Sample records for overrun limitation sol

  1. Project Controls to Minimize Cost and Schedule Overruns: A Model, Research Agenda, and Initial Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David N.

    1 of 27 Project Controls to Minimize Cost and Schedule Overruns: A Model, Research Agenda been successfully applied to the study of projects for many years. While this modeling has clearly defined the structures which create project dynamics, it has been less helpful in providing explicit

  2. The Poets of El Sol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronmiller, Sue A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patt Morrison Asks: The Poet, W.S. Merwin. ” Los AngelesSue A. Ed. Mind’s Eye: The Poets of El Sol, poetryxchange,The Poets of El Sol ii The Poets of El Sol SUE A. CRONMILLER

  3. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  4. Science du sol Le phosphore assimilable des sols : sa reprsentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Science du sol Le phosphore assimilable des sols : sa représentation par un modèle fonctionnel à'échange isotopique des ions phosphate permet de démon- trer que le phosphore (P) biodisponible des sols est un des fertilisations excédentaires de phosphore modifient tous les compartiments. Cette représentation

  5. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  6. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, .O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  7. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  8. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  9. Big Sol - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I.ProgramBig Sol Big Sol Super conducting

  10. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-gel matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO3H, --NH2, and --PO3H2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex and a sol-gel precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complexes.

  11. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  12. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, J.M.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  13. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  14. Sol Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to:Information Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al.,Sol Inc Jump to:

  15. Sol Solution | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to:Information Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al.,Sol Inc Jump

  16. Sol rios | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to:Information Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al.,Sol Incrios Jump

  17. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  18. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  19. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Bhatia, Rimple (Albuquerque, NM); Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  20. SolCAP PROJECT OVERVIEW The Basis of SolCAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    SolCAP PROJECT OVERVIEW The Basis of SolCAP: Leverage knowledge and resources from the Solanaceae Project Co-Directors: David Douches1, Robin Buell1, David Francis2, Allen Van Deynze3, Walter De Jong4, Lukas Mueller4 and Alexandra Stone5, Project Assistant: Kelly Zarka1 1: Michigan State University, 2

  1. Science du sol volution court terme de formes du phosphore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Science du sol �volution à court terme de formes du phosphore d'un sol ferrallitique après apports du phosphore du sol analysées sont les suivantes : phosphore total (Pt), organique (Po), mi- néral mottes de boue sont encore présentes après 500 j. La teneur en phosphore total du sol a triplé (1 400 &mu

  2. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  3. SolGen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to:Information Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al.,Sol IncriosSolGen

  4. Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inside &ONLINE Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar- rays grace the rooftops of two HRES buildings therebelgroupInterahamwefoundheron the road in a remote region in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo- ductingfocusgroupinterviewswithmem- bers of the community. Looking horrorin theface HHI researchers don't flinch in examination

  5. Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional silica sol-gel chemistry is limited for the production of transparent ultralow-density aerogels because (1) gelation is either slow or unachievable, and (2) even when gelation is achieved, the large pore sizes result in loss of transparency for aerogels <.020 g/cc. We have developed a two-step sol-gel process that circumvents the limitations of the conventional process and allows the formation of ultralow-density gels in a matter of hours. we have found that the gel time is dependent on the catalyst concentration. After supercritical extraction, the aerogels are transparent, uncracked tiles with densities as low as .003 g/cc. 6 figs., 11 refs.

  6. Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited for Commercial Landscape Maintenance Application: http://www.flaes.org/ pdf/lndspckt.pdf Limited Certification.floridatermitehelp.org or request by phone at 850-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance

  7. Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control (SM 7&O/Structural only). See web locations below for applications. Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape

  8. ENERGIA DEL SOL Ts = 5780 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batiste, Oriol

    ENERGIA DEL SOL Ts = 5780 K P = 3, 86 � 1026 W Constant solar = 1377 W/m2 4H1 + 2e- He4 + 2 utilitzar per a aprofitar l'energia solar. #12;LA RADIACI´O SOLAR #12;LA RADIACI´O SOLAR #12;#12;#12;LA;APROFITAMENT DE LA RADIACI´O SOLAR La radiaci´o solar la podem convertir en altres formes d'energia per

  9. SolSolution | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerTypePonsa, Mallorca:upGuidebookSolSolution Jump to:

  10. Sol-gel manufactured energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  11. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Swansiger, Rosalind W. (Livermore, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  12. aux sols pollues: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  13. al sol sobre: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  14. TiSol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective JumpInc., 2010) |TheseeSpringsOpenfieldTiSol

  15. SolASE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardtonManagement,SmartestEnergynot indicatedSageSolASE

  16. ConSol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentratingRenewable Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation,Area (Keith, Et Al., 1992)ComvergeConSol

  17. Sol Voltaics AB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to:Information Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al.,Sol Inc

  18. SolFocus | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to:Information Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al.,Sol Incrios

  19. E2SOL LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 No revision has TypeGeothermalIION Jump to:E2SOL LLC Jump

  20. Sol-gel coatings for optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avellaneda, C.O.; Macedo, M.A.; Florentino, A.O.; Aegerter, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} prepared by a sol-gel process in form of coatings and aerogels are new materials which present interesting properties: (a) The coatings present electrochromic properties and exhibit a blue coloration under Li{sup +} insertion with 100% reversible variation of the optical transmission in the visible and near infrared range between 80% and 200% and have a high chemical stability (tested up to 2,000 cycles). (b) They are semiconductor and present a photoelectric effect when illuminating in the UV region ({lambda} < 360 nm). These films are therefore very promising to be used in electrochromic devices, as electrodes for photoelectrochemical purpose and the development of nanocrystalline solar cell. (c) When prepared in aerogel form, the high BET surface area of the powders is a promising asset to use these new materials for catalytic purposes for air pollution control.

  1. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  2. Solar Flare Measurements with STIX and MiSolFA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casadei, Diego

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares are the most powerful events in the solar system and the brightest sources of X-rays, often associated with emission of particles reaching the Earth and causing geomagnetic storms, giving problems to communication, airplanes and even black-outs. X-rays emitted by accelerated electrons are the most direct probe of solar flare phenomena. The Micro Solar-Flare Apparatus (MiSolFA) is a proposed compact X-ray detector which will address the two biggest issues in solar flare modeling. Dynamic range limitations prevent simultaneous spectroscopy with a single instrument of all X-ray emitting regions of a flare. In addition, most X-ray observations so far are inconsistent with the high anisotropy predicted by the models usually adopted for solar flares. Operated at the same time as the STIX instrument of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission, at the next solar maximum (2020), they will have the unique opportunity to look at the same flare from two different directions: Solar Orbiter gets very close to the Sun wit...

  3. Contribution la connaissance de la Faune du Sol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Contribution la connaissance de la Faune du Sol de la Forêt des Maures (Var) LE MASSIF DES PRADELS versant nord du massif des Praclels, dans la chaîne des Maures, dans le but d'y rechercher les coléoptères

  4. Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES FOR SUPERCAPACITOR using amine bases, resorcinol and furfural 3.gels produce with lignin Surface Chemistry Modification NAC. Lignin is a byproduct of ethanol and other wood related T

  5. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sol-gel process Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process control 12 2.4 Aerosol method 18 2... synthesis 27 A.3 Sol-gel process 27 A.4 Aerogel method 27 A.5 Pechini and Citrate gel method 27 A.6 Low... process The sol-gel ......

  7. Ammonia Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers for Catalyst System Diagnostics Ammonia Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers for Catalyst System Diagnostics...

  8. Recherches sur la rsistance des sols aux mala-dies. XV. Comparaison des populations de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    le fer joue un rôle dans le mécanisme de résistance des sols de Chateaurenard. L'objet de cet article populations de Pseudomonas fluorescents du sol résistant de Chateaurenard et du sol sensible de Carque- fou sols de Chateaurenard semble réduite. Ils sont en effet moins nombreux en valeur relative et moins

  9. New insights into uranium (VI) sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) investigations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been extremely useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sup 17}O NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, ((UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}){sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results will be presented to illustrate that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} ((UO{sub 2}){sub 8} O{sub 4} (OH){sub 10}) {center dot} 8H{sub 2}O. This compound is the precursor to sintered UO{sub 2} ceramic fuel. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Dgradation et transformation d'un compost ptrolier apport des sols battants et effets sur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dégradation et transformation d'un compost pétrolier apporté à des sols battants et effets sur devenir d'un compost pétrolier après incorporation dans le sol et à appré- cier sa valeur d'amendement. L'expérimentation a été effectuée au laboratoire sur 2 sols de texture limoneuse enrichis en compost selon une dose unique

  11. MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOL-GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    mechanical behavior of polysilicate aerogels, prepared using the sol-gel process. Two series of materials were prepared, derivatized with silylating agents, processed into coating solutions, and characterized properties of aerogel thin films were characterized. vi #12;Table of Contents Abstract

  12. Sol-gel matrices for direct colorimetric detection of analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA); Sasaki, Darryl (Albuquerque, NM); Yamanaka, Stacey (Dallas, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  13. Nanostructured Energetci Matreials with sol-gel Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A; Satcher, J; Simpson, R; Clapsaddle, B

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of nanomaterials in the synthesis and processing of energetic materials (i.e., pyrotechnics, explosives, and propellants) is a relatively new area of science and technology. Previous energetic nanomaterials have displayed new and potentially beneficial properties, relative to their conventional analogs. Unfortunately some of the energetic nanomaterials are difficult and or expensive to produce. At LLNL we are studying the application of sol-gel chemical methodology to the synthesis of energetic nanomaterials components and their formulation into energetic nanocomposites. Here sol-gel synthesis and formulation techniques are used to prepare Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al pyrotechnic nanocomposites. The preliminary characterization of their thermal properties and the degree of mixing between fuel and oxidizer phases is contrasted with that of a conventional pyrotechnic mixture.

  14. Synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticle by sol-gel technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, H. S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H. [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticle is synthesized using sol-gel technique. Various mole ratio of ammonia solution and nitric acid relative to zirconium propoxide is added in the reaction to study the effect on the crystallinity and particle size on zirconium oxide particle. Zirconium oxide synthesized with nitric acid have the smallest particle size under FESEM image and show the increasing formation of crystalline tetragonal phase under XRD diffractogram.

  15. Consolidated Edison Sol Inc (New Jersey) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived fromConnexusConsolidated Edison Sol

  16. LA DYNAMIQUE DES SYSTEMES COMME OUTIL D'AIDE A LA GESTION DU SOL URBAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LA DYNAMIQUE DES SYSTEMES COMME OUTIL D'AIDE A LA GESTION DU SOL URBAIN Monique DANTAS Doctorante qui le composent sont interreliées. Tel est le cas du sol urbain dont la complexité des interactions rend délicate la mise en place de politiques adaptées. La construction d'un modèle de gestion du sol

  17. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0001458 Section J Page i PART...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix Q Minimum Standards for Contractors' COI Plans Appendix R List of Contracting Officer's Representatives Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0001458 Section J,...

  18. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0001458 Section J Page i PART...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standards for Contractors' Conflict of Interest (COI) Plans Appendix R List of Contracting Officer's Representatives Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0001458 Section J,...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous titania sol-gel Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rutile titania sol-gel processes template synthesis... , and continuous oxide coatings were deposited on these chitin scales through a ... Source: Srinivasarao, Mohan -...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - active du sol Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monochamus Summary: , plusieurs tudes ont montr des relations entre les proprits phy- siques et chimiques du sol et sa... prise en compte de l'ht- rognit spatiale...

  1. Reflexiones y alegrías en los 20 años de Sol del Río

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cea, José Roberto

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FALL 1993 125 Reflexiones y alegrías en los 20 años de Sol del Río José Roberto Cea En sus inicios, este grupo teatral se llamó Sol del Río 32, ahora es la Compañía Sol del Río. Su fundación fue el 7 de junio de 1973. Han madurado mucho, que la... florecer mejor. Sol del Río ha hecho muchas muy buenas acciones: como mantenerse grupalmente en su trabajo, hacer de este trabajo una profesión de fe y seguridad, lo que les ha permitido hacer espectáculos teatrales que se han mostrado sin rubor alguno...

  2. BlueSol Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:formBlue Energy Address: BoxBlueStar)BlueSol Solar

  3. DE-SOL-0000332 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: Crude OilPublic SafetyTrainingBlock 16C 0229DE-SOL-0000332

  4. DE-SOL-0003719 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: Crude OilPublic SafetyTrainingBlock 16CDE-SOL-0003719 -

  5. DE-SOL-0005395 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: Crude OilPublic SafetyTrainingBlock 16CDE-SOL-0003719

  6. DE-SOL-0006851 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: Crude OilPublic SafetyTrainingBlock 16CDE-SOL-0003719Site

  7. PaSol Italia SpA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty,Orleans County,PPP Equipment CorporationPV World Co LtdPaSol Italia

  8. Visualizing Chemical Compositions and Kinetics of Sol-Gel by Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Visualizing Chemical Compositions and Kinetics of Sol-Gel by Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 Kinetics of sol-gel formation were studied using the recently developed near-infrared been studied extensively by many different spectroscopic techniques.4-15 Among them, the near-infrared

  9. Hybrid Silica-PVA Nanofibers via Sol-Gel Electrospinning Tahira Pirzada,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    Hybrid Silica-PVA Nanofibers via Sol-Gel Electrospinning Tahira Pirzada,,§ Sara A. Arvidson,,§ Carl: We report on the synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-silica hybrid nanofibers via sol-gel electro is under- taken and reveals a composition window in which defect-free hybrid nanofibers with diameters

  10. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 26, 10711074, 2003 c 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artuso, Florinda

    . Manufactured in The Netherlands. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Vanadate-Based Thin Films as Counter Electrodes

  11. Substituent effects on the sol-gel chemistry of organotrialkoxysilanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOY, DOUGLAS A.; BAUGHER, BRIGITTA M.; BAUGHER, COLLEEN R.; SCHNEIDER, DUANE A.; RAHIMIAN, KAMYAR

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Silsesquioxanes have been the subject of intensive study in the past and are becoming important again as a vehicle for introducing organic functionalities into hybrid organic-inorganic materials through sol-gel processing. Depending on the application, the target hybrid material may be required to be a highly cross-linked, insoluble gel or a soluble polymer that can be cast as a thin film or coating. The former has applications such as catalyst supports and separations media; the latter is an economically important method for surface modification or compatiblization for applying adhesives or introducing fillers. Polysilsesquioxanes are readily prepared through the hydrolysis and condensation of organotrialkoxysilanes, though organotriaminosilane and organotrihalosilane monomers can also be used. This paper explores the kinetics of the preparation route.

  12. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL] [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL] [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  13. The physics and chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals in sol-gel derived optical microcavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Yinthai

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) into sol-gel derived matrices presents both novel applications as well as a robust platform in which to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of NCs. This thesis ...

  14. Science du sol (synthse) La pollution de l'eau par les produits phytosanitaires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    / eau / sol Summary — The pollution of water by pesticides: state and origin. In Europe, monitoring campaigns of surface and groundwaters used for drinking water frequently show pollution in soil sustains the groundwater pollution. pollution / pesticide / water / soil INTRODUCTION L

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous silica sols Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by supercritical CO2 extraction of silica sol-gels.14 But the very high porosity in aerogels contributes... Silica Monoliths Templated on L3 Liquid Crystal Abds-Sami Malik,,...

  16. Approche Mthodologique de la modlisation du transport des HAP dans les sols et les eaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    parc technologique de Lyon, 12 allée Joliot Curie, Bât. B2, 69791 Saint Priest Cedex. (6) ANTEA, 3 la Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollués : Bilans et Perspectives, Paris : France (2002)" #12

  17. Room location (design) in accordance with the sol-air temperature and solar heat gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Gary Lynn

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ROOM LOCATION (DESIGN) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN A Thesis GARY LYNN PORTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in parital fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology ROOM LOCATION (DESIGN) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN A Thesis by GARY LYNN PORTER Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee) (Head of Department) ( (Q...

  18. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.

  19. International Work Placement Case Study: Les Sol de Portecarrero, Almeria, Lara spent nine months in 2011/2012 as an English teaching assistant in Almeria in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mumby, Peter J.

    International Work Placement Case Study: Les Sol de Portecarrero, Almeria, Spain Lara spent nine months in 2011/2012 as an English teaching assistant in Almeria in Spain at Les Sol de Portocarrero

  20. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  1. ELM PARTICLE AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FENSTERMACHER,ME; LEONARD,AW; SNYDER,PB; BOEDO,JA; COLCHIN,RJ; GROEBNER,RJ; GRAY,DS; GROTH,M; HOLLMANN,E; LASNIER,CJ; OSBORNE,TH; PETRIE,TW; RUDAKOV,DL; TAKAHASHI,H; WATKINS,JG; ZENG,L

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A271 ELM PARTICLE AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D. Results from a series of dedicated experiments measuring the effect of particle and energy pulses from Type-I Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in the DIII-D scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor are compared with a simple model of ELM propagation in the boundary plasma. The simple model asserts that the propagation of ELM particle and energy perturbations is dominated by ion parallel convection along SOL fields lines and the recovery from the ELM perturbation is determined by recycling physics. Time scales associated with the initial changes of boundary plasma parameters are expected to be on the order of the ion transit time from the outer midplane, where the ELM instability is initiated, to the divertor targets. To test the model, the ion convection velocity is changed in the experiment by varying the plasma density. At moderate to high density, n{sub e}/n{sub Gr} = 0.5-0.8, the delays in the response of the boundary plasma to the midplane ELM pulses, the density dependence of those delays and other observations are consistent with the model. However, at the lowest densities, n{sub e}/n{sub Gr} {approx} 0.35, small delays between the response sin the two divertors, and changes in the response of the pedestal thermal energy to ELM events, indicate that additional factors including electron conduction in the SOL, the pre-ELM condition of the divertor plasma, and the ratio of ELM instability duration to SOL transit time, may be playing a role. The results show that understanding the response of the SOL and divertor plasmas to ELMs, for various pre-ELM conditions, is just as important to predicting the effect of ELM pulses on the target surfaces of future devices as is predicting the characteristics of the ELM perturbation of the core plasma.

  2. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub l2}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sub 17}0 NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, ((UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}){sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}((UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 10}) {center dot} 8H{sub 2}0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0{sub 2} ceramic fuel.

  3. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); King, R.B. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Garber, A.R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub l2}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sub 17}0 NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}]{sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an ``intercalation`` cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 10}] {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0{sub 2} ceramic fuel.

  4. Titre de la communication : Indicateurs synthtiques de la qualit du sol1 Titre courant: Indicateurs synthtiques de la qualit du sol2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bioemco-00560108,version1-27Jan2011 Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "Etude et Gestion des Sols 16, 3/4 (2009 sintéticos de la calidad del suelo han sido sometidos a un test en43 los sitios de estudio del programa de diferentes48 elementos que definen la calidad del suelo. El GISQ analiza con precisión el impacto de la49

  5. OCCUPATION DU SOL ET GESTION DE Modlisation prospective en paysage agricole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    OCCUPATION DU SOL ET GESTION DE L'EAU Modélisation prospective en paysage agricole fragmenté Thomas locales. De même, la gestion de l'eau constitue une compétence partagée par une multitude d'organismes, relevant d'un mille-feuille de règles. Cela ne facilite pas une gestion de l'eau efficiente qui ne se

  6. Scintillators based on aromatic dye molecules doped in a sol-gel and N. Solovieva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Scintillators based on aromatic dye molecules doped in a sol-gel glass host M. Nikla and N. Fast energy transfer from the glass host to the dye luminescent centers was found. While the overall. In a trial to combine organic dye-based emission centers with an inorganic host, lead

  7. Stable doped hybrid sol-gel materials for solid-state dye laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stable doped hybrid sol-gel materials for solid-state dye laser Tran H. Nhung, Michael Canva have been obtained with dye-doped hybrid xerogel samples prepared several years ago and stored dye into a hybrid xerogel matrix and obtained good laser performances similar to the rest

  8. Dessalage et dsodification d'un sol marocain Alain GALLEZ Mohamed STITOU Joseph E. DUFEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    plaine du Tadla au Maroc en est un exemple typique. Nous avons mené en laboratoire des essais d'irrigation sur plusieurs colonnes de sol non remanié, afin de montrer comment il était possible de rendre à ces salinization and sodication. A typical example is provided by the Beni-Moussa area in the Tadla plain (Morocco

  9. IMPACT SUR LES SOLS DES DIOXINES DE MIOM UTILISES EN TECHNIQUE ROUTIERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IMPACT SUR LES SOLS DES DIOXINES DE MIOM UTILISES EN TECHNIQUE ROUTIERE 1 R. BADREDDINE, 1 B teneurs de ces matériaux en PolyChloroDibenzo-para-Dioxines (PCDD) et PolyChloroDibenzoFuranes (PCDF) appelés communément "dioxines" et sur leur risque de transfert vers l'environnement. Une étude de cette

  10. Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in vacuum; however ignition by resistively-heated tungsten wire was possible. Thin films of thermite were fabricated using a dispersed mixture of aluminum and iron oxide particles, but ignition and propagation of these films was difficult. The only ignition and propagation observed was in a preheated sample.

  11. Environmental Protection Agency any waste load associated with sol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    average mass of TSS in any calendar month shall be 1.7 times the BOD5 limitation deter mined in paragraph 440--ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CAT EGORY Subpart A--Iron Ore Subcategory Sec. 440 by the application of the best conven tional pollutant control technology (BCT). [Reserved] Subpart C--Uranium

  12. , 20122893, published online 30 January 20132802013Proc. R. Soc. B Oriol Lapiedra, Daniel Sol, Salvador Carranza and Jeremy M. Beaulieu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carranza, Salvador

    , Salvador Carranza and Jeremy M. Beaulieu pigeons and doves Behavioural changes and the adaptive and the adaptive diversification of pigeons and doves Oriol Lapiedra1, Daniel Sol1,2, Salvador Carranza3 and Jeremy

  13. W.A.MOZART : Quintette en sol mineur, K516 Allegro -Menuetto -Adagio ma non troppo-Adagio-Allegro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazliak, Laurent

    W.A.MOZART : Quintette en sol mineur, K516 Allegro - Menuetto - Adagio ma non troppo- Adagio-Allegro, donne une impression d' immobilité désespérante. Et c' est la libération: un Allegro joyeux et simple

  14. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  15. Development of novel sol-gel indicators (SGI`s) for in-situ environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.R.; Wicks, G.G.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic indicator molecules have been incorporated in a porous sol- gel matrix coated on the end of a fiber-optic lens assembly to create sensors for in situ environmental measurements. Probes have been made that are sensitive to pH and uranyl concentration. The use of fiber optics allows the probe to be lowered into a well or bore hole, while support equipment such as a spectrophotometer and computer may be situated hundreds of meters away.

  16. Sol, Sombra, y Media Luz: History, Parody, and Identity Formation in the Mexican American Carpa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haney, Peter C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pragmatics 10:1.99-123 (2000) International Pragmatics Association SOL, SOMBRA, Y MEDIA LUZ: HISTORY, PARODY, AND IDENTITY FORMATION IN THE MEXICAN AMERICAN CARPA1 Peter C. Haney Abstract This paper analyzes a parody of the tango "A media luz...'), an almost endless variety of acts appeared. Ventriloquists, mentalists, contortionists, pyrotechnics by a Chinese magician, knockabout clowning action, madcap sketch comedy, lachrymose romantic songs, wire-walking, and dizzying maromas ('somersaults...

  17. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  18. MOS solar cells with oxides deposited by sol-gel spin-coating techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chia-Hong, E-mail: chhuang@nknu.edu.tw [National Kaohsiung Normal University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chung-Cheng [National Taiwan Ocean University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Jung-Hui [National Kaohsiung Normal University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) solar cells with sol-gel derived silicon dioxides (SiO{sub 2}) deposited by spin coating are proposed in this study. The sol-gel derived SiO{sub 2} layer is prepared at low temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. Such processes are simple and low-cost. These techniques are, therefore, useful for largescale and large-amount manufacturing in MOS solar cells. It is observed that the short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) of 2.48 mA, the open-circuit voltage (V{sub os}) of 0.44 V, the fill factor (FF) of 0.46 and the conversion efficiency ({eta}%) of 2.01% were obtained by means of the current-voltage (I-V) measurements under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm{sup 2}) irradiance at 25 Degree-Sign C in the MOS solar cell with sol-gel derived SiO{sub 2}.

  19. Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to backfill, seal, and/or densify porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. (Sandia Park, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM); Moffatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to fill, seal, and/or density porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive substrates. Such coatings may be dielectrics, ceramics, or semiconductors and, by the present invention, may have deposited onto and into them sol-gel ceramic precursor compounds which are subsequently converted to sol-gel ceramics to yield composite materials with various tailored properties.

