: The Evolution of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observational Techniques in CMB Studies | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab October 28, 2015, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Seeing the Big Bang More Clearly: The Evolution of Observational Techniques in CMB Studies Professor Bruce Partridge Haverford College Since 2015 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), I will begin by analyzing the very early experiments that established the properties of the CMB. What experimental

  19. Primordial nucleosynthesis: A cosmological point of view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, G. J.; Kusakabe, M.; Cheoun, M.-K.

    2014-05-09

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the test-ing ground upon which all cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the first few minutes of cosmic expansion and in particular during the important radiation-dominated epoch. These lectures review the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We will then review the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measure-ments are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we summarize the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field.

  20. Matter, antimatter and surviving the big bang is topic of Lab's next

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontiers in Science lecture Frontiers in Science lectures Matter, antimatter and surviving the big bang is topic of Lab's next Frontiers in Science lecture LANL scientist Vincenzo Cirigliano asks the question, How did we survive the big bang? in a series of Frontiers in Science lectures. October 31, 2013 Frontiers in Science lecture series is intended to increase local public awareness of the diversity of science and engineering research at the Laboratory. Frontiers in Science lecture

  1. Big Bang Day : Afternoon Play - Torchwood: Lost Souls

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Martha Jones, ex-time traveller and now working as a doctor for a UN task force, has been called to CERN where they're about to activate the Large Hadron Collider. Once activated, the Collider will fire beams of protons together recreating conditions a billionth of a second after the Big Bang - and potentially allowing the human race a greater insight into what the Universe is made of. But so much could go wrong - it could open a gateway to a parallel dimension, or create a black hole - and now voices from the past are calling out to people and scientists have started to disappear... Where have the missing scientists gone? What is the secret of the glowing man? What is lurking in the underground tunnel? And do the dead ever really stay dead? Lost Souls is a spin-off from the award-winning BBC Wales TV production Torchwood. It stars John Barrowman, Freema Agyeman, Eve Myles, Gareth David-Lloyd, Lucy Montgomery (of Titty Bang Bang) and Stephen Critchlow.

  2. The B-Factory and the Big Bang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, A.

    1997-01-01

    A B-Factory, a virtual {open_quotes}time machine{close_quotes} back to the early moments of the Big Bang that created the universe, is not under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The $300 million project to produce copious amounts of B mesons is a combined effort of SLAC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Scheduled for completion in early 1999, the facility will be one of the flagships of the US high-energy physics program. Nearly 200 Laboratory specialists, representing a broad range of disciplines, are contributing to the B-Factory effort. The B-Factory`s two underground rings, each 2,200 meters (a mile and a half) in circumference, will generate B mesons by colliding electron and positrons (antimatter counterpart of electrons) at near the speed of light. A key feature of this collider is the fact that electrons and positrons will circulate and collide with unequal (or {open_quotes}asymmetric{close_quotes}) energies so that scientists can to better explore the particles generated in the collisions. In helping to design and manufacture many of the major components and detector systems for the B-Factory`s twin particle beam rings and its three-story-tall detector, Lawrence Livermore is strengthening its reputation as a center of excellence for accelerator science and technology. In addition, many LLNL capabilities brought to bear on the technical challenges of the B-Factory are enhancing the Laboratory`s efforts for the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Program.

  3. Supercomputing: A Toolbox to Simulate the Big Bang and Beyond | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Supercomputing: A Toolbox to Simulate the Big Bang and Beyond Supercomputing: A Toolbox to Simulate the Big Bang and Beyond September 19, 2013 - 1:30pm Addthis This image shows the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1398. | Image courtesy of the Dark Energy Survey. This image shows the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1398. | Image courtesy of the Dark Energy Survey. Rob Roser Rob Roser Head, Fermilab Scientific Computing Division What does this project do? A new project sponsored by three of the

  4. Reaching Back Towards the Big Bang | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reaching Back Towards the Big Bang Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 04.01.14 Reaching Back Towards the Big Bang US-led experiments at the LHC recreate the

  5. Before the Big Bang? A Novel Resolution of a Profound Cosmological Puzzle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Penrose, Roger

    2010-09-01

    The second law of thermodynamics says, in effect, that things get more random as time progresses. Thus, we can deduce that the beginning of the universe - the Big Bang - must have been an extraordinarily precisely organized state. What was the nature of this state? How can such a special state have come about? In Penrose's talk, a novel explanation is suggested.

  6. PPPL, Princeton launch hunt for Big Bang particles offering clues to the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    origin of the universe | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL, Princeton launch hunt for Big Bang particles offering clues to the origin of the universe By John Greenwald November 17, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Chris Tully, front left, and Charles Gentile, front right, with participants in the PTOLEMY project under construction. Back row from left: Irving Zatz, Robert Woolley, Lloyd Ciebiera, Junast Suerfu, Doug Westover, Philip G. Efthimion, William Sands, Jim Taylor.

  7. Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    origin of the universe | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the origin of the universe Like "detecting a heartbeat in an arena" full of people By John Greenwald March 11, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Princeton physicist Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY laboratory. Behind him are powerful superconducting magnets on either side of the vacuum chamber. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications)

  8. Out of the white hole: a holographic origin for the Big Bang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourhasan, Razieh; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B. E-mail: nafshordi@pitp.ca

    2014-04-01

    While most of the singularities of General Relativity are expected to be safely hidden behind event horizons by the cosmic censorship conjecture, we happen to live in the causal future of the classical Big Bang singularity, whose resolution constitutes the active field of early universe cosmology. Could the Big Bang be also hidden behind a causal horizon, making us immune to the decadent impacts of a naked singularity? We describe a braneworld description of cosmology with both 4d induced and 5D bulk gravity (otherwise known as Dvali-Gabadadze-Porati, or DGP model), which exhibits this feature: the universe emerges as a spherical 3-brane out of the formation of a 5D Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we show that a pressure singularity of the holographic fluid, discovered earlier, happens inside the white hole horizon, and thus need not be real or imply any pathology. Furthermore, we outline a novel mechanism through which any thermal atmosphere for the brane, with comoving temperature of ?20% of the 5D Planck mass can induce scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations on the brane, circumventing the need for a separate process (such as cosmic inflation) to explain current cosmological observations. Finally, we note that 5D space-time is asymptotically flat, and thus potentially allows an S-matrix or (after minor modifications) an AdS/CFT description of the cosmological Big Bang.

  9. Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    origin of the universe | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the origin of the universe Like "detecting a heartbeat in an arena" full of people By John Greenwald March 14, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY laboratory. Behind him are powerful superconducting magnets on either side of the vacuum chamber. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY

  10. The Big Bang, COBE, and the Relic Radiation of Creation (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smoot, George

    2011-04-28

    Berkeley Lab's George Smoot won the 2006 Physics Nobel Prize, together with John Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for "the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." The anisotropy showed as small variations in the map of the early universe. This research looks back into the infant universe and provides a better understanding of the origin of galaxies and stars. The cosmic background radiation is a tool to understand the structure and history of the universe and the structure of space-time. These observations have provided increased support for the big bang theory of the universe's origin. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) NASA satellite, launched in 1989, carries instruments that measured various aspects of cosmic microwave background radiation, and produced the data for these compelling scientific results, which opened up a field that continues very actively today.

  11. Origin of matter and space-time in the big bang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, G. J.; Yamazaki, D.; Kusakabe, M.; Cheoun, M.-K.

    2014-05-02

    We review the case for and against a bulk cosmic motion resulting from the quantum entanglement of our universe with the multiverse beyond our horizon. Within the current theory for the selection of the initial state of the universe from the landscape multiverse there is a generic prediction that pre-inflation quantum entanglement with other universes should give rise to a cosmic bulk flow with a correlation length of order horizon size and a velocity field relative to the expansion frame of the universe. Indeed, the parameters of this motion are are tightly constrained. A robust prediction can be deduced indicating that there should be an overall motion of of about 800 km/s relative to the background space time as defined by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This talk will summarize the underlying theoretical motivation for this hypothesis. Of course our motion relative to the background space time (CMB dipole) has been known for decades and is generally attributed to the gravitational pull of the local super cluster. However, this cosmic peculiar velocity field has been recently deduced out to very large distances well beyond that of the local super cluster by using X-ray galaxy clusters as tracers of matter motion. This is achieved via the kinematic component of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (KSZ) effect produced by Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons from the local hot intracluster gas. As such, this method measures peculiar velocity directly in the frame of the cluster. Similar attempts by our group and others have attempted to independently assess this bulk flow via Type la supernova redshifts. In this talk we will review the observation case for and against the existence of this bulk flow based upon the observations and predictions of the theory. If this interpretation is correct it has profound implications in that we may be observing for the first time both the physics that occurred before the big bang and the existence of the multiverse

  12. Testing the big bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1991-06-01

    In this series of lectures, several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, detailed discussion is presented regarding nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances and neutrino counting; the dark matter problems; and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments will also be made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing'' and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it. 126 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Constraining spacetime noncommutativity with primordial nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip

    2009-04-15

    We discuss a constraint on the scale {lambda}{sub NC} of noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory arising from consideration of the big bang nucleosynthesis of light elements. The propagation of neutrinos in the NC background described by an antisymmetric tensor {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} does result in a tree-level vectorlike coupling to photons in a generation-independent manner, raising thus a possibility to have an appreciable contribution of three light right-handed (RH) fields to the energy density of the Universe at nucleosynthesis time. Considering elastic scattering processes of the RH neutrinos off charged plasma constituents at a given cosmological epoch, we obtain for a conservative limit on an effective number of additional doublet neutrinos {delta}N{sub {nu}}=1, a bound {lambda}{sub NC} > or approx. 3 TeV. With a more stringent requirement, {delta}N{sub {nu}} < or approx. 0.2, the bound is considerably improved, {lambda}{sub NC} > or approx. 10{sup 3} TeV. For our bounds the {theta} expansion of the NC action stays always meaningful, since the decoupling temperature of the RH species is perseveringly much less than the inferred bound for the scale of noncommutativity.

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Bedaque, P ; Luu, T ; ... created of a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). ...

  15. Big Bang Day : Today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-16

    Andrew Marr will be reporting live from the CERN control room for the Today programme, with correspondent Tom Feilden. (Wednesday 10th September, 6.00-9.00am )

  16. Big Bang Day : Today

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Andrew Marr will be reporting live from the CERN control room for the Today programme, with correspondent Tom Feilden. (Wednesday 10th September, 6.00-9.00am )

  17. Using inertial fusion implosions to measure the T+He3 fusion cross section at nucleosynthesis-relevant energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Kim, Y. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Hale, G.; Li, C. K.; Rubery, M.; Paris, M.; Bacher, A.; et al

    2016-07-11

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of 6Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high energy-density plasmas we measure the T(3He,γ)6Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high 6Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. In conclusion, this is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  18. Oxford Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford Solar Place: Randolph, New Jersey Zip: 7869 Sector: Solar Product: Oxford Solar provides solar energy consulting and...

  19. Oxford System 400

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxford Plasmalab System 400 Sputtering System For questions concerning this machines capabilities, please contact Varshni Singh, at 578-0248. ecr.jpg (48456 bytes)  : ecr1.jpg...

  20. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, andmore » scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.« less

  1. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, and scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  2. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  3. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-07

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  4. Big Bang Day: Engineering Solutions

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider is the most complicated scientific apparatus ever built. Many of the technologies it uses hadn't even been invented when scientists started building it. Adam Hart-Davis discovers what it takes to build the world's most intricate discovery machine.

  5. Nucleosynthesis in Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudia, Travaglio; Hix, William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    We review our understanding of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in thermonuclear supernovae and their contribution to Galactic Chemical evolution. We discuss the prospects to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis within simulations of these events.

  6. Oxford Innovation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford Innovation Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled )...

  7. Oxford Catalysts Group plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford Catalysts Group plc Place: Oxford, United Kingdom Zip: OX2 6UD Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Developer of catalysts for room-temperature hydrogen production, hot steam...

  8. Luu, T; Platter, L 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Bedaque, P; Luu, T; Platter, L 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; DEUTERIUM; FIELD THEORIES; NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEOSYNTHESIS;...

  9. Oxford County, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford, Maine Norway, Maine Otisfield, Maine Oxford, Maine Paris, Maine Peru, Maine Porter, Maine Roxbury, Maine Rumford, Maine South Oxford, Maine South Paris, Maine Stoneham,...

  10. Oxford, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Oxford is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts.1 Registered Energy Companies in...

  11. City of Oxford, Georgia (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford, Georgia (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford City of Place: Georgia Phone Number: 770-786-7004 Website: www.oxfordgeorgia.org Outage Hotline:...

  12. Village of Oxford, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.824.3511 Website: www.oxfordne.comgovernment Outage...

  13. Oxford, Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oxford is a city in Lafayette County, Mississippi. It falls under Mississippi's 1st...

  14. Oxford, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oxford is a city in Butler County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 8th congressional...

  15. Oxford, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oxford is a village in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 8th congressional...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Symmetries and vanishing couplings in string-derived low energy effective field theory ... breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the ...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (3) limiting values (3) quantum field theory (3) symmetry (3) anisotropy (2) ... and they collapse before the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis if there exists a small ...

  18. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis Bedaque P Luu T Platter L NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS DEUTERIUM FIELD THEORIES NUCLEAR PHYSICS...

  19. 2014 Awarded Campaigns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-drive hydrodynamics Casner (CEA) Asymptotic self-similar instabilities Shvarts (Israel) Charged particle stopping powers Zylstra (MIT) Stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis ...

  20. City of Oxford, Mississippi (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford Place: Mississippi Phone Number: 662-232-2373 or 662-236-1310 Website: www.oxfordms.netdepartmentse Twitter: @OxfordMS Facebook: https:www.facebook.com...

  1. Oxford, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oxford is a city in the United Kingdom. Registered Research Institutions in Oxford, United...

  2. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oxford_FUSRAP

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ohio Oxford, Ohio, Site FUSRAP Site Oxford Map Background-The Oxford, Ohio, Site was remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established in 1974 to remediate sites where radioactive contamination remained from Manhattan Project and early U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) operations. History-Uranium metal machining at the Oxford Site from 1952 to 1957 for AEC resulted in contamination of the site and several nearby (vicinity) properties, all of

  3. New Oxford, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.8637086, -77.0558143 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  4. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  5. COLLOQUIUM: Seeing the Big Bang More Clearly: The Evolution of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at PPPL, adult visitors must show a government-issued photo I.D. - for example, a passport or a driver's license. Non-U.S. citizens must show a government-issued photo I.D.,...

  6. COLLOQUIUM: One Second After the Big Bang | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at PPPL, adult visitors must show a government-issued photo I.D. - for example, a passport or a driver's license. Non-U.S. citizens must show a government-issued photo I.D.,...

  7. Big Bang or Big Bounce? | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at PPPL, adult visitors must show a government-issued photo I.D. - for example, a passport or a driver's license. Non-U.S. citizens must show a government-issued photo I.D.,...

  8. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 4. The Neutrino

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". It's the most populous particle in the universe. Millions of these subatomic particles are passing through each one of us. With no charge and virtually no mass they can penetrate vast thicknesses of matter without any interaction - indeed the sun emits huge numbers that pass through earth at the speed of light. Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge. As a result they're extremely difficult to detect . But like HG Wells' invisible man they can give themselves away by bumping into things at high energy and detectors hidden in mines are exploiting this to observe these rare interactions.

  9. PPPL, Princeton launch hunt for Big Bang particles offering clues...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the use of quantum electronics - a discipline that deals with the effect of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter - to detect the minute extra...

  10. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  11. What Was There Before the Big Bang? | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As for reference point, the reference point would be in relation to Earth. Am I just being simple? You Might Also Like lightning bolt We One-Upped Ben Franklin, Catching Lightning ...

  12. John C. Mather, the Big Bang, and the COBE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mather shares the prize with George F. Smoot of the University of California for their ... "In 1970, John started his Ph.D. thesis work at the University of California Berkeley, ...

  13. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  14. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  15. Big Bang Day: The Making of CERN (Episode 1)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    A two-part history of the CERN project. Quentin Cooper explores the fifty-year history of CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Switzerland. The institution was created to bring scientists together after WW2 .......

  16. Big Bang Day: The Making of CERN (Episode 2)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    A two-part history of the CERN project. Quentin Cooper explores the fifty-year history of CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Switzerland.

  17. Big Bang or Big Bounce? Professor Paul J. Steinhardt Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bang or Big Bounce? Professor Paul J. Steinhardt Princeton University Wednesday, Oct 30, 2013 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 4:00PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory...

  18. Big Bang Day: The Making of CERN (Episode 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-06

    A two-part history of the CERN project. Quentin Cooper explores the fifty-year history of CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Switzerland. The institution was created to bring scientists together after WW2 .......

  19. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 1. Atom

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. The notion of atoms dates back to Greek philosophers who sought a natural mechanical explanation of the Universe, as opposed to a divine one. The existence what we call chemical atoms, the constituents of all we see around us, wasn't proved until a hundred years ago, but almost simultaneously it was realised these weren't the indivisible constituents the Greeks envisaged. Much of the story of physics since then has been the ever-deeper probing of matter until, at the end of the 20th century, a complete list of fundamental ingredients had been identified, apart from one, the much discussed Higgs particle. In this programme, Ben finds out why this last particle is so pivotal, not just to atomic theory, but to our very existence - and how hopeful the scientists are of proving its existence.

  20. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  1. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  2. LHC, le Big Bang en éprouvette

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Notre compréhension de l?Univers est en train de changer? Bar des Sciences - Tout public Débat modéré par Marie-Odile Montchicourt, journaliste de France Info. Evenement en vidéoconférence entre le Globe de la science et de l?innovation, le bar le Baloard de Montpellier et la Maison des Métallos à Paris. Intervenants au CERN : Philippe Charpentier et Daniel Froideveaux, physiciens au CERN. Intervenants à Paris : Vincent Bontemps, philosophe et chercheur au CEA ; Jacques Arnould, philosophe, historien des sciences et théologien, Jean-Jacques Beineix, réalisateur, producteur, scénariste de cinéma. Intervenants à Montpellier (LPTA) : André Neveu, physicien théoricien et directeur de recherche au CNRS ; Gilbert Moultaka, physicien théoricien et chargé de recherche au CNRS. Partenariat : CERN, CEA, IN2P3, Université MPL2 (LPTA) Dans le cadre de la Fête de la science 2008

  3. Oxford, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oxford is a city in Granville County, North Carolina. It falls under North Carolina's 1st...

  4. Nucleosynthesis and Emission Processes in Aspherical Supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2006-07-12

    Features in nucleosynthesis and emission processes in jet-like aspherical hypernova explosions are presented. The aspherical model yields large (Co, Zn)/Fe and small (Mn, Cr)/Fe as are consistent with abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, indicating important contribution of hypernovae in the early Galactic chemical evolution. The same model also yields large amount of 44Ti. As for emission features, this model is found to reproduce successfully the optical light curve and spectra of hypernova SN 1998bw. The viewing angle is close to the polar direction. The same model explains a peculiar [OI] 6300A profile observed in SN 2003jd, only if the viewing angle is different from that for SN 1998bw. These analyses support the validity of the aspherical models, therefore the use of the models as a reference model for hypernova nucleosynthesis. In addition, theoretical prediction is presented for high energy emissions from the decays of56Ni and56Co.

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Quark mass variation ... created of a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). ...

  6. DOE Science Showcase - Effective field theories | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from Big Bang nucleosynthesis SciTech Connect Unitarity check in gravitational Higgs mechanism SciTech Connect Visit the Science Showcase homepage. Last updated on Monday 10 March

  7. Oxford Area Community School District (Michigan) Bonds Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michigans Oxford Area Community School District entered into an energy savings performance contract and issued limited tax general obligation bonds to fund the up-front costs of almost $3 million of energy-related improvements. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements. Author: Merrian Borgeson and Mark Zimring

  8. Abundances for p-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Laeter, John R.

    2008-04-15

    An important constraint in developing models of p-process nucleosynthesis is that the abundances of many of the p-process nuclides are not well known. A recent review of the p-process has identified six p-process nuclides that are of particular significance to p-process theorists [M. Arnould and S. Goriely, Phys. Rep. 384, 1 (2003)]. These nuclides are {sup 92,94}Mo, {sup 96,98}Ru, {sup 138}La, and {sup 180}Ta{sup m}. The absence of accurate abundances for these isotopes is due to the fact that the isotopic composition of the elements concerned have not been corrected for isotope fractionation induced by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric instruments used to measure them. To remedy this deficiency, a VG 354 mass spectrometer was calibrated using gravimetric mixtures of enriched isotopes to enable the absolute isotopic compositions of these elements to be obtained. Although the isotopic abundances of {sup 92,94}Mo, {sup 138}La, and {sup 180}Ta{sup m} have previously been reported, the absolute abundances of {sup 96,98}Ru are reported for the first time in this article, with a significant reduction in the magnitude of the values as compared to existing abundances.

  9. Challenges in explosive nucleosynthesis of heavy elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinedo, Gabriel Martinez; Fischer, T.; Lohs, A.; Huther, L.

    2012-10-20

    We show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter that is consistent with the nuclear equation of state has a strong impact on the spectra of the neutrinos emitted during the deleptonization period of a protoneutron star formed in a core-collapse supernova. We compare results of simulations including and neglecting mean field effects on the neutrino opacities. Their inclusion reduces the luminosities of all neutrino flavors and enhances the spectral differences between electron neutrino and antineutrino. The magnitude of the difference depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at sub-nuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the neutrino-driven outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on the nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r-process. Contrarily to previous findings, our simulations show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  10. HOW MANY NUCLEOSYNTHESIS PROCESSES EXIST AT LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C. J. [Landessternwarte, ZAH, Heidelberg University, Knigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Montes, F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Arcones, A., E-mail: cjhansen@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: cjhansen@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: montes@nscl.msu.edu, E-mail: almudena.arcones@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut fr Kernphysik, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 2, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    Abundances of low-metallicity stars offer a unique opportunity to understand the contribution and conditions of the different processes that synthesize heavy elements. Many old, metal-poor stars show a robust abundance pattern for elements heavier than Ba, and a less robust pattern between Sr and Ag. Here we probe if two nucleosynthesis processes are sufficient to explain the stellar abundances at low metallicity, and we carry out a site independent approach to separate the contribution from these two processes or components to the total observationally derived abundances. Our approach provides a method to determine the contribution of each process to the production of elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, and Eu. We explore the observed star-to-star abundance scatter as a function of metallicity that each process leads to. Moreover, we use the deduced abundance pattern of one of the nucleosynthesis components to constrain the astrophysical conditions of neutrino-driven winds from core-collapse supernovae.

  11. Topical Collaboration "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2015-09-18

    This is the final technical report describing contributions from the University of New Mexico to Topical Collaboration on "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter" in the period June 2010 through May 2015. During the funding period, the University of New Mexico successfully hired Huaiyu Duan as a new faculty member with the support from DOE, who has contributed to the Topical Collaboration through his research and collaborations.

  12. Monte Carlo calculations for r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumpower, Matthew Ryan

    2015-11-12

    A Monte Carlo framework is developed for exploring the impact of nuclear model uncertainties on the formation of the heavy elements. Mass measurements tightly constrain the macroscopic sector of FRDM2012. For r-process nucleosynthesis, it is necessary to understand the microscopic physics of the nuclear model employed. A combined approach of measurements and a deeper understanding of the microphysics is thus warranted to elucidate the site of the r-process.

  13. Primordial Li abundance and massive particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latin-Capital-Letter-Eth apo, H.