  20. Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to backfill, seal, and/or densify porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.; Reed, S.T.; Ashley, C.S.; Neiser, R.A.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to fill, seal, and/or density porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive substrates. Such coatings may be dielectrics, ceramics, or semiconductors and, by the present invention, may have deposited onto and into them sol-gel ceramic precursor compounds which are subsequently converted to sol-gel ceramics to yield composite materials with various tailored properties. 6 figs.

  1. Electroanalytical applications of screen-printable surfactant-induced sol-gel graphite composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guadalupe, Ana R. (San Juan, PR); Guo, Yizhu (San Juan, PR)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing sol-gel graphite composite electrodes is presented. This process preferably uses the surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and eliminates the need for a cosolvent, an acidic catalyst, a cellulose binder and a thermal curing step from prior art processes. Fabrication of screen-printed electrodes by this process provides a simple approach for electroanalytical applications in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Examples of applications for such composite electrodes produced from this process include biochemical sensors such as disposable, single-use glucose sensors and ligand modified composite sensors for metal ion sensitive sensors.

  2. Development of sol-gel derived coating for NICALON{sup TM}/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; More, K.L.; Bleier, A.; Porter, W.D.; Misture, S.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mullite and aluminum titanate precursor polymeric sols were developed for applying as coatings on Nicalon{trademark} fabrics and tows. A Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composite with a mullite interface was fabricated. The mullite precursor interface coatings were applied by a vacuum infiltration method and the SiC matrix was deposited by a forced flow chemical vapor infiltration process. Thin, uniform mullite interface coatings were obtained. However, the Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composite exhibited brittle fracture. Mullite and alumina-titania coatings were applied on Nicalon{trademark} tows and the effect of heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C in air is discussed.

  3. Stabilization of ZnMnO3 Phase from Sol-gel Synthesized Nitrate Precursors .

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutron Scattering4 By I.| EMSL ZnMnO3 Phase from Sol-gel

  4. Apply early! Limited enrollment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volcano. Experience the culture and history of Hawaii, and the impact of human activitiesApply early! Limited enrollment. Environmental Science in the Hawaiian Islands Observe, research

  5. Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejneka, M.; Riman, R.E.; Snitzer, E. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Ceramics)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride glasses are excellent laser hosts and are very well suited for a broad spectrum of optical applications. However, current fluoride glass synthesis is expensive. The sol-gel method is an affordable alternative for producing high-performance, optical-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The method involves forming a hydrous oxide gel of the constituent metal alkoxides and salts, polymerizing the solution to form a gel, fluorinating the gel with anhydrous HF, melting the amorphous material in an oxidizing atmosphere of SF[sub 6], and casting the melt into desired shapes. ZBLA (57ZrF[sub 4] [times] 36BaF[sub 2] [times] 4LaF[sub 3] [times] 3AlF[sub 3], in mol%) and Nd-doped (0.3 mol%) ZBLA glass rods were prepared by this process and their properties were measured. The sol-gel-based glasses had thermal and optical properties similar to those found in the literature for conventionally prepared fluorides.

  6. NiO-silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaly, M.; Comanescu, A.F. [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)] [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Rogozea, A.E. [ILIE MURGULESCU Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)] [ILIE MURGULESCU Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E. [METAV Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania)] [METAV Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A., E-mail: a.meghea@gmail.com [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of NiO/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Highlights: {yields} Microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure for NiO silica nanomaterials synthesis. {yields} Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles and avoiding their aggregation. {yields} Narrow band-gap semiconductors (energies <3 eV) absorbing VIS or near-UV light biologically and chemically inert semiconductors entrapping/coating in silica network. {yields} Low cost as the microemulsion is firstly used in water metallic cation extraction. -- Abstract: NiO-silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and semiconducting properties (band-gap values) of the synthesized materials have been quantified by means of VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra, thus demonstrating their applicative potential in various electron transfer phenomena such as photocatalysis, electrochromic thin films, solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Beach, J.V.; Baugher, B.M.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J.; Tran, J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing modification of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  8. Energetic Nanocomposites with Sol-gel Chemistry: Synthesis, Safety, and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Simpson, R L; Satcher, J H

    2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation and characterization of energetic composite materials containing nanometer-sized constituents is currently a very active and exciting area of research at laboratories around the world. Some of these efforts have produced materials that have shown very unique and important properties relative to traditional energetic materials. We have previously reported on the use of sol-gel chemical methods to prepare energetic nanocomposites. Primarily we reported on the sol-gel method to synthesize nanometer-sized ferric oxide that was combined with aluminum fuel to make pyrotechnic nanocomposites. Since then we have developed a synthetic approach that allows for the preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N{sub 2} adsorption/description methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, results of which will be discussed. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite. The EFTEM results provide a convenient and effective way to evaluate the intimacy of mixing between these component phases. The safe handling and preparation of energetic nanocomposites is of paramount importance to this research and we will report on studies performed to ensure such.

  9. Energetic Nanocomposites with Sol-gel Chemistry: Synthesis, Safety and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Simpson, R L; Satcher, J H

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation and characterization of energetic composite materials containing nanometer-sized constituents is currently a very active and exciting area of research at laboratories around the world. Some of these efforts have produced materials that have shown very unique and important properties relative to traditional energetic materials. We have previously reported on the use of sol-gel chemical methods to prepare energetic nanocomposites. Primarily we reported on the sol-gel method to synthesize nanometer-sized ferric oxide that was combined with aluminum fuel to make pyrotechnic nanocomposites. Since then we have developed a synthetic approach that allows for the preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N, adsorption/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, results of which will be discussed. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite. The EFTEM results provide a convenient and effective way to evaluate the intimacy of mixing between these component phases. The safe handling and preparation of energetic nanocomposites is of paramount importance to this research and we will report on studies performed to ensure such.

  10. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  11. Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C.; Maxey, L.C.; Cunningham, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moreshead, W.V.; Nogues, J.L.R. [Geltech Inc., Alachua, FL (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent combinations of diffractive and refractive functions in the same optical component allow designers additional opportunities to make systems more compact and enhance performance. This paper describes a research program for fabricating hybrid refractive/diffractive components from diamond-turned molds using the bulk casting of sol-gel silica glass. The authors use the complementary dispersive nature of refractive and diffractive optics to render two-color correction in a single hybrid optical element. Since diamond turning has matured as a deterministic manufacturing technology, techniques previously suitable only in the infrared are now being applied to components used at visible wavelengths. Thus, the marriage of diamond turning and sol-gel processes offers a cost-effective method for producing highly customized and specialized optical components in high quality silica glass. With the sol-gel casting method of replication, diamond-turned mold costs can be shared over many pieces. Diamond turning takes advantage of all of the available degrees of freedom in a single hybrid optical element: aspheric surface to eliminate spherical aberration, kinoform surface for control of primary chromatic aberration, and the flexibility to place the kinoform on non-planar surfaces for maximum design flexibility. The authors discuss the critical issues involved in designing the hybrid element, single point diamond-turning the mold, and fabrication in glass using the sol-gel process.

  12. Surface texture and specific adsorption sites of sol-gel synthesized anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaki, Mohamed I., E-mail: mizaki@link.net [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Mekhemer, Gamal A.H.; Fouad, Nasr E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Jagadale, Tushar C. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)] [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Ogale, Satishchandra B., E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface properties of sol-gel synthesized anatase titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are probed by sorptiometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results reveal strong correlations of the surface area, porosity, pyridine adsorption capacity and strength, and catalytic methylbutynol decomposition activity.

  13. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf nanostructures by nanoimprint on Silica Sol-gel films.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf nanostructures by nanoimprint on Silica Sol these biomimetics structures over large scales and at affordable price for industrial applications as for example have chosen to imprint the lotus leaf and butterfly wings in order to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces

  14. Synthesis of Mixed Ceramic MgxZn1-xO Nanofibers via Mg2+ Using Sol-Gel Electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    acetate (MgAc) and zinc acetate (ZnAc) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), electrospinning is performed and then as- spun nanofibers are calcined in an air atmosphere at 600 °C for 3 h. As-spun and calcined are promising candidates for various usage, from batteries to solar cells and catalysts. Sol-gel electrospinning

  15. ADOPT-A-CELL PROGRAM Help support the success of the CalSol solar team by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    ADOPT-A-CELL PROGRAM Help support the success of the CalSol solar team by adopting a small part. $20: Solar Encapsulation High-tech solar lamination improves solar energy collection and increases the durability of solar cells. The money will go towards laminating one single solar cell. $50: Solar Cell Solar

  16. PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results M solar radius measured in space and on ground and to better understand and calibrate atmospheric effects observations and corrections for atmospheric refraction, first estimates of the mean solar radius at the five

  17. Interval Finite Element Methods: New Directions Rafi Muhanna 1 , Vladik Kreinovich 2 , Pavel Sol'in 2 ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Karen

    Interval Finite Element Methods: New Directions Rafi Muhanna 1 , Vladik Kreinovich 2 , Pavel Ÿ Sol advanced numerical methods to tackle these problems, such as finite element methods (FEM). Lately, new advanced version of these methods have appeared, such as hierarchic higher­order finite element methods (hp

  18. Synchronization of Limit Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

  19. Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    , Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance, Ornamental & Turf, Private Ag, or General Standards CORE for Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance (LCLM), you must attend all day to earn the 6 CEUs required. Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO) Training & Exams Date

  20. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes {<=}1000 {angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  1. Organic aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes .ltoreq.1000.ANG., and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050.degree. C. to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors.

  2. Organic aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes{<=}1000{angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  3. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes .ltoreq.1000 .ANG., and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050.degree. C. to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors.

  4. Organic aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes.ltoreq.1000.ANG., and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050.degree. C. to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors.

  5. Organic aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes {<=}1,000{angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1,050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Doped Ceria Films by Sol-Gel and Sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, K.T.; Saraf, L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure and doped Ceria are known for their ability to gain or lose Oxygen, which is of interest to the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and catalyst community. Current efforts are focused in SOFCs to reduce the operating temperature of the cell while maintaining ionic conduction. Ceria is known for its high ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature region. (600-800° C) We have prepared pure and doped Ceria films by Sol-gel and magnetron sputtering methods. Enhanced grain-boundary contribution in the conductivity can be studied in the Sol-gel process due to excellent control over the synthesis conditions, which enabled us to control the average grain size. Sputtered films were grown and investigated as a prelude to possible multi-layered CeO2 structures in the near future. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Oxygen conduction measurements. We have observed greater volume diffusion in nanocrystalline Ceria compared to bulk polycrystalline films as a result of low density. Near surface diffusion properties with increasing temperature indicate a decrease in the volume diffusion as a result of grain growth. However, a linear increase in O2 content at ~600nm depth was observed and can be correlated to the redistribution of O2 in the samples. Surface roughness of <111> and <200> oriented Ceria films on Al2O3 and YSZ was observed to be 0.13nm and 0.397nm, respectively. In the case of Ceria grown on YSZ, structural properties from XRD results showed a highly oriented structure with cube on cube growth. XRD results from Ceria grown on Al2O3 showed an oriented structure whose degree of orientation appeared to be partially dependent on substrate temperature. Preliminary XPS results indicate reduction in Ceria from the Ce4+ to Ce3+ state near the surface.

  7. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  8. Procedures for Harvesting tissue for Genotyping with SolCAP Vinyl mesh (not metal) screen from local hardware store cut in plate size rectangles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Procedures for Harvesting tissue for Genotyping with SolCAP Supplies: Vinyl mesh (not metal) screen (Fisher part# 14-387-90) 1 quart Ziploc bags Silca: Fisher part# s161-212 Procedures 1. Label plate

  9. J.HAYDN: Quatuor Op 74 n3 en sol mineur, "Le cavalier", en quatre mouvements. Allegro -Largo assai -Menuetto -Allegro con brio.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazliak, Laurent

    J.HAYDN: Quatuor Op 74 n°3 en sol mineur, "Le cavalier", en quatre mouvements. Allegro - Largo assai - Menuetto - Allegro con brio. C'est en 1792 que Haydn entreprend d'écrire, semble-t-il à la

  10. Sol-Clad-Siding and Trans-Lucent-Insulation : curtain wall components for conserving dwelling heat by passive-solar means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliesiu, Doru

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype for a dwelling heat loss compensator is introduced in this thesis, along with its measured thermal performance and suggestions for its future development. As a heat loss compensator, the Sol-Clad-Siding collects, ...

  11. BIODIVERSIT ET BIOMASSE DE LA FAUNE DU SOL SOUS CLIMAT English title: Biodiversity and biomass of soil fauna in temperate climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BIODIVERSIT� ET BIOMASSE DE LA FAUNE DU SOL SOUS CLIMAT TEMP�R�: English title: Biodiversity and biomass of soil fauna in temperate climate PONGE Jean-François Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.60.46.50.09, e-mail: jean- francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr Résumé et most-clés: Dans les sols forestiers les biomasses

  12. Une mthode simple de prvision des tempratures de l'air et de la surface du sol en conditions de geles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Une méthode simple de prévision des températures de l'air et de la surface du sol en conditions de l'air et du sol, on a tracé des abaques qui expriment le refroidissement en conditions de ciel clair frost conditions. A one-dimensional model of nocturnal change in soil and air temperature has been used

  13. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  14. On the sol-gel synthesis of strontium-titanate thin films and the prospects of their use in electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohrabi Anaraki, H.; Gaponenko, N. V., E-mail: nik@nano.bsuir.edu.by; Rudenko, M. V.; Guk, A. F.; Zavadskij, S. M.; Golosov, D. A.; Kolosnitsyn, B. S. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Kolos, V. V.; Pyatlitskij, A. N.; Turtsevich, A. S. [Integral Enterprise (Belarus)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Strontium-titanate films obtained by the sol-gel technique are deposited onto silicon and silicon/oxide titanium/platinum substrates. The strontium-titanate phase is detected by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis after heat treatment at temperatures of 750 and 800°C. The thickness of the films obtained by the spin-on method increases from 50 to 250 nm as the number of deposited layers is increased and is accompanied with an increase in the grain size in the films. Prospects of the development of the sol-gel technique for the formation of film components of electronic devices based on SrTiO{sub 3} xerogels are discussed.

  15. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  16. Limited Distribution Notice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Josh Hailpern; John Jay High; Charles C. Palmer

    This report has been submitted for publication outside of IBM and will probably be copyrighted is accepted for publication. It has been issued as a Research Report for early dissemination of its contents. In view of the transfer of copyright to the outside publisher, its distribution outside of IBM prior to publication should be limited to peer communications and specific requests. After outside publication, requests should be filled only by reprints or legally obtained copies of the article (e.g., payment of royalties). Some reports are available at

  17. Process Limits on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentationsSRS RespondsLift Plan ProcedureProcess Limits

  18. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  19. Air quality investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutman, W.M.; Silver, R.J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Physical Science Lab.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The air quality implications of the test and evaluation activities at the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility are examined. All facets of the activity that affect air quality are considered. Air contaminants produced directly include exhaust products of rocket motors used to accelerate test articles, dust and gas from chemical explosives, and exhaust gases from electricity generators in the test arenas. Air contaminants produced indirectly include fugitive dust and exhaust contaminants from vehicles used to transport personnel and material to the test area, and effluents produced by equipment used to heat the project buildings. Both the ongoing program and the proposed changes in the program are considered. Using a reliable estimate of th maximum annual testing level, the quantities of contaminants released by project activities ar computed either from known characteristics of test items or from EPA-approved emission factors Atmospheric concentrations of air contaminants are predicted using EPA dispersion models. The predicted quantities and concentrations are evaluated in relation to Federal, New Mexico, an Bernalillo County air quality regulations and the human health and safety standards of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

  20. Thickness controlled sol-gel silica films for plasmonic bio-sensing devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Artizzu, Flavia, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Saba, Michele, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Marongiu, Daniela, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Cagliari, S.P. Km 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Floris, Francesco; Marabelli, Franco; Patrini, Maddalena; Fornasari, Lucia [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Pellacani, Paola; Valsesia, Andrea [Plasmore S.r.l. -Via Grazia Deledda 4, I-21020 Ranco (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmonics has recently received considerable interest due to its potentiality in many fields as well as in nanobio-technology applications. In this regard, various strategies are required for modifying the surfaces of plasmonic nanostructures and to control their optical properties in view of interesting application such as bio-sensing, We report a simple method for depositing silica layers of controlled thickness on planar plasmonic structures. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as silica precursor. The control of the silica layer thickness was obtained by optimizing the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, in particular by properly tuning different parameters such as pH, solvent concentration, and withdrawal speed. The resulting films were characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Furthermore, by performing the analysis of surface plasmon resonances before and after the coating of the nanostructures, it was observed that the position of the resonance structures could be properly shifted by finely controlling the silica layer thickness. The effect of silica coating was assessed also in view of sensing applications, due to important advantages, such as surface protection of the plasmonic structure.

  1. Development of carbon-metal oxide supercapacitors from sol-gel derived carbon-ruthenium xerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, C.; Ritter, J.A.; Popov, B.N.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been increasing interest in electrochemical capacitors as energy storage systems because of their high power density and long cycle life, compared to battery devices. According to the mechanism of energy storage, there are two types of electrochemical capacitors. One type is based on double layer (dl) formation due to charge separation, and the other type is based on a faradaic process due to redox reactions. Sol-gel derived high surface area carbon-ruthenium xerogels were prepared from carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde resins containing an electrochemically active form of ruthenium oxide. The electrochemical capacitance of these materials increased with an increase in the ruthenium content indicating the presence of pseudocapacitance associated with the ruthenium oxide undergoing reversible faradaic redox reactions. A specific capacitance of 256 F/g (single electrode) was obtained from a carbon xerogel containing 14 wt% Ru, which corresponded to more than 50% utilization of the ruthenium. The double layer accounted for 40% of this capacitance. This material was also electrochemically stable, showing no change in a cyclic voltammogram for over 2,000 cycles.

  2. Finite element modelling of transport and drift effects in tokamak divertor and SOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simard, M.; Marchand, R. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Boucher, C.; Gunn, J.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A finite element code is used to simulate transport of a single-species plasma in the edge and divertor of a tokamak. The physical model is based on Braginskii`s fluid equations for the conservation of particles, parallel momentum, ion and electron energy. In modelling recycling, transport of neutral density and energy is treated in the diffusion approximation. The electrostatic potential is obtained from the generalized Ohm`s law. It is used to compute the electric field and the associated E x B drift. In a first approximation, transport is assumed to be ambipolar. The system of equations is discretized on an unstructured triangular mesh, thus permitting good spatial resolution near the X-point and an accurate description of divertor plates of arbitrary shape. Special care must be taken to prevent numerical corruption of the highly anisotropic thermal diffusion. Comparisons will be made between simulations and experimental results from TdeV. This will focus, in particular, on density and temperature profiles at the divertor plates, and on the plasma parallel velocity in the SOL. The asymmetry in the power deposited to the inner and outer divertors and the effect of magnetic field reversal will be considered. Comparisons with B2-Eirene simulation results will also be presented.

  3. Synthesis of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Aerogels by a Non-Alkoxide Sol-Gel Route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chervin, C N; Clapsaddle, B J; Chiu, H W; Gash, A E; Satcher, Jr., J H; Kauzlarich, S M

    2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous, nanocrystalline powders of yttria-stabilized zirconia were prepared using a nonalkoxide sol-gel method. Monolithic gels, free of precipitation, were prepared by addition of propylene oxide to aqueous solutions of Zr{sup 4+} and Y{sup 3+} chlorides at room temperature. The gels were dried with supercritical CO{sub 2}(l), resulting in amorphous aerogels that crystallized into cubic stabilized ZrO{sub 2} following calcination at 500 C. The aerogels and resulting crystalline products were characterized using in-situ temperature profile X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. TEM and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption analysis of an aerogel indicated a porous network structure with a high surface area (409 m{sup 2}/g). The crystallized yttria-stabilized zirconia maintained high surface area (159 m{sup 2}/g) upon formation of homogeneous, nanoparticles ({approx}10 nm). Ionic conductivity at 1000 C of sintered YSZ (1500 C, 3 hours) prepared by this method, was 0.13 {+-} 0.02 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Activation energies for the conduction processes from 1000-550 C and 550-400 C, were 0.95 {+-} 0.09 and 1.12 {+-} 0.05 eV, respectively. This is the first reported synthesis and characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia via an aerogel precursor.

  4. A case study of cost overruns in a Thai condominium project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roachanakanan, Kwanchai

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................................................................................................206 Contract.....................................................................................................................210 Recommendations for the Thai Construction Industry.............................................212 Future Research.................................................................................... 236 Figure 24: Diagram of Contracts. ........................................................................................ 238 Figure 25: Structural Work Schedule-Update I. .................................................................. 239...

  5. Forecasting project progress and early warning of project overruns with probabilistic methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byung Cheol

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    , the critical path method (CPM) and earned value management (EVM) are deterministic and fail to account for the inherent uncertainty in forecasting and project performance. The objective of this dissertation is to improve the predictive capabilities....4.1 Earned Value Management ................................................... 14 2.4.2 CPM ...................................................................................... 20 2.4.3 Monte Carlo Simulation...

  6. Forecasting project progress and early warning of project overruns with probabilistic methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byung Cheol

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    project schedule progress with probabilistic methods. Currently available methods, for example, the critical path method (CPM) and earned value management (EVM) are deterministic and fail to account for the inherent uncertainty in forecasting and project...

  7. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge.

  8. Thermochromic undoped and Mg-doped VO{sub 2} thin films and nanoparticles: Optical properties and performance limits for energy efficient windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shu-Yi, E-mail: Shuyi.Li@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Undoped and Mg-doped thermochromic VO{sub 2} films with atom ratios z???Mg/(Mg?+?V) of 0???z?sol} compared to undoped VO{sub 2} films, and both of these parameters could be further enhanced by anti-reflection. VO{sub 2}-containing nanocomposites had much larger values of T{sub lum} and ?T{sub sol} than VO{sub 2}-based films. Mg-doping was found to erode the properties of the nanocomposites. Approximate performance limits are given on T{sub lum} and ?T{sub sol} for thermochromic VO{sub 2} films, with and without Mg doping and antireflection coating, and also for VO{sub 2}-containing dilute nanocomposites.

  9. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  10. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

  11. New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

    2000-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

  12. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assink, Roger A.; Baugher, Brigitta M.; Beach, James V.; Loy, Douglas A.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Small, James H.; Tran, Joseph

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing mobilization of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  13. Tropical Limit in Statistical Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Angelelli; B. Konopelchenko

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Tropical limit for macroscopic systems in equilibrium defined as the formal limit of Boltzmann constant k going to 0 is discussed. It is shown that such tropical limit is well-adapted to analyse properties of systems with highly degenerated energy levels, particularly of frustrated systems like spin ice and spin glasses. Tropical free energy is a piecewise linear function of temperature, tropical entropy is a piecewise constant function and the system has energy for which tropical Gibbs' probability has maximum. Properties of systems in the points of jump of entropy are studied. Systems with finite and infinitely many energy levels and phenomena of limiting temperatures are discussed.

  14. Under Review for Publication in ASME J. Solar Energy Engineering SOL-12-1058 Life Estimation of Pressurized-Air Solar-Thermal Receiver Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomkins, Andrew

    for a Brayton-cycle engine are challenging, and lack a large body of operational data unlike steam plants. WeUnder Review for Publication in ASME J. Solar Energy Engineering SOL-12-1058 Life Estimation estimates showed that the Brayton engine's turbine inlet temperature needs to be at least 1100 K

  15. W. N. WANGet al.: Laser Raman Studies of Polycrystalline and A-Diamond Films 255 phys. stat. sol. (a) 154,255 (1996)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. N. WANGet al.: Laser Raman Studies of Polycrystalline and A-Diamond Films 255 phys. stat. sol, Transducer Systems Division, Wotton-under-Edge4)(d) Laser Raman Studies of Polycrystalline and Amorphic Diamond Films W. N. WANG(a), N. A. FOX(a), P. W. MAY(b), M. P. KNAPPER(b), G. MEADEN(c), P. G. PARTRIDGE

  16. 231A. Hernndez-Sols et al. / Annals of Nuclear Energy 57 (2013) 230245 Lattice calculations use nuclear libraries as input basis data,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    #12;231A. Hernández-Solís et al. / Annals of Nuclear Energy 57 (2013) 230­245 Lattice calculations use nuclear libraries as input basis data, describing the properties of nuclei and the fundamental/or estimated values from nuclear physics models are the source of information of these libraries. Because

  17. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  18. Limitations on entropic Bell inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian T. Durham

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The derivation of Bell inequalities in terms of quantum statistical (thermodynamic) entropies is considered. Inequalities of the Wigner form are derived but shown to be extremely limiting in their applicability due to the nature of the density matrices involved. This also helps to identify a limitation in the Cerf-Adami inequalities.

  19. Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

  20. Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit[R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient ExB shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of ExB shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

  1. Cognitive Limitations and Investment "Myopia"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Tailan; Fan, Dashan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization of investment decisions in an uncertain and dynamically evolving environment is difficult due to the limitations of the decision maker’s cognitive capacity. Thus, actual investment decisions may deviate from ...

  2. Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

  3. Spitzer White Dwarf Planet Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mullally; Ted von Hippel; D. E. Winget

    2006-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary limits on the presence of planets around white dwarf stars using the IRAC photometer on the Spitzer space telescope. Planets emit strongly in the mid-infrared which allows their presence to be detected as an excess at these wavelengths. We place limits of $5 M_J$ for 8 stars assuming ages of $1 Gyr$, and $10 M_J$ for 23 stars.We describe our survey, present our results and comment on approaches to improve our methodology.

  4. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  5. Classical limits of unconstrained QFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn Eric Johnson

    2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In nonrelativistic limits for states labeled by minimum packets with constrained spatial spreads and over a short term, states of unconstrained quantum field theories evolve on trajectories described by Newton's equations for the $1/r^2$ force. These states include bound solutions in the attractive force case.

  6. Review and Exams Limited Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    __________________________________ Check which exam you will be taking: Commercial Landscape Maintenance Lawn & Ornamental CEU's ONLY 8 Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape Maintenance A license is necessary for each commercial landscape maintenance person who applies pesticides to ornamental plant beds. Application available at: http

  7. Synthesis of CdS/CdSe core/shell ultra small nanostructures using new microwave assisted ultrasonic sol gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Y. C., E-mail: y-goswami@yahoo.com; Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: y-goswami@yahoo.com [School of Physical Sciences, ITM University, Sithouli, Gwalior- 474001 (India); Sharma, Ranjana [Institute of Technology and Management, Sithouli, Gwalior- 474001 (India); Singh, Rajeev [Institute of Information Technology and Management, Sithouli, Gwalior, MP 474001 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-shell CdS/CdSe nanostructures have been synthesized by new microwave assisted ultrasonic sol gel route. The solution was obtained by dissolving cadmium acetate and Thiourea in the molar ratio 1:1 in Triethlioamine. The solution was Ultrasonically irradiated by Ultrasonic crystal at 40 Hz for 3 hours at 70°C. The sol was kept for another 24 hours for gel formation. Selenium dioxide was used as a selenium source and added separately. The gel was spin coated on Quartz and Glass slides followed by microwave heat treatment. The samples were characterized by structural morphological and optical characterization. XRD studies confirm the zinc blende phase of the CdS nanoparticles. The mean nanocrystal sizes calculated using Scherrer equation is ?1.2nm. Optical studies show the strong blue shift in the spectra due to very small size of the nanocrystals. TEM and HRTEM confirm the formation of core shell structures.

  8. Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Ye; Jilang Miao; Jiaolong Li; Zichen Zhao; Zhenqi Chang; Christophe A. Serra

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

  9. Ppn. SoL Snow Deplh Observer Vis. Vi;,. Vis. 00 in. 0 in. S5 J5 mi. mi. \\7 mi.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    . Vi;,. Vis. 00 in. 0 in. S5 J5 mi. mi. \\7 mi. #12;..,- . M I~ · , \\f: ':'0 ll)A.\\I~S· Jb/ Ii I i. $".7~in. 0700 1300 1900 R.H. 24 hr. Mov. Clds. Clds. Clds.Sea L. - ! 0lU/l() .:. flOS-~ '/c. - mi. 30. Vis.Ppn. Sol. Snow Depth Observer a ~Sin. mi. J5 1111. mi.Q.O in. \\/ \\7_____~_____._._!O

  10. Fabrication of carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes nanocomposite by sol-gel method for anode in lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yong-In City 446-712, Gyeong-Gi Province (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite (Si-CNT-C) have been fabricated by a surfactant mediated sol-gel method followed by a carbonization process. Silicon nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes (Si-CNT) nanohybrids were produced by a wet-type beadsmill method. To obtain Si-CNT nanocomposites with spherical morphologies, a silica precursor (tetraethylorthosilicate, TEOS) and polymer (PMMA) mixture was employed as a structure-directing medium. Thus the Si-CNT/Silica-Polymer microspheres were prepared by an acid catalyzed sol-gel method. Then a carbon precursor such as polypyrrole (PPy) was incorporated onto the surfaces of pre-existing Si-CNT/silica-polymer to generate Si-CNT/Silica-Polymer-PPy microspheres. Subsequent thermal treatment of the precursor followed by wet etching of silica produced Si-CNT-C microcapsules. The intermediate silica/polymer must disappear during the carbonization and etching process resulting in the formation of an internal free space. The carbon precursor polymer should transform to carbon shell to encapsulate remaining Si-CNT nanocomposites. Therefore, hollow carbon microcapsules containing Si-CNT nanocomposites could be obtained (Si-CNT-C). The successful fabrication was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These final materials were employed for anode performance improvement in lithium ion battery. The cyclic performances of these Si-CNT-C microcapsules were measured with a lithium battery half cell tests. - Graphical Abstract: Carbon microcapsules containing silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite (Si-CNT-C) have been fabricated by a surfactant mediated sol-gel method. Highlights: > Polymeric microcapsules containing Si-CNT transformed to carbon microcapsules. > Accommodate volume changes of Si NPs during Li ion charge/discharge. > Sizes of microcapsules were controlled by experimental parameters. > Lithium storage capacity and coulombic efficiency were demonstrated. > Use of sol-gel procedure as intermediate reaction.

  11. Heat loads from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL: characterization on JET and implications for the ITER-Like Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colas, L.; Arnoux, G.; Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jacquet, Ph.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Brix, M.; Fursdon, M.; Graham, M.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Lerche, E.; Ongena, J. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, ERM-KMS, Brussels (Belgium); Petrzilka, V. [Association EURATOM-IPP. CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat loads from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL are characterized on JET from the de-convolution of surface temperatures measured by infrared thermography. The spatial localization, quantitative estimates, parametric dependence and physical origin of the observed heat fluxes are documented. Implications of these observations are discussed for the operation of JET with an ITER-Like Wall, featuring Beryllium tiles with reduced power handling capability.

  12. Application feasibility of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics fabricated from sol-gel derived powders using titanium and zirconium alkoxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, C.L.; Chen, B.H.; Wu, L

    2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is believed that what may be termed the 'Nanoscaled Century' will lead to a new industrial revolution, particularly in terms of sol-gel methods of assembly for nanostructure devices. A propyl alcohol (1-Pro) based sol-gel chemical has been developed to replace 2-methoxyethanol (MOE), 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane (THOME) for the fabrication of PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} (PZT) piezoelectric ceramics. This chemical is prepared from sol-gel derived powders that are near to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The pyrochlore phase was still apparent when calcining at 900 deg. C with a shorter calcining time, such as 30 min. However, it disappeared for longer calcining times, for example 3 h or more. From the results of the analysis, PZT ceramics calcinations at 900 deg. C for 4 h, and sintering at 1100 deg. C for 2 h could reach a pyrochlore-free crystal phase with relative density of approximately 7.9 g/cm{sup 3}--close to 98% of the theoretical value. The P-E hysteresis loop, measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit, revealed that the remanent polarization (P{sub r}) and coercive field (E{sub c}) were 8.54 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and 15.6 kV/cm, respectively. The vibration modes of the PZT ceramics were between 150 and 1.5 MHz. Morevoer, under such processing conditions the PZT piezoceramics had uniform grain size distribution less than 1 {mu}m and zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF). In summary, the PZT ceramics derived from the sol-gel method were confirmed to possess excellent piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the processing temperatures were scaled down by 100-200 deg. C, compared to conventional oxide reaction. Finally, from an energy-saving viewpoint, this experiment can potentially make a very positive contribution.

  13. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  14. Bioethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTIONBioethanol Limited

  15. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ``TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories`` (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel.

  16. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Dean-Mo (Richmond, CA); Chen, I-Wei (Swarthmore, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  17. Online available since 2007/Dec/15 Structure Analysis of Nanocrystalline MgO Aerogel Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grzegorz Dercz; Lucjan Paj?k; Krystian Prusik; Roman Pielaszek; Janusz J. Malinowski E; Wojciech Pud?o

    Abstract. Wet gel obtained by sol-gel technique was dried in supercritical CO2 to prepare hydrated form of magnesium oxide. Calcination at 723 K under vacuum yielded nanocrystalline MgO aerogel. Structure studies were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microcopies. Electron microscopy images reveal rough, unfolded and ramified structure of solid skeleton. Specific surface area SBET was equal to 238 m 2 /g. X-ray pattern reveals the broadened diffraction lines of periclase, the only crystalline form of magnesium oxide. The gamma crystallite 1 4 size distribution was determined using FW / M method proposed by R. Pielaszek. The obtained 5 5 values of and ? (measure of polydispersity) of particle size parameters are equal to 6.5 nm and 1.8 nm, respectively, whereas the average crystallite size estimated by Williamson-Hall procedure was equal to 6.0 nm. The obtained at Rietveld refinement Rwp, and S fitting parameters equal to 6.62 % and 1.77, respectively, seem to be satisfactory due to the nanosize of MgO crystallites and because of the presence of amorphous phase.

  18. Decision-Making in Structure Solution using Bayesian Estimates of Map Quality: The PHENIX AutoSol Wizard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T. C.; Adams, P. D.; Read, R. J.; McCoy, A. J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R. W.; Afonine, P. V.; Zwart, P. H.; Hung, L.-W.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of the quality of experimental maps are important in many stages of structure determination of macromolecules. Map quality is defined here as the correlation between a map and the map calculated based on a final refined model. Here we examine 10 different measures of experimental map quality using a set of 1359 maps calculated by reanalysis of 246 solved MAD, SAD, and MIR datasets. A simple Bayesian approach to estimation of map quality from one or more measures is presented. We find that a Bayesian estimator based on the skew of histograms of electron density is the most accurate of the 10 individual Bayesian estimators of map quality examined, with a correlation between estimated and actual map quality of 0.90. A combination of the skew of electron density with the local correlation of rms density gives a further improvement in estimating map quality, with an overall correlation coefficient of 0.92. The PHENIX AutoSol Wizard carries out automated structure solution based on any combination of SAD, MAD, SIR, or MIR datasets. The Wizard is based on tools from the PHENIX package and uses the Bayesian estimates of map quality described here to choose the highest-quality solutions after experimental phasing.

  19. Dose Limits | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office of Audit ServicesMirant Potomac River Compliance Plan |DocumentDoingDorm RoomLimits

  20. Limited View Angle Iterative CT Reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Some Prior Literature in Limited View Tomography CT with limited-angle data and few views IRR algorithm Iterative Reconstruction-Reprojection (IRR) : An Algorithm for Limited Data Cardiac- Computed-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT by E. Y. Sidky, CM Kao, and X. Pan (2006) Few-View Projection

  1. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  2. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  3. Kinetic limits of dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Marklof

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the pioneering work of Maxwell and Boltzmann in the 1860s and 1870s, a major challenge in mathematical physics has been the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations from the fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Macroscopic transport equations lie at the heart of many important physical theories, including fluid dynamics, condensed matter theory and nuclear physics. The rigorous derivation of macroscopic transport equations is thus not only a conceptual exercise that establishes their consistency with the fundamental laws of physics: the possibility of finding deviations and corrections to classical evolution equations makes this subject both intellectually exciting and relevant in practical applications. The plan of these lectures is to develop a renormalisation technique that will allow us to derive transport equations for the kinetic limits of two classes of simple dynamical systems, the Lorentz gas and kicked Hamiltonians (or linked twist maps). The technique uses the ergodic theory of flows on homogeneous spaces (homogeneous flows for short), and is based on joint work with Andreas Str\\"ombergsson.

  4. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Herdegen

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  5. Newtonian limits of warp drive spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Natario

    2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We find a class of warp drive spacetimes possessing Newtonian limits, which we then determine. The same method is used to compute Newtonian limits of the Schwarzschild solution and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models.

  6. Fractal Graphics Proprietary Limited 39 Fairway, Nedlands,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boschetti, Fabio

    1 Fractal Graphics Proprietary Limited 39 Fairway, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia 6009 djh@fractalgraphics.com.au 2 Fractal Graphics Proprietary Limited 39 Fairway, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia 6009 nja

  7. Implementing Risk-Limiting Audits in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cast09.pdf. Philip B. Stark. Risk-limiting post-electionthe N.J. law the ?rst “risk-based statistical audit law. ”Holt bill does not limit risk. The Holt bill has a clause

  8. Limited Liability Companies and Corporate Business Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Bill; Polk, Wade; Hayenga, Wayne

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication describes limited liability companies and corporate forms of business organization, including S-Corporations and C-Corporations....

  9. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  10. LIMITING ABSORPTION PRINCIPLE FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED OPERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LIMITING ABSORPTION PRINCIPLE FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED OPERATORS WALTER RENGER Abstract. Given an operator H 1 for which a limiting absorption principle holds, we study operators H 2 which are produced that (except for possibly a discrete set of eigenvalues) a limiting absorption principle holds for H 2 . We

  11. Peculiarities of formation of phase composition, porous structure, and catalytic properties of tungsten oxide-based macroporous materials fabricated by sol–gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papynov, Evgeniy Konstantinovich, E-mail: Papynov@mail.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Suhanova, 8, Vladivostok 690091 (Russian Federation); Mayorov, Vitaliy Yurevich, E-mail: 024205@inbox.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina Sergeevna, E-mail: 02.06.1984@mail.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Avramenko, Valentin Aleksandrovich, E-mail: avramenko1@yandex.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100-let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Suhanova, 8, Vladivostok 690091 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of template sol–gel synthesis of tungsten oxide-based macroporous materials using ‘core–shell’ latex particles as colloid templates is described. The chemical composition and structural characteristics of the synthesized macroporous oxide systems have been investigated. The peculiarities of formation of material phase composition and macroporous structure under different template thermal destruction conditions have been revealed. An optimal method of a targeted synthesis of the crystalline tungsten(VI) oxide having a defect-free macroporous structure (average pore size 160 nm) and efficient catalytic properties under organic liquid phase oxidation conditions has been suggested. The prospects of the fabricated material application as catalysts of hydrothermal oxidation of radionuclide organic complexes at radioactive waste decontamination have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Macroporous tungsten oxides were fabricated via sol–gel process. • The correlation between synthesis conditions and composition was determined. • Influence of synthesis conditions on porous structure has been explained. • The effects of template thermodestruction have been set up. • High potential of such materials for catalysis applications has been shown.

  12. Electronic structure analysis and properties of Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} grown by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talik, E., E-mail: talik@us.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Lipi?ska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)] [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Skrzypek, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)] [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Skuta, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland) [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Zajdel, P.; Guzik, A.; Duda, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)] [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} nanopowders were obtained by sol–gel method. ? SEM/EDX imaging and chemical analysis have been done. ? XPS electronic structure was examined and discussed. ? The terminal and equatorial Ce-O bonds contributions were determined in O2p states. ? The energy gap was estimated by valence band and electrical measurements. -- Abstract: Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} is a very promising material due to its various industrial applications, e.g. for the construction of field emission displays and light emitting diodes. In this work, the phosphor was synthesized by the sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. They proved to be very good structural properties of the material and identified negligible impurities from the technological process. The decomposition of the surface of the nanocrystals was found but this did not decrease the spectral features of the compound. The analysis of the XPS O2p lines revealed contributions of two kinds of bonds: terminal and equatorial ones, in the ratio of 2/4. They are separated by 1.2 eV what is in agreement with the observed absorption spectra. A presence of the decomposed layers may produce asymmetric widening of the emission spectra towards a lower energy.

  13. Sol–gel synthesis of SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P., E-mail: jeevafcy@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple sol–gel method for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles is reported. • Band gap of SnO{sub 2} can be tuned by varying the magnesium content in SnO{sub 2}–MgO. • SnO{sub 2}–MgO shows good photocatalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}–MgO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. The nanoparticles were characterized by power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD results indicate the formation of mixed metal oxide nanoparticles and also a decrease of SnO{sub 2} crystallite size in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with increasing magnesium oxide content. The reflectance spectroscopy results show a blue shift of the band gap of SnO{sub 2} in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles was tested using the photodegradation of aqueous methylene blue in the presence of sunlight. The results indicate that the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles possess higher efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue compared to pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  14. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Oiang (West Hills, CA); Chu, Chung-tse (Chatsworth, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  15. Sol & Hav - Framtidens nav?.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Izabella

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Innan företag ska penetrera en marknad är det viktigt att de har tillräckligt med information om vilka möjligheter och hot marknaden står inför samt… (more)

  16. DE-SOL-0005388

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 274 K.4 52.225-25 PROHIBITION ON CONTRACTING WITH ENTITIES ENGAGING IN CERTAIN ACTIVITIES OR TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO...

  17. DE-SOL-0001379

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD Notice Type:1379 TABLE of

  18. DE-SOL-0003641

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD Notice Type:1379

  19. DE-SOL-0005388

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD Notice02/2013 000002

  20. Optical and electrical properties study of sol-gel derived Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, B. L.; Liu, X. J.; Li, A. D., E-mail: wcliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Y. H. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Photovoltaic Engineering Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, W. C., E-mail: wcliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Photovoltaic Engineering Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fabrication of environmental-friendly Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with pure kesterite phase is always a challenge to researchers in the field of solar cells. We introduce a simple non-vacuum sol-gel method to fabricate kesterite CZTS films. Ethylenediamine is used as the chelating agent and stabilizer and plays an important role in preparing stable precursor. X-ray diffraction, Raman and scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the microstructure and optical properties of CZTS films depend strongly on annealing temperatures. The temperature dependence of conductivity of 500?°C annealed CZTS film shows that the Mott law dominates in the low temperature region and thermionic emission is predominant at high temperatures.

  1. Preparation of Nanoporous MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by Combined Utilization of Sol-Gel Process and Combustion of Biorenewable Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hörtz, Christian; Ladd, Danielle M.; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particulates with high porosities were successfully prepared from sol-gel reactions, solvent exchange with castor oil and subsequent combustion and calcination at 700 °C. The products were crystalline and semitransparent. Changes in the metal precursor concentrations allowed control of pore volumes from 0.7 to 1.1 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore sizes from 14 to 19 nm. The specific surface areas are about 200 m{sup 2}/g regardless of the precursor concentrations. After heating at 1000 °C for 10 hours, the products kept about 70% of their original pore volume and about 60% of the original surface area. Heating at 1100 °C caused a drastic reduction of pore volume and surface area to 40 and 36%, respectively, as the average particle size increased to 23 nm.

  2. The Chandrasekhar limit for quark stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shibaji Banerjee; Sanjay K. Ghosh; Sibaji Raha

    2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chandrasekhar limit for quark stars is evaluated from simple energy balance relations, as proposed by Landau for white dwarfs or neutron stars. It has been found that the limit for quark stars depends on, in addition to the fundamental constants, the Bag constant.

  3. Automated Operating Procedures for Transfer Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automated Operating Procedures for Transfer Limits Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering · Illinois · Iowa State · Texas A&M · Washington State · Wisconsin Automated Operating Procedures operating procedures to establish system constraints, particularly in regards to transfer limits across

  4. Ultrasonic imaging with limited-diffraction beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-yu Lu

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited-diffraction beams are a class of waves that may be localized in space and time. Theoretically, these beams are propagation invariant and can propagate to an infinite distance without spreading. In practice, when these beams are produced with wave sources of a finite aperture and energy, they have a very large depth of field, meaning that they can keep a small beam width over a large distance. Because of this property, limited-diffraction beams may have applications in various areas such as medical imaging and tissue characterization. In this paper, fundamentals of limited-diffraction beams are reviewed and the studies of these beams are put into a unified theoretical framework. Theory of limited-diffraction beams is further developed. New limited-diffraction solutions to Klein-Gordon Equation and Schrodinger Equation, as well as limited-diffraction solutions to these equations in confined spaces are obtained. The relationship between the transformation that converts any solutions to an (-1)-dimensional wave equation to limited-diffraction solutions of an -dimensional equation and the Lorentz transformation is clarified and extended. The transformation is also applied to the Klein-Gordon Equation. In addition, applications of limited-diffraction beams are summarized.

  5. CARD No. 31 Application of Release Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of calculating the release limits. Section 194.31 specifies that release limits should be calculated based a likelihood of less than one chance in 1,000 of exceeding ten times the quantities calculated according, in particular, the waste unit factor depends solely on the TRU component of waste. Section 194.31 requires

  6. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing (Albany, NY); Tekletsadik, Kasegn (Rexford, NY)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  7. Decoupling limits in multi-sector supergravities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achúcarro, Ana; Hardeman, Sjoerd; Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden (Netherlands); Oberreuter, Johannes M., E-mail: achucar@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: j.m.oberreuter@uva.nl, E-mail: kschalm@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: vdaalst@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional approaches to cosmology in supergravity assume the existence of multiple sectors that only communicate gravitationally. In principle these sectors decouple in the limit M{sub pl}??. In practice such a limit is delicate: for generic supergravities, where sectors are combined by adding their Kähler functions, the separate superpotentials must contain non-vanishing vacuum expectation values supplementing the naïve global superpotential. We show that this requires non-canonical scaling in the naïve supergravity superpotential couplings to recover independent sectors of globally supersymmetric field theory in the decoupling limit M{sub pl} ? ?.

  8. Long-time limit of correlation functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Franosch

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Auto-correlation functions in an equilibrium stochastic process are well-characterized by Bochner's theorem as Fourier transforms of a finite symmetric Borel measure. The existence of a long-time limit of these correlation functions depends on the spectral properties of the measure. Here we provide conditions applicable to a wide-class of dynamical theories guaranteeing the existence of the long-time limit. We discuss the implications in the context of the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition where a non-trivial long-time limit signals an idealized glass state.

  9. Limit of light coupling into solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, A; Ballif, C; Scharf, T; Herzig, H P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a limit for the strength of coupling light into the modes of solar cells. This limit depends on both a cell's thickness and its modal properties. For a cell with refractive index n and thickness d, we obtain a maximal coupling rate of 2c*sqrt(n^2-1)/d where c is speed of light. Our method can be used in the design of solar cells and in calculating their efficiency limits; besides, it can be applied to a broad variety of resonant phenomena and devices.

  10. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation on Curved Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, J.

    We develop a general theory of transport-limited aggregation phenomena occurring on curved surfaces, based on stochastic iterated conformal maps and conformal projections to the complex plane. To illustrate the theory, we ...

  11. Climate Prediction: The Limits of Ocean Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter H.

    We identify three major areas of ignorance which limit predictability in current ocean GCMs. One is the very crude representation of subgrid-scale mixing processes. These processes are parameterized with coefficients whose ...

  12. Limitations on Diversity in Basic Science Departments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Limitations on Diversity in Basic Science Departments Phoebe S. Leboy 1,2, * and Janice F. Madden 3 It has been over 30 years since the beginning of...

  13. Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation? George Gregory Bates College, originating largely from septic systems and fertilizers, have caused significant eutrophication in freshwater nitrogen and phosphorus grew the highest concentration of phytoplankton, but eutrophic ponds grew a mean

  14. Studies on the dynamics of limited filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonde, Jeffrey David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study on the dynamics of filaments in the presence of a diagnostic, conductive limiter is presented. Plasma filaments are coherent structures present in many fusion devices and transport a significant amount of particles ...

  15. Language Modeling for limited-data domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bo-June (Bo-June Paul)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increasing focus of speech recognition and natural language processing applications on domains with limited amount of in-domain training data, enhanced system performance often relies on approaches involving model ...

  16. Infinite volume limit for the dipole gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Dimock

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a classical dipole gas in with low activity and show that the pressure has a limit as the volume goes to infinity. The result is obtained by a renormalization group analysis of the model.

  17. Performance limits of axial turbomachine stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, David Kenneth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis assesses the limits of stage efficiency for axial compressor and turbine stages. A stage model is developed, consisting of a specified geometry and a surface velocity distribution with turbulent boundary layers. ...

  18. Momentum Trading and Limits to Arbitrage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, William

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    MOMENTUM TRADING AND LIMITS TO ARBITRAGE A Dissertation by WILLIAM JOSEPH ARMSTRONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2012... Major Subject: Finance MOMENTUM TRADING AND LIMITS TO ARBITRAGE A Dissertation by WILLIAM JOSEPH ARMSTRONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  19. Inequality design limits in optimal aerodynamic shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seaman, Charles Knight

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INEQUALITY DESIGN LIMITS IN OPTIMAL AERODYNAMIC SHAPES A Thesis By CHARLES KNIGHT SEAMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1968... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering INEQUALITY DESIGN LIMITS IN OPTIMAL AERODYNAMIC SHAPES A Thesis By CHARLES KNIGHT SEAMAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) May 1968...