    2012-10-20

    The problem of the observed lithium abundance coming from the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is as of yet unsolved. One of the proposed solutions is including relic massive particles into the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We investigated the effects of such particles on {sup 4}HeX{sup -}+{sup 2}H{yields}{sup 6}Li+X{sup -}, where the X{sup -} is the negatively charged massive particle. We demonstrate the dominance of long-range part of the potential on the cross-section.

  14. DOE research makes big bang | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prize in Physics for his breakthrough research at Lawrence Berkeley National ... The SCP pioneered the methods used to discover the accelerating expansion of the universe ...

  15. Jetting into the Moments after the Big Bang | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jetta Wong About Us Jetta Wong - Director Jetta Wong joined the Department of Energy in July of 2012. Before joining the Department of Energy Jetta worked for the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. She worked on a wide range of energy and environment policy issues related to civilian research, development and demonstration programs at the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. Before working for Congress, Jetta worked for

  16. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 2. Who Ordered That?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. The atoms that make up our material world are important to us, but it turns out they aren't so significant on the cosmic stage. In fact early in the search for the stuff of atoms, researchers discovered particles that played no part in Earthly chemistry - for example particles in cosmic rays that resemble electrons (the stuff of electricity and the chemical glue in molecules) in almost all respects except that they weigh 140 times more. "Who ordered that?" one Nobel laureate demanded. They also discovered antimatter - the destructive mirror-image particles at obliterate all matter they come into contact with. In fact, the Universe is mostly made up of particles that could never make atoms, so that we are just the flotsam of the cosmos. But the main constituent of the Universe, what makes 80% of creation, has never been seen in the lab. Researchers at CERN believe they can create samples of it, down here on Earth.

  17. Matter, antimatter and surviving the big bang is topic of Lab...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the Deaf, 1060 Cerrillos Road, Santa Fe Nov. 15, Taos Convention Center, 120 Civic Plaza Drive, Taos. Sponsored by the Fellows of Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Frontiers...

  18. NERSC User Group 2013 Big Bang, Big Data, Big Iron Planck Satellite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complementarity to astrophysical probes - Perlmutter, Riess & Schmidt (2011) What is Dark Energy? (Planck + DESBigBOSSLSSTEuclid) What is Inflation? (CMBpol + LHC) NERSC User ...

  19. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  20. 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress

  1. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Oxford_MiniBooNE_and_SterileNus.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxford Seminar June 23, 2004 * Extensions to the Neutrino Standard Model: Sterile Neutrinos * MiniBooNE: Status and Prospects * Future Directions if MiniBooNE Sees Oscillations 2 Theoretical Prejudices before 1995 * Natural scale for ∆m 2 ~ 10 - 100 eV 2 since needed to explain dark matter * Oscillation mixing angles must be small like the quark mixing angles * Solar neutrino oscillations must be small mixing angle MSW solution because it is "cool" * Atmospheric neutrino anomaly must

  3. The r-process nucleosynthesis: Nuclear physics challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goriely, S.

    2012-10-20

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the socalled rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved and for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present contribution emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Their impact on the r-abundance distribution resulting from the decompression of neutron star matter is discussed.

  4. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  5. Low-mass helium star models for type Ib supernovae - Light curves, mixing, and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Kenichi; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Hashimoto, Masaki (Tokyo Univ. (Japan) Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    The applicability of theoretical models of He-star explosions to type Ib SN explosions is explored. Particular attention is given to light curves and mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and mixing, and nucleosynthesis and the mass of Ni-56. Typical numerical results are presented in graphs, and it is concluded that the explosions of SN 1983N and SN 1983I can be accurately represented in terms of explosions of He stars with M(alpha) of 3-4 solar mass. A strong M(alpha) dependence of light-curve shape, photospheric velocity, and Ni-56 mass is found. 44 refs.

  6. INSTITUTE COLLOQUIA AND SEMINARS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-March 31, 2007 2006 April 6 Dr. Jamal Jalilian-Marian, Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington An Introduction to Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions April 7 Professor Taka Kajino, National Astronomical Observatory, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan A Frontier of Nuclear Astrophysics: Big-Bang Cosmology and Supernova Nucleosynthesis April 19 Dr. Anna Stasto, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York High Energy Limit and Parton

  7. Collective flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos and r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Kar, Kamales; Goswami, Srubabati E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in E-mail: kamales.kar@saha.ac.in

    2010-06-01

    Neutrino-neutrino interactions inside core-collapse supernovae may give rise to collective flavor oscillations resulting in swap between flavors. These oscillations depend on the initial energy spectra, and relative fluxes or relative luminosities of the neutrinos. It has been observed that departure from energy equipartition among different flavors can give rise to one or more sharp spectral swap over energy, termed as splits. We study the occurrence of splits in the neutrino and antineutrino spectra, varying the initial relative fluxes for different models of initial energy spectrum, in both normal and inverted hierarchy. These initial relative flux variations give rise to several possible split patterns whereas variation over different models of energy spectra give similar results. We explore the effect of these spectral splits on the electron fraction, Y{sub e}, that governs r-process nucleosynthesis inside supernovae. Since spectral splits modify the electron neutrino and antineutrino spectra in the region where r-process is postulated to happen, and since the pattern of spectral splits depends on the initial conditions of the spectra and the neutrino mass hierarchy, we show that the condition Y{sub e} < 0.5 required for successful r-process nucleosynthesis will lead to constraints on the initial spectral conditions, for a given neutrino mass hierarchy.

  8. Beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to the r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Shunji; Collaboration: RIBF Decay Collaboration

    2012-11-12

    A scientific program of beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to r-process nucleosynthesis has been started using high intensity U-beam at the RIBF. The first results of {beta}-decay half-lives of very neutron-rich Kr to Tc nuclides, all of which lie close to the r-process path, suggest a systematic enhancement of the the {beta}-decay rates of the Zr and Nb isotopes around A110 with respect to the predictions of the deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation model (FRDM + QRPA). An impact of the results on the astrophysical r-process is discussed together with the future perspective of the {beta}-decay spectroscopy with the EURICA.

  9. On the introduction of {sup 17}O+p reaction rates evaluated through the THM in AGB nucleosynthesis calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.

    2014-05-09

    The rates for the {sup 17}O(p,αα{sup 14}N, {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 18}F and {sup 18}O(p,α){sup 15}N reactions deduced trough the Trojan Horse Method (THM) have been introduced into a state-of-the-art asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis and cool bottom process. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis.

  10. SYSTEMATICS OF DYNAMICAL MASS EJECTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND RADIOACTIVELY POWERED ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS FROM NEUTRON-STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Goriely, S.

    2013-08-10

    We investigate systematically the dynamical mass ejection, r-process nucleosynthesis, and properties of electromagnetic counterparts of neutron-star (NS) mergers in dependence on the uncertain properties of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) by employing 40 representative, microphysical high-density EOSs in relativistic, hydrodynamical simulations. The crucial parameter determining the ejecta mass is the radius R{sub 1.35} of a 1.35 M{sub Sun} NS. NSs with smaller R{sub 1.35} (''soft'' EOS) eject systematically higher masses. These range from {approx}10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} to {approx}10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} for 1.35-1.35 M{sub Sun} binaries and from {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} to {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} for 1.2-1.5 M{sub Sun} systems (with kinetic energies between {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg and 10{sup 51} erg). Correspondingly, the bolometric peak luminosities of the optical transients of symmetric (asymmetric) mergers vary between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and 14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} (9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and 14.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}) on timescales between {approx}2 hr and {approx}12 hr. If these signals with absolute bolometric magnitudes from -15.0 to -16.7 are measured, the tight correlation of their properties with those of the merging NSs might provide valuable constraints on the high-density EOS. The r-process nucleosynthesis exhibits a remarkable robustness independent of the EOS, producing a nearly solar abundance pattern above mass number 130. By the r-process content of the Galaxy and the average production per event the Galactic merger rate is limited to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1} (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1}) for a soft (stiff) NS EOS, if NS mergers are the main source of heavy r-nuclei. The production ratio of radioactive {sup 232}Th to {sup 238}U attains a

  11. Isospin mixing reveals 30P(p, γ)31S resonance influencing nova nucleosynthesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; et al

    2016-03-08

    Here, the thermonuclear 30P(p, γ)31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of 31Cl, we have observed the β-delayed γ decay of a 31S state at Ex = 6390.2(7) keV, with a 30P(p, γ)31S resonance energy of Er =more » 259.3(8) keV, in the middle of the 30P(p, γ)31S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at Ex = 6279.0(6) keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3/2+ and making it an important l = 0 resonance for proton capture on 30P.« less

  12. THE {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C REACTION AND THE IMPACT ON NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Bennett, M.; Wiescher, M.; Beard, M.; Gallino, R.; Fryer, C.; Rockefeller, G.; Herwig, F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Despite much effort in the past decades, the C-burning reaction rate is uncertain by several orders of magnitude, and the relative strength between the different channels {sup 12}C({sup 12}C, {alpha}){sup 20}Ne, {sup 12}C({sup 12}C, p){sup 23}Na, and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C, n){sup 23}Mg is poorly determined. Additionally, in C-burning conditions a high {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C rate may lead to lower central C-burning temperatures and to {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O emerging as a more dominant neutron source than {sup 22}Ne({alpha}, n){sup 25}Mg, increasing significantly the s-process production. This is due to the chain {sup 12}C(p, {gamma}){sup 13}N followed by {sup 13}N({beta} +){sup 13}C, where the photodisintegration reverse channel {sup 13}N({gamma}, p){sup 12}C is strongly decreasing with increasing temperature. Presented here is the impact of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C reaction uncertainties on the s-process and on explosive p-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars, including also fast rotating massive stars at low metallicity. Using various {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C rates, in particular an upper and lower rate limit of {approx}50,000 higher and {approx}20 lower than the standard rate at 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K, five 25 M {sub Sun} stellar models are calculated. The enhanced s-process signature due to {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O activation is considered, taking into account the impact of the uncertainty of all three C-burning reaction branches. Consequently, we show that the p-process abundances have an average production factor increased up to about a factor of eight compared with the standard case, efficiently producing the elusive Mo and Ru proton-rich isotopes. We also show that an s-process being driven by {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O is a secondary process, even though the abundance of {sup 13}C does not depend on the initial metal content. Finally, implications for the Sr-peak elements inventory in the solar system and at low metallicity are

  13. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ☉} and 2.36 M {sub ☉} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  14. Astrophysical tests of mirror dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciarcelluti, P.

    2008-08-29

    Mirror matter is a self-collisional dark matter candidate. If exact mirror parity is a conserved symmetry of the nature, there could exist a parallel hidden (mirror) sector of the Universe which has the same kind of particles and the same physical laws of our (visible) sector. The two sectors interact each other only via gravity, therefore mirror matter is naturally 'dark'. The most promising way to test this dark matter candidate is to look at its astrophysical signatures, as Big Bang nucleosynthesis, primordial structure formation and evolution, cosmic microwave background and large scale structure power spectra.

  15. A Peek Inside the Earliest Moments of the Universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Peek Inside the Earliest Moments of the Universe A Peek Inside the Earliest Moments of the Universe LQCD Calculations Help Physicists Probe Big Bang Nucleosynthesis July 5, 2016 Contact: Kathy Kincade, kkincade@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2124 musun The MuSun experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute is measuring the rate for muon capture on the deuteron to better than 1.5% precision. This process is the simplest weak interaction on a nucleus that can be measured to a high degree of precision. The Big

  16. Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nuclaires et de Sciences de la Matire (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Universit Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Btiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France and Sorbonne Universits, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

  17. Gravitational waves from domain walls in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadota, Kenji; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken’ichi

    2015-10-16

    The next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model predicts the formation of domain walls due to the spontaneous breaking of the discrete Z{sub 3}-symmetry at the electroweak phase transition, and they collapse before the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis if there exists a small bias term in the potential which explicitly breaks the discrete symmetry. Signatures of gravitational waves produced from these unstable domain walls are estimated and their parameter dependence is investigated. It is shown that the amplitude of gravitational waves becomes generically large in the decoupling limit, and that their frequency is low enough to be probed in future pulsar timing observations.

  18. 20013-2014 Section III: Nuclear Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anomalous asymptotics of radial overlap functions for bound systems of three or more particles L. D. Blokhintsev, A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, and R. Yarmukhamedov Astrophysical reaction rate for 17F(p,γ)18Ne from the transfer reaction 13C(17O, 18O)12C T. Al-Abdullah, F. Carstoiu, X. Chen, H. L. Clark, C. A. Gagliardi, Y. -W. Lui, A. Mukhamedzhanov, G. Tabacaru, Y. Tokimoto, L. Trache, R. E. Tribble, and Y. Zhai Big bang nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse method measurements R. G. Pizzone, R.

  19. 2014-2015 Section III: Nuclear Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron stars in the framework of Landau's theory H. Zheng, J. Sahagun, and A. Bonasera Asymptotic normalization coefficients and spectroscopic factors from deuteron stripping reactions D.Y. Pang and A.M. Mukhamedzhanov Big bang nucleosynthesis revisted via Trojan Horse method measurements R.G. Pizzone, R. Spartá, C.A. Bertulani, C. Spitaleri, M. La Cognata, J. Lalmansingh, L. Lamia, A. Mukhamedzhanov, and A. Tumino Constraining the 6.05 MeV 0+ and 6.13 MeV 3- cascade transitions in the

  20. {sup 147}Sm(n,{alpha}) cross section measurements from 3 eV to 500 keV: Implications for explosive nucleosynthesis reaction rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gledenov, Yu. M.; Koehler, P. E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Guber, K. H.; Rauscher, T.

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the {sup 147}Sm(n,{alpha}) cross section from 3 eV to 500 keV. These data were used to test nuclear statistical models which must be relied on to calculate the rates for as yet unmeasurable reactions occurring in explosive nucleosynthesis scenarios. It was found that our data are in reasonably good agreement with the reaction rate predicted by an older model but that the rates predicted by two very recent models are roughly a factor of 3 different from the data (in opposite directions). A detailed analysis indicates the strong dependence on the employed optical {alpha} potentials. These results, together with counting rate estimates for future experiments indicate that (n,{alpha}) measurements will be useful for improving reaction rate predictions across the global range of masses needed for explosive nucleosynthesis calculations.

  1. Impact of nuclear fission on r-process nucleosynthesis and origin of solar r-process elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibagaki, Shota; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.; Chiba, Satoshi

    2015-02-24

    Binary neutron star mergers (NSMs) are expected to be main production sites of r-process elements. Their ejecta are extremely neutron-rich (Y{sub e}<0.1), and the r-process path proceeds along the neutron drip line and enters the region of fissile nuclei. In this situation, although superheavy nuclei may be synthesized and the r-process path may reach the island of stability, those are sensitive to theoretical models of nuclear masses and nuclear fission. In this study, we carry out r-process nucleosynthesis simulations in the NSMs. Our new nuclear reaction network code include new theoretical models of nuclear masses and nuclear fission. Our r-process simulation of a binary NSM shows that the final r-process elemental abundances exhibit flat pattern for A?110-160, and several fission cycling operate in extremely neutron-rich conditions of the NSM. We find that the combination of the NSMs and the magnetorotational supernovae can reproduce the solar r-process elements. We discuss the validity of this interpretation.

  2. Code dependencies of pre-supernova evolution and nucleosynthesis in massive stars: evolution to the end of core helium burning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, S.; Hirschi, R.; Pignatari, M.; Heger, A.; Georgy, C.; Nishimura, N.; Fryer, C.; Herwig, F.

    2015-01-15

    We present a comparison of 15M⊙ , 20M⊙ and 25M⊙ stellar models from three different codes|GENEC, KEPLER and MESA|and their nucleosynthetic yields. The models are calculated from the main sequence up to the pre-supernova (pre-SN) stage and do not include rotation. The GENEC and KEPLER models hold physics assumptions that are characteristic of the two codes. The MESA code is generally more flexible; overshooting of the convective core during the hydrogen and helium burning phases in MESA is chosen such that the CO core masses are consistent with those in the GENEC models. Full nucleosynthesis calculations are performed for allmore » models using the NuGrid post-processing tool MPPNP and the key energy-generating nuclear reaction rates are the same for all codes. We are thus able to highlight the key diferences between the models that are caused by the contrasting physics assumptions and numerical implementations of the three codes. A reasonable agreement is found between the surface abundances predicted by the models computed using the different codes, with GENEC exhibiting the strongest enrichment of H-burning products and KEPLER exhibiting the weakest. There are large variations in both the structure and composition of the models—the 15M⊙ and 20M⊙ in particular—at the pre-SN stage from code to code caused primarily by convective shell merging during the advanced stages. For example the C-shell abundances of O, Ne and Mg predicted by the three codes span one order of magnitude in the 15M⊙ models. For the alpha elements between Si and Fe the differences are even larger. The s-process abundances in the C shell are modified by the merging of convective shells; the modification is strongest in the 15M⊙ model in which the C-shell material is exposed to O-burning temperatures and the γ -process is activated. The variation in the s-process abundances across the codes is smallest in the 25M⊙ models, where it is comparable to the impact of nuclear

  3. Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2013-08-01

    We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data.

  4. Oxford, Ohio, Site Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... After reviewing records and radiological surveys for more than 600 sites connected with the nuclear weapons program, DOE identifed 46 sites that required cleanup, including the ...

  5. Adrian Cooper CEO, Oxford Economics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cuts in supply put a floor under oil prices and mean that deflation has been avoided Lower oil prices are forcing faster innovation, cost-cutting and a raft of consolidation ...

  6. Light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2014-06-24

    Cosmological and terrestrial data suggests the number of light neutrinos may be greater than 3, motivating a careful reexamination of cosmological bounds on extra light species. Big bang nucleosynthesis constrains the number of relativistic neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis, N{sub eff}{sup BBN}, while measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum constrain the effective energy density in relativistic neutrinos at the time of matter-radiation equality, N{sub eff}{sup CMB}. We review a scenario with two sterile neutrinos and explore whether partial thermalization of the sterile states can ease the tension between cosmological constraints on N{sub eff}{sup BBN} and terrestrial data. We conclude that, still, two additional light sterile neutrinos species cannot fit all the data at the 95% confidence level.

  7. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ?1 billion years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}?{sub 1/2} J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} kpc{sup 2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ?95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  8. Neutrinos' Instant Identity Changes Could Mean Big Things for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neutrinos' Instant Identity Changes Could Mean Big Things for the Big Bang Neutrinos' Instant Identity Changes Could Mean Big Things for the Big Bang July 11, 2011 - 12:23pm ...

  9. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  10. Spherically symmetric cosmological spacetimes with dust and radiation — numerical implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Woei Chet; Regis, Marco; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: regis@to.infn.it

    2013-10-01

    We present new numerical cosmological solutions of the Einstein Field Equations. The spacetime is spherically symmetric with a source of dust and radiation approximated as a perfect fluid. The dust and radiation are necessarily non-comoving due to the inhomogeneity of the spacetime. Such a model can be used to investigate non-linear general relativistic effects present during decoupling or big-bang nucleosynthesis, as well as for investigating void models of dark energy with isocurvature degrees of freedom. We describe the full evolution of the spacetime as well as the redshift and luminosity distance for a central observer. After demonstrating accuracy of the code, we consider a few example models, and demonstrate the sensitivity of the late time model to the degree of inhomogeneity of the initial radiation contrast.

  11. Is there further evidence for spatial variation of fundamental constants?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Curran, S. J.; Webb, J. K.

    2011-06-15

    Indications of spatial variation of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}, based on study of quasar absorption systems have recently been reported [J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, arXiv:1008.3907.]. The physics that causes this {alpha}-variation should have other observable manifestations, and this motivates us to look for complementary astrophysical effects. In this paper we propose a method to test whether spatial variation of fundamental constants existed during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis and study existing measurements of deuterium abundance for a signal. We also examine existing quasar absorption spectra data that are sensitive to variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu} and x={alpha}{sup 2{mu}}g{sub p} for spatial variation.

  12. WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data and Sensitivity Plots from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II and the University of California at Santa Barbara

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Expectations for non-baryonic dark matter are founded principally in Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, which indicate that the missing mass of the universe is not likely to be baryonic. The supersymmetric standard model (SUSY) offers a promising framework for expectations of particle species which could satisfy the observed properties of dark matter. WIMPs are the most likely SUSY candidate for a dark matter particle. The High Energy Physics Group at University of California, Santa Barbara, is part of the CDMSII Collaboration and have provided the Interactive Plotter for WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data on their website. They invite other collaborations working on dark matter research to submit datasets and, as a result, have more than 150 data sets now available for use with the plotting tool. The published source of the data is provided with each data set.

  13. Blue-tilted tensor spectrum and thermal history of the Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2015-02-01

    We investigate constraints on the spectral index of primordial gravitational waves (GWs), paying particular attention to a blue-tilted spectrum. Such constraints can be used to test a certain class of models of the early Universe. We investigate observational bounds from LIGO+Virgo, pulsar timing and big bang nucleosynthesis, taking into account the suppression of the amplitude at high frequencies due to reheating after inflation and also late-time entropy production. Constraints on the spectral index are presented by changing values of parameters such as reheating temperatures and the amount of entropy produced at late time. We also consider constraints under the general modeling approach which can approximately describe various scenarios of the early Universe. We show that the constraints on the blue spectral tilt strongly depend on the underlying assumption and, in some cases, a highly blue-tilted spectrum can still be allowed.

  14. Conversion of relic gravitational waves into photons in cosmological magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgov, Alexander D.; Ejlli, Damian E-mail: ejlli@fe.infn.it

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic radiation is discussed. The probability of transformations of gravitons into photons in presence of cosmological background magnetic field is calculated at the recombination epoch and during subsequent cosmological stages. The produced electromagnetic radiation is concentrated in the X-ray part of the spectrum. It is shown that if the early Universe was dominated by primordial black holes (PBHs) prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), the relic gravitons emitted by PBHs would transform to an almost isotropic background of electromagnetic radiation due to conversion of gravitons into photons in cosmological magnetic fields. Such extragalactic radiation could be noticeable or even dominant component of Cosmic X-ray Background.

  15. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of {sup 15}N J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MeiBner, N.J.; Schatz, H.; Herndl, H.; Wiescher, M.

    1995-10-01

    Neutron capture reactions on fight nuclei may be of considerable importance for the s-process nucleosynthesis in red giant stars as well as in inhomogeneous big bang scenarios and high entropy supernovae neutrino bubbles. To determine the reaction rates for such different temperature conditions, the cross sections need to be known for a wide energy range. The reaction {sup 15}N(n,{gamma}) represents an important link in the reaction seququences for the production of heavier isotopes in such scenarios. At high temperature conditions, the cross section is not only influenced by a non resonant a-wave contribution but also by a non resonant p-wave contribution and higher energy resonances. The (n,{gamma}) cross section has been measured at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe for different neutron energies using a fast cyclic neutron activation technique. The technique and the results will be presented.

  16. EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE NEUTRINO-DRIVEN ASPHERICAL SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION OF A NON-ROTATING 15 M{sub sun} STAR WITH SOLAR METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-09-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a non-rotating 15 M{sub sun} star with solar metallicity that explodes by a neutrino-heating supernova (SN) mechanism aided by both standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection. To trigger explosions in our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we approximate the neutrino transport with a simple light-bulb scheme and systematically change the neutrino fluxes emitted from the protoneutron star. By a post-processing calculation, we evaluate abundances and masses of the SN ejecta for nuclei with a mass number {<=}70, employing a large nuclear reaction network. Aspherical abundance distributions, which are observed in nearby core-collapse SN remnants, are obtained for the non-rotating spherically symmetric progenitor, due to the growth of a low-mode SASI. The abundance pattern of the SN ejecta is similar to that of the solar system for models whose masses range between (0.4-0.5) M{sub sun} of the ejecta from the inner region ({<=}10, 000 km) of the precollapse core. For the models, the explosion energies and the {sup 56}Ni masses are {approx_equal} 10{sup 51}erg and (0.05-0.06) M{sub sun}, respectively; their estimated baryonic masses of the neutron star are comparable to the ones observed in neutron-star binaries. These findings may have little uncertainty because most of the ejecta is composed of matter that is heated via the shock wave and has relatively definite abundances. The abundance ratios for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe observed in the Cygnus loop are reproduced well with the SN ejecta from an inner region of the 15 M{sub sun} progenitor.