  20. Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data...

  1. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakasuji, Mamoru [2-15-11, Serigaya-chou, Kounan-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)] [2-15-11, Serigaya-chou, Kounan-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ?m were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  2. Optical sensing elements for nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) gas detection, a sol-gel method for making the sensing elements and fiber optic sensors incorporating nitrogen dioxide gas optical sensing elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mechery, Shelly John (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Starkville, MS)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensing element, a method of making a sensing element, and a fiber optic sensor incorporating the sensing element are described. The sensor can be used for the quantitative detection of NO.sub.2 in a mixture of gases. The sensing element can be made by incorporating a diazotizing reagent which reacts with nitrous ions to produce a diazo compound and a coupling reagent which couples with the diazo compound to produce an azo dye into a sol and allowing the sol to form an optically transparent gel. The sensing element changes color in the presence of NO.sub.2 gas. The temporal response of the absorption spectrum at various NO.sub.2 concentrations has also been recorded and analyzed. Sensors having different design configurations are described. The sensing element can detect NO.sub.2 gas at levels of parts per billion.

  3. 1 0 N J I T M A G A Z I N E | F A L L 2 0 0 8 At the edge in solAr reseArch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Michael

    1 0 N J I T M A G A Z I N E | F A L L 2 0 0 8 At the edge in solAr reseArch The cool, calm water. But that's where NJIT operates one of the world's foremost solar- research facilities, on a narrow causeway jutting a thousand feet into the lake. Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) has produced a wealth of data

  4. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  5. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  6. Extremal limits and black hole entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean M. Carroll; Matthew C. Johnson; Lisa Randall

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Taking the extremal limit of a non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (by externally varying the mass or charge), the region between the inner and outer event horizons experiences an interesting fate -- while this region is absent in the extremal case, it does not disappear in the extremal limit but rather approaches a patch of $AdS_2\\times S^2$. In other words, the approach to extremality is not continuous, as the non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solution splits into two spacetimes at extremality: an extremal black hole and a disconnected $AdS$ space. We suggest that the unusual nature of this limit may help in understanding the entropy of extremal black holes.

  7. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

  8. IRS Contribution Limits and OSU Retirement Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Impact: OTRS requires contributions on total compensation (salary plus benefits) without regardIRS Contribution Limits and OSU Retirement Programs The OSU Defined Contribution Plan (DCP), (for Revenue Code 401(a). The Internal Revenue Code restrictions on employer-paid contributions make

  9. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  10. Quantum dynamics in the thermodynamic limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wezel, Jasper van [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The description of spontaneous symmetry breaking that underlies the connection between classically ordered objects in the thermodynamic limit and their individual quantum-mechanical building blocks is one of the cornerstones of modern condensed-matter theory and has found applications in many different areas of physics. The theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, however, is inherently an equilibrium theory, which does not address the dynamics of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we will use the example of a particular antiferromagnetic model system to show that the presence of a so-called thin spectrum of collective excitations with vanishing energy - one of the well-known characteristic properties shared by all symmetry-breaking objects - can allow these objects to also spontaneously break time-translation symmetry in the thermodynamic limit. As a result, that limit is found to be able, not only to reduce quantum-mechanical equilibrium averages to their classical counterparts, but also to turn individual-state quantum dynamics into classical physics. In the process, we find that the dynamical description of spontaneous symmetry breaking can also be used to shed some light on the possible origins of Born's rule. We conclude by describing an experiment on a condensate of exciton polaritons which could potentially be used to experimentally test the proposed mechanism.

  11. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  12. EU Verbraucherrechte Apple One-Year Limited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiebig, Peter

    EU Verbraucherrechte Apple One-Year Limited Warranty AppleCare Protection Plan CC Service Pack, Kabel. Zusätzlich bei allen Macs: 1x Time Capsule oder 1x Airport Gerät sowie 1x Apple Display Macs u sowie 1x Apple Display Material- u. Herstellungsfehler. Keine Leistung für Verschlei�teile wie Akku

  13. TRADEOFFS AND LIMITATIONS IN STATISTICALLY BASED IMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hero, Alfred O.

    Tomography (Compton SPECT) system is derived, and reconstructed images from both simulated and measured data of the projection data using vector quantizers. Asymptotic expressions for the loss in the KullbackTRADEOFFS AND LIMITATIONS IN STATISTICALLY BASED IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS by Thomas J. Kragh

  14. Physical Limitations on Mining Natural Earth Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Physical Limitations on Mining Natural Earth Systems A view of the Himalayas from Lhasa Tad Patzek of fossil fuels ("resources") left all over the Earth The resource size (current balance of a banking flow-based solutions (wind turbines, photovoltaics, and biofuels) will require most radical changes

  15. Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on criteria air contaminants, water use, land use, greenhouse gas emissions and solid waste disposal and population growth, impose the physical limits and then simulate household and firm responses to policy and assess the resulting implications for liveability in the region. I measure liveability using 24

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of nanocrystalline CdTe/ZnO solar cells using sol-gel ZnO and positive bias treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, B. I. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Della Gaspera, E.; Watkins, S. E.; Jasieniak, J. J., E-mail: Jacek.Jasieniak@csiro.au [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Mulvaney, P. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of doping and porosity of the n-type ZnO layer on the performance of solution-processed, sintered p-CdTe/n-ZnO nanocrystal photovoltaic (PV) devices is investigated. Amorphous sol-gel ZnO is found to be the best candidate with overall energy conversion efficiencies above 8% obtained if the ZnO is also indium doped. We demonstrate that when such PV devices are left under forward bias (in dark or light), the device efficiency values are raised to at least 9.8%, due to a substantially increased open-circuit voltage and fill-factor. This drastic enhancement is attributed to improved band alignment at the ITO/CdTe interface. The forward-bias treatment is slowly reversed over a period of days to weeks on standing under open circuit conditions, but is readily restored with further voltage treatment. The moderate processing conditions and high efficiency of such devices demonstrate that nanocrystal-based systems are a promising technology for photovoltaics.

  17. Facile preparation of titania hollow spheres by combination of the mixed solvent method and the sol-gel process and post-calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Xin [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); He Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Polystyrene (core)-titania (shell) composite spheres consisting were readily prepared by a sol-gel process of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile (3:1, v/v). Smooth and homogeneous titania coatings formed when the mixed solvent was dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate. The thickness and surface roughness of titania coating increase with increase of the TBOT concentration. By adjusting the TBOT concentration in the range of 5.8-29.0 mM, the size of titania-coated PS spheres could be varied from 990 to 1125 nm. Calcination at elevated temperature gave dense, homogeneous, robust shells of anatase titania. The sizes of titania hollow spheres are 11.3-16.9% smaller than those of the titania-coated PS spheres as a result of calcination-induced shrinkage. The composite and hollow spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. These core-shell organic-inorganic spheres and hollow ceramic spheres may have wide applications in catalysts, adsorbents, lightweight fillers, capsules, etc.

  18. Diffusion limited reactions in confined environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy D. Schmit; Ercan Kamber; Jané Kondev

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of confinement on diffusion limited bimolecular reactions within a lattice model where a small number of reactants diffuse amongst a much larger number of inert particles. When the number of inert particles is held constant the rate of the reaction is slow for small reaction volumes due to limited mobility from crowding, and for large reaction volumes due to the reduced concentration of the reactants. The reaction rate proceeds fastest at an intermediate confinement corresponding to volume fraction near 1/2 and 1/3 in two and three dimensions, respectively. We generalize the model to off-lattice systems with hydrodynamic coupling and predict that the optimal reaction rate for monodisperse colloidal systems occurs when the volume fraction is ~0.18. Finally, we discuss the application of our model to bimolecular reactions inside cells as well as the dynamics of confined polymers.

  19. How energy conservation limits our measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel Navascues; Sandu Popescu

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in Quantum Mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this paper we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with non-trivial energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and we quantify them exactly when the target is a two-level quantum system. Our work thus identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake.

  20. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Uncertainties about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal has limited the reactor operating power to 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these uncertainties is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW.

  1. Probabilistic Turing Machine and Landauer Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Frasca

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the equivalence between a probabilistic Turing machine and the time evolution of a one-dimensional Ising model, the Glauber model in one dimension, equilibrium positions representing the results of computations of the Turing machine. This equivalence permits to map a physical system on a computational system providing in this way an evaluation of the entropy at the end of computation. The result agrees with Landauer limit.

  2. Probabilistic Turing Machine and Landauer Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frasca, Marco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the equivalence between a probabilistic Turing machine and the time evolution of a one-dimensional Ising model, the Glauber model in one dimension, equilibrium positions representing the results of computations of the Turing machine. This equivalence permits to map a physical system on a computational system providing in this way an evaluation of the entropy at the end of computation. The result agrees with Landauer limit.

  3. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  4. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  5. Centro Renewables Holding Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumSunways JVGroup India JumpToolsGuajiruHolding Limited

  6. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  7. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  8. Assessing Possibilities & Limits for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayak, Pabitra K; Cahen, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What are the solar cell efficiencies that we can strive towards? We show here that several simple criteria, based on cell and module performance data, serve to evaluate and compare all types of today's solar cells. Analyzing these data allows to gauge in how far significant progress can be expected for the various cell types and, most importantly from both the science and technology points of view, if basic bounds, beyond those known today, may exist, that can limit such progress. This is important, because half a century after Shockley and Queisser (SQ) presented limits, based on detailed balance calculations for single absorber solar cells, those are still held to be the only ones, we need to consider; most efforts to go beyond SQ are directed towards attempts to circumvent them, primarily via smart optics, or optoelectronics. After formulating the criteria and analyzing known loss mechanisms, use of such criteria suggests - additional limits for newer types of cells, Organic and Dye-Sensitized ones, and th...

  9. Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Queens Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, ?, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.

  10. Resource Limited Theories and their Extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Benioff

    2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is based on the idea that extension of physical and mathematical theories to include the amount of space, time, momentum, and energy resources required to determine properties of systems may influence what is true in physics and mathematics at a foundational level. Background material, on the dependence of region or system sizes on both the resources required to study the regions or systems and the indirectness of the reality status of the systems, suggests that one associate to each amount, r, of resources a domain, D_{r}, a theory, T_{r}, and a language, L_{r}. D_{r} is limited in that all statements in D_{r} require at most r resources to verify or refute. T_{r} is limited in that any theorem of T_{r} must be provable using at most r resources. Also any theorem of T_{r} must be true in D_{r}. L_{r} is limited in that all expressions in L_{r} require at most r resources to create, display, and maintain. A partial ordering of the resources is used to describe minimal use of resources, a partial ordering of the T_{r}, and motion of an observer using resources to acquire knowledge. Reflection principles are used to push the effect of Godel's incompleteness theorem on consistency up in the partial ordering. It is suggested that a coherent theory of physics and mathematics, or theory of everything, is a common extension of all the T_{r}.

  11. Transcending the Limits of Turing Computability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim A. Adamyan; Cristian S. Calude; Boris S. Pavlov

    2003-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypercomputation or super-Turing computation is a ``computation'' that transcends the limit imposed by Turing's model of computability. The field still faces some basic questions, technical (can we mathematically and/or physically build a hypercomputer?), cognitive (can hypercomputers realize the AI dream?), philosophical (is thinking more than computing?). The aim of this paper is to address the question: can we mathematically build a hypercomputer? We will discuss the solutions of the Infinite Merchant Problem, a decision problem equivalent to the Halting Problem, based on results obtained in \\cite{Coins,acp}. The accent will be on the new computational technique and results rather than formal proofs.

  12. Unitary limit in cross Andreev transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Sadovskyy; G. B. Lesovik; V. M. Vinokur

    2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) in which Cooper pair splits into two spin- and energy entangled electrons that leave a superconductor through respective spatially separated leads is one of the most promising approaches to generating pairs of entangled electrons. However, while the conventional (local) Andreev reflection occurs with the probability of unity, the probability of CAR is significantly suppressed. Here we propose a hybrid normal metal-superconductor setup that enables achieving a unitary limit of cross Andreev transport, i.e. CAR with the probability of unity thus offering the outcome of the entangled electrons with the 100% efficiency.

  13. Colony Mills Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:EnergyWisconsin: Energy,(EC-LEDS) | Open EnergyColony Mills Limited Jump to:

  14. Armaec Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300AlgoilEnergyElectric Coop Corp Place:Armaec Energy Limited Jump to:

  15. London Array Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende New Energy Co Ltd JumpLightSource Renewables HomeLimited

  16. Transmission Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective:Toyo Aluminium KKCapital Limited Jump to:

  17. Unionmet Singapore Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTagusparkCalculator Jump to:Unionmet Singapore Limited Jump to:

  18. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreis aCallahan DivideCannon (Various)Limited Jump to:

  19. 4C Offshore Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flatshydro Homepowering9century GreenE JumpLimited Jump

  20. Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre Biomass FacilityOregon:GreatBioGold FuelsTrading Limited

  1. Clipper Windpower Europe Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumSunways JVGroupChoice Electric(CTI) JumpLimited Jump

  2. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBostonFacility | Open EnergySolar33.6850215°,Hatteras ElecLimited Jump

  3. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBostonFacility | OpenCarboPur Technologies JumpJungle Jump to:Limiting

  4. CarbonPlan Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBostonFacility | OpenCarboPur Technologies JumpJungleCarbonPlan Limited

  5. (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC Units: February 11, 2010 (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC...

  6. Thickness dependent self limiting 1-D tin oxide nanowire arrays...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dependent self limiting 1-D tin oxide nanowire arrays by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation. Thickness dependent self limiting 1-D tin oxide nanowire arrays by nanosecond pulsed...

  7. approaching fundamental limits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approaches often focus on delineating the fundamental limits of the individual modules when functionalities one is interested in describing the fundamental limits of the...

  8. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Place: India...

  9. LIMITS OF Nb3Sn ACCELERATOR MAGNETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Tevatron at Fermilab and the LHC at CERN. Exceeding the current density limits of NbTi superconductor, Nb{sub 3}Sn is at present the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. Several Nb{sub 3}Sn pilot magnets, with fields as high as 16 T, have been built and tested, paving the way for future attempts at fields approaching 20 T. High current density conductor is required to generate high fields with reduced conductor volume. However this significantly increases the Lorentz force and stress. Future designs of coils and structures will require managing stresses of several 100's of MPa and forces of 10's of MN/m. The combined engineering requirements on size and cost of accelerator magnets will involve magnet technology that diverges from the one currently used with NbTi conductor. In this paper we shall address how far the engineering of high field magnets can be pushed, and what are the issues and limitations before such magnets can be used in particle accelerators.

  10. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  11. The characteristic of carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4} as cathode material for lithium ion battery synthesized by sol-gel process in one step heating and varied pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triwibowo, J., E-mail: joko.triwibowo@lipi.go.id [Research Center for Physics LIPI, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong (Indonesia); Yuniarti, E.; Suharyadi, E. [Gadjah Mada University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This research has been done on the synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO{sub 4} through sol-gel process. Carbon layer serves for improving electronic conductivity, while the variation of pH in the sol-gel process is intended to obtain the morphology of the material that may improve battery performance. LiFePO{sub 4}/C precursors are Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and citric acid. In the synthesis process, consisting of a colloidal suspension FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and distilled water mixed with a colloidal suspension consisting of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and distilled water. Variations addition of citric acid is used to control the pH of the gel formed by mixing two colloidal suspensions. Sol in this study had a pH of 5, 5.4 and 5.8. The obtained wet gel is further dried in the oven and then sintered at a temperature 700°C for 10 hours. The resulting material is further characterized by XRD to determine the phases formed. The resulting powder morphology is observed through SEM. Specific surface area of the powder was tested by BET, while the electronic conductivity characterized with EIS.

  12. Factorization of tree QCD amplitudes in the high-energy limit and in the collinear limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittorio Del Duca; Alberto Frizzo; Fabio Maltoni

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the high-energy limit, we compute the gauge-invariant three-parton forward clusters, which in the BFKL theory constitute the tree parts of the NNLO impact factors. In the triple collinear limit, we obtain the polarized double-splitting functions. For the unpolarized and the spin-correlated double-splitting functions, our results agree with the ones obtained by Campbell-Glover and Catani-Grazzini, respectively. In addition, we compute the four-gluon forward cluster, which in the BFKL theory forms the tree part of the NNNLO gluonic impact factor. In the quadruple collinear limit we obtain the unpolarized triple-splitting functions, while in the limit of a three-parton central cluster we derive the Lipatov vertex for the production of three gluons, relevant for the calculation of a BFKL ladder at NNLL accuracy. Finally, motivated by the reorganization of the color in the high-energy limit, we introduce a color decomposition of the purely gluonic tree amplitudes in terms of the linearly independent subamplitudes only.

  13. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  14. The Gaiasphere and the limits of knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bland-Hawthorn

    2002-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At the heart of a successful theory of galaxy formation must be a detailed physical understanding of the dissipational processes which form spiral galaxies. To what extent can we unravel the events that produced the Galaxy as we see it today? Could some of the residual inhomogeneities from prehistory have escaped the dissipative process at an early stage? To make a comprehensive inventory of surviving inhomogeneities would require a vast catalog of stellar properties that is presently out of reach. The Gaia space astrometry mission, set to launch at the end of the decade, will acquire detailed phase space coordinates for about one billion stars, within a sphere of diameter 20 kpc -- the Gaiasphere. Here we look forward to a time when all stars within the Gaiasphere have complete chemical abundance measurements (including alpha, s and r process elements). Even with such a vast increase in information, there may exist fundamental -- but unproven -- limits to unravelling the observed complexity.

  15. Ideal Quantum Gases with Planck Scale Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Rainer

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamic system of non-interacting quantum particles changes its statistical distribution formulas if there is a universal limitation for the size of energetic quantum leaps (magnitude of quantum leaps smaller than Planck energy). By means of a restriction of the a priori equiprobability postulate one can reach a thermodynamic foundation of these corrected distribution formulas. The number of microstates is determined by means of a suitable counting method and combined with thermodynamics via the Boltzmann principle. The result is that, for particle energies that come close to the Planck energy, the thermodynamic difference between fermion and boson distribution vanishes. Both distributions then approximate a Boltzmann distribution. The wave and particle character of the quantum particles, too, can be influenced by choosing the size of the temperature and particle energy parameters relative to the Planck energy, as you can see from the associated fluctuation formulas. In the case of non-relativistic de...

  16. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

    2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  17. Efficiency limits of quantum well solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connolly, J P; Barnham, K W J; Bushnell, D B; Tibbits, T N D; Roberts, J S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum well solar cell (QWSC) has been proposed as a flexible means to ensuring current matching for tandem cells. This paper explores the further advantage afforded by the indication that QWSCs operate in the radiative limit because radiative contribution to the dark current is seen to dominate in experimental data at biases corresponding to operation under concentration. The dark currents of QWSCs are analysed in terms of a light and dark current model. The model calculates the spectral response (QE) from field bearing regions and charge neutral layers and from the quantum wells by calculating the confined densities of states and absorption coefficient, and solving transport equations analytically. The total dark current is expressed as the sum of depletion layer and charge neutral radiative and non radiative currents consistent with parameter values extracted from QE fits to data. The depletion layer dark current is a sum of Shockley-Read-Hall non radiative, and radiative contributions. The charge neu...

  18. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  19. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, J. Jr. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Department of Physics, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas 78155 (United States); Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Magee, R. M. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); TriAlpha Energy, Inc., Foothill Ranch, California 92610 (United States); Reynolds, E. [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability.

  20. Quantum limits to estimation of photon deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni De Cillis; Matteo G. A. Paris

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We address potential deviations of radiation field from the bosonic behaviour and employ local quantum estimation theory to evaluate the ultimate bounds to precision in the estimation of these deviations using quantum-limited measurements on optical signals. We consider different classes of boson deformation and found that intensity measurement on coherent or thermal states would be suitable for their detection making, at least in principle, tests of boson deformation feasible with current quantum optical technology. On the other hand, we found that the quantum signal-to-noise ratio (QSNR) is vanishing with the deformation itself for all the considered classes of deformations and probe signals, thus making any estimation procedure of photon deformation inherently inefficient. A partial way out is provided by the polynomial dependence of the QSNR on the average number of photon, which suggests that, in principle, it would be possible to detect deformation by intensity measurements on high-energy thermal states.

  1. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. NEWS & VIEWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    are offset by warming-induced increases in carbon loss2,12 . The results of Sokolov and co- workers.nature.com/naturegeoscience nitrogen limitations on plant growth. Thus carbon uptake during plant growth exceeds carbon loss from soils, and terrestrial carbon accumulates with warming (Fig. 1b). In contrast, carbon-only models predict a decrease

  2. Energy-Limited vs. Interference-Limited Ad Hoc Network Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jindal, Nihar

    , signal and interference power increase proportionally while thermal noise power remains constant. Thus are thermal noise and multi- user interference. If the power of each simultaneous trans- mission is increased-limited, and any further increase in transmission power provides essentially no benefit. On the other hand, thermal

  3. The ultimate downscaling limit of FETs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamaluy, Denis; Gao, Xujiao; Tierney, Brian David

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We created a highly efficient, universal 3D quant um transport simulator. We demonstrated that the simulator scales linearly - both with the problem size (N) and number of CPUs, which presents an important break-through in the field of computational nanoelectronics. It allowed us, for the first time, to accurately simulate and optim ize a large number of realistic nanodevices in a much shorter time, when compared to other methods/codes such as RGF[~N 2.333 ]/KNIT, KWANT, and QTBM[~N 3 ]/NEMO5. In order to determine the best-in-class for different beyond-CMOS paradigms, we performed rigorous device optimization for high-performance logic devices at 6-, 5- and 4-nm gate lengths. We have discovered that there exists a fundamental down-scaling limit for CMOS technology and other Field-Effect Transistors (FETs). We have found that, at room temperatures, all FETs, irre spective of their channel material, will start experiencing unacceptable level of thermally induced errors around 5-nm gate lengths.

  4. Prospects and Limitations of Algorithmic Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-bath algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins is a theoretically powerful effective cooling approach, that (ideally) cools spins with low polarization exponentially better than cooling by reversible entropy manipulations alone. Here, we investigate the limitations and prospects of AC. For non-ideal and semioptimal AC, we study the impact of finite relaxation times of reset and computation spins on the achievable effective cooling. We derive, via simulations, the attainable cooling levels for given ratios of relaxation times using two semioptimal practicable algorithms. We expect this analysis to be valuable for the planning of future experiments. For ideal and optimal AC, we make use of lower bounds on the number of required reset steps, based on entropy considerations, to present important consequences of using AC as a tool for improving signal-to-noise ratio in liquid-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We discuss the potential use of AC for noninvasive clinical diagnosis and drug monitoring, where it may have significantly lower specific absorption rate (SAR) with respect to currently used methods.

  5. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafay-Cousin, Lucie [Pediatric Brain Tumor Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: lucie.lafay-cousin@sickkids.ca; Millar, Barbara-Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mabbott, Donald [Pediatric Brain Tumor Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Spiegler, Brenda [Department of Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Drake, Jim [Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bartels, Ute [Pediatric Brain Tumor Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Annie [Pediatric Brain Tumor Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bouffet, Eric [Pediatric Brain Tumor Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria included radiologic diagnosis of bifocal germinoma involving the pineal and neurohypophyseal region, no evidence of dissemination on spinal MRI, negative results from cerebrospinal fluid cytologic evaluation, and negative tumor markers. Results: Between 1995 and 2004, 6 patients (5 male, 1 female; median age, 12.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All had symptoms of diabetes insipidus at presentation. On MRI, 4 patients had a pineal and suprasellar mass, and 2 had a pineal mass associated with abnormal neurohypophyseal enhancement. All patients received chemotherapy followed by limited-field radiation and achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. The radiation field involved the whole ventricular system (range, 2,400-4,000 cGy) with or without a boost to the primary lesions. All patients remain in complete remission at a median follow-up of 48.1 months (range, 9-73.4 months). Conclusions: This experience suggests that bifocal germinoma can be considered a locoregional rather than a metastatic disease. Chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy might be sufficient to provide excellent outcomes. Staging refinement with new diagnostic tools will likely increase the incidence of the entity.