  17. METAL-POOR STARS OBSERVED WITH THE MAGELLAN TELESCOPE. I. CONSTRAINTS ON PROGENITOR MASS AND METALLICITY OF AGB STARS UNDERGOING s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Christlieb, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2013-06-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.

  18. Light-element nucleosynthesis in a molecular cloud interacting with a supernova remnant and the origin of beryllium-10 in the protosolar nebula

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatischeff, Vincent; Duprat, Jean [Centre de Sciences Nuclaires et de Sciences de la Matire, IN2P3-CNRS and Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); De Srville, Nicolas, E-mail: Vincent.Tatischeff@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nuclaire d'Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS and Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-12-01

    The presence of short-lived radionuclides (t {sub 1/2} < 10 Myr) in the early solar system provides important information about the astrophysical environment in which the solar system formed. The discovery of now extinct {sup 10}Be (t {sub 1/2} = 1.4 Myr) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope anomalies (FUN-CAIs) suggests that a baseline concentration of {sup 10}Be in the early solar system was inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud. In this paper, we investigate various astrophysical contexts for the nonthermal nucleosynthesis of {sup 10}Be by cosmic-ray-induced reactions. We first show that the {sup 10}Be recorded in FUN-CAIs cannot have been produced in situ by irradiation of the FUN-CAIs themselves. We then show that trapping of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the collapsing presolar cloud core induced a negligible {sup 10}Be contamination of the protosolar nebula, the inferred {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio being at least 40 times lower than that recorded in FUN-CAIs ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ? 3 10{sup 4}). Irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by background GCRs produced a steady-state {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio ? 1.3 10{sup 4} at the time of the solar system formation, which suggests that the presolar cloud was irradiated by an additional source of CRs. Considering a detailed model for CR acceleration in a supernova remnant (SNR), we find that the {sup 10}Be abundance recorded in FUN-CAIs can be explained within two alternative scenarios: (1) the irradiation of a giant molecular cloud by CRs produced by ? 50 supernovae exploding in a superbubble of hot gas generated by a large star cluster of at least 20,000 members, and (2) the irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by freshly accelerated CRs escaped from an isolated SNR at the end of the Sedov-Taylor phase. In the second picture, the SNR resulted from the explosion of a massive star that ran away from its parent OB association

  19. Frank Wilczek, Asymptotic Freedom, and Strong Interaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of matter under extreme conditions, such as occurred in the earliest moments of the Big Bang. Also, it permits the construction of unified models of particle interactions,...

  20. Rob Roser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roser About Us Rob Roser - Head, Fermilab Scientific Computing Division Most Recent Supercomputing: A Toolbox to Simulate the Big Bang and Beyond September 19

  1. White House honors Los Alamos physicist's early career work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    what many scientists believe conditions of the universe were like immediately after the Big Bang. Vitev's work has assisted research at the U.S. Department of Energy's...

  2. Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayakawa, Takehito

    2012-11-12

    The neutrino-induced reactions in supernova explosions produce some rare odd-odd nuclides. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of the supernova production ratio of the long-lived isomeric state of {sup 180}Ta. This time-dependent solution is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this isotope. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta using the available nuclear data avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a {nu}-process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV. An unstable isotope {sup 92}Nb decays to {sup 92}Zr with a half-life of 3.47 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} years. We have proposed the {nu}-process origin for {sup 92}Nb. We calculate key neutrino-induced reactions and supernova {nu}-process. Our calculated result shows that the abundance of {sup 92}Nb can be explained by the {nu}-process.

  3. Unified description of 6Li structure and deuterium-4He dynamics with chiral two- and three-nucleon forces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr

    2015-05-29

    Here, we provide a unified ab initio description of the 6Li ground state and elastic scattering of deuterium (d) on 4He (α) using two- and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the influence of the three-nucleon force and reveal the role of continuum degrees of freedom in shaping the low-lying spectrum of 6Li. The calculation reproduces the empirical binding energy of 6Li, yielding an asymptotic D- to S-state ratio of the 6Li wave function in the d+α configuration of –0.027, in agreement with a determination from 6Li–4He elastic scattering, but overestimates the excitation energy of the 3+more » state by 350 keV. The bulk of the computed differential cross section is in good agreement with data. These results endorse the application of the present approach to the evaluation of the 2H(α,γ)6Li radiative capture, responsible for the big-bang nucleosynthesis of 6Li.« less

  4. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  5. The minimal curvaton-higgs model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: rose.lerner@desy.de

    2014-01-01

    We present the first full study of the minimal curvaton-higgs (MCH) model, which is a minimal interpretation of the curvaton scenario with one real scalar coupled to the standard model Higgs boson. The standard model coupling allows the dynamics of the model to be determined in detail, including effects from the thermal background and from radiative corrections to the potential. The relevant mechanisms for curvaton decay are incomplete non-perturbative decay (delayed by thermal blocking), followed by decay via a dimension-5 non-renormalisable operator. To avoid spoiling the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, we find the ''bare'' curvaton mass to be m{sub ?} ? 8 10{sup 4}GeV. To match observational data from Planck there is an upper limit on the curvaton-higgs coupling g, between 10{sup ?3} and 10{sup ?2}, depending on the mass. This is due to interactions with the thermal background. We find that typically non-Gaussianities are small but that if f{sub NL} is observed in the near future then m{sub ?}?<5 10{sup 9}GeV, depending on Hubble scale during inflation. In a thermal dark matter model, the lower bound on m{sub ?} can increase substantially. The parameter space may also be affected once the baryogenesis mechanism is specified.

  6. Origin of ΔN{sub eff} as a result of an interaction between dark radiation and dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjaelde, Ole Eggers; Das, Subinoy; Moss, Adam E-mail: subinoy@physik.rwth-aachen.de

    2012-10-01

    Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and recently from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) have indicated the possible existence of an extra radiation component in addition to the well known three neutrino species predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, we explore the possibility of the apparent extra dark radiation being linked directly to the physics of cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, we consider a generic scenario where dark radiation, as a result of an interaction, is produced directly by a fraction of the dark matter density effectively decaying into dark radiation. At an early epoch when the dark matter density is negligible, as an obvious consequence, the density of dark radiation is also very small. As the Universe approaches matter radiation equality, the dark matter density starts to dominate thereby increasing the content of dark radiation and changing the expansion rate of the Universe. As this increase in dark radiation content happens naturally after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), it can relax the possible tension with lower values of radiation degrees of freedom measured from light element abundances compared to that of the CMB. We numerically confront this scenario with WMAP+ACT and WMAP+SPT data and derive an upper limit on the allowed fraction of dark matter decaying into dark radiation.

  7. On the lithium dip in the metal poor open cluster NGC 2243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franois, P. [GEPI, Paris-Meudon Observatory, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Pasquini, L.; Palsa, R. [ESO, European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Biazzo, K. [INAF, Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy); Bonifacio, P. [GEPI, Paris-Meudon Observatory, Place Jules Janssen 92190, Meudon (France)

    2014-05-02

    Lithium is a key element for studying the mixing mechanisms operating in stellar interiors. It can also be used to probe the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Measuring the abundance of Lithium in stars belonging to Open Clusters (hereafter OC) allows a detailed comparison with stellar evolutionary models. NGC 2243 is particularly interesting thanks to its relative low metallicity ([Fe/H]=?0.54 0.10 dex). We performed a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-object facility FLAMES at the VLT 8.2m telescope. Lithium abundance has been measured in 27 stars. We found a Li dip center of 1.06 M{sub ?}, which is significantly smaller than that observed in solar metallicity and metal-rich clusters. This finding confirms and strengthens the conclusion that the mass of the stars in the Li dip strongly depends on stellar metallicity. The mean Li abundance of the cluster is log n(Li) = 2.70 dex, which is substantially higher than that observed in 47 Tue. We derived an iron abundance of [Fe/H]=?0.540.10 dex for NGC 2243, in agreement (within the errors) with previous findings.

  8. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions — lasting friendship with cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim

    2015-10-06

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≃1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A{sup ′}. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A{sup ′}-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such “secret” interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space — one at very small A{sup ′} coupling, one at relatively large A{sup ′} coupling — where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A{sup ′} coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A{sup ′} boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  9. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore » of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  10. Particle physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Dark matter with topological defects in the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Kirk, Russell; No, Jose Miguel; West, Stephen M.

    2015-05-26

    We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region m{sub DM}≫m{sub W} of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. In particular, for a given dark matter annihilation rate lower dark matter masses become viable. We investigate the allowed mass range taking into account constraints on the energy injection rate from the diffuse γ-ray background and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, together with constraints on the dark matter properties coming from direct and indirect detection limits. For the Inert Doublet Model high-mass region, an inert Higgs mass as low as ∼200 GeV is permitted. There is also an upper limit on string mass per unit length, and hence the symmetry breaking scale, from the relic abundance in this scenario. Depending on assumptions made about the string decays, the limits are in the range 10{sup 12} GeV to 10{sup 13} GeV.

  12. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    areas of energy issues. The research focuses on: the economics of petroleum, gas, coal, nuclear power, solar and renewable energy; the politics and sociology of energy; the...

  13. Harry Potter, Oxford and Nuclear Energy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Resources Defense Council 2004_deer_bailey.pdf (510.36 KB) More Documents & Publications Cleaning Up Diesel Engines South Coast AQMD Clean Transportation Programs Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility of Energy

    11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es104_dai_2011_o.pdf

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oxford OH Site - OH 22

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    with AEC prime contract to National Lead Company of Ohio on uranium metal. Includes VPs. ... 1992 OH.22-2 - DOE Memorandum; Wagoner to Price (OR); Subject: Authorization for Remedial ...

  15. City of Oxford, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14276 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  16. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GS, Department of Physics, ?i?li, ?stanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  17. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Duplicating the Big Bang in Upstate New York? You Wrote: I read in an article in Scientific American, I believe, two months ago, that they were going to try and duplicate the big bang in upstate New York. I understand that they are going to scale it down from the original, duplicating only the density and the heat of the original, but isn't there a danger of the experiment getting out of hand? After all, the original big bang, from what I've read, was rather small itself, but had some pretty

  18. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hello, At least some contemporary big bang theories begin with the entire universe packed into a very small, atom sized volume. Since black hole densities can be achieved by compressing the earth to the size of a marble; it seems that the early universe would have been dense enough to be a black hole and would have never expanded. Are the theories of the big bang and black holes at odds? Thanks, Doug McAllister Tulsa Hello Doug, That is a very good question. The big bang theory and the existence

  19. Making sense of the new cosmology (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The New Cosmology greatly extends the highly successful hot big-bang model. Now we have to make sense of all this: What is the dark matter particle? What is the nature of the dark ...

  20. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1:00 to 3:00 p.m. to talk with visitors, answer questions and explain everything from the Higgs boson and the Big Bang to how a particle accelerator works. "We'll even try to help...

  1. Science and Technology Review, January-February 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    Table of contents: accelerators at Livermore; the B-Factory and the Big Bang; assessing exposure to radiation; next generation of computer storage; and a powerful new tool to detect clandestine nuclear tests.

  2. Hunting Cosmic Ghosts | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... By 2013, with 3.5 times more data, the team definitively showed the transformation. The ... The observable universe is made almost entirely of matter, but moments after the Big Bang, ...

  3. 1663_24_WEB-FINAL.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    63 May 2015 31 Matter 1,000,000,002 Antimatter 1,000,000,000 Antimatter 0 Matter 2 Early universe Today's universe How We Survived the Big Bang The fact that we exist in a universe...

  4. Fermilab Cultural Events in Chicago's Far West Side

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On Display: February 19, 2016 -April 29, 2016 Reception - Friday, March 18 5-7pm Fermilab Art Gallery, Wilson Hall The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang almost 14 ...

  5. 35 Breakthroughs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More than half of all windows sold each year have this coating. 3 Confirmed the Big Bang, and discovered dark energy. Lab detectors aboard a NASA satellite revealed the birth of ...

  6. Using supercomputers to probe the early universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using supercomputers to probe the early universe Using supercomputers to probe the early universe Los Alamos researchers developed a computer code, called BURST, that can simulate a slice in the life of our young cosmos. June 5, 2016 Artist's depiction of the WMAP satellite gathering data to understand the Big Bang. Source: NASA. Artist's depiction of the WMAP satellite gathering data to understand the Big Bang. Source: NASA. Using supercomputers to probe the early universe For decades

  7. Microsoft Word - D. Spergel.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 March 2016 Taking the Baby Picture of the Universe Dr. David Spergel Professor of Astronomy & Chair of he Department of Astrophysical Sciences Princeton University Princeton, NJ ABSTRACT: Observations of the microwave background, the left-over heat from the big bang, are snap-shots of the universe only three hundred thousand years after the big bang. These observations have answered many of the questions that have driven cosmology for the past few decades: How old is the universe? What is

  8. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supercomputers to probe the early universe June 5, 2016 Using supercomputers to probe the early universe For decades physicists have been trying to decipher the first moments after the Big Bang. Using very large telescopes, for example, scientists scan the skies and look at how fast galaxies move. Satellites study the relic radiation left from the Big Bang, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. And finally, particle colliders, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, allow researchers

  9. R-matrix Analysis of Reactions in the {sup 9}B Compound System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paris, M. Hale, G.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A.; Jungman, G.

    2014-06-15

    Recent activity in solving the lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis has focused on the role that putative resonances may play in resonance-enhanced destruction of {sup 7}Li. Particular attention has been paid to the reactions involving the {sup 9}B compound nuclear system, d+{sup 7}Be?{sup 9}B. These reactions are analyzed via the multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix method using the code EDA developed by Hale and collaborators. We employ much of the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic {sup 3}He+{sup 6}Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,p){sup 8}Be{sup *} and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,d){sup 7}Be reaction. Capture data have been added to an earlier analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,?){sup 9}B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values, and previously unidentified resonances are noted. Our results show that there are no near d+{sup 7}Be threshold resonances with widths that are 10's of keV and reduce the likelihood that a resonance-enhanced mass-7 destruction mechanism, as suggested in recently published work, can explain the {sup 7}Li problem.

  10. DARK FLUID: A UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS, DARK MATTER, AND DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Hongsheng; Li Baojiu E-mail: b.li@damtp.cam.ac.u

    2010-03-20

    Empirical theories of dark matter (DM) like modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) gravity and of dark energy (DE) like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general and hence generic framework? Here we propose a very generic Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and covariant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. The desired effects of quintessence plus cold DM particle fields or MOND-like scalar field(s) are shown to be largely achievable by one vector field only. Our framework preserves the covariant formulation of general relativity, but allows the expanding physical metric to be bent by a single new species of dark fluid flowing in spacetime. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simple functions of a vector field with variable norm, not coupled with the baryonic fluid and the four-vector potential of the photon fluid. The dark fluid framework generically branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with DE and DM effects, including the f(R) gravity, tensor-vector-scalar-like theories, Einstein-Aether, and nuLAMBDA theories as limiting cases. When the vector field degenerates into a pure scalar field, we obtain the physics for quintessence. Choices of parameters can be made to pass Big Bang nucleosynthesis, parameterized post-Newtonian, and causality constraints. In this broad setting we emphasize the non-constant dynamical field behind the cosmological constant effect, and highlight plausible corrections beyond the classical MOND predictions.

  11. New determination of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction rates at astrophysical energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumino, A.; Spart, R.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Lamia, L.

    2014-04-20

    The cross sections of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions have been measured via the Trojan Horse method applied to the quasi-free {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p {sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n {sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes at 18 MeV off the proton in {sup 3}He. For the first time, the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been determined from 1.5 MeV, across the relevant region for standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, down to the thermal energies of deuterium burning in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase of stellar evolution, as well as of future fusion reactors. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the S(E) factors deviate by more than 15% from the available direct data and existing fitting curves, with substantial variations in the electron screening by more than 50%. As a consequence, the reaction rates for astrophysics experience relevant changes, with a maximum increase of up to 20% at the temperatures of the PMS phase. From a recent primordial abundance sensitivity study, it turns out that the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction is quite influential on {sup 7}Li, and the present change in the reaction rate leads to a decrease in its abundance by up to 10%. The present reaction rates have also been included in an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code to analyze their influence on the central deuterium abundance in PMS stars with different masses. The largest variation of about 10%-15% pertains to young stars (?1 Myr) with masses ?1 M {sub ?}.

  12. Formation of super-heavy elements in astrophysical nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter

    2012-10-20

    The unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides is extremely important for the understanding of the r process of astrophysical nucleogenesis. For elements with Z>100 only neutron deficient isotopes (located to the left of the stability line) have been synthesized so far. The 'north-east' area of the nuclear map can be reached neither in fusion reactions nor in fragmentation processes. Low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions are quite promising for the production and study of neutron-rich heavy nuclei including those located at the superheavy (SH) island of stability [1]. The neutron capture process is considered here as an alternative method for the production of SH nuclei. Requirements for the pulsed reactors of the next generation that could be used for the synthesis of long-living neutron rich SH nuclei are formulated. Formation of SH nuclei in supernova explosions is also discussed and the abundance of SH elements in nature is estimated.

  13. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alford, Mark

    2015-05-31

    The Topical Collaboration funded one of Prof. Alford's graduate students, Jun (Sophia) Han, by providing 75% of her support. The work reported here was wholly or partly supported by the Topical Collaboration. Additional support, e.g. for postdoc Kai Schwenzer, came from Nuclear Theory grant #DE-FG02-05ER41375.

  14. Nucleosynthesis Woosley, Stan 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS SciDAC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciDAC 2, Computational Astrophysics Consortium, Supernovae, Computations Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium -...

  15. Modeling Cosmic Nucleosynthesis | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Laboratory to make exquisitely accurate measurements of the masses of rare isotopes. ... Thus, supernovae are thought to be a possible source of many of the heavy elements on Earth, ...

  16. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 31, 2013-Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Matter, antimatter and surviving the big bang is topic of Lab's next Frontiers in Science lecture October 31, 2013 Talk begins at 7 p.m. and open to public LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 31, 2013-Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Vincenzo Cirigliano asks the question, How did we survive the big bang? in a series of Frontiers in Science lectures beginning Monday, Nov. 4, in the Duane Smith Auditorium at Los Alamos High School. "Particles and antiparticles were produced in equal numbers in the

  17. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big Bang & Bosons Glenn, I guess what I want to ask you is a stupid question. But since I am a lay person with a lot of curiousity let me be bold enough to ask it. I understand the the standard particle theory says that large masses indicated by boson masses can only be created by lots power in accelerators. That is why the supercollider would have been great. But how does this relate if the Big Bang theory is correct? What does the current trend in elementary particle physics have to do to

  18. Studying Nuclear Astrophysics at NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, R; Bernstein, L; Brune, C

    2009-07-01

    measurements of some of the nuclear reaction probabilities that are important to nuclear astrophysics, the field that relates energy production and nucleosynthesis from nuclear reactions in stars and in the Big Bang to the environments in which those nuclear reactions occur. NIF, unlike previous nuclear-physics facilities, will enable measurements of nuclear reactions at the temperatures, densities, and ionization states similar to those that occur in stars.

  19. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-04-01

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single

  20. Waves in Nature, Lasers to Tsumanis and Beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Waves are everywhere. Microwaves, laser beams, music, tsunamis. Electromagnetic waves emanating from the Big Bang fill the universe. Learn about the similarities and difference in all of these wavy phenomena with Ed Moses and Rick Sawicki, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Science] [Show ID: 11541

  1. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2010-01-08

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  2. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2009-06-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  3. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of coded apertures. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  4. Waves in Nature, Lasers to Tsumanis and Beyond

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01

    Waves are everywhere. Microwaves, laser beams, music, tsunamis. Electromagnetic waves emanating from the Big Bang fill the universe. Learn about the similarities and difference in all of these wavy phenomena with Ed Moses and Rick Sawicki, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Science] [Show ID: 11541

  5. Study of {sup 24}Mg resonances relevant for carbon burning nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki?, V.; Soi?, N.; Blagus, S.; Fazini?, S.; Jelavi?-Malenica, D.; Miljani?, D.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Szilner, S.; Uroi?, M.; Milin, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Freer, M.; Ziman, V.; and others

    2014-05-09

    We have studied decays of resonances in {sup 24}Mg at excitation energies above the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C decay threshold, using {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,?){sup 24}Mg* reaction. This experiment has been performed at INFNLNS, using Tandem accelerator beam of 16O at E = 94 MeV. Some preliminary results are presented.

  6. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NEUTRON STAR-BLACK HOLE MERGER RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauswein, A. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ardevol Pulpillo, R.; Janka, H.-T. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Goriely, S., E-mail: bauswein@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-01

    We derive constraints on the time-averaged event rate of neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers by using estimates of the population-integrated production of heavy rapid neutron-capture (r-process) elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140 by such events in comparison to the Galactic repository of these chemical species. Our estimates are based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations convolved with theoretical predictions of the binary population. This allows us to determine a strict upper limit of the average NS-BH merger rate of ?6 10{sup 5} per year. We quantify the uncertainties of this estimate to be within factors of a few mostly because of the unknown BH spin distribution of such systems, the uncertain equation of state of NS matter, and possible errors in the Galactic content of r-process material. Our approach implies a correlation between the merger rates of NS-BH binaries and of double NS systems. Predictions of the detection rate of gravitational-wave signals from such compact object binaries by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo on the optimistic side are incompatible with the constraints set by our analysis.

  7. Cleanroom Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectrophotometer Nikon MM-22U Measuroscope Nikon OPTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope OXFORD Plasmalab System 400 Magnetron Sputtering System OXFORD RIEECR 100 System Oxford...

  8. ANL2014-JMA.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 8 Oxford Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom *Research sponsored by...

  9. The Origin of the Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Edward

    2012-11-20

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  10. The Origin of the Elements

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murphy, Edward

    2014-08-06

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  11. Saturday Morning Physics talk (Feb 2013)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with trapped atoms and ions 2/2/2013 Dan Melconian 2/2/2013 Dan Melconian Outline * Scope and applications of nuclear physics  precision frontier compliments LHC  properties of nuclei used to explain celestial phenomena and conditions just after the Big Bang  diagnostic and therapeutic medicine * "Cool" tools - atom traps  probing fundamental symmetries  (ion traps)  trace analysis and aquifers in the Sahara 2/2/2013 Dan Melconian What is Nuclear Physics? * Began

  12. Dark energy and dark matter from primordial QGP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidya, Vaishali Upadhyaya, G. K.

    2015-07-31

    Coloured relics servived after hadronization might have given birth to dark matter and dark energy. Theoretical ideas to solve mystery of cosmic acceleration, its origin and its status with reference to recent past are of much interest and are being proposed by many workers. In the present paper, we present a critical review of work done to understand the earliest appearance of dark matter and dark energy in the scenario of primordial quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase after Big Bang.

  13. October

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October October We are your source for reliable, up-to-date news and information; our scientists and engineers can provide technical insights on our innovations for a secure nation. Frontiers in Science lecture series is intended to increase local public awareness of the diversity of science and engineering research at the Laboratory. Matter, antimatter and surviving the big bang is topic of Lab's next Frontiers in Science lecture LANL scientist Vincenzo Cirigliano asks the question, How did we

  14. Numerical simulations shed new light on early universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Numerical simulations shed new light on early universe Numerical simulations shed new light on early universe The code simulates conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution to model the role of neutrinos, nuclei and other particles in shaping the early universe. April 21, 2016 Los Alamos scientists developed the BURST computer code to predict-to unprecedented precision-the amounts of light nuclei synthesized in the Big Bang. Los Alamos scientists developed the BURST

  15. Quantum Universe James Hartle University of California, Santa Barbara

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Einstein's Vision and the Quantum Universe James Hartle University of California, Santa Barbara October 21, 2015 4:00 p.m. - Wilson Hall, One West Einstein's theory of gravity -- general relativity --- is important on two major frontiers in physics: The frontier of the very large --- the domain of astrophysics and cosmology. The frontier of the very small --- quantum mechanics and elementary particle physics. Large and small are one at the big bang. We will review some successes of classical

  16. Top Science of 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RAPTOR telescope witnesses black hole birth Top Science of 2013 Our strong interdisciplinary teaming and unique research facilities allow us to develop solutions to complex problems, and to support partners and collaborators, all with the goal of strengthening national security and making a safer world. RAPTOR telescope witnesses black hole birth placeholder The first "thinking telescope" RAPTOR found the birth of big black holes, possibly the most powerful events since the big bang.

  17. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Numerical simulations shed new light on early universe April 21, 2016 BURST code probes first minutes after the Big Bang for fundamental insights LOS ALAMOS, N.M., April 21, 2016-Innovative multidisciplinary research in nuclear and particle physics and cosmology has led to the development of a new, more accurate computer code to study the early universe. The code simulates conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution to model the role of neutrinos, nuclei and other particles

  18. Microsoft Word - DCebra_11_19_2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Diagram of QCD Matter Professor Daniel Cebra University of California, Davis Abstract Collisions between relativistic heavy-ions (gold or lead) are energetic enough to vaporize the participating neutrons and protons creating equilibrated plasma of quarks and gluons. This plasma is thought to be similar to the state of the universe about one microsecond after the big bang. The existence of this deconfined partonic phase has been well established at the top energies available at the

  19. Inquiring Minds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Astrophysics at Fermilab Source: Robert Kirschner; NASA/WMAP Science Team. Fermilab is recognized worldwide as a laboratory where advances in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology converge. The experimental results and theoretical predictions of accelerator-based particle physics experiments shed light on the birth and evolution of the universe immediately after the Big Bang. Similarly, advances in the understanding of the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe give new

  20. Cosmology & Astrophysics | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmology & Astrophysics Cosmology & Astrophysics For centuries, scientists have tried to fully describe the formation and evolution of our universe, as well as its composition. At Argonne, scientists study the cosmic background radiation that formed as a result of the big bang as well as the mysterious dark matter and dark energy which combine to form more than 90 percent of our universe. Cosmology, the study of the origins and working of our universe, not only gives us answers that

  1. Simply Wrong vs. Simple Professor Paul Steinhardt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simply Wrong vs. Simple Professor Paul Steinhardt Princeton University September 7, 2016 4:00 p.m. - Wilson Hall, One West This talk will explain why the big bang inflationary picture fails as a scientific theory to explai the observed properties of the universe and how the lessons learned, combined with recent cosmologicala and particle physics experiments and some theoretical advances, ar pointing to a simpler explanation.

  2. Planetary formation theory developed, tested: predicts timeline for life

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planetary formation theory developed, tested: predicts timeline for life After the Big Bang: Theory suggests first planets formed after first generations of stars The researchers' calculations predict properties of first planet and timeline for life. May 3, 2012 image description The researchers state that the formation of Earth-like planets is not itself a sufficient prerequisite for life. Early galaxies contained strong sources of life-threatening radiation, such as supernovae and black holes.

  3. Alignments in quasar polarizations: Pseudoscalar-photon mixing in the presence of correlated magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Kamal, Archana; Jain, Pankaj

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the effects of pseudoscalar-photon mixing on electromagnetic radiation in the presence of correlated extragalactic magnetic fields. We model the Universe as a collection of magnetic domains and study the propagation of radiation through them. This leads to correlations between Stokes parameters over large scales and consistently explains the observed large-scale alignment of quasar polarizations at different redshifts within the framework of the big bang model.

  4. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Kingdom) Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford ... 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; DIRECT INJECTION ENGINES; GASOLINE; AIR; ...

  5. Mass Measurements of Very Neutron-Deficient Mo and Tc Isotopes and Their Impact on rp Process Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Ketelaer, J.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Mazzocco, M.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Vorobjev, G.

    2011-03-25

    The masses of ten proton-rich nuclides, including the N=Z+1 nuclides {sup 85}Mo and {sup 87}Tc, were measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. Compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2003 a systematic shift of the mass surface by up to 1.6 MeV is observed causing significant abundance changes of the ashes of astrophysical x-ray bursts. Surprisingly low {alpha} separation energies for neutron-deficient Mo and Tc are found, making the formation of a ZrNb cycle in the rp process possible. Such a cycle would impose an upper temperature limit for the synthesis of elements beyond Nb in the rp process.

  6. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  7. What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? 2012.02.24 Chief Scientist Jim Bray discusses the motion of atoms, the classical laws of physics and the forces associated with the big bang theory. 1

  8. The supernova that destroyed a galaxy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The supernova that destroyed a galaxy The supernova that destroyed a galaxy The research may solve the long-standing puzzle of how supermassive black holes were formed in the centers of some galaxies less then a billion years after the Big Bang. August 5, 2013 Supernova of a 55,000 solar-mass star in a primitive galaxy (explosion in a low-density region) Supernova of a 55,000 solar-mass star in a primitive galaxy (explosion in a low-density region) The Los Alamos simulation is the most realistic

  9. Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Borrill, Julian

    2013-05-29

    An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.

  10. RHIC PHYSICS: THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA AND THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE: 4 LECTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the RHIC heavy ion program. These center around the production of new states of matter. The Quark Gluon Plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the big bang which may be made at RHIC. The Color Glass Condensate is a universal form of matter which controls the high energy limit of strong interactions. Both such forms of matter might be produced and probed at RHIC.

  11. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics of the universe From the big bang to black holes, extra dimensions, space and time Centrifugal Force From smaller than atoms to larger than galaxies structures spin and in doing so the centrifugal force throws things outward. Might not the Universe as a whole be spinning on an axis and what we currently ascribe to a mysterious repulsive force be a centrifugal force throwing things outward? Thrown out rather than pushed or drawn? Motion in the Universe I have been attempting to calculate

  12. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Early Universe Question Greetings Well, you most likely receive a billion messages a day from nuts like me, but here's another one for you. Before the big bang, when there was just random endergy fluctuations in this empty void. At this point, before the particle that blew up, is it possible that there could have been one dimension raining supreme, a dimension which, when seperated, become the four distinct dimensions we now live in? What I'm trying to say is, when the universe was formed,

  13. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the origin of the universe Like "detecting a heartbeat in an arena" full of people Click on an image below to view the high resolution image. Then right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." Princeton physicist Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY laboratory. Behind him are powerful superconducting magnets on either side of the vacuum chamber. View of the dilution refrigerator that

  14. Supercomputer Helps Model 3D Map of Adolescent Universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputer Helps Model 3D Map of Adolescent Universe Supercomputer Helps Model 3D Map of Adolescent Universe Researchers Demonstrate Novel Technique for High-Resolution Universe Maps October 17, 2014 Contact: Kate Greene, kgreene@lbl.gov, 510-486-4404 Using extremely faint light from galaxies 10.8 billion light years away, scientists have created one of the most complete, three-dimensional maps of a slice of the adolescent universe-just 3 billion years after the Big Bang. The map shows a web

  15. Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center

  16. 2001 - 07 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Jul 2001 Mon, 2001-07-23 00:00 Lab is Part of Project to Build Neutron Generator (The Virginian-Pilot) Sun, 2001-07-15 00:00 Wires Stamp Out Wimbledon for Jefferson Lab Technologist (Daily Press) Sun, 2001-07-15 00:00 Interests and Advantages: High School, College Students Tackle Science at Jefferson Lab Program (Daily Press) Wed, 2001-07-11 00:00 Imager May One Day Scan Moving Animals (United Press International) Sat, 2001-07-07 00:00 Tiny Discovery May Answer a Question About the Big Bang

  17. Nuclear Fusion Drives Present-Day Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, Leong

    2010-09-30

    The widely accepted model of our cosmos is that it began from a Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source. From a twin universe perspective, the standard stellar model of nuclear fusion can account for the Dark Energy needed to explain the mechanism for our present-day accelerated expansion. The same theories can also be used to account for the rapid inflationary expansion at the earliest time of creation, and predict the future cosmic expansion rate.

  18. Uranium and thorium complexes of the phosphaethynolate ion (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical Sciences Div. Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France). LPCNO. Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemisty. Publication Date: 2015-06-20 OSTI ...

  19. Building America Case Study: BrightBuilt Home, Modular Zero Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Builders Inc., Rockland, ME, blackbrosbuilders.com Keiser Homes, Oxford, ME, ... The modular boxes were manu factured in Oxford, Maine, by Keiser Homes. At the site, Black ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... January 2010 , Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom Nonstoichiometry and the Electrical Activity of Grain Boundaries in SrTiOsub 3 Kim, Miyoung ; Duscher, Gerd ; ...

  1. A two-parameter model for the infrared/submillimeter/radio spectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States) Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom) Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of ...

  2. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Doriese, W.Bertrand ; Dunner, R. ; Essinger-Hileman, T. more ; Fisher, R.P. ; Oxford U. Princeton U. Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. Oxford U. Canadian Inst....

  3. Sorption Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford, England, United Kingdom Zip: OX1 2AY Product: Oxford-based firm developing adsorption air-conditioning and heating systems for domestic-scale products. Coordinates:...

  4. Origin of the universe from Quantum Chaos: An introduction to current ideas (professor John Dyer Memorial Lecture). Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehler, K.E.

    1989-05-01

    In his recently published book A Brief History of Time, S. Hawking describes his remarkable insights into the problem of the origin of our universe. In this talk a more quantitative description of some of the important principles from this book is presented as a mathematical appendix to it. A brief review of the ideas of the Standard Big Bang Model of the Universe is given in terms of the evolution equation that follows from Einstein's theory. The meaning of the Cosmological Constant, its relation to Vacuum Energy, the model of the empty DeSitter Space and Gravity is derived. By analogy to Schroedinger mechanics one can give the general features of Quantum Cosmology', in which the origin of the universe can be viewed as a quantum tunneling process in imaginary time from a Quantum Chaos state of no space, no time, no matter to an inflationary expanding DeSitter space which eventually transits into the Hot Big Bang Expansion that we see.

  5. S-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the weak component. I. Evolution and neutron captures in a 25 solar mass star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raiteri, C.M.; Busso, M.; Picchio, G.; Gallino, R.; Pulone, L. Torino Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin Torino Universita, Turin Trieste Osservatorio Astronomico )

    1991-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations of a typical massive star are run in order to analyze the n-capture process occurring during the hydrostatic core He-burning phase, studying the effects of variations in the C-12(alpha, gamma)O-16 and Ne-22(alpha, n)Mg-25 rates within their present uncertainties and in other nuclear inputs. The nucleosynthetic mechanism is characterized by a low mean neutron density, which never exceeds 10 to the 6th n/cu cm. A good production of the s-isotopes in the atomic mass range 70-90 is found, the actual neutron exposure depending on some critical parameters. Important contributions are also found for several light n-rich species and for the heavy rare isotopes Gd-152 and Ta-180. How s-processing in a typical massive star compares with predictions by classical analysis is addressed. 67 refs.

  6. Worcester County, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Brookfield, Massachusetts Northbridge, Massachusetts Oakham, Massachusetts Oxford, Massachusetts Paxton, Massachusetts Petersham, Massachusetts Phillipston,...

  7. Chester County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lionville-Marchwood, Pennsylvania Malvern, Pennsylvania Modena, Pennsylvania Oxford, Pennsylvania Paoli, Pennsylvania Parkesburg, Pennsylvania Phoenixville, Pennsylvania...

  8. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei; Wu, Puxun E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  9. Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. ); Murdock, T.L. ); Smoot, G.F. ); Weiss, R. ); Wright, E.L. )

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Double field theory inspired cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

  11. Observation of an Antimatter Hypernucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    Nuclear collisions recreate conditions in the universe microseconds after the Big Bang. Only a very small fraction of the emitted fragments are light nuclei, but these states are of fundamental interest. We report the observation of antihypertritons - composed of an antiproton, antineutron, and antilambda hyperon - produced by colliding gold nuclei at high energy. Our analysis yields 70 {+-} 17 antihypertritons ({sub {bar {Lambda}}}{sup 3}{bar H}) and 157 {+-} 30 hypertritons ({sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H). The measured yields of {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H ({sub {bar {Lambda}}}{sup 3}{bar H}) and {sup 3}He ({sup 3}{ovr He}) are similar, suggesting an equilibrium in coordinate and momentum space populations of up, down, and strange quarks and antiquarks, unlike the pattern observed at lower collision energies. The production and properties of antinuclei, and nuclei containing strange quarks, have implications spanning nuclear/particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  12. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  13. The ATLAS Experiment: Mapping the Secrets of the Universe (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Barnett, Michael

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2007: Michael Barnett of Berkeley Lab's Physics Division discusses the ATLAS Experiment at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics' (CERN) Large Hadron Collider. The collider will explore the aftermath of collisions at the highest energy ever produced in the lab, and will recreate the conditions of the universe a billionth of a second after the Big Bang. The ATLAS detector is half the size of the Notre Dame Cathedral and required 2000 physicists and engineers from 35 countries for its construction. Its goals are to examine mini-black holes, identify dark matter, understand antimatter, search for extra dimensions of space, and learn about the fundamental forces that have shaped the universe since the beginning of time and will determine its fate.

  14. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

    2000-04-28

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

  15. Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the ``initial data`` for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory review: Volume 20, No. 2, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, C.; Zucker, A.; Corrill, L.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief statement on the 1986 state of the laboratory, science highlights in collaborative research are presented: an attempt to recreate the first moments of the Big Bang, surface modification techniques in electronics, assessing home radon levels in five states, managing international integrated forest study, US-Japan joint breeder reprocessing project, optical components for SDI, evaluating the Chernobyl reactor accident, fusion superconducting magnet and fueling, scanning tunneling microscope, laser-processed solar cells, explosive trace detector, parallel computer processing algorithms, risk of fertilized egg to teratogens, trees for biomass energy, toxic waste leaching test, corn fermentation, and electricity distribution automation at Athens, TN. Milestones, other programs, the HFIR situation, book publications, and news are finally given. (DLC)

  17. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  18. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  19. Non-Gaussian density fluctuations from entropically generated curvature perturbations in ekpyrotic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2008-03-15

    We analyze the non-Gaussian density perturbations generated in ekpyrotic/cyclic models based on heterotic M theory. In this picture, two scalar fields produce nearly scale-invariant entropic perturbations during an ekpyrotic phase that are converted into curvature modes after the ekpyrotic phase is complete and just before the big bang. Both intrinsic nonlinearity in the entropy perturbation and the conversion process contribute to non-Gaussianity. The range of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} depends on how gradual the conversion process is and the steepness of the scalar field potential during the ekpyrotic phase. Although a wider range is possible, in principle, natural values of the ekpyrotic parameters combined with a gradual conversion process lead to values of -50 < or approx. f{sub NL} < or approx. +200, typically much greater than slow-roll inflation but within the current observational bounds.

  20. Topics in inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, S.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Analysis of the Fisher solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2010-01-15

    We study the d-dimensional Fisher solution which represents a static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetime with a massless scalar field. The solution has two parameters, the mass M and the 'scalar charge' {Sigma}. The Fisher solution has a naked curvature singularity which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The part which is asymptotically flat we call the Fisher spacetime, and another part we call the Fisher universe. The d-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini solution and the Fisher solution belong to the same theory and are dual to each other. The duality transformation acting in the parameter space (M,{Sigma}) maps the exterior region of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole into the Fisher spacetime which has a naked timelike singularity, and interior region of the black hole into the Fisher universe, which is an anisotropic expanding-contracting universe and which has two spacelike singularities representing its 'big bang' and 'big crunch'. The big bang singularity and the singularity of the Fisher spacetime are radially weak in the sense that a 1-dimensional object moving along a timelike radial geodesic can arrive to the singularities intact. At the vicinity of the singularity the Fisher spacetime of nonzero mass has a region where its Misner-Sharp energy is negative. The Fisher universe has a marginally trapped surface corresponding to the state of its maximal expansion in the angular directions. These results and derived relations between geometric quantities of the Fisher spacetime, the Fisher universe, and the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole may suggest that the massless scalar field transforms the black hole event horizon into the naked radially weak disjoint singularities of the Fisher spacetime and the Fisher universe which are 'dual to the horizon'.

  2. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nucleosynthesis (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  3. PATENTS-US--A7516399

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Using a thermal conductivity estimate of .00063 cgs, (Carslaw et al, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed., 1959, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford), which is appropriate for dry, sandy ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Future directions for research are also discussed. less January 2012 , Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom Strain-induced topological transition in SrRu2O6 and ...

  5. Climate Care | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Care Jump to: navigation, search Name: Climate Care Place: Oxford, England, United Kingdom Zip: OX4 1RQ Sector: Carbon Product: Oxford-based carbon offsetting firm- making...

  6. 13928 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    928 Before and after CrossRef Public Image File(s): 499px-AquatintofaDoctorindivinityattheUniversityofOxford,shownwearingconvocationdress

  7. Marquette County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

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    Montello, Wisconsin Moundville, Wisconsin Neshkoro, Wisconsin Newton, Wisconsin Oxford, Wisconsin Packwaukee, Wisconsin Shields, Wisconsin Westfield, Wisconsin Retrieved...

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    in Newton County, Georgia Covington, Georgia Mansfield, Georgia Newborn, Georgia Oxford, Georgia Porterdale, Georgia Social Circle, Georgia Retrieved from "http:...

  11. SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON EXPLODING STARS: TERASCALE SIMULATIONS OF

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    NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON EXPLODING STARS: TERASCALE SIMULATIONS OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON EXPLODING STARS: TERASCALE SIMULATIONS OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS This project was focused on simulations of core-collapse supernovae on parallel platforms. The intent was to address a number of

  12. Slide 1

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    describe astrophysical processes Neutron star formation & structure (nsEOS) Supernovae & nucleosynthesis 132 Sn Very neutron rich Doubly-magic (Z 50, N 82) ...

  13. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a...

  14. Microsoft Word - fields_abstract

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    Nucleosynthesis After WMAP: The Lithium Problem and New Physics" Professor Brian ... element formation, but also has confirmed and added urgency to the "lithium problem." ...

  15. Charles F. McMillan

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    Hungerford, and Timmes, Ap. J. (2006) Supernova hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis 2D Hydro Simulation of Supernova Fallback model shows the data need for Xe, Cs, Ba, Pt, Au,...

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    DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS Haxton Wick CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS GENERAL PHYSICS PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND...

  17. SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON EXPLODING STARS: TERASCALE SIMULATIONS...

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    SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS Haxton, Wick 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS...

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    Corporation (BNC) (United States) Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL), West Mifflin, PA ... Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis ...

  19. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials ...

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    Dr. Sergii L. Dudarev Programme Grant Modelling Co-ordinator & Visiting Professor Oxford ... was funded by the RCUK Energy Programme grant number EPI501045, carried out within the ...

  20. US ITER toroidal field coil conductor...

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    ITER toroidal field coil conductor production requires miles of niobium-tin superconducting wire. Photo: Oxford Superconducting Technology Continued on page 6 INSIDE: ITER Site ...

  1. 2degrees | Open Energy Information

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    Kingdom Zip: OX2 7HT Product: Oxford-based collaborative network provider for sustainability professionals. Coordinates: 43.781517, -89.571699 Show Map Loading map......

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    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunlight Solar Energy Address: 4 Oxford Road Place: Milford, Connecticut Zip: 06460 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar...

  3. Save Energy Now Indiana | Department of Energy

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    ... Project Award Partners Ame Drug Plastics and Gas Company, Inc., Oxford, Indiana Duke Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, Indiana Hoosier Energy ...

  4. By:\tDr.\tNabil\tNasr

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    Raworth, K. et al. Oxfam: Oxford, UK, 2012. OECD's Sustainable Manufacturing Toolkit Sustainability components Issue Areas Indicators category Social responsibility Material use ...

  5. Legacy Management FUSRAP Sites | Department of Energy

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    Falls Vicinity Properties, New York, Site Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Warehouses Site Oxford, Ohio, Site Painesville, Ohio, Site Seymour, Connecticut, Site Springdale, ...

  6. Eliza Hotchkiss | Department of Energy

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    She has a master's degree Energy Efficient and Sustainable Architecture from the Oxford School of Architecture in England and a bachelor's degree in Geography-Geology from Vassar ...

  7. OSTIblog Articles in the dissertation Topic | OSTI, US Dept of...

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    Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-AquatintofaDoctorindivinityattheUniversityofOxford,shownwearingconvocationdress.jpg Before and after ...

  8. Bromo-deaza-SAH: A potent and selective DOT1L inhibitor (Journal...

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    Cheryl H. ; Vedadi, Masoud ; Brown, Peter J. ; Schapira, Matthieu 1 ; Toronto) 2 ; Oxford) 2 + Show Author Affiliations (OICR-Canada) ( Publication Date: 2013-03-29 OSTI ...

  9. Xiaopeng Qu,1 Jonathan B. Boreyko,2...

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    ... The micropillars shown in Fig. 3(a) were lithographically etched in a silicon substrate using cryogenic reactive ion etching at -110C (Oxford Plasmalab 100). The squarely ...

  10. Energy Department Recognizes Landlords, Tenants Working Together...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Akridge Brandywine Realty Trust The Bullitt Foundation Empire State Realty Trust Jamestown, L.P. Kilroy Realty Corporation Kimco Realty Corporation Liberty Property Trust Oxford ...

  11. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries (Book) | SciTech Connect

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    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Book Publisher: Woodhead Publishing - Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) ...

  12. Effect of Doping on Surface Reactivity and Conduction Mechanism...

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    Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Harwell Campus, Oxford (United ...

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    ... trends of photosynthesis in blue oaks as well as the mechanistic relationships between leaf structure and function. Full Text Available April 2015 , Oxford University Press

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    ... January 2012 , Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA Enhanced tunnelling electroresistance effect due to a ferroelectrically induced phase transition at a magnetic complex ...

  15. OSTIblog Articles in the literature review Topic | OSTI, US Dept...

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    Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-AquatintofaDoctorindivinityattheUniversityofOxford,shownwearingconvocationdress.jpg Before and after ...

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    ... in C. thermocellum and other bacteria. less Full Text Available March 2015 , Oxford University Press Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress ...

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    ... The Morphology of TiOsubscript 2 (B) Nanoparticles Hua, Xiao ; Liu, Zheng ; Bruce, Peter G. ; Grey, Clare P. ; Cambridge) ; Oxford) November 2015 , American Chemical Society ...

  18. Project No 974 | Open Energy Information

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    Project No 974 Place: Oxford, United Kingdom Zip: OX2 7SG Product: Biological fuel cell technology employing enzymatic catalysts. Project is at present without company name....

  19. SAND2010-5901

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Clarendon Press, Oxford. Bodansky D. 2006. "Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel," Physics Today. December 2006, pp. 80- 81. Carlsson A.F., and Madix R. J. 2001. "Intrinsic and ...

  20. Encore Energy Systems formerly Energy Vision International formerly...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (formerly Energy Vision International (formerly DeMarco Energy Systems of Amer Place: Oxford, Massachusetts Zip: 38655 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Provider geothermal heat...

  1. Beamline 11.3.1

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    (EE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at sample 280...