  6. The limits of the nuclear landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL; Erler, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Birge, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kortelainen, E. M. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Olsen, E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perhac, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stoitsov, M. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2011, 100 new nuclides were discovered1. They joined the approximately 3,000 stable and radioactive nuclides that either occur naturally on Earth or are synthesized in the laboratory2,3. Every atomic nucleus, characterized by a specific number of protons and neutrons, occupies a spot on the chart of nuclides, which is bounded by drip lines indicating the values of neutron and proton number at which nuclear binding ends. The placement of the neutron drip line for the heavier elements is based on theoretical predictions using extreme extrapolations, and so is uncertain. However, it is not known how uncertain it is or how many protons and neutrons can be bound in a nucleus. Here we estimate these limits of the nuclear landscape and provide statistical and systematic uncertainties for our predictions. We use nuclear density functional theory, several Skyrme interactions and high-performance computing, and find that the number of bound nuclides with between 2 and 120 protons is around 7,000. We find that extrapolations for drip-line positions and selected nuclear properties, including neutron separation energies relevant to astrophysical processes, are very consistent between the models used.

  7. Limits on New Physics from Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford Cheung; Stefan Leichenauer

    2014-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Black holes emit high energy particles which induce a finite density potential for any scalar field $\\phi$ coupling to the emitted quanta. Due to energetic considerations, $\\phi$ evolves locally to minimize the effective masses of the outgoing states. In theories where $\\phi$ resides at a metastable minimum, this effect can drive $\\phi$ over its potential barrier and classically catalyze the decay of the vacuum. Because this is not a tunneling process, the decay rate is not exponentially suppressed and a single black hole in our past light cone may be sufficient to activate the decay. Moreover, decaying black holes radiate at ever higher temperatures, so they eventually probe the full spectrum of particles coupling to $\\phi$. We present a detailed analysis of vacuum decay catalyzed by a single particle, as well as by a black hole. The former is possible provided large couplings or a weak potential barrier. In contrast, the latter occurs much more easily and places new stringent limits on theories with hierarchical spectra. Finally, we comment on how these constraints apply to the standard model and its extensions, e.g. metastable supersymmetry breaking.

  8. Synthesis, characterization of double perovskite Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} (M = Dy, Fe, Cr, Al) materials via sol–gel auto-combustion and their catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feraru, S. [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Chemistry, Bv. Carol I no. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Samoila, P. [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A, Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Borhan, A.I. [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Chemistry, Bv. Carol I no. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Ignat, M. [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Chemistry, Bv. Carol I no. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A, Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Iordan, A.R. [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Chemistry, Bv. Carol I no. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Palamaru, M.N., E-mail: palamaru@uaic.ro [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Chemistry, Bv. Carol I no. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Double perovskite-type oxide Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} materials, where M = Dy, Fe, Cr, and Al, were prepared by using the sol–gel auto-combustion method. The role of different B-site cations on their synthesis, structures, morphologies and catalytic properties was investigated. The progress of double-perovskite type structure formation and the disappearance of the organic phases were monitored by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). Double perovskite oxide structures were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the microstructure of obtained compounds was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, BET surface areas were measured at the liquid nitrogen temperature by nitrogen adsorption. Catalytic properties of the obtained compounds were evaluated by test reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. - Highlights: • Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} double perovskites were obtained by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} (M = Dy, Fe, Cr and Al) as catalysts in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition • Strong relationship between particles' shape, BET area and catalytic performance • Ca{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} spherical grains show superior catalytic activity.

  9. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  10. arctec canada limited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and to define the contemporary limit of permafrost Moorman, Brian 8 Atomic Energy of Canada Limited CiteSeer Summary: CANDU natural uranium fuel is an outstanding product that...

  11. Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

  12. acid limitation induces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wayne 2012-06-07 10 WAVE STRUCTURE INDUCED BY FLUID DYNAMIC LIMITS IN THE BROADWELL MODEL Mathematics Websites Summary: WAVE STRUCTURE INDUCED BY FLUID DYNAMIC LIMITS IN THE...

  13. Sol och Hav - framtidens nav?.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Englund, Anna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Innan företag ska penetrera en marknad är det viktigt att de har tillräckligt med information om vilka möjligheter och hot marknaden står inför samt… (more)

  14. DE-SOL-0003641 001

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD Notice

  15. Fertility Limits on Local Politicians in India Abhishek Chakravarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    .g., sterilization incentives in India). This paper examines a novel policy experiment that imposes fertility limitsFertility Limits on Local Politicians in India S Anukriti Abhishek Chakravarty September 19, 2014: political leaders. Keywords: India, Local Elections, Fertility Limits, Sex Ratios, Population Control We

  16. Constrained sinogram restoration for limited-angle Jerry L. Prince

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willsky, Alan S.

    for further re- search. Subject terms: image reconstruction; computed tomography; regularization; limitedConstrained sinogram restoration for limited-angle tomography Jerry L. Prince The Johns Hopkins-437 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Limited-angle tomography 3. Sinogram restoration

  17. Finding the Lower Stellar Mass Limit Observationally Justin Cantrell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiita, Paul J.

    saying: "1. Objects with true masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", no matter how below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are not "planets", but are "sub

  18. Mental Training Affects Distribution of Limited Brain Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    Mental Training Affects Distribution of Limited Brain Resources Heleen A. Slagter1 , Antoine Lutz1 is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental

  19. A -calculus with limited resources, garbage-collection and guarantees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teller, David

    A -calculus with limited resources, garbage-collection and guarantees David Teller Abstract. Techniques such as mobility and distribution are often used to overcome limitations of resources at formalizing the notion of limited resources in process algebras for mobility and distribution. In this paper

  20. HAIM GAIFMAN REASONING WITH LIMITED RESOURCES AND ASSIGNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    HAIM GAIFMAN REASONING WITH LIMITED RESOURCES AND ASSIGNING PROBABILITIES TO ARITHMETICAL problem of reasoning under limited deductive capacity. The second sketches a rigorous way of assigning character of subjective probabilities and beliefs. 1. LIMITED DEDUCTIVE ABILITY Two kinds of obstacles stand

  1. An alternative approach to achieving water quality-based limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C.M.; Graeser, W.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since May 1982, members of the Iron and Steel Industry have been required to meet effluent limits based on Best Available Technology (BAT) for a process water discharge to receiving stream. US Steel Clairton Works has been successful in meeting these limits in the last three years; however, the current regulatory thrust is toward more stringent limits based on water quality. In cases of smaller streams such as the receiving stream for Clairton Works` process outfall, these limits can be very rigid. This paper will discuss the alternative approaches investigated to meet the new more stringent limits including the solution chosen.

  2. Structural and ambient/sub-ambient temperature magnetic properties of Er-substituted cobalt-ferrites synthesized by sol-gel assisted auto-combustion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prathapani, Sateesh [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Jayaraman, Tanjore V., E-mail: ddas@uohyd.ernet.in, E-mail: tvjayaraman@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Varaprasadarao, Eswara K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Das, Dibakar, E-mail: ddas@uohyd.ernet.in, E-mail: tvjayaraman@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Er-substituted cobalt-ferrites CoFe{sub 2?x}Er{sub x}O{sub 4} (0???x???0.04) were synthesized by sol-gel assisted auto-combustion method. The precursor powders were calcined at 673–873?K for 4?h, subsequently pressed into pellets and sintered at 1273?K for 4?h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of the spinel phase for all the compositions and, additional orthoferrite phase for higher compositions (x?=?0.03 and 0.04). The XRD spectra and the Transmission Electron Microscopy micrographs indicate that the nanocrystalline particulates of the Er-substituted cobalt ferrites have crystallite size of ?120–200?nm. The magnetization curves show an increase in saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) for Er-substituted cobalt-ferrites at sub-ambient temperatures. M{sub S} for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CoFe{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}O{sub 4}, CoFe{sub 0.98}Er{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}, and CoFe{sub 0.97}Er{sub 0.03}O{sub 4} peak at 89.7?Am{sup 2}/kg, 89.3?Am{sup 2}/kg, 88.8?Am{sup 2}/kg, and 87.1?Am{sup 2}/kg, respectively, at a sub-ambient temperature of ?150?K. H{sub C} substantially increases with decrease in temperature for all the compositions, while it peaks at x?=?0.01?0.02 at all temperatures. The combination of Er content—x???0.02 and the temperature—?5?K provides the maximum H{sub C}???984?kA/m. Er-substituted cobalt-ferrites have higher cubic anisotropy constant, K{sub 1}, compared to pure cobalt-ferrite at ambient/sub-ambient temperatures. K{sub 1} gradually increases for all compositions in the temperature decreasing from 300 to 100?K. While K{sub 1} peaks at ?150?K for pure cobalt-ferrite, it peaks at ?50?K for CoFe{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}O{sub 4}, CoFe{sub 0.98}Er{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}, and CoFe{sub 0.96}Er{sub 0.04}O{sub 4}. The M{sub S} (?88.7?Am{sup 2}/kg), at 5?K, for Er substituted cobalt-ferrite is close to the highest values reported for Sm and Gd substituted cobalt-ferrites. The M{sub S} (?83.5?Am{sup 2}/kg) at 300?K for Er-substituted cobalt-ferrite is the highest among the lanthanide series element substituted cobalt-ferrites. The H{sub C} (at 5?K) for Er substituted cobalt-ferrite is close to the highest values observed for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, and Gd substituted cobalt-ferrites.

  3. 1Design limits and solutions for very large wind turbines Design limits and solutions for very large wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    #12;#12;1Design limits and solutions for very large wind turbines UpWind Design limits and solutions for very large wind turbines A 20 MW turbine is feasible March 2011 Supported by: #12;March 20112 Photo:Nordex #12;3Design limits and solutions for very large wind turbines Contents 1. UpWind: Summary

  4. phys. stat. sol. (c) 1, No. 11, 29252928 (2004) / DOI 10.1002/pssc.200405364 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, John

    of sintered glass beads. A transition to a very strong scattering regime is observed, whereupon the diffusion and foams [1­5]. In the low frequency, long wavelength limit, the medium appears uniform and the phonons modes of a model porous material formed from sintered networks of spherical glass parti- cles. We show

  5. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi, E-mail: ansari.rad@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anta, Juan A., E-mail: anta@upo.es [Departamento de Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Arzi, Ezatollah [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

  6. On the no-gravity limit of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kowalski-Glikman; M. Szczachor

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that Relative Locality may arise in the no gravity $G\\rightarrow0$ limit of gravity. In this limit gravity becomes a topological field theory of the BF type that, after coupling to particles, may effectively deform its dynamics. We briefly discuss another no gravity limit with a self dual ground state as well as the topological ultra strong $G\\rightarrow\\infty$ one.

  7. Institute of Computer Science A modified limited-memory BNS ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Institute of Computer Science. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. A modified limited-memory BNS method for unconstrained minimization based on ...

  8. antibodies successes limitations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the effects of harmonics on their systems: telephone noise, excessive heating of transformers and other equipment, capacitor damage, and others, and would like to limit the...

  9. Exact algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem with Draft Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Battarra

    2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 25, 2013 ... In this recently proposed problem, draft limits are imposed due to restrictions on the port infrastructures. Exact algorithms based on three ...

  10. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in resource limits declined with oil prices after 1985, butthe surge in oil prices since 1999 has elevated Hubbertfavored. Along with higher oil prices has come a discussion

  11. LUCERNE FOODS LTD. (A Division of Canada Safeway Limited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    LUCERNE FOODS LTD. (A Division of Canada Safeway Limited) Processing Plant: 31122 South Fraser Way and Vegetable Processing Plant Location: Abbotsford, BC Job Description: Lucerne Foods, Clearbrook processing

  12. Critical Issues in NPH Categorization and Limit State Selection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the public. This step also includes defining what constitutes failure (e.g., for seismic design, determination of a Limit State associated with SSC failure) * Step 2:...

  13. WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations for Domestic Wastewater Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  14. Articulated limiter blade for a tokamak fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doll, D.W.

    1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A limiter blade for a large tokomak fusion reactor includes three articulated blade sections for enabling the limiter blade to be adjusted for plasmas of different sizes. Each blade section is formed of a rigid backing plate carrying graphite tiles coated with titanium carbide, and the limiter blade forms a generally elliptic contour in both the poloidal and toroidal directions to uniformly distribute the heat flow to the blade. The limiter blade includes a central blade section movable along the major radius of the vacuum vessel, and upper and lower pivotal blade sections which may be pivoted by linear actuators having rollers held to the back surface of the pivotal blade sections.

  15. Notice of Emergency Action - Emergency Order To Resume Limited...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emergency Action - Emergency Order To Resume Limited Operation at the Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, VA, in Response to Electricity Reliability Concerns in...

  16. COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS J. HOWARD, M. PERSSON* Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra

  17. aos seus limites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance via correction of atmospheric turbulence using adaptive optics (AO), to seeing-limited observations. Moreover, the scientific output of the...

  18. aos limites prescritos: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance via correction of atmospheric turbulence using adaptive optics (AO), to seeing-limited observations. Moreover, the scientific output of the...

  19. BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS -POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS - POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS Senior scientist - "Towards Hydrogen Society" ·biomass resources - potentials, limits ·biomass carbon cycle ·biomass for hydrogen - as compared to other H2- sources and to other biomass paths #12;BIOMASS - THE CARBON CYCLE

  20. Climatic change special issue: geoengineering research and its limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    Climatic change special issue: geoengineering research and its limitations Robert Wood & Stephen, discussion of "geoengineering"--roughly the "deliberate large-scale manip- ulation of the planetary. Proposed geoengineering approaches fall into two broad categories: those that attempt to limit solar

  1. Scaling limits for gradient systems in random environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Goncalves; M. D. Jara

    2007-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    For interacting particle systems that satisfies the gradient condition, the hydrodynamic limit and the equilibrium fluctuations are well known. We prove that under the presence of a symmetric random environment, these scaling limits also hold for almost every choice of the environment, with homogenized coefficients that does not depend on the particular realization of the random environment.

  2. Broadcasting with a Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Rechargeable Transmitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    ) at the transmitter at random instants. The battery at the transmitter has a finite storage capacity, hence energy mayBroadcasting with a Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Rechargeable Transmitter Omur Ozel1 , Jing with a battery limited energy harvesting trans- mitter in a two-user AWGN broadcast channel. The transmitter has

  3. Asymptotic Behavior and Distributional Limits of Preferential Attachment Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    , Christian Borgs, Jennifer T. Chayes and Amin Saberi Mathematics Department, Hebrew University, Jerusalem Alto, CA 94305. e-mail: saberi@stanford August 2009 (revised August 2010) Abstract: We give an explicit;Berger, Borgs, Chayes, Saberi /Preferential attachment limits 2 Earlier, a notion of a weak local limit

  4. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells Zongfu Yu1 , Aaswath Raman and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping) Establishing the fundamental limit of nanophotonic light-trapping schemes is of paramount importance

  5. LINEARIZED PLASTICITY IS THE EVOLUTIONARY -LIMIT OF FINITE PLASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanelli, Ulisse

    LINEARIZED PLASTICITY IS THE EVOLUTIONARY -LIMIT OF FINITE PLASTICITY ALEXANDER MIELKE AND ULISSE in plasticity. By taking the small-deformations limit, we prove via -convergence for rate-independent processes plastic evolution by means of a deli- cate recovery sequence construction relating energy and dissipation

  6. Personalized Dynamic Pricing of Limited Inventories Goker Aydin* Serhan Ziya**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziya, Serhan

    Personalized Dynamic Pricing of Limited Inventories Goker Aydin* Serhan Ziya** *Department@unc.edu Abstract Prior work has investigated time and inventory-level dependent pricing of limited inventories with finite selling horizons. We consider a third dimension - in addition to time and inventory level

  7. EFFECT OF REACTOR HEAT TRANSFER LIMITATIONS ON CO PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    and conventional packed-bed lab reactors (m-PBR's). Strong evidence has suggested that the reverse water-gas transport limitations of conventional lab reactors [3,4,5,6]: the fast surface chemistry of the exothermic1 EFFECT OF REACTOR HEAT TRANSFER LIMITATIONS ON CO PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION X. Ouyang, R.S. Besser

  8. On the ChapmanJouguet Limit for a Combustion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Chapman­Jouguet Limit for a Combustion Model Bernard Hanouzet \\Lambda , Roberto Natalini y and Alberto Tesei z Abstract We study the limiting behaviour of solutions to a simple model for combustion detonations and deflagrations with respect to the reaction rate. Key words and phrases: combustion

  9. Quantum Limits and Robustness of Nonlinear Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John K. Stockton; Ari K. Tuchman

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the limits of intracavity absorption spectroscopy with nonlinear media. Using a common theoretical framework, we compare the detection of a trace gas within an undriven cavity with gain near and above threshold, a driven cavity with gain kept just below threshold, and a cavity driven close to the saturation point of a saturable absorber. These phase-transition-based metrology methods are typically quantum-limited by spontaneous emission, and we compare them to the empty cavity shotnoise-limited case. Although the fundamental limits achievable with nonlinear media do not surpass the empty cavity limits, we show that nonlinear methods are more robust against certain technical noise models. This recognition may have applications in spectrometer design for devices operating in non-ideal field environments.

  10. Effective constrained polymeric theories and their continuum limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi; Tatjana Vukasinac

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical limit of polymer quantum theories yields a one parameter family of `effective' theories labeled by \\lambda. Here we consider such families for constrained theories and pose the problem of taking the `continuum limit', \\lambda -> 0. We put forward criteria for such question to be well posed, and propose a concrete strategy based in the definition of appropriately constructed Dirac observables. We analyze two models in detail, namely a constrained oscillator and a cosmological model arising from loop quantum cosmology. For both these models we show that the program can indeed be completed, provided one makes a particular choice of \\lambda-dependent internal time with respect to which the dynamics is described and compared. We show that the limiting theories exist and discuss the corresponding limit. These results might shed some light in the problem of defining a renormalization group approach, and its associated continuum limit, for quantum constrained systems.

  11. Thermomechanical aspects of the liquid metal cooled limiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Abdou, M.A.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis has been performed to evaluate the possibility of using liquid lithium as a coolant for the limiter. A global analysis was carried out to determine limiter's shape and configuration, and then detailed MHD, heat transfer, and structural analysis, were performed to determine limiting coolant velocities, operating pressures, Nusselt number, and allowable heat fluxes. For one of the most suitable choices of materials i.e. vanadium structure, lithium coolant, and Be coating (10 mm), the limiting heat flux has been found to be 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/. For High, Z coating of tungsten the limiting heat flux has been found to be 5.7 MW/m/sup 2/. In both cases the operating pressure was maintained at 10 MPa.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - areva fuel solutions Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Too expensive... : Average cost overrun in first round of reactors: 207% Areva EPR in Finland: already 50%+ overrun 12 Source: Laughlin, Robert B. - Department of Physics,...

  13. Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO{sub 2} matrix synthesized by sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozo Lopez, G., E-mail: gpozo@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola - CONICET (Argentina); Condo, A.M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Urreta, S.E. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)] [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Silvetti, S.P.; Aguirre, M. del C. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina) [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola - CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})x/(SiO{sub 2})(100 - x) (x = 5, 20 and 50 wt.%) nanocomposites are synthesized by a sol-gel method using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and metallic nitrates as precursors, and by further annealing the powders for 1 h at 1273 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), room temperature vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and SQUID measurements are employed for structural, morphological and magnetic sample characterization. For all the concentrations analyzed, the powder nanocomposites actually consist of spinel NiZn ferrite nanoparticles, dispersed in an amorphous silica matrix. TEM studies reveal different particle size distributions and particle morphologies for the three ferrite contents. The 20 wt.%-NiZn ferrite samples consist of nearly spherical nanoparticles, of about 8 nm, mainly superparamagnetic, well-dispersed in the amorphous silica matrix, while the 5 wt.%-NiZn ferrite samples exhibit a bimodal particle size distribution (5 and 30 nm) of single-domain nanoparticles embedded in the silica. In the 50 wt.%-NiZn ferrite samples, two particle families are observed: small round superparamagnetic nanoparticles of about 8 nm embedded in the amorphous silica matrix and large, non-spherical, ferrimagnetic ones, forming agglomerates outside the matrix. In all the synthesized samples, thickness fringes are observed inside some of the ferrite nanoparticles in dark field images. This contrast is explained using the theory of electron diffraction in a weak beam dark field (WBDF) condition and considering spherical ferrite nanoparticles. A large range of tailored magnetic properties varying the fraction, dispersion and mean size of the ferrimagnetic NiZn ferrite particles is obtained. Room temperature saturation magnetization values are found in the range 3.0-30.4 Am{sup 2}/kg for the different concentration samples. Coercivity values, between 1.9 and 7.6 mT, are more than 50% higher than those measured in powders of pure stoichiometric NiZn ferrite nanoparticles and somewhat higher than those reported for similar NiZn ferrite/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites also synthesized by sol-gel processes. A correlation between the nanocomposite microstructure and the observed magnetic properties is established. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiZn ferrite/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites are successfully synthesized by a sol-gel route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depending on the NiZn ferrite content single or bimodal size distributions result. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coercivity (1.9-7.6 mT) is 50% higher than in stoichiometric NiZn ferrite powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure and magnetic properties are correlated.

  14. No Evidence for an Item Limit in Change Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keshvari, Shaiyan Oliver

    Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items (“item-limit models”). Recent findings force us to consider the alternative ...

  15. makeitsafe.missouri.edu Limit your personal data. Protect your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    1 2 3 4 makeitsafe.missouri.edu Limit your personal data. Protect your identity and only post on your permissions, you could display personal information to people you don't really know. Change

  16. The Shockley-Queisser limit for nanostructured solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yunlu; Munday, Jeremy N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shockley-Queisser limit describes the maximum solar energy conversion efficiency achievable for a particular material and is the standard by which new photovoltaic technologies are compared. This limit is based on the principle of detailed balance, which equates the photon flux into a device to the particle flux (photons or electrons) out of that device. Nanostructured solar cells represent a new class of photovoltaic devices, and questions have been raised about whether or not they can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here we show that single-junction nanostructured solar cells have a theoretical maximum efficiency of 42% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. While this exceeds the efficiency of a non- concentrating planar device, it does not exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit for a planar device with optical concentration. We conclude that nanostructured solar cells offer an important route towards higher efficiency photovoltaic devices through a built-in optical concentration.

  17. The large level limit of Kazama-Suzuki models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Fredenhagen; Cosimo Restuccia

    2014-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Limits of families of conformal field theories are of interest in the context of AdS/CFT dualities. We explore here the large level limit of the two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal W_{n+1} minimal models that appear in the context of the supersymmetric higher-spin AdS3/CFT2 duality. These models are constructed as Kazama-Suzuki coset models of the form SU(n+1)/U(n). We determine a family of boundary conditions in the limit theories, and use the modular bootstrap to obtain the full bulk spectrum of N=2 super-W_{n+1} primaries in the theory. We also confirm the identification of this limit theory as the continuous orbifold C^n/U(n) that was discussed recently.

  18. anomalous coupling limits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the WWZ couplings. D0 Collaboration 1999-05-04 4 Limits on Anomalous Couplings from Higgs Boson Production at the Tevatron HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: We estimate the...

  19. Radial limits of holomorphic functions on the ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulkerson, Michael C

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, we consider various aspects of the boundary behavior of holomorphic functions of several complex variables. In dimension one, a characterization of the radial limit zero sets of nonconstant holomorphic functions on the disc has...

  20. Exact algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem with Draft Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 20, 2013 ... problem, draft limits are imposed due to restrictions on the port in- ... the sea-level in a port is sometimes not sufficiently deep to accommodate.

  1. Low temperature plasma near a tokamak reactor limiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braams, B.J.; Singer, C.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytic and two-dimensional computational solutions for the plasma parameters near a toroidally symmetric limiter are illustrated for the projected parameters of a Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX). The temperature near the limiter plate is below 20 eV, except when the density 10 cm inside the limiter contact is 8 x 10/sup 13/cm/sup -3/ or less and the thermal diffusivity in the edge region is 2 x 10/sup 4/cm/sup 2//s or less. Extrapolation of recent experimental data suggests that neither of these conditions is likely to be met near ignition in TFCX, so a low plasma temperature near the limiter should be considered a likely possibility.

  2. An experimental investigation of the countercurrent flow limitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solmos, Matthew Aaron

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A new correlation for the prediction of the Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) in a large diameter tube with a falling water lm is proposed. Dierent from previous correlations, it predicts the onset of ooding by considering the relative...

  3. Reservoir Characterization with Limited Sample Data using Geostatistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoraishy, Sayyed Mojtaba

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this dissertation was to develop a systematic method to characterize the reservoir with the limited available data. The motivation behind the study was characterization of CO2 pilot area in the Hall Gurney Field, Lansing...

  4. Iron limitation and the role of Siderophores in marine Synechococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, Adam R. (Adam Reid)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus are widely distributed and contribute significantly to global primary productivity. In many parts of the ocean their growth is limited by a lack of iron, an essential nutrient ...

  5. Limited development as a tool for agricultural preservation in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuttle, William D. (William Davis)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited development offers the hope of turning market development pressure which threatens open land into a means for financing its protection. In theory, the profit from developing a small portion of a parcel can be used ...

  6. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J.R.

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders.

  7. Beyond Dominant Resource Fairness: Extensions, Limitations, and Indivisibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiat, Amos

    Beyond Dominant Resource Fairness: Extensions, Limitations, and Indivisibilities DAVID C. PARKES We study the problem of allocating multiple resources to agents with heterogeneous demands this problem under the assumption that agents demand the resources in fixed proportions, known in economics

  8. Fundamentals of PV Efficiency: Limits for Light Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ryyan Khan; Xufeng Wang; Muhammad A. Alam

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple thermodynamic argument related to a (weakly absorbing) finite dielectric slab illuminated by sunlight- originally suggested by Yablonovich- leads to the conclusion that the absorption in a dielectric can at best be increased by a factor 4n2. Therefore, the absorption in these materials is always imperfect; the Shockley-Queisser limit can be achieved only asymptotically. In this paper, we make the connection between the degradation in efficiency and the Yablonovich limit explicit and re-derive the 4n2 limit by intuitive geometrical arguments based on Snell's law and elementary rules of probability. Remarkably, the re-derivation suggests strategies of breaking the traditional limit and improving PV efficiency by enhanced light absorption.

  9. On the limiting absorption principle and spectra of quantum graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beng-Seong Ong

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The main result of the article is validity of the limiting absorption principle and thus absence of the singular continuous spectrum for compact quantum graphs with several infinite leads attached. The technique used involves Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators.

  10. SHOCK EMERGENCE IN SUPERNOVAE: LIMITING CASES AND ACCURATE APPROXIMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the dynamics of accelerating normal shocks in stratified planar atmospheres, providing accurate fitting formulae for the scaling index relating shock velocity to the initial density and for the post-shock acceleration factor as functions of the polytropic and adiabatic indices which parameterize the problem. In the limit of a uniform initial atmosphere, there are analytical formulae for these quantities. In the opposite limit of a very steep density gradient, the solutions match the outcome of shock acceleration in exponential atmospheres.

  11. Thermodynamic Limits, Non-commutative Probability, and Quantum Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph F. Johnson

    2005-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a rigourous model of quantum measurement. A two-state model of a negative temperature amplifier, such as a laser, is taken to a classical thermodynamic limit. In the limit, it becomes a classical measurement apparatus obeying the stochastic axioms of quantum mechanics. Thus we derive the probabilities from a deterministic Schroedinger's equation by procedures analogous to those of classical statistical mechanics. This requires making precise the notion of `macroscopic.'

  12. Infrared cutoffs and the adiabatic limit in noncommutative spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claus Doescher; Jochen Zahn

    2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss appropriate infrared cutoffs and their adiabatic limit for field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In order to do this, we consider a mass term as interaction term. We show that an infrared cutoff can be defined quite analogously to the commutative case and that the adiabatic limit of the two-point function exists and coincides with the expectation, to all orders.

  13. Sol–gel synthesis of long-lasting phosphors CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}, RE{sup 3+} (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) and luminescence mechanism research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Xiaofei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)] [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China); Cao, Lixin, E-mail: caolixin@mail.ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)] [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Wei; Su, Ge; Wang, Pingping; Schultz, Isabel [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)] [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? New long-lasting CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}, RE{sup 3+} (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) phosphors were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ? The afterglow performance of the CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphor was the best. ? The role of RE{sup 3+} co-doped into the CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+} matrix was discussed in this paper. -- Abstract: Mn{sup 2+} and RE{sup 3+} (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) co-doped CdSiO{sub 3} orange phosphors were prepared at 1050 °C by a sol–gel method. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized materials were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The luminescence characteristics were analyzed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra, afterglow decay curves, long-lasting phosphorescence spectra, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Due to the difference in co-doped rare earth ionic radii, it varied greatly in trap density and trap depth caused by the different defects deriving from RE{sup 3+} ions co-doping into the CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+} host. The afterglow intensity and time for these samples increased as follows: CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}0.2%, Nd{sup 3+}0.8% < CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}0.4%, Tb{sup 3+}0.8% < CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}0.4%, Eu{sup 3+}0.3%. CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+}0.4%, Eu{sup 3+}0.3% had the best afterglow properties, which could be due to the proper traps formed by Eu{sup 3+} ions co-doping into the host. The role of RE{sup 3+} co-doped into the CdSiO{sub 3}: Mn{sup 2+} matrix and the possible long-lasting phosphorescence process was also discussed in this paper.

  14. Operational benefits of relaxed axial power distribution control limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitlan, M.S. Jr.; Miller, R.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constant axial offset control (CAOC) was developed in the early 1970s in response to lower loss-of-coolant accident-based peaking factor limits. Th CAOC requires control of the axial power distribution within a specified band, typically +/- 5% or +3, -12% axial flux difference (AFD), about a measured target value of AFD. Operational outside of the CAOC limits results in the accumulation of penalty time. One hour of penalty time in any 24-h period is permitted. Although CAOC is sufficient to ensure peaking factor limits are satisfied, operation outside of CAOC limits is beneficial under certain conditions. Allowing a relaxation in CAOC restrictions can be used both to enhance the load follow capability of the plant by allowing control strategies that minimize the boron system duty or increase the return to power capability and to greatly increase the ability to return to power after a plant trip or shutdown. To achieve these benefits, relaxed axial offset control (RAOC) was developed. Other benefits of RAOC include a simplified technical specification and the ability to perform in-core/ex-core calibrations at higher powers. Duke Power Company has benefited in many of these ways by changing from CAOC power distribution limits to RAOC power distribution limits at the McGuire Nuclear Station. One of the chief benefits has been the ability to achieve full power much more quickly following shutdowns of short duration and reactor trips during the last half of the cycle lifetime.

  15. Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

  16. CHARGE-EXCHANGE LIMITS ON LOW-ENERGY {alpha}-PARTICLE FLUXES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, H. S. [SSL, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fletcher, L.; MacKinnon, A. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Woods, T. N., E-mail: hhudson@ssl.berkeley.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 1234 Innovation Dr., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Ly{alpha} line of He II at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary {alpha} particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He II bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. We study 10 events in total, including the {gamma}-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic particles. The absence of charge-exchange line wings may point to a need for more complete theoretical work. Some of the events do have broadband signatures, which could correspond to continua from other origins, but these do not have the spectral signatures expected from the Orrall-Zirker mechanism.

  17. Hydraulic limitation not declining nitrogen availability causes the age-related photosynthetic decline in loblolly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Hydraulic limitation not declining nitrogen availability causes the age-related photosynthetic capacity and thus decreases GPP with increasing age; and (2) hydraulic limitations increasingly induce conservative with age. We conclude that hydraulic limitation increasingly limits the photosyn- thetic rates

  18. ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary; Stoffel, Tom; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Ritsche, Michael; Morris, Victor; Anderberg, Mary

    Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

  19. The Ginibre evolution in the large-N limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tribe, Roger, E-mail: tribe@maths.warwick.ac.uk; Zaboronski, Oleg, E-mail: olegz@maths.warwick.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse statistics of the real eigenvalues of gl(N, R)-valued Brownian motion (the Ginibre evolution) in the limit of large N. In particular, we calculate the limiting two-time correlation function of spin variables associated with real eigenvalues of the Ginibre evolution. We also show how the formalism of spin variables can be used to compute the fixed time correlation functions of real eigenvalues discovered originally by Forrester and Nagao [“Eigenvalue statistics of the real Ginibre ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 050603 (2007)] and Borodin and Sinclair [“The Ginibre ensemble of real random matrices and its scaling limits,” Commun. Math. Phys. 291(1), 177–224 (2009)].

  20. More on the renormalization group limit cycle in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evgeny Epelbaum; Hans-Werner Hammer; Ulf-G. Meissner; Andreas Nogga

    2006-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed study of the recently conjectured infrared renormalization group limit cycle in QCD using chiral effective field theory. We show that small increases in the up and down quark masses, corresponding to a pion mass around 200 MeV, can move QCD to the critical renormalization group trajectory for an infrared limit cycle in the three-nucleon system. At the critical values of the quark masses, the binding energies of the deuteron and its spin-singlet partner are tuned to zero and the triton has infinitely many excited states with an accumulation point at the three-nucleon threshold. At next-to-leading order in the chiral counting, we find three parameter sets where this effect occurs. For one of them, we study the structure of the three-nucleon system using both chiral and contact effective field theories in detail. Furthermore, we calculate the influence of the limit cycle on scattering observables.

  1. Quantum Limit on Stability of Clocks in a Gravitational Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supurna Sinha; Joseph Samuel

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Good clocks are of importance both to fundamental physics and for applications in astronomy, metrology and global positioning systems. In a recent technological breakthrough, researchers at NIST have been able to achieve a stability of 1 part in $10^{18}$ using an Ytterbium clock. This naturally raises the question of whether there are fundamental limits to the stability of clocks. In this paper we point out that gravity and quantum mechanics set a fundamental limit on the stability of clocks. This limit comes from a combination of the uncertainty relation, the gravitational redshift and the relativistic time dilation effect. For example, a single ion hydrogen maser clock in a terrestrial gravitational field cannot achieve a stability better than one part in $10^{22}$. This observation has implications for laboratory experiments involving both gravity and quantum theory.

  2. Optical limiting of layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Ningning; Feng, Yanyan; Zhang, Saifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chang, Chunxia; Fan, Jintai; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear optical property of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) nanosheet dispersions, including MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2, was performed by using Z-scan technique with ns pulsed laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm. The results demonstrate that the TMDC dispersions exhibit significant optical limiting response at 1064 nm due to nonlinear scattering, in contrast to the combined effect of both saturable absorption and nonlinear scattering at 532 nm. Selenium compounds show better optical limiting performance than that of the sulfides in the near infrared. A liquid dispersion system based theoretical modelling is proposed to estimate the number density of the nanosheet dispersions, the relationship between incident laser fluence and the size of the laser generated micro-bubbles, and hence the Mie scattering-induced broadband optical limiting behavior in the TMDC dispersions.

  3. Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

  4. MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storck, W.

    1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

  5. Fractal Dimensions for Continuous Time Random Walk Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark M. Meerschaert; Erkan Nane; Yimin Xiao

    2011-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In a continuous time random walk (CTRW), each random jump follows a random waiting time. CTRW scaling limits are time-changed processes that model anomalous diffusion. The outer process describes particle jumps, and the non-Markovian inner process (or time change) accounts for waiting times between jumps. This paper studies fractal properties of the sample functions of a time-changed process, and establishes some general results on the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of its range and graph. Then those results are applied to CTRW scaling limits.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

  7. LIMITED POWER BURSTS IN DISTRIBUTED MODELS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazhenov, Maxim

    LIMITED POWER BURSTS IN DISTRIBUTED MODELS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS M. V. Bazhenov and E. F. Sabaev UDC employed for analyzing reactor dynamics. Equations of this type are used for analyzing the stability of the reactor power, etc. Among these problems the question of the boundedness of reactor power bursts

  8. Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree A. Elizabeth Arnold* , Luis Carlos Meji species examined to date harbors endophytic fungi within its asymptomatic aerial tissues, such that endophytes rep- resent a ubiquitous, yet cryptic, component of terrestrial plant communities. Fungal

  9. Grouping maintenance strategy with availability constraint under limited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with significant assumptions: maintenance durations are neglected and only one preventive maintenance for eachGrouping maintenance strategy with availability constraint under limited repairmen Phuc Do Van Hai maintenance strategies of multi-component systems by integrating two efficient optimization algorithms

  10. Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  11. Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

    2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  12. PRESENT LIMITATIONS OF CdTe DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    365 PRESENT LIMITATIONS OF CdTe DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE R. ALLEMAND, P. BOUTEILLER, M. LAVAL quality criteria, it is necessary to compare Cd-Te detectors results (or estimated characteristics) with other methods (i. e. 8cintillation cameras) in order to know the effective interest of Cd-Te in nuclear

  13. Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    advantage of being able to convert sunlight into clean energy. After the glass is coated, we install clean electricity. Advantages · Building-integratable. · Contributes to EU targets towards energySolar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated

  14. Polarization limits in K-Rb spin-exchange mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancor, B.; Walker, T. G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the optical absorption of K vapor at 795 nm due to the presence of high-pressure He gas. The results set a limit on the polarization attainable in hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping of {sup 3}He.

  15. Radiative transport limit for the random Schrodinger Guillaume Bal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    Radiative transport limit for the random Schr¨odinger equation Guillaume Bal George Papanicolaou converges to the solution of a radiative transport equation. The propagation of wave energy in a scattering Leonid Ryzhik May 8, 2002 Abstract We give a detailed mathematical analysis of the radiative transport

  16. Radiative transport limit for the random Schrödinger equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Bal; George Papanicolaou; Leonid Ryzhik

    2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a detailed mathematical analysis of the radiative transport limit for the average phase space density of solutions of the Schroedinger equation with time dependent random potential. Our derivation is based on the construction of an approximate martingale for the random Wigner distribution.

  17. Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

  18. Unitary neutron matter in the on-shell limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Ruiz Arriola; Sergio Szpigel; Varese Salvador Timoteo

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the Bertsch parameter for neutron matter by using nucleon-nucleon interactions that are fully diagonal in momentum space. We analyze the on-shell limit with the similarity renormalization group and compare the results for a simple separable toy model to realistic calculations with high precision $NN$ potentials.

  19. THE COMPANIES ACTS 1985 to 1989 COMPANY LIMITED BY GUARANTEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    THE COMPANIES ACTS 1985 to 1989 ________________________________________________ COMPANY LIMITED of association of the Company. 1.2 In these Articles the following expressions shall, except where the context otherwise requires or permits, have the following meanings: "Act": the Companies Act 1985. "Articles

  20. ALPS - advanced limiter-divertor plasma-facing systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allain, J. P.; Bastasz, R.; Brooks, J. N.; Evans, T.; Hassanein, A.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Mattas, R. F.; McCarthy, K.; Mioduszewski, P.; Mogahed, E.; Moir, R.; Molokov, S.; Morely, N.; Nygren, R.; Reed, C.; Rognlien, T.; Ruzic, D.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sze, D.; Tillack, M.; Ulrickson, M.; Wade, P. M.; Wong, C.; Wooley, R.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for improved performance and lifetime for plasma-facing systems. The main goal of the program is to demonstrate the advantages of advanced limiter/divertor systems over conventional systems in terms of power density capability, component lifetime, and power conversion efficiency, while providing for safe operation and minimizing impurity concerns for the plasma. Most of the work to date has been applied to free surface liquids. A multi-disciplinary team from several institutions has been organized to address the key issues associated with these systems. The main performance goals for advanced limiters and diverters are a peak heat flux of >50 MW/m{sup 2},elimination of a lifetime limit for erosion, and the ability to extract useful heat at high power conversion efficiency ({approximately}40%). The evaluation of various options is being conducted through a combination of laboratory experiments, modeling of key processes, and conceptual design studies. The current emphasis for the work is on the effects of free surface liquids on plasma edge performance.

  1. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Applications, limitations and ... new frontiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Applications, limitations and ... new frontiers Francesco Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) Vienna, 19 January 2007 1/55 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Applications and results: The ETSF Outline 1 Time

  2. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, H.J.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter are disclosed for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time. 9 figs.

  3. Slippery diffusion-limited aggregation Clair R. Seager1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    can translationally diffuse over the surface of the other. By contrast, shear-rigid bonding createsSlippery diffusion-limited aggregation Clair R. Seager1, * and Thomas G. Mason2, 1 Department attractions in liquids form irreversible "slippery" bonds that are not shear-rigid. Through event

  4. Limit theorems for bipower variation in financial econometrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Limit theorems for bipower variation in financial econometrics Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen Department econometrics. The analysis is carried out under some rather general Brownian semimartingale assumptions, which come from and how they sit within the econometrics literature. Our theoretical development is motivated

  5. Original article Limitation of photosynthetic activity by CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Limitation of photosynthetic activity by CO2 availability in the chloroplasts to resistances opposing the CO2 fluxes in the mesophyll of tree leaves. To validate this assertion, values of CO2 CO2 assimilation and respiration rate measurement, and using the known electron requirements (four

  6. CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

  7. Energy Aware Computing through Probabilistic Switching: A Study of Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Aware Computing through Probabilistic Switching: A Study of Limits Krishna V. Palem, Fellow developed here for building energy-aware networks for computing, using PBITs. Interesting examples thermodynamics and, hence, can serve as a basis for energy-aware computing. While the estimates of the energy

  8. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  9. ornl ORNL/CON-63 Design Optimization and the Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    for Conventional Single-Speed Air-Source Heat Pumps C. K. Rice W. L. Jackson S. K. Fischer R. D. Ellison #12 DESIGN OPTIMIZATION AND THE LIMITS OF STEADY-STATE HEATING EFFICIENCY FOR CONVENTIONAL SINGLE-SPEED AIR-SOURCE HEAT PUMPS C. K. Rice S. K. Fischer W. L. Jackson* R. D. Ellison Date Published: October 1981

  10. Compressive Video Classification for Decision Systems with Limited Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    by the introduction of efficient computational models is video classification. With the advent of digital TVCompressive Video Classification for Decision Systems with Limited Resources George Tzagkarakis, Pavlos Charalampidis, Grigorios Tsagkatakis, Jean-Luc Starck, and Panagiotis Tsakalides Commissariat `a l'´Energie

  11. Benefits and Limitations of Tapping into Stored Energy For Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    Benefits and Limitations of Tapping into Stored Energy For Datacenters Sriram Govindan, Anand University Park, PA {sgovinda,anand,bhuvan}@cse.psu.edu Abstract. Datacenter power consumption has a signifBuff) available in the form of UPS batteries in datacenters for this cost optimization. Intuitively, eBuff stores

  12. Optimization of complex robot applications under real physical limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimization of complex robot applications under real physical limitations Matthieu Guilbert Pierre-Brice Wieber Luc Joly August 30, 2007 Abstract This paper deals with minimum time trajectory optimization difficult or even impossible to model. The structure of the optimization problem allows us to decompose

  13. Geometric Tomography: A Limited-View Approach for Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corso, Jason J.

    Geometric Tomography: A Limited-View Approach for Computed Tomography Peter B. Noël, Jinhui Xu Keywords Computed Tomography; Geometric Compressed Sensing; Topo- logical Peeling. ABSTRACT Computed to generate 3D data, denoted f, directly from projec- tions, denoted g. Thus, the projection relationship can

  14. MEDIA RESOURCES ADAPTATION FOR LIMITED DEVICES TAYEB LEMLOUMA1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MEDIA RESOURCES ADAPTATION FOR LIMITED DEVICES TAYEB LEMLOUMA1 ; NABIL LAYADA1 1 WAM Project, INRIA.Lemlouma@inrialpes.fr; Nabil.Layaida@inrialpes.fr In this paper, we define a framework for media resources manipulation in an adaptive content delivery system. We discuss the media resources manipulation in an adaptation

  15. The Family of "Circle Limit III" Escher Patterns Douglas Dunham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Doug

    consider the third one of this sequence, Circle Limit III -- a pattern of fish, to be the most beautiful. In this woodcut, four fish meet at right fin tips, three fish meet at left fin tips, and three fish meet at their noses. The backbones of the fish are aligned along white circular arcs. Fish on one arc are the same

  16. Geometric aspects of scaling limits of random planar maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miermont, Grégory

    Geometric aspects of scaling limits of random planar maps G. Miermont Fondation des Sciences of random planar maps CCF'08 1 / 18 #12;Planar maps Definition A planar map is a proper embedding of the sphere. One is interested in the properties of various families of maps. Familiar ones are triangulations

  17. HYBRID LIMIT CYCLES AND HYBRID POINCARE-BENDIXSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    HYBRID LIMIT CYCLES AND HYBRID POINCAR´E-BENDIXSON Slobodan N. Simi´c Department of Electrical regular hybrid systems with no branching (Simi´c et al., 2000a). The first one provides a condition for asymptotic stability of hybrid closed orbits in terms of contraction-expansion rates of resets and flows

  18. Why Software Developers Should Support a New, Limited Patent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollaar, Lee A.

    Why Software Developers Should Support a New, Limited Patent Lee A. Hollaar Professor, School Patent Conference, Brussels, 15-16 May 2007. The latest version of this paper, as well as the paper on which it is based, can be found at http://digital-law-online.info/papers/lah/mini-patent.htm Comments

  19. Doppler cooling to the Quantum limit M. Chalony,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is canceled. PACS numbers: 37.10.De, 37.10.Gh Laser cooling of atoms is a technique widely used, mainly of laser cooling and trapping techniques, in parallel with precise measure- ments of the momentumDoppler cooling to the Quantum limit M. Chalony,1 A. Kastberg,2 B. Klappauf,3 and D. Wilkowski1, 4

  20. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES OF CONCRETE BEAMS PRESTRESSED BY CFRP BARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reinforcements. The experimental program consisted of testing eight concrete beams prestressed by CFRP bars beams prestressed by Leadline CFRP bars were tested, in addition to two concrete beams prestressedAbstract SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES OF CONCRETE BEAMS PRESTRESSED BY CFRP BARS by Amr A

  1. LIMIT THEOREMS AND APPROXIMATIONS WITH APPLICATIONS TO INSURANCE RISK AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchet, Jose H.

    LIMIT THEOREMS AND APPROXIMATIONS WITH APPLICATIONS TO INSURANCE RISK AND QUEUEING THEORY of philosophy Jose H. Blanchet August 2004 #12;c° Copyright by Jose H. Blanchet 2004 All Rights Reserved ii #12 and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Peter W. Glynn (Principal Adviser) I

  2. THE GROWTH OF LIMITS OF VERTEX REPLACEMENT RULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Previte, Joseph P.

    THE GROWTH OF LIMITS OF VERTEX REPLACEMENT RULES JOSEPH PREVITE, MICHELLE PREVITE, AND MARY a vertex replacement rule given by exactly one replacement graph generates an infinite graph for the growth degree of infinite graphs with polynomial growth that are gener- ated by vertex replacement rules

  3. Limited Submission Funding Opportunity Health Resources and Services Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Limited Submission Funding Opportunity Health Resources and Services Administration Adolescent and Young Adult Health National Resource Center Program http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=256241 FOA#: HRSA-14-050 The purpose of the Adolescent and Young Adult Health National Resource Center

  4. Modification and final alignment of the TFTR bumper limiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSmith, M.D. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States); Loesser, G.D.; Owens, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past three Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel machine openings, an extensive effort was undertaken to optimize the distribution of heating of the bumper limiter tiles. The optimization was achieved by locating the limiter tiles relative to the toroidal magnetic field and adjusting their position relative to the magnetic field rather than to fixed points in the vacuum vessel walls. This paper will discuss the results of these alignments as measured during operation with the limiter thermocouple system and subsequent visual inspection during this past TFTR vacuum vessel opening. During the most recent in-vessel inspection (January 1993), damage to the top and bottom rows of the bumper limiter tiles was noted. More tiles were damaged on the lower row than the upper row. Tiles on the right side of the bottom row and to a lesser extent tiles on the left side of the top row were damaged. The location of the damage corresponds to the plasma power flux direction. Theories explaining the asymmetric damage (bottom versus top) are summarized. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPL) began a program to replace 223 of the originally installed tiles made from POCO AFX-5Q graphite. Of these 223 tiles, 151 were replaced with tiles made from carbon-fiber-composite (CFC) and 158 of these tiles were re-designed for installation on the top or bottom rows. The re-designed tiles have a tapered edge that reduces the angle of incidence of the power flux on the edge surface that was over-heating. This paper will review the in-vessel work and discuss the final modification of the TFTR bumper limiter to alleviate further damage at these locations prior to DT operation of TFTR.

  5. Slim completions offer limited stimulation variances: Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunsman, B.J. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)); Matson, R. (BJ Services Co., Tomball, TX (United States)); Shook, R.A. (Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of five articles addressing barriers to increased US utilization of slimhole drilling and completion techniques. Previous articles discussed slimhole drilling and cementing. The focus of this article is stimulation, with an emphasis on hydraulic fracturing. This series is based on a study conducted for Gas Research institute (GRI) by an industry team consisting of Maurer Engineering, BJ Services, Baker Oil tools, and Halliburton. Parts 1 and 2 were published in the September and October 1994 issues of Petroleum Engineer International, respectively. Potential cost saving resulting from slimhole drilling and completions of gas wells are often inhibited by the limitations on hydraulic fracturing. Variances from conventional fracturing include excessive friction pressure, fracture fluid degradation due to excessive shear rates, proppant bridging and limited diverting options.