  2. Jones County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Junction, Iowa Martelle, Iowa Monticello, Iowa Morley, Iowa Olin, Iowa Onslow, Iowa Oxford Junction, Iowa Wyoming, Iowa Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  3. News Item

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    Dianne Xiao, UC Berkeley Title: Iron Metal-organic Frameworks for Hydrocarbon Oxidations Location: 67-3111 Chemla room Pizza will be served, compliments of Oxford Instruments...

  4. News

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    Monochromator Installed The new multilayer monochromator has been installed by Oxford Danfysik. In the coming months the monochromator will undergo commissioning by the...

  5. MHK Projects/Myette Point | Open Energy Information

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    Label":"","visitedicon":"" Project Profile Project Start Date 112009 Project City Oxford, LA Project StateProvince Louisiana Project Country United States Project Resource...

  6. Franklin County, Idaho: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    B. Places in Franklin County, Idaho Clifton, Idaho Dayton, Idaho Franklin, Idaho Oxford, Idaho Preston, Idaho Weston, Idaho Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  7. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, March 22, 2012-Researchers at Los Alamos...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Minnesota, Cambridge University, University of British Columbia, and Oxford University. The science that we expect to come out varies with the experiment, but can...

  8. Nicola Ferrier | Argonne National Laboratory

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    her doctorate from Harvard University in 1992. After postdoctoral fellowships at Oxford University and Harvard, she joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the...

  9. Butler County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Middletown, Ohio Millville, Ohio Monroe, Ohio New Miami, Ohio Olde West Chester, Ohio Oxford, Ohio Ross, Ohio Seven Mile, Ohio Sharonville, Ohio Somerville, Ohio South Middletown,...

  10. Calhoun County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Alabama Glencoe, Alabama Hobson City, Alabama Jacksonville, Alabama Ohatchee, Alabama Oxford, Alabama Piedmont, Alabama Saks, Alabama Southside, Alabama Weaver, Alabama West...

  11. Crystalox Ltd | Open Energy Information

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    Crystalox Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crystalox Ltd Place: Wantage (near Oxford), United Kingdom Sector: Solar Product: Merged with PV Silicon AG in Erfurt, Germany to...

  12. Sumner County, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geuda Springs, Kansas Hunnewell, Kansas Mayfield, Kansas Milan, Kansas Mulvane, Kansas Oxford, Kansas South Haven, Kansas Wellington, Kansas Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  13. Izard County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guion, Arkansas Horseshoe Bend, Arkansas Melbourne, Arkansas Mount Pleasant, Arkansas Oxford, Arkansas Pineville, Arkansas Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  14. Harlan County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Places in Harlan County, Nebraska Alma, Nebraska Huntley, Nebraska Orleans, Nebraska Oxford, Nebraska Ragan, Nebraska Republican City, Nebraska Stamford, Nebraska Retrieved from...

  15. Talbot County, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype A. Places in Talbot County, Maryland Cordova, Maryland Easton, Maryland Oxford, Maryland Queen Anne, Maryland St. Michaels, Maryland Tilghman Island, Maryland...

  16. Johnson County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Iowa Coralville, Iowa Hills, Iowa Iowa City, Iowa Lone Tree, Iowa North Liberty, Iowa Oxford, Iowa Shueyville, Iowa Solon, Iowa Swisher, Iowa Tiffin, Iowa University Heights, Iowa...

  17. Radiocarbon (Geochronology)

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    Belfast: Marine Reservoir Database Calib Calibomb CLAMBACON IntCal Database Oxford University Radiocarbon Unit: OxCal PaleoclimateEnvironmental Databases: Neotoma NOAA...

  18. Lafayette County, Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

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    Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Lafayette County, Mississippi Abbeville, Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi Taylor, Mississippi Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  19. Uranium Series Disequilibrium: Applications to Environmental...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract No abstract available. Editors M. Ivanovich and Russell S. Harmon Published Oxford University Press, 1982 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  20. Property:Event/Location | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Climate Change Ideas and Themes + Island Pavilion + CDKN Action Lab + University of Oxford, UK + CDKNMAPS side event: developing countries collaborating for climate compatible...

  1. Warren County, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Brass Castle, New Jersey Great Meadows-Vienna, New Jersey Hackettstown, New Jersey Oxford, New Jersey Phillipsburg, New Jersey Washington, New Jersey Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Relume Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Relume Technologies Inc Place: Oxford, Michigan Zip: 48371 Product: Michigan-based LED street, commercial and signage...

  3. Granville County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

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    in Granville County, North Carolina Butner, North Carolina Creedmoor, North Carolina Oxford, North Carolina Stem, North Carolina Stovall, North Carolina Retrieved from "http:...

  4. Version No.: 2002.001

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... ,"ME",9,"Hancock" ,"ME",11,"Kennebec" ,"ME",13,"Knox" ,"ME",15,"Lincoln" ,"ME",17,"Oxford" ,"ME",19,"Penobscot" ,"ME",21,"Piscataquis" ,"ME",23,"Sagadahoc" ,"ME",25,"Somerset" ...

  5. Furnas County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype A. Places in Furnas County, Nebraska Arapahoe, Nebraska Beaver City, Nebraska Cambridge, Nebraska Edison, Nebraska Hendley, Nebraska Holbrook, Nebraska Oxford, Nebraska...

  6. Proof-of-principle of high-fidelity coupled CRUD deposition and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Annals of Nuclear Energy (Oxford); Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-4549 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring ...

  7. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Department of Physics, University of Oxford Zardoya, Rafael (Rafael Zardoya) - Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales Zavaleta, Erika (Erika ...

  8. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Warehouses Aliquippa Springdale Seymour Beverly Indian Orchard New York Columbus East Oxford Hamilton Fairfield Wayne Burris Park Tonawanda North, Unit 1 Tonawanda North, Unit 2...

  9. Felix Bloch, Nuclear Induction, Bloch Equations, Bloch Theorem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the Swiss Physical Society and received honorary degrees from Grenoble University, Oxford University, the University of Jerusalem, and the University of Zurich. In 1965, he...

  10. Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Effects in Embedded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects on Components and Systems: 2013 Conference held September 23-27, 2013 in Oxford, United Kindom.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the Radiation...

  11. Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment | Open Energy...

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    School of Enterprise and the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Name: Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment Place: Oxford, England, United Kingdom Product: String...

  12. Microsoft Word - Jost's draft.docx roy.2 docx.docx cooper copy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by the Louisiana Board of Regents' enhancement program, CAMD's DRIE (Deep Reactive Ion Etching) etcher from Oxford Instruments was upgraded with an ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma)...

  13. Generating Unit Additions in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Retirement Month","Retirement Year" "CA","Kern",163,"AERA Energy LLC-Oxford",52093,"Oxford Cogeneration Facility","GEN1",,"RE",2.8,2.4,2.9,211,"GT","NG",,1,2011 "CA","Kern",163,"AERA Energy LLC-Oxford",52093,"Oxford Cogeneration Facility","GEN2",,"RE",2.8,2.4,2.9,211,"GT","NG",,1,2011

  14. NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DE-OE0000190 Portland General Electric OE PGE Substation @ Oxford & 22nd PMC EDT Division 2010 Mario Sciulli 5 years (112010 - 12312014) Salem, Oregon, USA Pacific Northwest ...

  15. Biofuels Center of North Carolina | Open Energy Information

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    Center of North Carolina Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuels Center of North Carolina Place: Oxford, North Carolina Zip: 27565 Sector: Biofuels Product: State-funded,...

  16. The Biofuels Center of North Carolina | Open Energy Information

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    Biofuels Center of North Carolina Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Biofuels Center of North Carolina Place: Oxford, North Carolina Website: www.biofuelscenter.org...

  17. Rwanda-Project to Develop a National Strategy on Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for International Development, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Partner Smith School for Enterprise and Environment, University of Oxford Sector Climate, Energy,...

  18. Secretary Chu to Give Keynote Address at World Forum on Enterprise...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    hosted by the Oxford University Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment. ... WHAT: Secretary Steven Chu will speak at the Smith School World Forum on Enterprise and ...

  19. Higgs vacuum stability and inflationary dynamics after BICEP2 and PLANCK dust polarisation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Das, Suratna; Mondal, Tanmoy E-mail: joydeep@iitk.ac.in E-mail: tanmoym@prl.res.in

    2014-12-01

    If the recent detection of B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background by BICEP2 observations, withstand the test of time after the release of recent PLANCK dust polarisation data, then it would surprisingly put the inflationary scale near Grand Unification scale if one considers single-field inflationary models. On the other hand, Large Hadron Collider has observed the elusive Higgs particle whose presently observed mass can lead to electroweak vacuum instability at high scale (?O(10{sup 10}) GeV). In this article, we seek for a simple particle physics model which can simultaneously keep the vacuum of the theory stable and yield high-scale inflation successfully. To serve our purpose, we extend the Standard Model of particle physics with a U(1){sub B-L} gauged symmetry which spontaneously breaks down just above the inflationary scale. Such a scenario provides a constrained parameter space where both the issues of vacuum stability and high-scale inflation can be successfully accommodated. The threshold effect on the Higgs quartic coupling due to the presence of the heavy inflaton field plays an important role in keeping the electroweak vacuum stable. Furthermore, this scenario is also capable of reheating the universe at the end of inflation. Though the issues of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, which dominate the late-time evolution of our universe, cannot be addressed within this framework, this model successfully describes the early universe dynamics according to the Big Bang model.

  20. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmv) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more » Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less

  1. Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2010-01-01

    Mmore » agnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF) would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude B λ and the power spectral index n B which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.« less

  2. Scaling of multitension cosmic superstring networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Brane inflation in superstring theory ends when branes collide, initiating the hot big bang. Cosmic superstrings are produced during the brane collision. The cosmic superstrings produced in a D3-brane-antibrane inflationary scenario have a spectrum: (p,q) bound states of p fundamental (F) strings and q D-strings, where p and q are coprime. By extending the velocity-dependent one-scale network evolution equations for Abelian Higgs cosmic strings to allow a spectrum of string tensions, we construct a coupled (infinite) set of equations for strings that interact through binding and self-interactions. We apply this model to a network of (p,q) superstrings. Our numerical solutions show that (p,q) networks rapidly approach a stable scaling solution. We also extract the relative densities of each string type from our solutions. Typically, only a small number of the lowest tension states are populated substantially once scaling is reached. The model we study also has an interesting new feature: the energy released in (p,q) string binding is by itself adequate to allow the network to reach scaling. This result suggests that the scaling solution is robust. To demonstrate that this result is not trivial, we show that choosing a different form for string interactions can lead to network frustration.

  3. Stochastic gravitational-wave background from cosmological supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Sigl, Guenter; Raffelt, Georg G.; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Ewald

    2005-10-15

    Based on new developments in the understanding of supernovae (SNe) as gravitational-wave (GW) sources we estimate the GW background from all cosmic SNe. For a broad range of frequencies around 1 Hz, this background is crudely comparable to the GW background expected from standard inflationary models. While our estimate remains uncertain within several orders of magnitude, the SN GW background may become detectable by second-generation space-based interferometers such as the proposed Big Bang Observatory (BBO). By the same token, the SN GWs may become a foreground for searches of the inflationary GWs, in particular, for sub-Hz frequencies where the SN background is Gaussian and where the BBO will be most sensitive. SN simulations lasting far beyond the usual cutoff of about 1 s are needed for more robust predictions in the sub-Hz frequency band. An even larger GW background can arise from a hypothetical early population of massive stars, although their GW source strength as well as their abundance are currently poorly understood.

  4. How to run through walls: Dynamics of bubble and soliton collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Hui, Lam; Lim, Eugene A.; Yang, I-Sheng

    2010-08-15

    It has recently been shown in high resolution numerical simulations that relativistic collisions of bubbles in the context of a multivacua potential may lead to the creation of bubbles in a new vacuum. In this paper, we show that scalar fields with only potential interactions behave like free fields during high-speed collisions; the kick received by them in a collision can be deduced simply by a linear superposition of the bubble wall profiles. This process is equivalent to the scattering of solitons in 1+1 dimensions. We deduce an expression for the field excursion (shortly after a collision), which is related simply to the field difference between the parent and bubble vacua, i.e. contrary to expectations, the excursion cannot be made arbitrarily large by raising the collision energy. There is however a minimum energy threshold for this excursion to be realized. We verify these predictions using a number of 3+1 and 1+1 numerical simulations. A rich phenomenology follows from these collision-induced excursions--they provide a new mechanism for scanning the landscape, they might end/begin inflation, and they might constitute our very own big bang, leaving behind a potentially observable anisotropy.

  5. The Shape and Flow of Heavy Ion Collisions (490th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenke, Bjoern

    2014-12-18

    The sun can’t do it, but colossal machines like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe sure can. Quarks and gluons make up protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of every atom in the universe. At heavy ion colliders like RHIC and the LHC, scientists can create matter more than 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun—so hot that protons and neutrons melt into a plasma of quarks and gluons. The particle collisions and emerging quark-gluon plasma hold keys to understanding how these fundamental particles interact with each other, which helps explain how everything is held together—from atomic nuclei to human beings to the biggest stars—how all matter has mass, and what the universe looked like microseconds after the Big Bang. Dr. Schenke discusses theory that details the shape and structure of heavy ion collisions. He will also explain how this theory and data from experiments at RHIC and the LHC are being used to determine properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

  6. Neutrino physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Brock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.

    2015-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmν)(σmν) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of NeffNeff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that View the MathML sourceNeff=3.046.

  7. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Dore, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C. -L.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L.K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.

  8. HoravaLifshitz cosmology, entropic interpretation and quarkhadron phase transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheyri, F. Khodadi, M. Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2013-05-15

    Based on the assumptions of the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition has occurred at approximately 10 ?s after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons. We consider such a phase transition in the context of a deformed HoravaLifshitz cosmology. The Friedmann equation for the deformed HoravaLifshitz universe is obtained using the entropic interpretation of gravity, proposed by Verlinde. We investigate the effects of the parameter ? appearing in the theory on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the energy density and temperature before, during and after the phase transition. Finally, we study the cross-over phase transition in both high and low temperature regions in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data. -- Highlights: ? We study the problem of the quarkhadron phase transition in the early universe, in the context of HoravaLifshitz cosmology. ? We conduct this study by including the recently introduced entropic principle. ? We study the behavior of thermodynamical parameters of the theory.

  9. CX-001814: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Retrofits for Oxford County BuildingsCX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1Date: 04/22/2010Location(s): Oxford County, MaineOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  10. FORMERLY USED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM DESIGNATION SUMMARY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    USED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM DESIGNATION SUMMARY FOR ALBA CRAFT LABORATORY OXFORD, OHIO October 1, 1992 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION Designation Summary Alba Craft Laboratory. Oxford CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......... . . ..................... 1 BACKGROUND Site Function ......................... Site Description ..................... 1 Owner History ................. .. 2 Radiological History and Status............ 2 Authority Review .................... .. 3

  11. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-17

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d’autres termes, qu’est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l’Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l’univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l’Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L’énergie noire ? Pourquoi l’antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l’Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l’exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l’évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d’années, notre compréhension de l’univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l’appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  12. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  13. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S.; Smol?i?, V.; Krpan, J.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S.; Sanders, D.; Mccracken, H.; Riechers, D.

    2014-02-20

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub ?29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  14. Intensity-Frontier Antiproton Physics with The Antiproton Annihilation Spectrometer (TAPAS) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Asner, David M.; Baldini, Wander; Bartoszek, Larry; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Brown, Charles N.; Chakravorty, Alak; Colas, Paul; Derwent, Paul; Drutskoy, Alexey; Fortner, Michael; /Northern Illinois U. /Saclay /Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad

    2011-11-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source is the world's most intense source of antimatter. With the Tevatron program now behind us, this unique facility can help make the case for Fermilab's continued accelerator operations. The Antiproton Source can be used for unique, dedicated antimatter studies, including medium-energy {bar p}-annihilation experiments. We propose to assemble a powerful, yet cost-effective, solenoidal magnetic spectrometer for antiproton-annihilation events, and to use it at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to measure the charm production cross section, study rare hyperon decays, search for hyperon CP asymmetry, precisely measure the properties of several charmonium and nearby states, and make the first measurements of the Drell-Yan continuum in medium-energy antiproton annihilation. Should the charm production cross section be as large as some have proposed, we will also be able to measure D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with high precision and discover (or sensitively limit) charm CP violation. The observation of charm or hyperon CP violation would be evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, with possible implications for the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the universe - the question of what happened to all the antimatter that must have been produced in the Big Bang. The experiment will be carried out by an international collaboration and will require some four years of running time. As possibly the sole hadron experiment in progress at Fermilab during that time, it will play an important role in maintaining a broad particle physics program at Fermilab and in the U.S. It will thus help us to continue attracting creative and capable young people into science and technology, and introducing them to the important technologies of accelerators, detectors, and data acquisition and analysis - key roles in society that accelerator-based particle physics has historically played.

  15. Institutional plan. FY 1998--2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    This Institutional Plan for Argonne National Laboratory contains central elements of Argonne`s strategic plan. Chapter II of this document discusses the Laboratory`s mission and core competencies. Chapter III presents the Science and Technology Strategic Plan, which summarizes key features of the external environment, presents Argonne`s vision, and describes how the Laboratory`s strategic goals and objectives map onto and support DOE`s four business lines. The balance of the chapter comprises the science and technology area plans, organized by the four DOE business lines. Chapter IV describes the Laboratory`s ten major initiatives, which cover a broad spectrum of science and technology. Our proposal for an Exotic Beam Facility aims at, among other things, increased understanding of the processes of nuclear synthesis during and shortly after the Big Bang. Our Advanced Transportation Technology initiative involves working with US industry to develop cost-effective technologies to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the emissions of transportation systems. The Laboratory`s plans for the future depend significantly on the success of its major initiatives. Chapter V presents our Operations and Infrastructure Strategic Plan. The main body of the chapter comprises strategic plans for human resources; environmental protection, safety, and health; site and facilities; and information management. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the business and management practices that Argonne is adopting to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of its operations. The structure and content of this document depart from those of the Institutional Plan in previous years. Emphasis here is on directions for the future; coverage of ongoing activities is less detailed. We hope that this streamlined plan is more direct and accessible.

  16. Project Profile: Forecasting and Influencing Technological Progress in Solar Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, along with their partners at Arizona State University and the University of Oxford, under the Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies (SEEDS)...

  17. ATF2 Proposal (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    decision on the choice of technology, a world-wide collaboration on the design of the ... High Energy Phys. Oxford U. KEK, Tsukuba Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. Orsay, LAL ...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Nonmanufacturing sector Service sector rest of economy OECD 1.5 2.4 1.8 2 OECD ... DOEEIA-0383 (Washington, DC: April 2015). Rest of World: Oxford Economics, Global ...

  19. Dr. Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, a Top White House National Security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... A native of California, she received her bachelor's degree at Harvard University, and her doctorate as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University. She is married to Dr. Jeffrey B. ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... CGRaBS: An All-Sky Survey of Gamma-Ray Blazar Candidates Healey, Stephen E. ; Romani, Roger W. ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Cotter, Garret ; Oxford U. ; ...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    January 2015 , Woodhead Publishing - Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode Sun, Xiao-Guang ; Bi, Zhonghe ; ...

  2. UCRL-JC-116524 PREPRINT The Beaverhead Impact Structure, SW Montana...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... McIntyre, D. H., and S. W. Hobbs, 1987, Geologic map of the Challis quadrangle, Custer and Melosh, H. J., 1989, Impact cratering: Oxford University Press, New York, 245 p. ...

  3. Cyclotron Road Announces the Selection of its Second Cohort of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nine new members make up the new cohort, coming from as far away as New York and Oxford, England and all are first time entrepreneurs. While some recently received their Ph.Ds., ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Akiyoshi ; Wang, Yane-Shih ; Eiler, Daniel ; Sll, Dieter ; Guo, Li-Tao March 2016 , Oxford University Press An X-ray and Neutron Scattering Study of the Formation of Core-Shell ...

  5. 13928 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Information 8 Before and after CrossRef Public Image File(s): 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress

  6. Biojoule Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biojoule Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biojoule Ltd Place: Oxford, England, United Kingdom Zip: OX4 1RQ Product: Biojoule is a pellets producer who has developed its own...

  7. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - International...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3.2. The GDP growth rate assumptions for non-U.S. countriesregions are taken from Oxford Economic Model (October, 2012). The values for growth in total liquids demand in the...

  8. Chenango County, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    York New Berlin, New York North Norwich, New York Norwich, New York Otselic, New York Oxford, New York Pharsalia, New York Pitcher, New York Plymouth, New York Preston, New York...

  9. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fracture with coarser dimples. Biography: Roger Doherty received his D. Phil. from Oxford University in 1964, worked for two years in the UK steel industry and then spent 17...

  10. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    200 kV Spherical Aberration Cs: 1.2mm Chromatic Aberration Cc: 1.2mm Detectors Oxford INCA energy dispersive X-ray detector with energy resolution of 136eV for Mn k-alpha...

  11. ARM - Instrument - smos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    KS (ABLE) retired SGP A4 Browse Data Smileyberg, KS (ABLE) retired SGP A5 Browse Data Oxford, KS (ABLE) retired retired Originating instrument has been retired at this location...

  12. LeekSeek International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LeekSeek International Jump to: navigation, search Name: LeekSeek International Place: Oxford, England, United Kingdom Zip: OX4 4GA Product: UK-based group who detect and prevent...

  13. ARM - Instrument - sodar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    KS (ABLE) retired SGP A2 Browse Data Beaumont, KS (ABLE) retired SGP A5 Browse Data Oxford, KS (ABLE) retired ARM Mobile Facility MAO S1 Browse Data Manacapuru, Amazonas,...

  14. FEI Nova 200 Dual-Beam SEM/FIB

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    milling * GIS for Pt deposition * Kleindiek nanomanipulator for specimen lift-out * Oxford Inca EDS system * AutoTEM, AutoFIB, and slice and view automation software Fabricating...

  15. untitled

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Oxford Site M:\LTS\111\0001\10\000\S0824300\S0824300-28.mxd coatesc 09/28/2011 12:59:21 PM 0 100 50 FEET

  16. CX-005652: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal Incentive ProgramCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1Date: 04/28/2011Location(s): Oxford, ConnecticutOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. EA-1824: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and startup of the 50.6-MW wind power project and its associated transmission line in Oxford County, Maine, will not have a significant effect on the human environment. DOE is...

  18. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U. Montreal U. SLAC CERN Michigan State U. Chile U., Catolica City Coll., N.Y. Oxford U. La Plata U. McGill U. Mainz U., Inst. Phys. Hamburg U. DESY DESY, Zeuthen...

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Ohio

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ohio Ohio Ohio Sites Columbus East Site Columbus Sites Fairfield Site Fernald Preserve Hamilton Site Mound Site Oxford Site Painesville Site Piqua Decommissioned Reactor Site Toledo Site Last Updated: 1/14/2016

  20. SAC - Linac Coherent Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    von der Linde - University of Essen, Germany Justin Wark,-Oxford University, USA C. Lewis Cocke-Kansas State University, USA Robert Schoenlein-LBNL, USA Philip Anfinrud-NIH,...

  1. Stephen Hawking

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le grand astrophysicien S.Hawking, né le 08-01-1942 à Oxford, parle de "baby universes" et la gravitation et répond aux questions.

  2. Electro Chem Technic | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Oxford, United Kingdom Zip: OX3 7LA Product: The company makes and sells a novel small fuel cell. They sell as well a wide range of educational material about fuel...

  3. Karissa Marcum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Karissa Marcum is a Public Affairs Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs. Most Recent The Internet Caf of the Nuclear World July 19 Harry Potter, Oxford and Nuclear Energy ...

  4. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | February 2014: Scientists...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    jpeg images. When using these images, please credit each photo as indicated. Med Res | Hi Res Matteo Cremonesi, left, of the University of Oxford and the CDF collaboration, and...

  5. NIF User Group Executive Board

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    executive board NIF User Group Executive Board Professor Don Lamb (Chair) University of Chicago Professor Farhat Beg (Vice Chair) University of California, San Diego Professor Justin Wark (Past Chair) University of Oxford Dr. Riccardo Betti University of Rochester Dr. Kirk Flippo Los Alamos National Laboratory Professor Gianluca Gregori University of Oxford Professor Michel Koenig École Polytechnique Dr. Chikang Li Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dr. Jena Meinecke Young Researcher:

  6. Remedial Action Performed

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Alba Craft Laboratory and Vicinity Properties Site in Oxford, Ohio C Department of Energy Former Sites Restoration Division Oak Ridge Operations Office January 1997 $$@T Op% 3 @!B . i~d!l Ab Printed on recycled/recyclable paper. CERTIFICATION DOCKET FOR THE REMEDIAL ACTION PERFORMED AT THE FORMER ALBA CRAFT LABORATORY AND VICINITY PROPERTIES SITE IN OXFORD, OHIO JANUARY 1997 Prepared for United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office Under Contract No. DE-AC0591 OR2 1949 Bechtel

  7. New Jersey firm creates jobs and vital components for world-leading

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    experiment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Jersey firm creates jobs and vital components for world-leading experiment By John Greenwald July 10, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook This superconducting wire will become thin as a needle when Oxford Superconducting Technology finishes manufacturing it. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office Of Communications) This superconducting wire will become thin as a needle when Oxford Superconducting Technology finishes manufacturing it.

  8. (Optical characterization techniques applied to ceramic oxides)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, M.M.

    1990-10-15

    The traveler collaborated with M.J.M. Leask, J.M. Baker, B. Bleaney, and others at the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford, UK, to Study Tetragonal rare-earth phosphates and vanadates by optical and magnetic spectroscopy. This work is related to similar studies that have been performed at ORNL by the Synthesis and Properties of Novel Materials Group in the Solid State Division.

  9. Microsoft Word - 20151109 Macro Impact of LNG Exports_3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    29, 2015 The Macroeconomic Impact of Increasing U.S. LNG Exports October 2015 2 This page is intentionally left blank. The Macroeconomic Impact of Increasing U.S. LNG Exports October 2015 3 DOE Contact: Robert Smith, Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy This work was performed under DOE NETL Contract Number DE-FE0004002; SCNGO Task 200.01.01.000. Prepared by: Leonardo Technologies, Inc. Primary Authors (Alphabetically): Adrian Cooper, Oxford Economics Michael Kleiman, Oxford

  10. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-12

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T{sub 2}, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter{sub 2}×T{sub 2} or Minkowski{sub 2}×T{sub 2}. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M{sub 2}×T{sub 2} leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS{sub 2}×T{sub 2} parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  11. Final Technical Report for "High Energy Physics at The University of Iowa"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallik, Usha; Meurice, Yannick; Nachtman, Jane; Onel, Yasar; Reno, Mary

    2013-07-31

    Particle Physics explores the very fundamental building blocks of our universe: the nature of forces, of space and time. By exploring very energetic collisions of sub-nuclear particles with sophisticated detectors at the colliding beam accelerators (as well as others), experimental particle physicists have established the current theory known as the Standard Model (SM), one of the several theoretical postulates to explain our everyday world. It explains all phenomena known up to a very small fraction of a second after the Big Bang to a high precision; the Higgs boson, discovered recently, was the last of the particle predicted by the SM. However, many other phenomena, like existence of dark energy, dark matter, absence of anti-matter, the parameters in the SM, neutrino masses etc. are not explained by the SM. So, in order to find out what lies beyond the SM, i.e., what conditions at the earliest fractions of the first second of the universe gave rise to the SM, we constructed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN after the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Each of these projects helped us push the boundary further with new insights as we explore a yet higher energy regime. The experiments are extremely complex, and as we push the boundaries of our existing knowledge, it also requires pushing the boundaries of our technical knowhow. So, not only do we pursue humankind’s most basic intellectual pursuit of knowledge, we help develop technology that benefits today’s highly technical society. Our trained Ph.D. students become experts at fast computing, manipulation of large data volumes and databases, developing cloud computing, fast electronics, advanced detector developments, and complex interfaces in several of these areas. Many of the Particle physics Ph.D.s build their careers at various technology and computing facilities, even financial institutions use some of their skills of simulation and statistical prowess. Additionally, last

  12. The most luminous z ∼ 9-10 galaxy candidates yet found: The luminosity function, cosmic star-formation rate, and the first mass density estimate at 500 Myr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Momcheva, I.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Willner, S. P.; Gonzalez, V.; Trenti, M.; Brammer, G. B.; Skelton, R. E.; Spitler, L. R.

    2014-05-10

    We present the discovery of four surprisingly bright (H {sub 160} ∼ 26-27 mag AB) galaxy candidates at z ∼ 9-10 in the complete HST CANDELS WFC3/IR GOODS-N imaging data, doubling the number of z ∼ 10 galaxy candidates that are known, just ∼500 Myr after the big bang. Two similarly bright sources are also detected in a reanalysis of the GOODS-S data set. Three of the four galaxies in GOODS-N are significantly detected at 4.5σ-6.2σ in the very deep Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm data, as is one of the GOODS-S candidates. Furthermore, the brightest of our candidates (at z = 10.2 ± 0.4) is robustly detected also at 3.6 μm (6.9σ), revealing a flat UV spectral energy distribution with a slope β = –2.0 ± 0.2, consistent with demonstrated trends with luminosity at high redshift. Thorough testing and use of grism data excludes known low-redshift contamination at high significance, including single emission-line sources, but as-yet unknown low redshift sources could provide an alternative solution given the surprising luminosity of these candidates. Finding such bright galaxies at z ∼ 9-10 suggests that the luminosity function for luminous galaxies might evolve in a complex way at z > 8. The cosmic star formation rate density still shows, however, an order-of-magnitude increase from z ∼ 10 to z ∼ 8 since the dominant contribution comes from low-luminosity sources. Based on the IRAC detections, we derive galaxy stellar masses at z ∼ 10, finding that these luminous objects are typically 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. This allows for a first estimate of the cosmic stellar mass density at z ∼ 10 resulting in log{sub 10} ρ{sub ∗}=4.7{sub −0.8}{sup +0.5} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} for galaxies brighter than M {sub UV} ∼ –18. The remarkable brightness, and hence luminosity, of these z ∼ 9-10 candidates will enable deep spectroscopy to determine their redshift and nature, and highlights the opportunity for the James Webb Space Telescope to map the buildup of

  13. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Trenti, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  14. THE ORIGINS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY R-PROCESS ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED BY CHEMICAL TAGGING OF METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration ?-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A >130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] ?+1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  15. Microsoft Word - saastamoinen_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 24, 2012, at 2:00 pm Refreshment will be served at 1:45 pm Beta-decay Studies for Nova Nucleosynthesis Dr. Antti Saastamoinen University of Jyväskylä / TAMU Abstract Classical novae occur in interacting binary systems, where hydrogen-rich material accretes on a white dwarf from its low-mass main-sequence companion. Eventually, the accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter leads to a thermonuclear runaway (TNR). Understanding the dynamics of the nova outbursts and the nucleosynthesis fueling

  16. Meet CMI Director Alex King | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director Alex King CMI Director Alex King CMI Director Alex King was born and raised in London. He attended the University of Sheffield as an undergraduate and earned his doctorate from Oxford. He was a postdoc at Oxford and then M.I.T. before joining the faculty at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he also served as the Vice Provost for Graduate Studies (Dean of the Graduate School). He was appointed as Professor and Head of the School of Materials Engineering at Purdue in

  17. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab

    2011-11-14

    forces, which are observed by experiments in very different forms. So far, there is no direct experimental evidence for a Higgs field or the Higgs particle that should accompany it. Furthermore, quantum effects of the type already observed in experiments should destabilize the Higgs boson of the Standard Model, preventing its operation at Terascale energies. The proposed antidotes for this quantum instability mostly involve dramatic phenomena at the Terascale: new forces, a new principle of nature called supersymmetry, or even extra dimensions of space. Thus for particle physicists the Higgs boson is at the center of a much broader program of discovery, taking off from a long list of questions. Is there really a Higgs boson? If not, what are the mechanisms that give mass to particles and break the electroweak force? If there is a Higgs boson, does it differ from the hypothetical Higgs of the Standard Model? Is there more than one Higgs particle? What are the new phenomena that stabilize the Higgs boson at the Terascale? What properties of Higgs boson inform us about these new phenomena? Another major opportunity for the ILC is to shed light on the dark side of the universe. Astrophysical data shows that dark matter dominates over visible matter, and that almost all of this dark matter cannot be composed of known particles. This data, combined with the concordance model of Big Bang cosmology, suggests that dark matter is comprised of new particles that interact weakly with ordinary matter and have Terascale masses. It is truely remarkable that astrophysics and cosmology, completely independently of the particle physics considerations reviewed above, point to new phenomena at the Terascale. If Terascale dark matter exists, experiments at the ILC should be able to produce such particles in the laboratory and study their properties. Another list of questions will then beckon. Do these new particles really have the correct properties to be the dark matter? Do they account for

  18. (Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP).

  19. [Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP).

  20. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, Roland

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ?My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  1. I

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n s'tellnr nucleosynthesis, neutron capture a t a r a t e which i s slow con- pared t o t h a t of Since t h e e a r l y quantitative s t u d i e s of t h e g-process by Clayton,...

  2. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Huaiyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  3. Nb3Sn RRP® strand and Rutherford cable development for a 15 T dipole demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E.; Andreev, N.; Li, P.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2016-03-16

    Keystoned Rutherford cables made of 28 strands and with a stainless steel core were developed and manufactured using 1 mm Nb3Sn composite wires produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology with 127 and 169 restacks using the Restacked-Rod-Process®. Furthermore, the performance and properties of these cables were studied to evaluate possible candidates for 15 T accelerator magnets.

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    14,416 31,640 33,889 55,231 69,188 84,442 100,481 117,012 4.2 World 37,945 67,192 70,498 101,062 120,217 140,903 162,685 185,635 3.3 Source: Oxford Economic Model (February 2014)...

  5. CX-004327: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Retrofitting for Energy Efficiency - Biofuels Center of North CarolinaCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B1.24, B1.31, B2.2, B5.1Date: 10/29/2010Location(s): Oxford, North CarolinaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alternative Energy Confidential Draft - For Discussion Only Oxford Solar Project Lessons Learned February, 2016 Rebecca Kauffman, SUAE President Southern Ute Alternative Energy Confidential Draft - For Discussion Only Agenda Background - Southern Ute Indian Tribe - Southern Ute Alternative Energy Solar Project Overview - Why Now? - Why this particular project? Project Development Process - Permitting - Land access - Utility Negotiation Project Next Steps - Remaining Activities 2 Southern Ute

  7. CX-006195: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    United Way Energy Efficient Buildings Project for Non-Profit FacilitiesCX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1Date: 07/01/2011Location(s): Oxford, MichiganOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di#11;erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  9. Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Simone, Andrea; Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph E-mail: mathias.garny@ph.tum.de E-mail: christoph.weniger@desy.de

    2010-07-01

    Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we propose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally thermal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed.

  10. Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 2. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu

    2014-12-01

    Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV . Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 10{sup 13} GeV to 10{sup 15} GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.

  11. Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 2. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2014-12-18

    Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV. Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 10{sup 13} GeV to 10{sup 15} GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.

  12. VI-13 INSTITUTE COLLOQUIA AND SEMINARS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-March 31, 2013 2012 April 24 Dr. Antti Saastamoninen, University of Jyvaskyla and Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Beta-Decay Studies for Nova Nucleosynthesis May 10 Professor Helmut Satz, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany Quark Confinement and Hadrosythesis May 14 Dr. Daniel Abriola, Internaltional Atomic Energy Agrncy, Vienna, Austria LAEA's Research Coordinated Project (CRP) on Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission May 15 Dr. Dan

  13. mosby_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capture by any means necessary Dr. Shea Mosby Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM Abstract: Knowledge of nuclear reactions in general, and neutron capture cross sections in particular, are necessary to understand both heavy element nucleosynthesis and applications in nuclear energy and defense. While many nuclei of interest lie on or near the valley of stability and can be studied directly, many more are beyond the reach of any direct measurement.

  14. penionzhkevich_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exotic Nuclei and Astrophysics" Professor Yuri Penionzhkevich Flerov, Lab. of Nucl. Reactions. JINR, Dubna, Russian Federation Abstract: This talk is an attempt to present some problems on the evolution of the Universe: the nucleosynthesis and cosmochronology from the standpoint of physics of particles and nuclei, in particular with the use of the latest results, obtained by means of radioactive nuclear beams. The comparison is made between the processes taking place in the Universe and the

  15. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Cross Section Measurements Using the ORELA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, R. R.

    2000-08-25

    This is the final report for a research program which has been continuously supported by the AEC, ERDA, or USDOE since 1973. The neutron total and capture cross sections for n + {sup 88}Sr have been measured over the neutron energy range 100 eV to 1 MeV. The report briefly summaries our results and the importance of this work for nucleosynthesis and the optical model.

  16. The universe in the laboratory - Nuclear astrophysics opportunity at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langanke, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-09

    In the next years the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR will be constructed at the GSI Helmholtzze-ntrum fr Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. This new accelerator complex will allow for unprecedented and pathbreaking research in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic physics as well as in applied sciences. This manuscript will discuss some of these research opportunities, with a focus on supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis.

  17. Microsoft Word - Document1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of exotic nuclei and understanding of the rp-process Abstract: New phenomena, such as nuclear halo, inversion of nuclear shells and exotic decay modes have been discovered in nuclei removed from the valley of stability. Understanding of these phenomena requires development of new theoretical approaches. Detailed experimental data on the structure of exotic nuclei is crucial for this development. Exotic nuclei also play an important role in understanding of explosive nucleosynthesis

  18. Microsoft Word - SUmar_08_11_2015.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NUCLEAR DYNAMICS FROM NEUTRON STARS TO SUPERHEAVY ELEMENTS Professor Sait Umar Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN Abstract Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities have opened up new opportunities in the areas of nuclear structure physics, nucleosynthesis, nuclear astrophysics, and tests of fundamental symmetry principles. These experimental developments have sparked renewed interest in quantum theories of many-body systems capable of addressing large amplitude

  19. SREL Reprint #3300

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Development and characterization of twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite markers for the leafcutter ant, Acromyrmex lundii, utilizing Illumina sequencing Christian Rabeling1, Martin Bollazzi2, Maurício Bacci Jr.3, Rochelle R. Beasley4, Stacey L. Lance4, Kenneth L. Jones5, and Naomi E. Pierce1 1Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 2Section of Entomology, University of the Republic, Avenida Garzon 780, 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay

  20. VII-14 INSTITUTE COLLOQUIA AND SEMINARS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11-March 31, 2012 2011 April 21 Dr. Pibero Djawotho, Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Gluon Polarization Measurements with STAR May 2 Professor G. Wolschin, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Heavy Ion at LHC Energies: Selected Predictions vs. First Data May 10 Professor J. Stone, Oxford University, United Kingdom and University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee Nuclear Matter and Giant Resonance Constraints on Models of Nucleon-Nucleon

  1. Yimin Wu | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yimin Wu Postdoctoral Appointee (Supervisor, Yuzi Liu) Yimin Wu received a PhD in Materials Science, specializing in 2D nanomaterials and Devices, from the University of Oxford. He spent a year at University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab as a postdoc. Currently, he is a postdoc at Center for Nanoscale Materials. His Research focuses primarily on integrated in-situ imaging to understand and advance photocatalysis for artificial photosynthesis. Other research topics

  2. Quantum Effects in Photosynthesis | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects in Photosynthesis December 8, 2009 at Room 330, 60 Oxford Street, Harvard Campus K. Birgitta Whaley Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley whaley abstract: The initial light-harvesting step of photosynthesis is known to be exceptionally efficient, transporting absorbed light energy as electronic excitation to the reaction center with near unity efficiency within a few picoseconds. It was recently shown that this process is accompanied by surprisingly long-lived

  3. TITLE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Survey Results for Neigh boring Properties of the Alba Craft Site Oxford, Ohio U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Index / / { i s / . . ....................................................... s. Main s t r a e t f i o w e s 3 . . (~1-008,012-014,016) : : , . W . Rose Avenue Properties ............................... .:. ........... I . . .97 (017) Linden Street Properties .................................................... 103 (010-011) Municipd Landfill h

  4. Narayanan (Bobby) Kasthuri | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Narayanan (Bobby) Kasthuri Neuroscience Researcher Dr. Kasthuri is a neuroscience researcher at Argonne and an assistant professor (adjunct) in the Department of Neurobiology at The University of Chicago. He has an M.D. from Washington University School of Medicine and a D.Phil. from Oxford University, where he studied as a Rhodes scholar. As a postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Kasthuri developed an automated approach to large-volume serial electron microscopy ("connectomics"). The Kasthuri lab

  5. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials Science Sponsored Seminar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Sergii L. Dudarev Programme Grant Modelling Co-ordinator & Visiting Professor Oxford University Materials United Kingdom "Magnetic" Molecular Dynamics and Other Models for Fusion Reactor Materials Tuesday, September 15, 2015 2:00 - 3:00pm MSL Auditorium (TA-03 - Bldg 1698 - Room A103) Abstract - Multiscale models for fusion reactor materials address both the initial stages of production of radiation defects, where the recently discovered power law statistics of defect

  6. MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING Between The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Between The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd and The University of California, as Management and Operating Contractor for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on a Visitor Exchange Program This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is by and between the Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd (NAG) with a registered address at: Wilkinson House, Jordan hill Road, Oxford, UK and the University of California, as Management and Operating Contractor for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, including its

  7. James Proudfoot | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proudfoot Argonne Distinguished Fellow & Group Leader, ATLAS Group James Proudfoot received his BSc from Edinburgh University in 1974 and PhD from the University of Oxford in 1977 studying proton structure in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering. He studied electroweak interactions and hadron production in electron-positron scattering with the TASSO Collaboration until 1982 when he joined Argonne and became a member of the CDF collaboration studying proton-antiproton interactions at the

  8. Amanda Petford-Long | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    People Amanda Petford-Long Argonne Distinguished Fellow & Integrated Imaging Initiative Leader & Senior Group Leader Dr. Amanda K. Petford-Long is an Argonne Distinguished Fellow in the Materials Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. In addition to her own research program, she heads the strategic initiative on Integrated Imaging at Argonne. She holds a D.Phil in Materials Science from the University of Oxford (1985) and a Bachelor's degree in Physics from University College,

  9. Microsoft Word - NStone_Abs2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pathological Physics is alive and well Professor N. Stone Oxford University, UK, and University of Tennessee, USA The name pathological science was applied by the Nobel Prize winning chemist Irving Langmuir to describe the studies in which scientists have been persuaded to support erroneous ideas through wishful thinking - the science of 'things that aren't so'. In this talk, after reviewing some classical examples of pathological physics, I will describe, from first hand involvement, two very

  10. Theoretical Spectroscopy of Low Dimensional Systems | MIT-Harvard Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Excitonics Theoretical Spectroscopy of Low Dimensional Systems November 11, 2009 at 2pm/Pfizer Hall - Mb-23 Harvard University 12 Oxford Street Cambridge Angel Rubio Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU rubio abstract: There has been much progress in the synthesis and characterization of nanostructures however, there remain immense challenges in understanding their properties and interactions with external probes in order to realize their tremendous potential

  11. Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Law, Kody J. H.; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul

    2016-05-03

    The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. In this paper, a density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence κ between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d

  12. Direct reactions for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Katherine Louise

    2014-12-18

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106Sn at the NSCL, and on 131Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  13. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM STELLAR COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. FRYER

    2001-01-01

    Stellar core-collapse plays an important role in nearly all facets of astronomy: cosmology (as standard candles), formation of compact objects, nucleosynthesis and energy deposition in galaxies. In addition, they release energy in powerful explosions of light over a range of energies, neutrinos, and the subject of this meeting, gravitational waves. Because of this broad range of importance, astronomers have discovered a number of constraints which can be used to help them understand the importance of stellar core-collapse as gravitational wave sources.

  14. Plea for Iron Astrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostefaoui, T. A.; Benmerad, B.; Kerkar, M.

    2010-10-31

    Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special interest in Iron and shall give a brief explanation about its origin and the interstellar nucleosynthesis. After this I'll detail the rich chemistry that Iron can be involved in the interstellar medium, dense clouds with several species.

  15. Proton-Neutron Pairing Interaction in Neutron Rich A = 132 Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laouet, N.; Benrachi, F.; Khiter, M.; Benmicia, N.; Saifi, H.

    2010-10-31

    In infinite nuclear systems, such as neutron stars, pairing phenomena have a particular interest in the study of nuclear structure properties. Thus, pairing lies at the heart of quantum many body problems, and nuclear process connecting to nucleosynthesis. In this work, we are interested on the contribution of this aspect, for neutron rich nuclei far from stability in the vicinity of doubly magic {sup 132}Sn. The study of A = 134 isobar, which presents a proton-neutron mixing in valence space, based on the proton-neutron correlation properties. Our results, using the P{sub d} pairing gap calculations, are in a good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Post-Newtonian parameters and constraints on Einstein-aether theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-03-15

    We analyze the observational and theoretical constraints on ''Einstein-aether theory,'' a generally covariant theory of gravity coupled to a dynamical, unit, timelike vector field that breaks local Lorentz symmetry. The results of a computation of the remaining post-Newtonian parameters are reported. These are combined with other results to determine the joint post-Newtonian, vacuum-Cerenkov, nucleosynthesis, stability, and positive-energy constraints. All of these constraints are satisfied by parameters in a large two-dimensional region in the four-dimensional parameter space defining the theory.

  17. 3.17 The Stars Above Us, Govern Our Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 6/1/2011 3.17 The Stars Above Us, Govern Our Conditions The origins of chemical elements found on Earth-nuclear reactions that take place in stars-were discovered and confirmed by researchers supported by the Office of Science and predecessor agencies. The late William Fowler of the California Institute of Technology won half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics for his work in elucidating this process of nucleosynthesis. Fowler carried out experimental studies of nuclear reactions of

  18. DANCE : a 4[pi] barium fluoride detector for measuring neutron capture on unstable nuclei /.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Haight, Robert C.; Hunt, L. F.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Miller, G. G.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Chamberlin, E. P.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of neutron capture on unstable nuclei are important for studies of s-process nucleosynthesis, nuclear waste transmutation, and stewardship science. A 160-element, 4{pi} barium fluoride detector array, and associated neutron flight path, is being constructed to make capture measurements at the moderated neutron spallation source at LANSCE. Measurements can be made on as little as 1 mg of sample material over energies from near thermal to near 100 keV. The design of the DANCE array is described and neutron flux measurements from flight path commissioning are shown. The array is expected to be complete by the end of 2002.

  19. In the News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the news In the News 2016 July 6, 2016 How heavier elements are formed in star interiors Cosmologist Carl Sagan called it "starstuff"-the basic elements of the universe created in the nuclear furnaces in the core of the sun and the stars. Nucleosynthesis, the process by which those elements are assembled, is the subject of a new series of NIF Discovery Science experiments which began on May 30. (phys.org) June 24, 2016 Scientists Are Trying to Make Nuclear Fusion with Frickin'

  20. Observation of low-lying resonances in the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giacoppo, F.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Larsen, A. C.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Koehler, P. E.; et al

    2015-05-28

    An excess of strength on the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance recently has been observed in the γ-decay from the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt. The nature of this phenomenon is not yet fully investigated. If this feature is present also in the γ-ray strength of the neutron-rich isotopes, it can affect the neutron-capture reactions involved in the formation of heavy-elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The experimental level density and γ-ray strength function of 195,196Pt are presented together with preliminary calculations of the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections.