  6. Limits to the power density of very large wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Takafumi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple analysis is presented concerning an upper limit of the power density (power per unit land area) of a very large wind farm located at the bottom of a fully developed boundary layer. The analysis suggests that the limit of the power density is about 0.38 times $\\tau_{w0}U_{F0}$, where $\\tau_{w0}$ is the natural shear stress on the ground (that is observed before constructing the wind farm) and $U_{F0}$ is the natural or undisturbed wind speed averaged across the height of the farm to be constructed. Importantly, this implies that the maximum extractable power from such a very large wind farm will not be proportional to the cubic of the wind speed at the farm height, or even the farm height itself, but be proportional to $U_{F0}$.

  7. Conservative Moment Equations for Neutrino Radiation Transport with Limited Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endeve, Eirik; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive conservative, multidimensional, energy-dependent moment equations for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae and related astrophysical systems, with particular attention to the consistency of conservative four-momentum and lepton number transport equations. After taking angular moments of conservative formulations of the general relativistic Boltzmann equation, we specialize to a conformally flat spacetime, which also serves as the basis for four further limits. Two of these---the multidimensional special relativistic case, and a conformally flat formulation of the spherically symmetric general relativistic case---are given in appendices for the sake of comparison with extant literature. The third limit is a weak-field, `pseudo-Newtonian' approach \\citep{kim_etal_2009,kim_etal_2012} in which the source of the gravitational potential includes the trace of the stress-energy tensor (rather than just the mass density), and all orders in fluid velocity $v$ are retained. Our primary interest here ...

  8. Limits of quantum speedup in photosynthetic light harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan Hoyer; Mohan Sarovar; K. Birgitta Whaley

    2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that excitation transport in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes features speedups analogous to those found in quantum algorithms. Here we compare the dynamics in these light harvesting systems to the dynamics of quantum walks, in order to elucidate the limits of such quantum speedups. For the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur bacteria, we show that while there is indeed speedup at short times, this is short lived (70 fs) despite longer lived (ps) quantum coherence. Remarkably, this time scale is independent of the details of the decoherence model. More generally, we show that the distinguishing features of light-harvesting complexes not only limit the extent of quantum speedup but also reduce rates of diffusive transport. These results suggest that quantum coherent effects in biological systems are optimized for efficiency or robustness rather than the more elusive goal of quantum speedup.

  9. Segment Directory Enhancing the Limited Directory Cache Coherence Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong Hyuk Choi; Kyu Ho Park

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new arrangement of directory bits called the segment directory to improve directory storage efficiency: a segment directory can point to several sharing processors with almost the same number of bits as the pointer which can point to only one. Many directory overflows can be eliminated by using the segment directory element in place of the pointer in the limited directory schemes. Also, the segment directory can be implemented without introducing additional hardware overhead and protocol complexity. The detailed execution-driven simulations show that the segment directory always does better than the pointer and eliminates many directory overflows by up to 85%. The resulting improvement in bandwidth and execution time is analyzed in detail for limited directory schemes having different behaviors, with respect to the reduced directory overflows. 1.

  10. Single nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krogstrup, Peter; Heiss, Martin; Demichel, Olivier; Holm, Jeppe V; Aagesen, Martin; Nygard, Jesper; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light management is of great importance to photovoltaic cells, as it determines the fraction of incident light entering the device. An optimal pn-junction combined with an optimal light absorption can lead to a solar cell efficiency above the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show how this is possible by studying photocurrent generation for a single core-shell p-i-n junction GaAs nanowire solar cell grown on a silicon substrate. At one sun illumination a short circuit current of 180 mA/cm^2 is obtained, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than what would be predicted from Lambert-Beer law. The enhanced light absorption is shown to be due to a light concentrating property of the standing nanowire as shown by photocurrent maps of the device. The results imply new limits for the maximum efficiency obtainable with III-V based nanowire solar cells under one sun illumination.

  11. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royak, Semyon (Beachwood, OH); Harbaugh, Mark M. (Richfield, OH)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  12. Advanced binary geothermal power plants: Limits of performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Cycle Research Program is investigating potential improvements to power cycles utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources to produce electrical power. Investigations have specifically examined Rankine cycle binary power systems. Binary Rankine cycles are more efficient than the flash steam cycles at moderate resource temperature, achieving a higher net brine effectiveness. At resource conditions similar to those at the Heber binary plant, it has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating in a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over Rankine cycles with the pure working fluids executing single or dual boiling cycles or supercritical cycles. Recently, other types of cycles have been proposed for binary geothermal service. This report explores the feasible limits on efficiency of a plant given practical limits on equipment performance and discusses the methods used in these advanced concept plants to achieve the maximum possible efficiency. (Here feasible is intended to mean reasonably achievable and not cost-effective.) No direct economic analysis has been made because of the sensitivity of economic results to site specific input. The limit of performance of three advanced plants were considered in this report. The performance predictions were taken from the developers of each concept. The advanced plants considered appear to be approaching the feasible limit of performance. Ultimately, the plant designer must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the the different cycles to find the best plant for a given service. In addition, this report presents a standard of comparison of the work which has been done in the Heat Cycle Research Program and in the industrial sector by Exergy, Inc. and Polythermal Technologies. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Vortex topology and the continuum limit of lattice gauge theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Burgio

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the stability of Z_2 topological vortex excitations in d+1 dimensional SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on the lattice at T=0. This is found to depend on d and on the coupling considered. We discuss the connection with lattice artifacts causing bulk transitions in the beta_A-beta_F plane and draw some conclusions regarding the continuum limit of the theory.

  14. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark; /Chicago U.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  15. Radiation-effects limits on copper in superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinan, M.W.

    1983-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of the response of copper stabilizers to neutron irradiation in fusion-reactor superconducting magnets requires information in four areas: (1) neutron flux and spectrum determination, (2) resistivity changes at zero field, (3) resistivity changes at field, and (4) the cyclic irradiation and annealing. Applications of our current understanding of the limits of copper stabilizers in fusion-reactor designs are explored in two examples. Recommendations for future additions to the data base are discussed.

  16. Central Limit Theorem for Branching Random Walks in Random Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobuo Yoshida

    2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider branching random walks in $d$-dimensional integer lattice with time-space i.i.d. offspring distributions. When $d \\ge 3$ and the fluctuation of the environment is well moderated by the random walk, we prove a central limit theorem for the density of the population, together with upper bounds for the density of the most populated site and the replica overlap. We also discuss the phase transition of this model in connection with directed polymers in random environment.

  17. Schr\\"oder's problems and scaling limits of random trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitman, Jim

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a classic paper Schr\\"oder posed four combinatorial problems about the number of certain types of bracketings of words and sets. Here we address what these bracketings look like on average. For each of the four problems we prove that a uniform pick from the appropriate set of bracketings, when considered as a tree, has the Brownian continuum random tree as its scaling limit as the size of the word or set goes to infinity.

  18. Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.

  19. Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Hydrodynamic Limit for Particle Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gui-Qiang Chen; Nadine Even; Christian Klingenberg

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the following class of scalar hyperbolic conservation laws with discontinuous fluxes: \\partial_t\\rho+\\partial_xF(x,\\rho)=0. The main feature of such a conservation law is the discontinuity of the flux function in the space variable x. Kruzkov's approach for the L1-contraction does not apply since it requires the Lipschitz continuity of the flux function; and entropy solutions even for the Riemann problem are not unique under the classical entropy conditions. On the other hand, it is known that, in statistical mechanics, some microscopic interacting particle systems with discontinuous speed parameter lambda(x), in the hydrodynamic limit, formally lead to scalar hyperbolic conservation laws with discontinuous fluxes of the form: \\partial_t\\rho+\\partial_x(\\lambda(x)h(\\rho))=0. The natural question arises which entropy solutions the hydrodynamic limit selects, thereby leading to a suitable, physical relevant notion of entropy solutions of this class of conservation laws. This paper is a first step and provides an answer to this question for a family of discontinuous flux functions. In particular, we identify the entropy condition for our PDE and proceed to show the well-posedness by combining our existence result with a uniqueness result of Audusse-Perthame (2005) for the family of flux functions; we establish a compactness framework for the hydrodynamic limit of large particle systems and the convergence of other approximate solutions to our PDE, which is based on the notion and reduction of measure-valued entropy solutions; and we finally establish the hydrodynamic limit for a ZRP with discontinuous speed-parameter governed by an entropy solution to our PDE.

  20. Combined upper limit for SM Higgs at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penning, Bjorn; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels (WH {yields} {tau}{nu}b{bar b}, VH {yields} {tau}{tau}b{bar b}/jj{tau}{tau}, VH {yields} jjb{bar b}, t{bar t}H {yields} t{bar t}b{bar b}) have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95%C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  1. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  2. Improve Claus simulation by integrating kinetic limitations into equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, T.C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since all existing Claus simulators are based on equilibrium calculations, it is not surprising that the simulation results, including the overall sulfur yield, air to acid gas ratio, and stream compositions are somewhat different from the plant data. One method for improving the simulation is to consider the kinetic limitations in the Claus reactions. This has been accomplished in this work by integrating kinetic considerations into equilibrium calculations. Kinetic limitations have been introduced in both the Claus reaction furnace and the catalytic converters. An interactive computer program SULPLT Version 3 was written to implement the proposed modifications. The computer program was used to simulate the Claus furnace, catalytic converters, and the effect of air to acid gas ratio on sulfur recovery to check against literature data. Three Claus plants for which data exist have also been simulated. The results show that the proposed model predicts sulfur recovery, sulfur emission, optimal air to acid gas ratio, and various stream compositions more accurately than the equilibrium model. The proposed model appears to be valid, reliable, and applicable over a wide range of operating conditions (acid gas feeds ranging from 13% to 95% H/sub 2/S with different levels of impurities). The methodology developed in this study should be applicable to any reaction systems where kinetic limitations are important but where equilibrium still prevails.

  3. Baryonic Dark Matter: Limits from HST and ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerard Gilmore; IoA Cambridge; UK

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent HST and ISO observations provide very severe limits on any compact baryonic contributions to galactic (dark) halos. When combined with Milky Way Galaxy microlensing results, almost the entire plausible range of massive compact baryonic objects is excluded by direct observation. Deep direct imaging at 7mu and 15mu with ISOCAM on the ISO spacecraft directly excludes hydrogen-burning stars of any mass above the hydrogen-burning limit, and of any chemical abundance, from being the predominant explanation of the dark halos of external spiral galaxies. In the Milky Way Galaxy, HST has provided luminosity functions to the hydrogen-burning limit in several globular clusters. The resulting mass functions do not provide any support for dominance by very low-mass stars. This is consistent with field surveys for sub-stellar mass brown dwarfs, which show such objects to be relatively rare. These results are complemented by very deep HST luminosity functions in the Large Magellanic Cloud, providing strong support for the (near)-universality of the stellar mass function. Very recent HST results are available for the nearby dSph galaxy UMi. This galaxy, the most dark-matter dominated object known on kpc scales, has a normal stellar mass function at low masses. The prospects are bright for dark elementary particles.

  4. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.

    1985-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.

  5. MATTHEW P. DEARING | MATTHEW C. DUPEE Published: February 16, 2009 EMPOWERMENT --The support of any militia program in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    up expansion efforts by insurgent factions have succeeded in overrunning once neutral areas in close

  6. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it; Valente, Marco, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  7. EDINBURGH TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTRE LIMITED GUIDE TO INFORMATION AVAILABLE THROUGH OUR PUBLICATION SCHEME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    EDINBURGH TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTRE LIMITED GUIDE TO INFORMATION AVAILABLE THROUGH OUR PUBLICATION and what it might cost. Edinburgh Technology Transfer Centre Limited ("the company") has adopted the Model Unless otherwise stated, Edinburgh Technology Transfer Centre Limited reserves copyright in all

  8. Performance limits of fusion first-wall structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D. L.; Majumdar, S.; Billone, M.; Mattas, R. F.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Key features of fusion energy relate primarily to potential advantages associated with safety and environmental considerations and the near endless supply of fuel. However, it is generally concluded that high performance fusion power systems will be required in order to be economically competitive with other energy options. As in most energy systems, structural materials operating limits pose a primary constraint to the performance of fusion power systems. It is also recognized that for the case of fusion power, the first-wall/blanket system will have a dominant impact on both the economic and safety/environmental attractiveness of fusion energy. The first-wall blanket structure is particularly critical since it must maintain high integrity at relatively high temperatures during exposure to high radiation levels, high surface heat fluxes, and significant primary stresses. The performance limits of the first-wall/blanket structure will be dependent on the structural material properties, the coolant/breeder system, and the specific design configuration. Key factors associated with high performance structural materials include (1) high temperature operation, (2) a large operating temperature window, and (3) a long operating lifetime. High temperature operation is necessary to provide for high power conversion efficiency. As discussed later, low-pressure coolant systems provide significant advantages. A large operating temperature window is necessary to accommodate high surface heating and high power density. The operating temperature range for the structure must include the temperature gradient through the first wall and the coolant system AT required for efficient energy conversion. This later requirement is dependent on the coolant/breeder operating temperature limits. A long operating lifetime of the structure is important to improve system availability and to minimize waste disposition.

  9. Thermodynamic limits to the quality of UCG product gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creighton, J.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work was to find the limits placed on the quality of UCG product gas by the energy and mass balances, including atom balances. If the outlet gas contains no O/sub 2/, there are only two independent variables. If these are chosen to be the mass fractions, X/sub CO/ and X/sub H/sub 2//, both the temperature of the outlet gas and the heat of combustion available by burning it are functions of these two variables only. The lines of constant temperature are parallel to the lines of constant heat of combustion, so it is clear that the available energy is partitioned between the sensible heat and the heat of combustion of the gas. The maximum heat available is set by the amount of oxygen in the inlet mixture; because the outlet temperature must exceed the minimum coal-surface temperature for burning, only heat losses within the system will generally reduce the heat of combustion. The maximum mass fractions of H/sub 2/ and CO in the product gas are limited by the impossibility of negative mass fractions of H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/. Additional limitations are imposed by the assumption of a minimum temperature. One of the two independent variables can be eliminated if the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium is valid. The product composition then lies on a single line in a phase plane of X/sub H/sub 2// vs X/sub CO/, and at a given outlet temperature the composition is fixed. Unfortunately, it appears that experimental values of X/sub H/sub 2// lie well above the equilibrium curve. Experimental data do indicate, however, that the system tends to operate near the minimum temperature to sustain the steam/char reaction on the coal surface, thus maximizing the heat of combustion of the outlet gas.

  10. Calculating limits for torsion and tensile loads on drill pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, E.I. [Stress Engineering Service Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, J.E. [Grant Prideco, Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drill pipe used for drilling horizontal and extended reach holes experiences much higher torsional and tensile loads than normally seen while drilling vertical holes. This is particularly true for rigs with top drives vs. rigs with rotary tables. When pipe is rotated while pulling out of the hole, which is commonly done on top drive rigs, the drill pipe can experience high tensile and torsional loading simultaneously. These conditions increase the probability of overload on tool joints and require that the drill pipe and tool joint selection process include consideration of combined loading. Calculating the required drill pipe strength for vertical holes is straightforward and spelled out in Section 5 of API RP7G. In vertical hole applications, pipe is almost always selected for its tensile capacity and the torsional strength of the pipe generally does not require special consideration. In Section 4 of API Sec 7, API recommends that the tool joints have a torsional strength of 80% of the pipe`s torsional strength; this is usually adequate. The torsional strength and tensile strength of commonly used drill pipe and tool joint combinations are tabulated in Tables 2 through 10 of API RP7G. Appendix A.8.3 in API RP7G shows a method for plotting a graphical representation of the combined torsional and tensile operational limits of tool joints. How to calculate the limits of the drill pipe tube is shown in Appendix A.9.2. This paper defines terms and limits, and discusses building and using a diagram to determine safe loads.

  11. Strong Upper Limits on Sterile Neutrino Warm Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueksel, Hasan [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Beacom, John F. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Watson, Casey R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Millikin University, Decatur, Illinois 62522 (United States)

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Sterile neutrinos are attractive dark matter candidates. Their parameter space of mass and mixing angle has not yet been fully tested despite intensive efforts that exploit their gravitational clustering properties and radiative decays. We use the limits on gamma-ray line emission from the Galactic center region obtained with the SPI spectrometer on the INTEGRAL satellite to set new constraints, which improve on the earlier bounds on mixing by more than 2 orders of magnitude, and thus strongly restrict a wide and interesting range of models.

  12. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  13. Time Step Size Limitation Introduced by the BSSN Gamma Driver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Schnetter

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Many mesh refinement simulations currently performed in numerical relativity counteract instabilities near the outer boundary of the simulation domain either by changes to the mesh refinement scheme or by changes to the gauge condition. We point out that the BSSN Gamma Driver gauge condition introduces a time step size limitation in a similar manner as a CFL condition, but which is independent of the spatial resolution. We give a didactic explanation of this issue, show why especially mesh refinement simulations suffer from it, and point to a simple remedy.

  14. Detailed balance limit of power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, Kazuhiko, E-mail: k-seki@aist.go.jp [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)] [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Furube, Akihiro [RIIF, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [RIIF, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yoshida, Yuji [RCPVT, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)] [RCPVT, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental difference between inorganic photovoltaic (IPV) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells is that charges are generated at the interface in OPV cells, while free charges can be generated in the bulk in IPV cells. In OPV cells, charge generation involves intrinsic energy losses to dissociate excitons at the interface between the donor and acceptor. By taking into account the energy losses, we show the theoretical limits of the power conversion efficiency set by radiative recombination of the carriers on the basis of the detailed balance relation between radiation from the cell and black-body radiation.

  15. Extracellular Proteins Limit the Dispersal of BiogenicNanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreau, John W.; Weber, Peter K.; Martin, Michael C.; Gilbert,Benjamin; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    High spatial-resolution secondaryion microprobespectrometry, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infraredspectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrate the intimateassociation of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zincsulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization.Experiments involving synthetic ZnS nanoparticles and representativeamino acids indicate a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticleaggregation. These findings suggest that microbially-derivedextracellular proteins can limit dispersal of nanoparticulatemetal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation,that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurfacefluid flow.

  16. Upper limits on charm-changing neutral-current interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.

    1988-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    parallel decays can be computed with NII =N„e(l+l )8(c l X), where N„ is the number of cc events, e(1+I ) is the detection efficiency for parallel decays, and 8(c l X) is the average semileptonic branching ratio of the charmed hadrons in the continuum...VOLUME 60, NUMBER 16 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 18 APRIL 1988 Upper Limits on Charm-Changing Neutral-Current Interactions P. Haas, ' M. Hempstead, ' T. Jensen, ' D. R. Johnson, ' H. Kagan, ' R. Kass, ' P. Baringer, R. L. McIlwain, D. H. Miller, C. R...

  17. Flat Space Limit of (Higher-Spin) Cardy Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max Riegler

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note I derive the flat space limit of the modified Cardy formula associated with inner horizons and show that it reproduces the correct Galilean conformal field theory counting of flat space cosmology microstates. l also determine the entropy of flat space cosmologies in flat space chiral gravity in this way. In addition, I derive a Cardy-like expression for flat space cosmologies with spin-3 charges and thus give a prediction for the corresponding Galilean conformal field theory counting of flat space cosmology microstates with spin-3 charges.

  18. Testing the potential and limitations of seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlagh L. Creevey

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    I describe the advantage of using singular value decomposition as a diagnostic tool for exploring the potential and limitations of seismic data. Using stellar models coupled with the expected errors in seismic and complementary data we can predict the precision in the stellar parameters. This in turn allows us to quantify if and to what extent we can distinguish between various descriptions of the interior physical processes. This method can be applied to a wide range of astrophysical problems, and here I present one such example which shows that the convective core overshoot parameter can be constrained with one identified mode if the pulsating component is in an eclipsing binary system.

  19. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  20. Bounded limit for the Monte Carlo point-flux-estimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimesey, R.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Monte Carlo random walk the kernel K(R,E) is used as an expected value estimator at every collision for the collided flux phi/sub c/ r vector,E) at the detector point. A limiting value for the kernel is derived from a diffusion approximation for the probability current at a radius R/sub 1/ from the detector point. The variance of the collided flux at the detector point is thus bounded using this asymptotic form for K(R,E). The bounded point flux estimator is derived. (WHK)

  1. PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15, 2010Energy6 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership PP-206

  2. PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15, 2010Energy6 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership

  3. PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15, 2010Energy6 Frontera Generation Limited PartnershipDepartment

  4. PP-85-3 Boliden Power Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15, 2010Energy6 Frontera Generation Limited15 Trico39 Westmin5-23

  5. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011Liisa O'Neill About Us Liisa O'NeillLimiting

  6. CO2e Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreis a city in ChittendenPartners LLC JumpCO2e Capital Limited

  7. Rithwik Energy System Limited RESL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia Blue RidgeUniversityMedio, New Mexico:Limited RESL Jump to:

  8. Rithwik Power Projects Limited RPPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia Blue RidgeUniversityMedio, New Mexico:Limited RESL Jump

  9. SunDwel Solar Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen, Minnesota:36052°, -97.6114217° LoadingEnergySunDwel Solar Limited

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: LIMITS Liquid Metal Flow Loop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowa State UniversityFacilityLIMITS Liquid Metal Flow

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - atpase rate-limiting adp Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and step 2 is a rate-limiting isomerization to a state of enhanced pyrene... that ATP hydrolysis is rate limiting, previous ... Source: Pollard, Thomas D.- Department of...

  12. Wind Power Plant Enhancement with a Fault-Current Limiter: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; DeLaRosa, F.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the capability of a saturable core fault-current limiter to limit the short circuit current of different types of wind turbine generators.

  13. Pushing The Sample-Size Limit Of Infrared Vibrational Nano-Spectroscop...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Sample-Size Limit Of Infrared Vibrational Nano-Spectroscopy: From Monolayer Towards Single molecule sensitivity. Pushing The Sample-Size Limit Of Infrared Vibrational...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - acres international limited Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    's performance 1. Due to the inherent bandwidth limitation in wireless cellular networks, micropico cellular... is limited by the MS' dwell time in the overlapping area....

  15. Investigation of Microscopic Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anlage, Steven [University of Maryland

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities is often limited by breakdown events below the intrinsic limiting surface fields of Nb, and there is abundant evidence that these breakdown events are localized in space inside the cavity. Also, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the causal links between surface treatments and ultimate RF performance at low temperatures. An understanding of these links would provide a clear roadmap for improvement of SRF cavity performance, and establish a cause-and-effect ‘RF materials science’ of Nb. We propose two specific microscopic approaches to addressing these issues. First is a spatially-resolved local microwave-microscope probe that operates at SRF frequencies and temperatures to discover the microscopic origins of breakdown, and produce quantitative measurements of RF critical fields of coatings and films. Second, RF Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has allowed visualization of RF current flow and sources of nonlinear RF response in superconducting devices with micro-meter spatial resolution. The LSM will be used in conjunction with surface preparation and characterization techniques to create definitive links between physical and chemical processing steps and ultimate cryogenic microwave performance. We propose to develop RF laser scanning microscopy of small-sample Nb pieces to establish surface-processing / RF performance relations through measurement of RF current distributions on micron-length scales and low temperatures.

  16. The optimal bound of quantum erasure with limited means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filippo M. Miatto; Kevin Piché; Thomas Brougham; Robert W. Boyd

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In practical applications of quantum information science, quantum systems can have non-negligible interactions with the environment, and this generally degrades the power of quantum protocols as it introduces noise. Counteracting this by appropriately measuring the environment (and therefore projecting its state) would require access all the necessary degrees of freedom, which in practice can be far too hard to achieve. To better understand one's limitations, we calculate the upper bound of optimal quantum erasure (i.e. the highest recoverable visibility, or "coherence"), when erasure is realistically limited to an accessible subspace of the whole environment. In the particular case of a two-dimensional accessible environment, the bound is given by the sub-fidelity of two particular states of the \\emph{inaccessible} environment, which opens a new window into understanding the connection between correlated systems. We also provide an analytical solution for a three-dimensional accessible environment. This result provides also an interesting operational interpretation of sub-fidelity. We end with a statistical analysis of the expected visibility of an optimally erased random state and we find that 1) if one picks a random pure state of 2 qubits, there is an optimal measurement that allows one to distill a 1-qubit state with almost 90\\% visibility and 2) if one picks a random pure state of 2 qubits in an inaccessible environment, there is an optimal measurement that allows one to distill a 1-qubit state with almost twice its initial visibility.