  1. Workshop on the origin of the heavy elements: Astrophysical models and experimental challenges, Santa Fe, New Mexico, September 3-4, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Haight; John L. Ullmann; Daniel D. Strottman; Paul E. Koehler; Franz Kaeppeler

    2000-01-01

    This Workshop was held on September 3--4, 1999, following the 10th International Symposium on Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy. Presentations were made by 14 speakers, 6 from the US and 8 from other countries on topics relevant to s-, r- and rp-process nucleosynthesis. Laboratory experiments, both present and planned, and astrophysical observations were represented as were astrophysical models. Approximately 50 scientists participated in this Workshop. These Proceedings consist of copies of vu-graphs presented at the Workshop. For further information, the interested readers are referred to the authors.

  2. 20010-2011 Section III: Nuclear Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Astrophysical S factor for the 15N(p,γ)16O reaction A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, M. La Cognata, and V. Kroha High accuracy 18O(p,α)15N reaction rate at AGB nucleosynthesis relevant temperatures M. La Cognata, C. Spitaleri, and A. M. Mukhamedzhanov Low-energy d+d fusion reactions via the Trojan horse method A. Tumino, C. Spitaleri, A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, S. Typel, M. Aliotta, V. Burjan, M. Gimenez del Santo, G. G. Kiss, V. Kroha, Z. Hons, M. La Cognata, L. Lamia, J. Mrazek, R. G. Pizzone, S. Piskor,

  3. 2015-2016 Section III: Nuclear Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systematic analysis of hadron spectra in p+p collisions using Tsallis distribution H. Zheng, Lilin Zhu, and A. Bonasera Asymptotic normalization coefficients and radiative widths A.M. Mukhamedzhanov and D.Y. Pang Improvement of the high-accuracy 17O(p,α)14N reaction-rate measurement via the Trojan Horse method for application to 17O nucleosynthesis M.L. Sergi, C. Spitaleri, M. La Cognata, L. Lamia, R.G. Pizzone, G.G. Rapisarda, X.D. Tang, B. Bucher, M. Couder, P. Davies, R. deBoer, X. Fang, L.

  4. Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Light Emitting Diodes | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient Solar Cells and Light Emitting Diodes January 19, 2016 at 4:30pm/36-428 Sandeep Pathak Oxford University Pathak The unprecedented worldwide interest in organic-inorganic lead halide-based perovskite (HC(NH2)2PbX3 or CH3NH3PbX3) solar cells is rooted in its solution process-ability at low temperature as well as its extraordinary device performance. Perovskite

  5. Keep It Simple: Learning How to Think Like the Customer | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Karissa Marcum About Us Karissa Marcum - Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Karissa Marcum is a Public Affairs Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs. Most Recent The Internet Café of the Nuclear World July 19 Harry Potter, Oxford and Nuclear Energy July 16 One Cool Change at Energy HQ July 6

    Katelyn Sabochik About Us Katelyn Sabochik Katelyn Sabochik is Deputy Director of Online Programs for the White House. Most Recent Advise the Advisor: Secretary Chu on Energy Policy

  6. Studies of Nb3Sn Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High-Field Accelerator Magnets Nb3Sn

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E; Bossert, M; Gallo, G; Lombardo, V; Turrioni, D; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2012-06-01

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  7. SREL Reprint #3301

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Development of twenty-one polymorphic microsatellite markers for the fungus-growing ant, Mycocepurus goeldii (Formicidae: Attini), using Illumina paired-end genomic sequencing Christian Rabeling1, Cara N. Love2, Stacey L. Lance2, Kenneth L. Jones3, Naomi E. Pierce1, and Maurício Bacci Jr.4 1Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 2Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802, USA 3Department of Biochemistry and

  8. Studies of $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E.; Bossert, M.; Gallo, G.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2011-12-21

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  9. OSTIblog Articles in the CrossRef Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information CrossRef Topic Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has ever done a literature search

  10. OSTIblog Articles in the ETDEWEB Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information ETDEWEB Topic Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has ever done a literature search

  11. OSTIblog Articles in the FundRef Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information FundRef Topic Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has ever done a literature search

  12. OSTIblog Posts by Dr. Walt Warnick | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Walt Warnick Dr. Walt Warnick's picture Former Director, U.S. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information Before and after CrossRef 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 Personal Perspectives Published on Dec 19, 2013 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's

  13. OSTIblog Articles in the Personal Perspectives Topic | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Personal Perspectives Topic Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has

  14. OSTIblog Articles in the dissertation Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information dissertation Topic Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has ever done a

  15. P

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    P -.,. ~ * * , iy . * __.^ .--.. ~_____, __ l NATIONAL LEAD COMPANa * . -, - / _ 1 OF OHIO P. 0. BOX 158 MT. HEALTHY STATION CINCINNATI 31, OHIO Letter Subeontraet # S-18 Dated: September 15, 1952 Under Prime Contract A!T( 30-1)-l.l5ti ~0: E%EtRe M. Albaugh Alba Craft Shop 525 South Main Street Oxford, Ohio Gentlemen: .a 1. This letter, subject to your written acceptance and the approval of the Atomic Energy Commission (hereinafter called the "Commission"), sets forth the initial

  16. EES/CSES/MST Frontiers in Geoscience Colloquium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EES/CSES/MST Frontiers in Geoscience Colloquium Monday, March 21, 2016 3:00pm - 4:00pm EES-DO Conference Room (TA-3, 215, 275) Plastic and elastic anisotropy in olivine: Understanding plate boundaries in the laboratory Prof. Lars Hansen Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, UK Plate tectonics is clearly the largest scientific revolution in the Earth sciences. However, a key outstanding gap in our understanding of the solid earth is the manner in which tectonic plates can be

  17. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  18. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  19. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size

  20. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  1. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  2. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.1 Beamline 11.3.1 Print Tuesday, 20 October 2009 09:22 Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream

  3. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  4. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  5. I|ex~

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    I|ex~ ~ ILKE&y~~~ *ORNL/RASA-92/14 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Results of the Radiological Survey at the former Alba Craft Laboratory Site *z riiiriri-lrirfZ Properties, Oxford, Ohio (OX001) M. E. Murray K. S. Brown R. A. Mathis MANAGED BY MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY | ~~DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Techni-

  6. What future for nuclear power? Workshop report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    A Workshop on this highly controversial subject, organized by the Energy and Environment Programme of the RIIA, was held on 10th November 1997 at Green College, Oxford. The meeting was attended by some forty people from eight countries, coming from the nuclear and electricity generating industry, governments, research organizations, academic institutions, environmental pressure groups and inter-governmental organizations. In addition, subsequent to this Workshop, there have been a number of smaller, more informal discussions on various aspects of the subject. This paper summarizes the main conclusions arising from the Workshop and from these later discussions.

  7. Ionfab Mill

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxford Ionfab System 300+ Ion Mill For questions concerning this machines capabilities, please contact Varshni Singh, at 578-0248. ionfab.jpg (60579 bytes) Removal of metallic patterns from a surface can be performed evenly with this inert gas ion beam system, which uses a projected Ar ion beam to sputter etch the surface of a six inch wafer at the users choice of angle and rotation speed. The Ionfab 300+ can allow researchers to investigate thin film structures with vertical or angled side

  8. Women @ Energy: Cindy Joe | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Women @ Energy: Christina Swinson Christina Swinson is a post doc. in Accelerator Physics at Brookhaven National Lab. She has a BSc. In Physics with Computing, Queen Mary College, University of London, United Kingdom, and a DPhil. (PhD.) in Accelerator Physics from the University of Oxford, United Kingtom. 1) What inspired you to work in STEM? My decision to work in STEM didn't come until I was in my twenties but the journey first began in high school. Unfortunately at the time I wasn't

  9. Microsoft Word - JRStone_Abs_2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Matter and Giant Resonance Constraints on Models of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction. Professor J. Stone Oxford University, UK, and University of Tennesse, USA After more then 50 years of all-out effort by the nuclear physics community, models of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are not well constrained. This situation has a direct effect on determination of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter over a wide range of density and temperature. The EoS is a key input to analysis and interpretation

  10. OSTIblog Articles in the literature review Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information literature review Topic Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick 19 Dec, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has ever done a

  11. CX-011770: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    770: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-011770: Categorical Exclusion Determination Community-Scale Solar for Southern Ute Indian Tribe CX(s) Applied: B5.16 Date: 02/18/2014 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office The U.S. Department of Energy is proposing to provide federal funding to the Southern Ute Indian Tribe Growth Fund to install a ground-mounted solar photovoltaic system up to 1 megawatt in the Oxford Area within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation on Tribal Trust Land

  12. 2009_1112 HPC requirements workshop.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation of laser wakefield particle acceleration - M558 C.G.R. Geddes (M558 lead) LOASIS program, LBNL , http://loasis.lbl.gov W.P. Leemans, Program head; E. Esarey deputy & theory head C. Benedetti, M. Chen, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder Tech-X, http://www.txcorp.com D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, B.M. Cowan, C. Nieter, K. Paul, V. Ranjabar Oxford W. Andreas, S. Bajlekov, N. Bourgeois, T. Ibbotson, S.M. Hooker 1 1 NA-22/Nonproliferation R&D *cgrgeddes@lbl.gov Simulations

  13. Beamline 11.3.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Small-molecule crystallography Scientific disciplines: Structural chemistry, magnetic materials, microporous materials. GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 6-17 keV Monochromator Channel-cut Si(111) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1x1011 photons/s/0.01%BW at 10 keV Resolving power (E/ΔE) 1000 Endstations Medium sized hutch with Bruker AXS D8 diffractometer and Oxford Cryosystems Cryostream Plus Detectors Bruker AXS APEXII CCD Spot size at

  14. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond Before and after CrossRef by Dr. Walt Warnick on Thu, December 19, 2013 13928 499px-Aquatint_of_a_Doctor_in_divinity_at_the_University_of_Oxford,_shown_wearing_convocation_dress.jpg Before and after CrossRef Read more about 13928 It is truly wonderful when something comes along that speeds access to science. Such is the case with CrossRef's linking network for scholarly literature. Anyone that has ever done a literature search prior

  15. Radiogenic p-isotopes from type Ia supernova, nuclear physics uncertainties, and galactic chemical evolution compared with values in primitive meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travaglio, C.; Gallino, R.; Rauscher, T.; Dauphas, N.; Rpke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W. E-mail: claudia.travaglio@b2fh.org

    2014-11-10

    The nucleosynthesis of proton-rich isotopes is calculated for multi-dimensional Chandrasekhar-mass models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with different metallicities. The predicted abundances of the short-lived radioactive isotopes {sup 92}Nb, {sup 97,} {sup 98}Tc, and {sup 146}Sm are given in this framework. The abundance seeds are obtained by calculating s-process nucleosynthesis in the material accreted onto a carbon-oxygen white dwarf from a binary companion. A fine grid of s-seeds at different metallicities and {sup 13}C-pocket efficiencies is considered. A galactic chemical evolution model is used to predict the contribution of SN Ia to the solar system p-nuclei composition measured in meteorites. Nuclear physics uncertainties are critical to determine the role of SNe Ia in the production of {sup 92}Nb and {sup 146}Sm. We find that, if standard Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia are at least 50% of all SN Ia, they are strong candidates for reproducing the radiogenic p-process signature observed in meteorites.

  16. Origin of anomalous Xe-H in nanodiamond stardust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratz, K. L.; Farouqi, K.; Hallmann, O.; Pfeiffer, B.; Ott, U.

    2014-05-09

    Still today, the nucleosynthesis origin of Xe-H in presolar nanodiamonds is far from understood. Historically possible explanations were proposed by a secondary neutron-burst process occurring in the He- or C/O-shells of a type-II supernova (SN-II), which are, however, not fully convincing in terms of modern nucleosynthesis conditions. Therefore, we have investigated Xe isotopic abundance features that may be diagnostic for different versions of a classical, primary r-process in high-entropy-wind (HEW) ejecta of core-collapse SN-II. We report here on parameter tests for non-standard r-process variants, by varying electron abundances (Y{sub e}), ranges of entropies (S) and expansion velocities (V{sub exp}) with their correlated neutron-freezeout times (?(freeze)) and temperatures (T{sub 9}(freeze)). From this study, we conclude that a best fi to the measured Xe-H abundance ratios {sup i}Xe/{sup 136}Xe can be obtained with the high-S main component of a cold r-process variant.

  17. Stellar Evolution/Supernova Research Data Archives from the SciDAC Computational Astrophysics Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Woosley, Stan [University of California, Santa Cruz

    Theoretical high-energy astrophysics studies the most violent explosions in the universe - supernovae (the massive explosions of dying stars) and gamma ray bursts (mysterious blasts of intense radiation). The evolution of massive stars and their explosion as supernovae and/or gamma ray bursts describes how the "heavy" elements needed for life, such as oxygen and iron, are forged (nucleosynthesis) and ejected to later form new stars and planets. The Computational Astrophysics Consortium's project includes a Science Application Partnership on Adaptive Algorithms that develops software involved. The principal science topics are - in order of priority - 1) models for Type Ia supernovae, 2) radiation transport, spectrum formation, and nucleosynthesis in model supernovae of all types; 3) the observational implications of these results for experiments in which DOE has an interest, especially the Joint Dark Energy Mission, Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite observatory, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and ground based supernova searches; 4) core collapse supernovae; 5) gamma-ray bursts; 6) hypernovae from Population III stars; and 7) x-ray bursts. Models of these phenomena share a common need for nuclear reactions and radiation transport coupled to multi-dimensional fluid flow. The team has developed and used supernovae simulation codes to study Type 1A and core-collapse supernovae. (Taken from http://www.scidac.gov/physics/grb.html) The Stellar Evolution Data Archives contains more than 225 Pre-SN models that can be freely accessed.

  18. Neutron capture of /sup 122/Te, /sup 123/Te, /sup 124/Te, /sup 125/Te, and /sup 126/Te

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macklin, R.L.; Winters, R.R.

    1989-07-01

    Isotopically enriched samples of the tellurium isotopes from mass 122 to mass 126 were used to measure neutron capture in the energy range 2.6 keV to 600 keV at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator pulsed neutron source. Starting at 2.6 keV, over 200 Breit-Wigner resonances for each isotope were used to describe the capture data. Least-squares adjustment gave parameters and their uncertainties for a total of 1659 resonances. Capture cross sections averaged over Maxwellian neutron distributions with temperatures ranging from kT = 5 keV to kT = 100 keV were derived for comparison with stellar nucleosynthesis calculations. For the three isotopes shielded from the astrophysical r-process, /sup 122/Te, /sup 123/Te and /sup 124/Te at kT = 30 keV the respective values were (280 /plus minus/ 10) mb, (819 /plus minus/ 30) mb and (154 /plus minus/ 6) mb. The corresponding products of cross section and solar system abundance are nearly equal in close agreement with s-process nucleosynthesis calculations. 26 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  20. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os measured at the n{sub T}OF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  1. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n, ) cross sections of 186,187,188Os

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Koehler, Paul Edward

    2010-01-01

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of 186Os, 187Os, and 188Os measured at the n TOF facility at CERN. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the SAMMY code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the 187Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  2. Proceedings of the Toronto TEAM/ACES workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L.R.

    1991-03-01

    The third TEAM Workshop of the third round was held at Ontario Hydro in Toronto 25--26 October 1990, immediately following the Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation. This was the first Joint Workshop with ACES (Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society), whose goals are similar to TEAM, but who tend to work at higher frequencies (Antennas, Propagation, and Scattering). A fusion problem, the eddy current heating of the case of the Euratom Large Coil Project Coil, was adapted as Problem 14 at the Oxford Workshop, and a solution to that problem was presented at Toronto by Oskar Biro of the Graz (Austria) University of Technology. Individual solutions were also presented for Problems 8 (Flaw in a Plate) and 9 (Moving Coil inside a Pipe). Five new solutions were presented to Problem 13 (DC Coil in a Ferromagnetic Yoke), and Koji Fujiwara of Okayama University summarized these solutions along with the similar number presented at Oxford. The solutions agreed well in the air but disagreed in the steel. Codes with a formulation in magnetic field strength or scalar potential underestimated the flux density in the steel, and codes based on flux density or vector potential overestimated it. Codes with edge elements appeared to do better than codes with nodal elements. These results stimulated considerable discussions; in my view that was the most valuable result of the workshop.

  3. Progress at the TITAN-EBIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klawitter, R.; Alanssari, M.; Frekers, D.; Chowdhury, U.; Gwinner, G.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.; Lpez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Macdonald, T. D.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, M. C.; Seeraji, S.; Andreoiu, C.

    2015-01-09

    Precision mass measurements of short-lived isotopes provide insight into a wide array of physics, including nuclear structure, nucleosynthesis, and tests of the Standard Model. The precision of Penning trap mass spectrometry (PTMS) measurements is limited by the lifetime of the isotopes of interest, but scales proportionally with their charge state q, making highly charged ions attractive for mass measurements of nuclides far from stability. TITAN, TRIUMF's Ion Trap(s) for Atomic and Nuclear science, is currently the only setup in the world coupling an EBIT to a rare isotope facility for the purpose of PTMS. Charge breeding ions for Penning trap mass spectrometry, however, entails specific set of challenges. To make use of its potential, efficiencies have to be high, breeding times have to be short and the ion energy spread has to be small. An overview of the TITAN facility and charge-breeding program is given, current and future developments are highlighted and some selected results are presented.

  4. Observation of low-lying resonances in the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacoppo, F.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Larsen, A. C.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Koehler, P. E.; Moretto, L. G.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    An excess of strength on the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance recently has been observed in the γ-decay from the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt. The nature of this phenomenon is not yet fully investigated. If this feature is present also in the γ-ray strength of the neutron-rich isotopes, it can affect the neutron-capture reactions involved in the formation of heavy-elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The experimental level density and γ-ray strength function of 195,196Pt are presented together with preliminary calculations of the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections.

  5. First observation of low-energy γ-ray enhancement in the rare-earth region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Simon, Anna; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ross, T. J.; Allmond, James M.; et al

    2016-03-04

    Here, the γ-ray strength function and level density in the quasi-continuum of 151,153Sm have been measured using bismuth germanate shielded Ge clover detectors of the STARLiTeR system. The Compton shields allow an extraction of the γ strength down to unprecedentedly low γ energies of ≈ 500 keV. For the first time an enhanced low-energy γ-ray strength has been observed in the rare-earth region. In addition, for the first time both the upbend and the well-known scissors resonance have been observed simultaneously for the same nucleus. Hauser-Feshbach calculations show that this strength enhancement at low γ energies could have an impactmore » of 2 3 orders of magnitude on the (n, γ) reaction rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.« less

  6. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  7. SWIFT/BAT DETECTION OF HARD X-RAYS FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: EVIDENCE FOR TITANIUM-44

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troja, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Hartmann, D.

    2014-12-10

    We report Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10σ) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

  8. The {sup 13}C-pocket structure in AGB models: constraints from zirconium isotope abundances in single mainstream SiC grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nan; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Savina, Michael R.

    2014-06-20

    We present postprocess asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models with different {sup 13}C-pocket internal structures to better explain zirconium isotope measurements in mainstream presolar SiC grains by Nicolussi et al. and Barzyk et al. We show that higher-than-solar {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios can be predicted by adopting a {sup 13}C-pocket with a flat {sup 13}C profile, instead of the previous decreasing-with-depth {sup 13}C profile. The improved agreement between grain data for zirconium isotopes and AGB models provides additional support for a recent proposal of a flat {sup 13}C profile based on barium isotopes in mainstream SiC grains by Liu et al.

  9. Realistic fission models, new beta-decay half-lives and the r-process in neutron star mergers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibagaki, S.; Kajino, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Chiba, S. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8850 (Japan); Lorusso, G.; Nishimura, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    Almost half of heavy nuclei beyond iron are considered to be produced by rapid neutron capture process (r-process). This process occurs in the neutron-rich environment such as core-collapse supernovae or neutron star mergers, but the main production site is still unknown. In the r-process of neutron star mergers, nuclear fission reactions play an important role. Also beta-decay half-lives of magic nuclei are crucial for the r-process. We have carried out r-process nucleosynthesis calculations based upon new theoretical estimates of fission fragment distributions and new beta-decay half-lives for N=82 nuclei measured at RIBF-RIKEN. We investigate the effect of nuclear fission on abundance patterns in the matter ejected from neutron star mergers with two different fission fragment mass distributions. We also discuss how the new experimental beta-decay half-lives affect the r-process.

  10. p process measurements with SuN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spyrou, A.; Quinn, S.J.; Simon, A.; and others

    2012-11-20

    The astrophysical p process is considered the main nucleosynthesis mechanism for the creation of the p nuclei. The accurate description of this process still suffers from large uncertainties both in the astrophysical environment and the nuclear physics input. In the latter case, nuclear reaction sensitivity studies have identified a group of reactions that have a significant contribution to the final p-nuclei abundance distribution. The cross sections of such 'important' reactions need to be measured experimentally and for this reason there is a major experimental effort to provide experimental data for the relevant astrophysical energies. In the present work, we introduce a new experimental setup - the SuN detector - that was developed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory for measurements of capture reactions of astrophysical interest.

  11. The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E. I.; Boyd, R. N.; Remington, B. A.; Keane, C. J.; Al-Ayat, R.

    2009-04-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008); https://lasers.llnl.gov/], completed in March 2009, is the highest energy laser ever constructed. The high temperatures and densities achievable at NIF will enable a number of experiments in inertial confinement fusion and stockpile stewardship, as well as access to new regimes in a variety of experiments relevant to x-ray astronomy, laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, nuclear astrophysics, and planetary science. The experiments will impact research on black holes and other accreting objects, the understanding of stellar evolution and explosions, nuclear reactions in dense plasmas relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis, properties of warm dense matter in planetary interiors, molecular cloud dynamics and star formation, and fusion energy generation.

  12. Gravitational-wave generation in hybrid quintessential inflationary models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sa, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the generation of gravitational waves in the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. The full gravitational-wave energy spectrum is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients. The postinflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a peak at high frequencies. The maximum of the peak is firmly located at the megahertz-gigahertz region of the spectrum and corresponds to {Omega}{sub GW{approx_equal}}10{sup -12}. This peak is substantially smaller than the one appearing in the gravitational-wave energy spectrum of the original quintessential inflationary model, therefore avoiding any conflict with the nucleosynthesis constraint on {Omega}{sub GW}.

  13. 102Pd(n, {gamma}) Cross Section Measurement Using DANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatarik, R.; Alpizar-Vicente, A. M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2006-03-13

    The neutron capture cross section of the proton rich nucleus 102Pd was measured with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The target was a 2 mg Pd foil with 78% enriched 102Pd. It was held by a 0.9 {mu}m thick Mylar bag which was selected after comparing different thicknesses of Kapton and Mylar for their scattering background. To identify the contribution of the other Pd isotopes the data of a natural Pd sample was compared to the data of the 102Pd enriched sample. A 12C sample was used to determine the scattering background. The 102Pd(n, {gamma}) rate is of importance for the p-process nucleosynthesis.

  14. Charge-exchange QRPA with the Gogny Force for Axially-symmetric Deformed Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, M.; Goriely, S.; Péru, S.

    2014-06-15

    In recent years fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations using finite range Gogny force have been performed to study electromagnetic excitations of several axially-symmetric deformed nuclei up to the {sup 238}U. Here we present the extension of this approach to the charge-exchange nuclear excitations (pnQRPA). In particular we focus on the Isobaric Analog and Gamow-Teller resonances. A comparison of the predicted GT strength distribution with existing experimental data is presented. The role of nuclear deformation is shown. Special attention is paid to β-decay half-lives calculations for which experimental data exist and for specific isotone chains of relevance for the r-process nucleosynthesis.

  15. Impact of individual nuclear masses on r-process abundances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumpower, M. R.; Surman, R.; Fang, D. -L.; Beard, M.; Möller, P.; Kawano, T.; Aprahamian, A.

    2015-09-15

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive study of the sensitivity of r-process nucleosynthesis to individual nuclear masses across the chart of nuclides. Using the latest version (2012) of the Finite-Range Droplet Model, we consider mass variations of ±0.5 MeV and propagate each mass change to all affected quantities, including Q values, reaction rates, and branching ratios. We find such mass variations can result in up to an order of magnitude local change in the final abundance pattern produced in an r-process simulation. As a result, we identify key nuclei whose masses have a substantial impact on abundance predictions for hot, cold, and neutron star merger r-process scenarios and could be measured at future radioactive beam facilities.

  16. Impact of individual nuclear masses on r-process abundances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mumpower, M. R.; Surman, R.; Fang, D. -L.; Beard, M.; Möller, P.; Kawano, T.; Aprahamian, A.

    2015-09-15

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive study of the sensitivity of r-process nucleosynthesis to individual nuclear masses across the chart of nuclides. Using the latest version (2012) of the Finite-Range Droplet Model, we consider mass variations of ±0.5 MeV and propagate each mass change to all affected quantities, including Q values, reaction rates, and branching ratios. We find such mass variations can result in up to an order of magnitude local change in the final abundance pattern produced in an r-process simulation. As a result, we identify key nuclei whose masses have a substantial impact on abundancemore » predictions for hot, cold, and neutron star merger r-process scenarios and could be measured at future radioactive beam facilities.« less

  17. Energy and Technology Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This journal contains 7 articles pertaining to astrophysics. The first article is an overview of the other 6 articles and also a tribute to Jim Wilson and his work in the fields of general relativity and numerical astrophysics. The six articles are on the following subjects: (1) computer simulations of black hole accretion; (2) calculations on the collapse of the iron core of a massive star; (3) stellar-collapse models which reveal a possible site for nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than iron; (4) modeling sources for gravitational radiation; (5) the development of a computer program for finite-difference mesh calculations and its applications to astrophysics; (6) the existence of neutrinos with nonzero rest mass are used to explain the universe. Abstracts of each of the articles were prepared separately. (SC)

  18. Spallation Model for the Titanium-Rich Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Ouyed, Amir; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2011-10-07

    Titanium-rich subluminous supernovae are rare and challenge current SN nucleosynthesis models. We present a model in which ejecta from a standard supernova is impacted by a second explosion of the neutron star (a quark nova), resulting in spallation reactions that lead to {sup 56}Ni destruction and {sup 44}Ti creation under the right conditions. Basic calculations of the spallation products shows that a delay between the two explosions of {approx}5 days reproduces the observed abundance of {sup 44}Ti in Cas A and explains its low luminosity as a result of the destruction of {sup 56}Ni. Our results could have important implications for light curves of subluminous as well as superluminous supernovae.

  19. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izutani, Natsuko [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  20. Solar and supernova neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1990-11-01

    Two topics are addressed, the interactions of neutrinos during a type II supernova and the effect of current eddies on solar neutrino oscillations. The supernova discussion focuses on the nucleosynthesis that accompanies inelastic neutral current interactions of neutrinos in the mantle of a collapsing star, and on the effect of neutrino down-scattering'' and preheating on the explosion mechanism. The second half of the talk deals with the influence of solar turbulence (or density fluctuations) on the neutrino effective mass and the possibility that a time-varying neutrino flux could result. The effects of harmonic density or three-current perturbations on the oscillation probability are explored analytically and numerically. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  1. An overview of DANCE: a 4II BaF[2] detector for neutron capture measurements at LANSCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullmann, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture experiments (DANCE) is a 162-element, 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} array designed to make neutron capture cross-section measurements on rare or radioactive targets with masses as little as 1 mg. Accurate capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. These cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and must be measured. Up to now, except for a few long-lived nuclides there are essentially no differential capture measurements on radioactive nuclei. The DANCE array is located at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE, which is a continuous-spectrum neutron source with useable energies from below thermal to about 100 keV. Data acquisition is done with 320 fast waveform digitizers. The design and initial performance results, including background minimization, will be discussed.

  2. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Kumar, Suresh; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Xu, Lixin E-mail: sukuyd@gmail.com E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis.

  3. THM determination of the 65 keV resonance strength intervening in the {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 14}N reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Burjan, S. V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Coc, A.; Hammache, F.; Irgaziev, B.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; and others

    2015-02-24

    The {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 14}N reaction is of paramount importance for the nucleosynthesis in a number of stellar sites, including red giants (RG), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, massive stars and classical novae. We report on the indirect study of the {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 14}N reaction via the Trojan Horse Method by applying the approach recently developed for extracting the resonance strength of the narrow resonance at E{sub c.m.}{sup R} = 65 keV (E{sub X} =5.673 MeV). The strength of the 65 keV resonance in the {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 14}N reaction, measured by means of the THM, has been used to renormalize the corresponding resonance strength in the {sup 17}O+p radiative capture channel.

  4. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. II. The (n,n{sup '}) cross section of {sup 187}Os at 30 keV neutron energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosconi, M.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Mengoni, A.

    2010-07-15

    The inelastic neutron-scattering cross section of {sup 187}Os has been determined in a time-of-flight experiment at the Karlsruhe 3.7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. An almost monoenergetic beam of 30-keV neutrons was produced at the threshold of the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. Information on the inelastic channel is required for reliable calculations of the so-called stellar enhancement factor, by which the laboratory cross section of {sup 187}Os must be corrected in order to account for the thermal population of low-lying excited states at the temperatures of s-process nucleosynthesis, in particular of the important state at 9.75 keV. This correction represents a crucial step in the interpretation of the {sup 187}Os/{sup 187}Re pair as a cosmochronometer.

  5. PRODUCTION OF ALL THE r-PROCESS NUCLIDES IN THE DYNAMICAL EJECTA OF NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanajo, Shinya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Shibata, Masaru; Nishimura, Nobuya; Kyutoku, Koutarou

    2014-07-10

    Recent studies suggest that binary neutron star (NS-NS) mergers robustly produce heavy r-process nuclei above the atomic mass number A ? 130 because their ejecta consist of almost pure neutrons (electron fraction of Y {sub e} < 0.1). However, the production of a small amount of the lighter r-process nuclei (A ? 90-120) conflicts with the spectroscopic results of r-process-enhanced Galactic halo stars. We present, for the first time, the result of nucleosynthesis calculations based on the fully general relativistic simulation of a NS-NS merger with approximate neutrino transport. It is found that the bulk of the dynamical ejecta are appreciably shock-heated and neutrino processed, resulting in a wide range of Y {sub e} (?0.09-0.45). The mass-averaged abundance distribution of calculated nucleosynthesis yields is in reasonable agreement with the full-mass range (A ? 90-240) of the solar r-process curve. This implies, if our model is representative of such events, that the dynamical ejecta of NS-NS mergers could be the origin of the Galactic r-process nuclei. Our result also shows that radioactive heating after ?1 day from the merging, which gives rise to r-process-powered transient emission, is dominated by the ?-decays of several species close to stability with precisely measured half-lives. This implies that the total radioactive heating rate for such an event can be well constrained within about a factor of two if the ejected material has a solar-like r-process pattern.

  6. PRODUCTION OF THE p-PROCESS NUCLEI IN THE CARBON-DEFLAGRATION MODEL FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi E-mail: iwamoto.nobuyuki@jaea.go.jp

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the nucleosynthesis of proton-rich isotopes in the carbon-deflagration model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The seed abundances are obtained by calculating the s-process nucleosynthesis that is expected to occur in the repeating helium shell flashes on the carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarf (WD) during mass accretion from a binary companion. When the deflagration wave passes through the outer layer of the CO WD, p-nuclei are produced by photodisintegration reactions on s-nuclei in a region where the peak temperature ranges from 1.9 to 3.6 x 10{sup 9} K. We confirm the sensitivity of the p-process on the initial distribution of s-nuclei. We show that the initial C/O ratio in the WD does not affect much the yield of p-nuclei. On the other hand, the abundance of {sup 22}Ne left after s-processing has a large influence on the p-process via the {sup 22}Ne({alpha},n) reaction. We find that about 50% of p-nuclides are co-produced when normalized to their solar abundances in all adopted cases of seed distribution. Mo and Ru, which are largely underproduced in Type II supernovae (SNe II), are produced more than in SNe II although they are underproduced with respect to the yield levels of other p-nuclides. The ratios between p-nuclei and iron in the ejecta are larger than the solar ratios by a factor of 1.2. We also compare the yields of oxygen, iron, and p-nuclides in SNe Ia and SNe II and suggest that SNe Ia could make a larger contribution than SNe II to the solar system content of p-nuclei.

  7. Need for an (n,?) Apparatus at the LANSCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehler, Paul E.

    2014-03-05

    There is an urgent need for a new (n,?) measurement capability at the Los Alamos Neutrons Science Center (LANSCE) for several reasons. First, it has been shown that (n,?) measurements on medium- to heavy-mass nuclides can provide some of the best constraints on some of the most important reaction rates for explosive nucleosynthesis studies. A few such measurements have been made, but many more are needed. Second, there are a few (n,p) and (n,?) cross sections on lighter nuclides of importance to nuclear astrophysics that remain unmeasured. Third, it has been shown that (n,?) measurements can constrain photon strength functions (PSFs) at very low energies. This is important because recent experiments, theory, and astrophysical calculations have demonstrated that enhanced PSFs at these energies can have large impacts on nucleosynthesis occurring in explosive environments. Also, enhanced low-energy PSFs could have significant impact on (n,?) cross sections of interest to radiochemical diagnostics of nuclear devices. However, the shape of PSFs at low energies is a subject of considerable controversy, so new data are badly needed. Fourth, previous (n,?) data have revealed a number of puzzles and hints of exotic atomic-nuclear interactions. In addition to being interesting in their own light, these interactions could be important for understanding high-energy-density environments such as in nuclear explosion and at the National Ignition Facility. Simulations indicate that the high neutron flux at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC) at the LANSCE will make many more of the needed measurements feasible. Hence, a new (n,?) instrument at the MLNSC would enable a wide range of important and interesting basic and applied science.

  8. DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IMPRINTED IN CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu, E-mail: taku.tsujimoto@nao.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    A time delay of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions hinders the imprint of their nucleosynthesis on stellar abundances. However, some occasional cases give birth to stars that avoid enrichment of their chemical compositions by massive stars and thereby exhibit an SN-Ia-like elemental feature including a very low [Mg/Fe] ( Almost-Equal-To - 1). We highlight the elemental feature of Fe-group elements for two low-Mg/Fe objects detected in nearby galaxies, and propose the presence of a class of SNe Ia that yield the low abundance ratios of [Cr, Mn, Ni/Fe]. Our novel models of chemical evolution reveal that our proposed class of SNe Ia (slow SNe Ia) is associated with ones exploding on a long timescale after their stellar birth and give a significant impact on the chemical enrichment in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In the Galaxy, on the other hand, this effect is unseen due to the overwhelming enrichment by the major class of SNe Ia that explode promptly (prompt SNe Ia) and eject a large amount of Fe-group elements. This nicely explains the different [Cr, Mn, Ni/Fe] features between the two galaxies as well as the puzzling feature seen in the LMC stars exhibiting very low Ca but normal Mg abundances. Furthermore, the corresponding channel of slow SN Ia is exemplified by performing detailed nucleosynthesis calculations in the scheme of SNe Ia resulting from a 0.8 + 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf merger.

  9. Applying User Centered Design to Research Work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholtz, Jean; Love, Oriana J.; Pike, William A.; Bruce, Joseph R.; Kim, Dee DH; McBain, Arthur S.

    2014-07-01

    The SuperIdentity (SID) research project is a collaboration between six universities in the UK (Bath, Dundee, Kent, Leicester, Oxford, and Southampton) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SID offers an innovative and exciting new approach to the concept of identity. The assumption underlying our hypothesis is that while there may be many dimensions to an identity - some more stable than others - all should ultimately reference back to a single core identity or a 'SuperIdentity.' The obvious consequence is that identification is improved by the combination of measures. Our work at PNNL has focused on the developing use cases to use in developing a model of identity and in developing visualizations for both researchers to explore the model and in the future for end users to use in determining various paths that may be possible to obtain various identity attributes from a set that is already known.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Superconducting, and other Phase Transitions in Novel f-Electron Materials at Ultra-high Pressures Using Designer Diamond Anvils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maple, M. Brian

    2005-09-13

    Pressure is a powerful control parameter, owing to its ability to affect crystal and electronic structure without introducing defects, for the investigation of condensed matter systems. Some f-electron, heavy-fermion materials display interesting and novel behavior when exposed to pressures achievable with conventional experimental techniques; however, a growing number of condensed matter systems require extreme conditions such as ultrahigh pressures, high magnetic fields, and ultralow temperatures to sufficiently explore the important properties. To that end, we have been funded to develop an ultrahigh pressure facility at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) in order to investigate superconductivity, magnetism, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and other phenomena under extreme conditions. Our goals for the second year of this grant were as follows: (a) perform electrical resistivity measurements on novel samples at a myriad of pressures using conventional piston-cylinder techniques, Bridgman anvil techniques, and diamond anvil cell technology; (b) install, commission, and operate an Oxford Kelvinox MX-100 dilution refrigerator for access to ultralow temperatures and high magnetic fields. (c) continue the development of diamond anvil cell (DAC) technology. During the past year, we have successfully installed the Oxford Kelvinox MX-100 dilution refrigerator and verified its operability down to 12 mK. We have begun an experimental program to systematically investigate the f-electron compound URu2Si2 under pressure and in the presence of magnetic fields. We have also continued our collaborative work with Sam Weir at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on Au4V and implemented a new corollary study on Au1-xVx using ultrahigh pressures. We have continued developing our DAC facility by designing and constructing an apparatus for in situ pressure measurement as well as designing high pressure cells. This report serves to highlight the progress we have made

  11. Manufacture of YBCO Superconducting Flexible Tapes from Nanoparticle Films Derived from Sedimentation and by Flame Deposition of Nanoparticles from Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesmann, Harold

    2008-02-24

    The objective of this CRADA was to develop the experimental and theoretical basis of a technology to produce yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconducting flexible tapes derived from nanoparticle metal oxide sols. The CRADA was a joint effort between Oxford Superconducting Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory and Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry. The effort was divided into three main tasks, the synthesis of a heteroepitaxial oxide buffer layer, and the manufacture of a flexible biaxially textured metallic substrate and the synthesis of a heteroepitaxial crystalline YBCO layer. The formation of a heteroepitaxial buffer layer was implemented using technology developed at the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry for the synthesis, stabilization and deposition of polymer stabilized nanoparticle metal oxide sols. Using this technology, flexible oriented RABiTS nickel tapes, manufactured and supplied by the CRADA partner, Oxford Superconducting Technology, Carteret, New Jersey, were coated with a film of metal oxide nanoparticles. After coating the RABiTS nickel tapes with the nanoparticle sols the nickel tape/nanoparticle composite structure was sintered in order to form a dense crystalline heteroepitaxial oxide layer on the surface of the tape, also known as a ‘buffer’ layer. The final phase of the research was the formation of a heteroepitaxial YBCO layer, grown on top of the metal oxide buffer layer. This work was scheduled to follow the development of the heteroepitaxial oxide buffer layer as described above. Three different polymer stabilized sols, yttrium hydroxide, Y(OH){sub 3}, copper hydroxide, Cu(OH){sub 2}, and barium fluoride, BaF{sub 2}, were synthesized and combined in the appropriate stoichiometric ratio. This metal oxide sol was then be deposited onto the buffer layer and reacted to form a crystalline heteroepitaxial YBCO film ranging from 1–5 microns thick.

  12. Reheating dynamics affects non-perturbative decay of spectator fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: rose.lerner@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-01

    The behaviour of oscillating scalar spectator fields after inflation depends on the thermal background produced by inflaton decay. Resonant decay of the spectator is often blocked by large induced thermal masses. We account for the finite decay width of the inflaton and the protracted build-up of the thermal bath to determine the early evolution of a homogeneous spectator field ? coupled to the Higgs Boson ? through the term g{sup 2}?{sup 2}?{sup 2}, the only renormalisable coupling of a new scalar to the Standard Model. We find that for very large higgs-spectator coupling g?>10{sup ?3}, the resonance is not always blocked as was previously suggested. As a consequence, the oscillating spectator can decay quickly. For other parameter values, we find that although qualitative features of the thermal blocking still hold, the dynamics are altered compared to the instant decay case. These findings are important for curvaton models, where the oscillating field must be relatively long lived in order to produce the curvature perturbation. They are also relevant for other spectator fields, which must decay sufficiently early to avoid spoiling the predictions of baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis.

  13. Experimental study of the electric dipole strength in the even Mo nuclei and its deformation dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erhard, M.; Junghans, A. R.; Nair, C.; Schwengner, R.; Beyer, R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Wagner, A.; Grosse, E.

    2010-03-15

    Two methods based on bremsstrahlung were applied to the stable even Mo isotopes for the experimental determination of the photon strength function covering the high excitation energy range above 4 MeV with its increasing level density. Photon scattering was used up to the neutron separation energies S{sub n} and data up to the maximum of the isovector giant resonance (GDR) were obtained by photoactivation. After a proper correction for multistep processes the observed quasicontinuous spectra of scattered photons show a remarkably good match to the photon strengths derived from nuclear photoeffect data obtained previously by neutron detection and corrected in absolute scale by using the new activation results. The combined data form an excellent basis to derive a shape dependence of the E1 strength in the even Mo isotopes with increasing deviation from the N=50 neutron shell (i.e., with the impact of quadrupole deformation and triaxiality). The wide energy coverage of the data allows for a stringent assessment of the dipole sum rule and a test of a novel parametrization developed previously which is based on it. This parametrization for the electric dipole strength function in nuclei with A>80 deviates significantly from prescriptions generally used previously. In astrophysical network calculations it may help to quantify the role the p-process plays in cosmic nucleosynthesis. It also has impact on the accurate analysis of neutron capture data of importance for future nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation.

  14. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draayer, Jerry P.

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  15. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF 190 METAL-POOR STARS INCLUDING 10 NEW STARS WITH [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5 , ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5. We identify a sample of 'normal' metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to 'normal' stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T {sub eff}, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions.

  16. Tracking quintessence and cold dark matter candidates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lola, S.; Pallis, C.; Tzelati, E. E-mail: kpallis@auth.gr

    2009-11-01

    We study the generation of a kination-dominated phase in the context of a quintessential model with an inverse-power-law potential and a Hubble-induced mass term for the quintessence field. The presence of kination is associated with an oscillating evolution of the quintessence field and the barotropic index. We find that, in sizeable regions of the parameter space, a tracker scaling solution can be reached sufficiently early to alleviate the coincidence problem. Other observational constraints originating from nucleosynthesis, the inflationary scale, the present acceleration of the universe and the dark-energy-density parameter can be also met. The impact of this modified kination-dominated phase on the thermal abundance of cold dark matter candidates is also investigated. We find that: 1. the enhancement of the relic abundance of the WIMPs with respect to the standard paradigm, crucially depends on the hierarchy between the freeze-out temperature and the temperature at which the extrema in the evolution of the quintessence field are encountered, and; 2. the relic abundance of e-WIMPs takes its present value close to the temperature at which the earliest extremum of the evolution of the quintessence field occurs and, as a consequence, both gravitinos and axinos arise as natural cold dark matter candidates. In the case of unstable gravitinos, the gravitino constraint can be satisfied for values of the initial temperature well above those required in the standard cosmology.

  17. THE MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF JET-DRIVEN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: THE CASE OF W49B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    González-Casanova, Diego F.; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lopez, Laura A.

    2014-02-01

    The circumstellar medium (CSM) of a massive star is modified by its winds before a supernova (SN) explosion occurs, and thus the evolution of the resulting supernova remnant (SNR) is influenced by both the geometry of the explosion as well as the complex structure of the CSM. Motivated by recent work suggesting the SNR W49B was a jet-driven SN expanding in a complex CSM, we explore how the dynamics and the metal distributions in a jet-driven explosion are modified by the interaction with the surrounding environment. In particular, we perform hydrodynamical calculations to study the dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis of a jet-driven SN triggered by the collapse of a 25 M {sub ☉} Wolf-Rayet star and its subsequent interaction with the CSM up to several hundred years following the explosion. We find that although the CSM has small-scale effects on the structure of the SNR, the overall morphology and abundance patterns are reflective of the initial asymmetry of the SN explosion. Thus, we predict that jet-driven SNRs, such as W49B, should be identifiable based on morphology and abundance patterns at ages up to several hundred years, even if they expand into a complex CSM environment.

  18. Stellar yields of rotating first stars. I. Yields of weak supernovae and abundances of carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: ktakahashi@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    We perform a stellar evolution simulation of first stars and calculate stellar yields from the first supernovae. The initial masses are taken from 12 to 140 M {sub ?} to cover the whole range of core-collapse supernova progenitors, and stellar rotation is included, which results in efficient internal mixing. A weak explosion is assumed in supernova yield calculations, thus only outer distributed matter, which is not affected by the explosive nucleosynthesis, is ejected in the models. We show that the initial mass and the rotation affect the explosion yield. All the weak explosion models have abundances of [C/O] larger than unity. Stellar yields from massive progenitors of >40-60 M {sub ?} show enhancement of Mg and Si. Rotating models yield abundant Na and Al, and Ca is synthesized in nonrotating heavy massive models of >80 M {sub ?}. We fit the stellar yields to the three most iron-deficient stars and constrain the initial parameters of the mother progenitor stars. The abundance pattern in SMSS 03136708 is well explained by 50-80 M {sub ?} nonrotating models, rotating 30-40 M {sub ?} models well fit the abundance of HE 0107-5240, and both nonrotating and rotating 15-40 M {sub ?} models explain HE 1327-2326. The presented analysis will be applicable to other carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars observed in the future. The abundance analyses will give valuable information about the characteristics of the first stars.

  19. FLUORINE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD: IS IT ALL PRODUCED IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jnsson, H.; Ryde, N. [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Harper, G. M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Richter, M. J. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hinkle, K. H., E-mail: henrikj@astro.lu.se [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    The origin of ''cosmic'' fluorine is uncertain, but there are three proposed production sites/mechanisms for the origin: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, ? nucleosynthesis in Type II supernovae, and/or the winds of Wolf-Rayet stars. The relative importance of these production sites has not been established even for the solar neighborhood, leading to uncertainties in stellar evolution models of these stars as well as uncertainties in the chemical evolution models of stellar populations. We determine the fluorine and oxygen abundances in seven bright, nearby giants with well determined stellar parameters. We use the 2.3 ?m vibrational-rotational HF line and explore a pure rotational HF line at 12.2 ?m. The latter has never been used before for an abundance analysis. To be able to do this, we have calculated a line list for pure rotational HF lines. We find that the abundances derived from the two diagnostics agree. Our derived abundances are well reproduced by chemical evolution models including only fluorine production in AGB stars and, therefore, we draw the conclusion that this might be the main production site of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. Furthermore, we highlight the advantages of using the 12 ?m HF lines to determine the possible contribution of the ? process to the fluorine budget at low metallicities where the difference between models including and excluding this process is dramatic.

  20. A taste of dark matter: Flavour constraints on pseudoscalar mediators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Kahlhoefer, Felix; McCabe, Christopher; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2015-03-31

    Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordialmore » nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation.« less