  17. An optically trapped mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobuyuki Matsumoto; Yuta Michimura; Yoichi Aso; Kimio Tsubono

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation of a mechanical oscillator driven by quantum back-action is a fundamental requirement to reach the standard quantum limit (SQL) for force measurement, in optomechanical systems. However, thermal fluctuating force generally dominates a disturbance on the oscillator. In the macroscopic scale, an optical linear cavity including a suspended mirror has been used for the weak force measurement, such as gravitational-wave detectors. This configuration has the advantages of reducing the dissipation of the pendulum (i.e., suspension thermal noise) due to a gravitational dilution by using a thin wire, and of increasing the circulating laser power. However, the use of the thin wire is weak for an optical torsional anti-spring effect in the cavity, due to the low mechanical restoring force of the wire. Thus, there is the trade-off between the stability of the system and the sensitivity. Here, we describe using a triangular optical cavity to overcome this limitation for reaching the SQL. The triangular cavity can provide a sensitive and stable system, because it can optically trap the mirror's motion of the yaw, through an optical positive torsional spring effect. To show this, we demonstrate a measurement of the torsional spring effect caused by radiation pressure forces.

  18. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  19. Limitations and Opportunities of Off-Shell Coupling Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Englert; Michael Spannowsky

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Indirect constraints on the total Higgs width $\\Gamma_h$ from correlating Higgs signal strengths with cross section measurements in the off-shell region for $p(g)p(g)\\to 4\\ell$ production have received considerable attention recently, and the CMS collaboration have published a first measurement. We revisit this analysis from a new physics and unitarity constraints perspective and conclude that limits on $\\Gamma_h$ obtained in this fashion are not reliable unless we make model-specific assumptions, which cannot be justified at the current stage of the LHC programme. Relaxing the $\\Gamma_h$ interpretation, we discuss the merits of high invariant mass cross section measurements in the context of Higgs CP analyses, higher dimensional operator testing, and resolved new physics in the light of electroweak precision constraints beyond effective theory limitations. Furthermore, we show that a rather model-independent LHC constraint can be obtained from adapting the $gg\\to 4\\ell$ analysis to the weak boson fusion channels at lower statistical yield.

  20. Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria for Energy-Limited Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer D. Snow; Dana K. Morton

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code was primarily written with stress-based acceptance criteria. These criteria are applicable to force, displacement, and energy-controlled loadings and ensure a factor of safety against failure. However, stress-based acceptance criteria are often quite conservative for one time energy-limited events such as accidental drops and impacts. For several years, the ASME Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containments has been developing the Design Articles for Section III, Division 3, “Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material and Waste,” and has wanted to establish strain-based acceptance criteria for accidental drops of containments. This Division 3 working group asked the Working Group on Design Methodology (WGDM) to assist in developing these strain-based acceptance criteria. This paper discusses the current proposed strain-based acceptance criteria, associated limitations of use, its background development, and the current status.

  1. SHELL THEORIES ARISING AS LOW ENERGY -LIMIT OF 3D NONLINEAR ELASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHELL THEORIES ARISING AS LOW ENERGY -LIMIT OF 3D NONLINEAR ELASTICITY By Marta Lewicka Maria that the elastic energy of defor- mations scales like h4, h being the thickness of a shell, we derive a limiting dimensional limit energies. In this paper we discuss shell theories arising as -limits of higher scalings

  2. OIKOS 104: 109121, 2004 Size-dependent resource limitation and foraging-predation risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roos, André M. de

    OIKOS 104: 109­121, 2004 Size-dependent resource limitation and foraging-predation risk trade-yr old char were resource limited and, if so, whether resource limitation was associated with habitat variation in YOY densities between lakes. Model results suggested that density dependent resource limitation

  3. Constraints, limits and extensions for nuclear energy functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Colo'

    2009-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present contribution, we discuss the behavior of Skyrme forces when they are employed to study both neutron stars and giant resonance states in 208Pb within the fully self-consistent Random Phase Approximation (RPA). We point out that clear correlations exist between the results for the isoscalar monopole and isovector dipole resonances (ISGMR and IVGDR), and definite quantities which characterize the equation of state (EOS) of uniform matter. We propose that the RPA results or, to some extent, the mentioned EOS parameters, are used as constraints when a force is fitted. This suggestion can be valid also when the fit of a more general energy density functional is envisaged. We use our considerations to select a limited number of Skyrme forces (10) out of a large sample of 78 interactions.

  4. BAYESIAN INSIGHTS ON DISCLOSURE LIMITATION: MASK OR IMPUTE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. KELLER-MCNULTY; G. DUNCAN

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical agencies seek to disseminate useful data while keeping low the risk of statistical confidentiality disclosure. Recognizing that reidentification of data is generally inadequate to protect its confidentiality against attack by a data snooper, agencies restrict the data they release for general use. Typically, these restricted data procedures have involved transformation or masking of the original, collected data through such devices as adding noise, topcoding, data swapping, and recoding. Recently, proposals have been put forth for the release of synthetic data, simulated from models constructed from the original data. This paper gives a framework for the comparison of masking and synthetic data as two approaches to disclosure limitation. Particular attention is paid to data utility and disclosure risk. Examples of instantiation of masking and of synthetic data construction are provided to illustrate the concepts. Particular attention is paid to data swapping. Insights drawn from the Bayesian paxadigm are provided.

  5. Private Database Queries Using Quantum States with Limited Coherence Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tad Hogg; Li Zhang

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method for private database queries using exchange of quantum states with bits encoded in mutually incompatible bases. For technology with limited coherence time, the database vendor can announce the encoding after a suitable delay to allow the user to privately learn one of two items in the database without the ability to also definitely infer the second item. This quantum approach also allows the user to choose to learn other functions of the items, such as the exclusive-or of their bits, but not to gain more information than equivalent to learning one item, on average. This method is especially useful for items consisting of a few bits by avoiding the substantial overhead of conventional cryptographic approaches.

  6. Quantum Limits of Interferometer Topologies for Gravitational Radiation Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haixing Miao; Huan Yang; Rana X Adhikari; Yanbei Chen

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to expand the astrophysical reach of gravitational wave detectors, several interferometer topologies have been proposed to evade the thermodynamic and quantum mechanical limits in future detectors. In this work, we make a systematic comparison among them by considering their sensitivities and complexities. We numerically optimize their sensitivities by introducing a cost function that tries to maximize the broadband improvement over the sensitivity of current detectors. We find that frequency-dependent squeezed-light injection with a hundred-meter scale filter cavity yields a good broadband sensitivity, with low complexity, and good robustness against optical loss. This study gives us a guideline for the near-term experimental research programs in enhancing the performance of future gravitational-wave detectors.

  7. The Energy Transformation Limit Theorem for Gas Flow Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volov, V T

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The limit energy theorem which determines the possibility of transformation the energy flow in power systems in the absence of technical work is investigated and proved for such systems as gas lasers and plasmatrons, chemical gas reactors, vortex tubes, gas-acoustic and other systems, as well as a system of close stars. In the case of the same name ideal gas in the system the maximum ratio of energy conversion effectiveness is linked to the Carnot theorem, which in its turn is connected with the Nernst theorem. However, numerical analyses show that the class of flow energy systems is non-carnot one. The ratio of energy conversion effectiveness depends on the properties of the working medium; a conventional cycle in open-circuit is essentially irreversible. The proved theorem gives a more strongly worded II law of thermodynamics for the selected class of flow energy systems. Implications for astrophysical thermodynamic systems and the theory of a strong shock wave are discussed.

  8. Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yao; Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing, E-mail: hbzhan@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Three different graphene nanostructure suspensions of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONSs), graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs), and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) are prepared and characterized. Using a typical two-step method, the GONSs, GONRs, and GOQDs are incorporated into a polyimide (PI) matrix to synthesize graphene/PI composite films, whose nonlinear optical (NLO) and optical limiting (OL) properties are investigated at 532?nm in the nanosecond regime. The GONR suspension exhibits superior NLO and OL effects compared with those of GONSs and GOQDs because of its stronger nonlinear scattering and excited-state absorption. The graphene/PI composite films exhibit NLO and OL performance superior to that of their corresponding suspensions, which is attributed primarily to a combination of nonlinear mechanisms, charge transfer between graphene materials and PI, and the matrix effect.

  9. On the teleparallel limit of Poincare gauge theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Leclerc

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We will address the question of the consistency of teleparallel theories in presence of spinning matter which has been a controversial subject of discussion over the last twenty years. We argue that the origin of the problem is not simply the symmetry or asymmetry of the stress-energy tensor of the matter fields, which has been recently analyzed by several authors, but arises at a more fundamental level, namely from the invariance of the field equatins under a frame change, a problem that has been discussed long time ago by Kopczynski in the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. More importantly, we show that the problem is not only confined to the purely teleparallel theory but arises actually in every Poincare gauge theory that admits a teleparallel geometry in the absence of spinning sources, i.e. in its classical limit.

  10. Quantum resources for purification and cooling: fundamental limits and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Ticozzi; Lorenza Viola

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparing a quantum system in a pure state is ultimately limited by the nature of the system's evolution in the presence of its environment and by the initial state of the environment itself. We show that, when the system and environment are initially uncorrelated and arbitrary joint unitary dynamics is allowed, the system may be purified up to a certain (possibly arbitrarily small) threshold if and only if its environment, either natural or engineered, contains a "virtual subsystem" which has the same dimension and is in a state with the desired purity. Beside providing a unified understanding of quantum purification dynamics in terms of a "generalized swap process," our results shed light on the significance of a no-go theorem for exact ground-state cooling, as well as on the quantum resources needed for achieving an intended purification task.

  11. Implementation impacts of PRL methodology. [PRL (Plutonium Recovery Limit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudill, J.A.; Krupa, J.F.; Meadors, R.E.; Odum, J.V.; Rodrigues, G.C.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report responds to a DOE-SR request to evaluate the impacts from implementation of the proposed Plutonium Recovery Limit (PRL) methodology. The PRL Methodology is based on cost minimization for decisions to discard or recover plutonium contained in scrap, residues, and other plutonium bearing materials. Implementation of the PRL methodology may result in decisions to declare as waste certain plutonium bearing materials originally considered to be a recoverable plutonium product. Such decisions may have regulatory impacts, because any material declared to be waste would immediately be subject to provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The decision to discard these materials will have impacts on waste storage, treatment, and disposal facilities. Current plans for the de-inventory of plutonium processing facilities have identified certain materials as candidates for discard based upon the economic considerations associated with extending the operating schedules for recovery of the contained plutonium versus potential waste disposal costs. This report evaluates the impacts of discarding those materials as proposed by the F Area De-Inventory Plan and compares the De-Inventory Plan assessments with conclusions from application of the PRL. The impact analysis was performed for those materials proposed as potential candidates for discard by the De-Inventory Plan. The De-Inventory Plan identified 433 items, containing approximately 1% of the current SRS Pu-239 inventory, as not appropriate for recovery as the site moves to complete the mission of F-Canyon and FB-Line. The materials were entered into storage awaiting recovery as product under the Department's previous Economic Discard Limit (EDL) methodology which valued plutonium at its incremental cost of production in reactors. An application of Departmental PRLs to the subject 433 items revealed that approximately 40% of them would continue to be potentially recoverable as product plutonium.

  12. Current parallel I/O limitations to scalable data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, Ajith Arthur; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the limitations to parallel scalability which we have encountered when applying our otherwise optimally scalable parallel statistical analysis tool kit to large data sets distributed across the parallel file system of the current premier DOE computational facility. This report describes our study to evaluate the effect of parallel I/O on the overall scalability of a parallel data analysis pipeline using our scalable parallel statistics tool kit [PTBM11]. In this goal, we tested it using the Jaguar-pf DOE/ORNL peta-scale platform on a large combustion simulation data under a variety of process counts and domain decompositions scenarios. In this report we have recalled the foundations of the parallel statistical analysis tool kit which we have designed and implemented, with the specific double intent of reproducing typical data analysis workflows, and achieving optimal design for scalable parallel implementations. We have briefly reviewed those earlier results and publications which allow us to conclude that we have achieved both goals. However, in this report we have further established that, when used in conjuction with a state-of-the-art parallel I/O system, as can be found on the premier DOE peta-scale platform, the scaling properties of the overall analysis pipeline comprising parallel data access routines degrade rapidly. This finding is problematic and must be addressed if peta-scale data analysis is to be made scalable, or even possible. In order to attempt to address these parallel I/O limitations, we will investigate the use the Adaptable IO System (ADIOS) [LZL+10] to improve I/O performance, while maintaining flexibility for a variety of IO options, such MPI IO, POSIX IO. This system is developed at ORNL and other collaborating institutions, and is being tested extensively on Jaguar-pf. Simulation code being developed on these systems will also use ADIOS to output the data thereby making it easier for other systems, such as ours, to process that data.

  13. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Delis [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes included increasing the time horizon beyond 1,050 years (yr), and using the radionuclide concentrations provided by the DOE-PPPO as inputs into the codes. The deterministic peak doses were evaluated within time horizons of 70 yr (for the Landfill Worker and Trespasser), 1,050 yr, 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr (for the Resident Farmer [onsite], Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and Offsite Resident Farmer) at the request of the DOE-PPPO. The time horizons of 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr were used at the request of the DOE-PPPO for informational purposes only. The probabilistic peak of the mean dose assessment was performed for the Offsite Resident Farmer using Technetium-99 (Tc-99) and a time horizon of 1,050 yr. The results of the deterministic analyses indicate that among all receptors and time horizons evaluated, the highest projected dose, 2,700 mrem/yr, occurred for the Resident Farmer (onsite) at 12,773 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the peak dose are ingestion of plants, external gamma, and ingestion of milk, meat and soil. However, this receptor is considered an implausible receptor. The only receptors considered plausible are the Landfill Worker, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and the Offsite Resident Farmer. The maximum projected dose among the plausible receptors is 220 mrem/yr for the Outdoor Worker and it occurs at 19,045 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the dose for this receptor are external gamma and soil ingestion. The results of the probabilistic peak of the mean dose analysis for the Offsite Resident Farmer indicate that the average (arithmetic mean) of the peak of the mean doses for this receptor is 0.98 mrem/yr and it occurs at 1,050 yr. This dose corresponds to Tc-99 within the time horizon of 1,050 yr.

  14. Sol-gel Solutions (SGS) Environmental Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    dioxide and water, allowing reuse of the sorbent numerous times. The technology has also been proven-pending process de- veloped at the University of Florida. Using synergistic adsorption and photocatalytic desired, reused. Potential applications include chemical plants, pulp and paper mills, paint-spray booths

  15. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies,and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies,

  16. GyroSolé’ Harmonic Engine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films275 2.273

  17. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    copy. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryErnest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  18. MirraSol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico: Energy ResourcesMinnesota/Incentives <Minot Wind 2

  19. Sol Sage Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardtonManagement,SmartestEnergynot indicatedSage Energy

  20. SolBeam Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardtonManagement,SmartestEnergynot

  1. Pro Sol Energia SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug Power IncPowderClimateMeadows, NewPrior Lake,Sector

  2. Consolidated Edison Sol Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived fromConnexusConsolidated

  3. DE-SOL-0003641 Amendment 002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD Notice02/2013 000002 5 1

  4. DE-SOL-0003641 Amendment 003

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD Notice02/2013 000002 5

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Mesa del Sol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowaLosSandia Participated in AMII toandUsingMesa del

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Mesa del Sol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowaLosSandia Participated in AMII toandUsingMesa

  7. Stability limit of room air temperature of a VAV system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kamimura, Kazuyuki [Yamatake-Honeywell Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Building System Div.; Kasahara, Masato; Kimbara, Akiomi; Kurosu, Shigeru [Oyama National Coll. of Technology (Japan); Murasawa, Itaru; Hashimoto, Yukihiko [Tonets Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Engineering Project Dept.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To control heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, it has been necessary to accept an analog system controlled mainly by proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) action. However, when conventional PID controllers are replaced with new digital controllers by selecting the same PID parameters as before, the control loops have often got into hunting phenomena, which result in undamped oscillations. Unstable control characteristics (such as huntings) are thought to be one of the crucial problems faced by field operators. The PID parameters must be carefully selected to avoid instabilities. In this study, a room space is simulated as a thermal system that is air-conditioned by a variable-air-volume (VAV) control system. A dynamic room model without infiltration or exfiltration, which is directly connected to a simple air-handling unit without an economizer, is developed. To explore the possible existence of huntings, a numerical system model is formulated as a bilinear system with time-delayed feedback, and a parametric analysis of the stability limit is presented. Results are given showing the stability region affected by the selection of control and system parameters. This analysis was conducted to help us tune the PID controllers for optimal HVAC control.

  8. Flow Analysis on a Limited Volume Chilled Water System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    LANL Currently has a limited volume chilled water system for use in a glove box, but the system needs to be updated. Before we start building our new system, a flow analysis is needed to ensure that there are no high flow rates, extreme pressures, or any other hazards involved in the system. In this project the piping system is extremely important to us because it directly affects the overall design of the entire system. The primary components necessary for the chilled water piping system are shown in the design. They include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fitting used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flow rate control devices (valves), and the pumps that add energy to the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. I used an 'exact' analysis and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for this project. When 'real-world' effects are important (such as viscous effects in pipe flows), it is often difficult or impossible to use only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations and dimensional analysis are needed in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level.

  9. Diffusion limited cluster aggregation with irreversible flexible bonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujin Babu; Jean-Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Irreversible diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) of hard spheres was simulated using Brownian cluster dynamics. Bound spheres were allowed to move freely within a specified range, but no bond breaking was allowed. The structure and size distribution of the clusters was investigated before gelation. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor of the gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction and time. Bond flexibility led to local densification of the clusters and the gels, with a certain degree of order. At low volume fractions densification of the clusters occurred during their growth, but at higher volume fractions it occurred mainly after gelation. At very low volume fractions, the large scale structure (fractal dimension), size distribution and growth kinetics of the clusters was found to be close to that known for DLCA with rigid bonds. Restructuring of the gels continued for long times, indicating that aging processes in systems with strong attraction do not necessarily involve bond breaking. The mean square displacement of particles in the gels was determined. It is shown to be highly heterogeneous and to increase with decreasing volume fraction.

  10. Speed-of-light limitations in passive linear media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron Welters; Yehuda Avniel; Steven G. Johnson

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove that well-known speed of light restrictions on electromagnetic energy velocity can be extended to a new level of generality, encompassing even nonlocal chiral media in periodic geometries, while at the same time weakening the underlying assumptions to only passivity and linearity of the medium (either with a transparency window or with dissipation). As was also shown by other authors under more limiting assumptions, passivity alone is sufficient to guarantee causality and positivity of the energy density (with no thermodynamic assumptions). Our proof is general enough to include a very broad range of material properties, including anisotropy, bianisotropy (chirality), nonlocality, dispersion, periodicity, and even delta functions or similar generalized functions. We also show that the "dynamical energy density" used by some previous authors in dissipative media reduces to the standard Brillouin formula for dispersive energy density in a transparency window. The results in this paper are proved by exploiting deep results from linear-response theory, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis that had previously not been brought together in the context of electrodynamics.

  11. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael (Rochester, MN); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  12. Redshift Limits of BL Lacertae Objects from Optical Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Finke; J. C. Shields; M. Boettcher; S. Basu

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: BL Lacertae objects have been the targets for numerous recent multiwavelength campaigns, continuum spectral variability studies, and theoretical spectral and variability modeling. A meaningful interpretation of the results of such studies requires a reliable knowledge of the objects' redshifts; however, the redshifts for many are still unknown or uncertain. Aims: Therefore, we hope to determine or constrain the redshifts of six BL Lac objects with unknown or poorly known redshifts. Methods: Observations were made of these objects with the MDM 2.4 m Hiltner telescope. Although no spectral features were detected, and thus no redshifts could be measured, lower redshift limits were assigned to the objects based on the expected equivalent widths of absorption features in their host galaxies. Redshifts were also estimated for some objects by assuming the host galaxies are standard candles and using host galaxy apparent magnitudes taken from the literature. Results: The commonly used redshift of $z=0.102$ for 1219+285 is almost certainly wrong, while the redshifts of the other objects studied remain undetermined.

  13. A New Limit on the Neutrinoless DBD of 130Te

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Arnaboldi; D. R. Artusa; F. T. Avignone III; M. Balata; I. Bandac; M. Barucci; J. W. Beeman; C. Brofferio; C. Bucci; S. Capelli; L. Carbone; S. Cebrian; O. Cremonesi; R. J. Creswick; A. de Waard; H. A. Farach; E. Fiorini; G. Frossati; E. Guardincerri; A. Giuliani; P. Gorla; E. E. Haller; J. McDonald; E. B. Norman; A. Nucciotti; E. Olivieri; M. Pallavicini; E. Palmieri; E. Pasca; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; L. Risegari; C. Rosenfeld; S. Sangiorgio; M. Sisti; A. R. Smith; L. Torres; G. Ventura

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the present results of CUORICINO a cryogenic experiment on neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) of 130Te consisting of an array of 62 crystals of TeO2 with a total active mass of 40.7 kg. The array is framed inside of a dilution refrigerator, heavily shielded against environmental radioactivity and high-energy neutrons, and operated at a temperature of ~8 mK in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. Temperature pulses induced by particle interacting in the crystals are recorded and measured by means of Neutron Transmutation Doped thermistors. The gain of each bolometer is stabilized with voltage pulses developed by a high stability pulse generator across heater resistors put in thermal contact with the absorber. The calibration is performed by means of two thoriated wires routinely inserted in the set-up. No evidence for a peak indicating neutrinoless DBD of 130Te is detected and a 90% C.L. lower limit of 1.8E24 years is set for the lifetime of this process. Taking largely into account the uncertainties in the theoretical values of nuclear matrix elements, this implies an upper boud on the effective mass of the electron neutrino ranging from 0.2 to 1.1 eV. This sensitivity is similar to those of the 76Ge experiments.

  14. Quantum Apices: Identifying Limits of Entanglement, Nonlocality, & Contextuality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elie Wolfe

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This work develops analytic methods to quantitatively demarcate quantum reality from its subset of classical phenomenon, as well as from the superset of general probabilistic theories. Regarding quantum nonlocality, we discuss how to determine the quantum limit of Bell-type linear inequalities. In contrast to semidefinite programming approaches, our method allows for the consideration of inequalities with abstract weights, by means of leveraging the Hermiticity of quantum states. Recognizing that classical correlations correspond to measurements made on separable states, we also introduce a practical method for obtaining sufficient separability criteria. We specifically vet the candidacy of driven and undriven superradiance as schema for entanglement generation. We conclude by reviewing current approaches to quantum contextuality, emphasizing the operational distinction between nonlocal and contextual quantum statistics. We utilize our abstractly-weighted linear quantum bounds to explicitly demonstrate a set of conditional probability distributions which are simultaneously compatible with quantum contextuality while being incompatible with quantum nonlocality. It is noted that this novel statistical regime implies an experimentally-testable target for the Consistent Histories theory of quantum gravity.

  15. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  16. Robust Limits on Lorentz Violation from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ellis; Nick E. Mavromatos; Dimitri V. Nanopoulos; Alexander S. Sakharov; Edward K. G. Sarkisyan

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We constrain the possibility of a non-trivial refractive index in free space corresponding to an energy-dependent velocity of light: c(E) \\simeq c_0 (1 - E/M), where M is a mass scale that might represent effect of quantum-gravitational space-time foam, using the arrival times of sharp features observed in the intensities of radiation with different energies from a large sample of gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) with known redshifts. We use wavelet techniques to identify genuine features, which we confirm in simulations with artificial added noise. Using the weighted averages of the time-lags calculated using correlated features in all the GRB light curves, we find a systematic tendency for more energetic photons to arrive earlier. However, there is a very strong correlation between the parameters characterizing an intrinsic time-lag at the source and a distance-dependent propagation effect. Moreover, the significance of the earlier arrival times is less evident for a subsample of more robust spectral structures. Allowing for intrinsic stochastic time-lags in these features, we establish a statistically robust lower limit: M > 0.9x10^{16} GeV on the scale of violation of Lorentz invariance.

  17. Regression Based Investigation of Pumping Limits and Springflow Within the Edwards Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Regression Based Investigation of Pumping Limits and Springflow Within the Edwards Aquifer K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A Model to Study the Effects of Pumping Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Investigation of the Effects of Pumping Allocations on Springflow

  18. Enforcement Guidance Supplement 99-03: Limitation of 10 CFR Part...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    : Limitation of 10 CFR Part 830 to Equipment Referenced in the Safety Analysis Report Enforcement Guidance Supplement 99-03: Limitation of 10 CFR Part 830 to Equipment Referenced...

  19. Enforcement Guidance Supplement 99-03 Limitation of 10 CFR Part...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Limitation of 10 CFR Part 830 to Equipment Referenced in theSafety Analysis Report Enforcement Guidance Supplement 99-03 Limitation of 10 CFR Part 830 to Equipment Referenced in...

  20. Absolute vs. Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission Control: Performance Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sue Wing, Ian.

    We elucidate the differences between absolute and intensity-based limits of CO2 emission when there is uncertainty about the future. We demonstrate that the two limits are identical under certainty, and rigorously establish ...